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1

12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

2011-12-01

2

Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

2006-04-01

3

Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

E-print Network

14% 26% 16% 20% 23% 2000-2005 Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato21C-0974 Virtual NPK = NPK Application ­ Embedded NPK NPK Application Average of annual fertilizer) (Table 1) Virtual NPK NPK inputs associated with production but not contained within the product Embedded

4

Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2014-05-01

5

N=1=NPK=KIMCHI=N  

E-print Network

N=1=NPK=KIMCHI=N is a mobile, expandable living unit which consists of a urinal, urine processing system, hydroponic napa cabbage garden, seedling growing area, customized bed, and kitchen table. I tested my urine, modified ...

Lee, Jae Rhim, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

6

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

7

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

8

Teores de nutrientes na folha e nos grãos de aveia-preta em função da adubação com fósforo e potássio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A aveia-preta é uma gramínea rústica, pouco exigente, cultivada, principalmente, como forrageira de inverno e como cultura para adubação verde em sistemas de rotação. Apesar de sua importância, há poucos trabalhos em que foram avaliados os efeitos da adubação sobre os teores de nutrientes nas folhas ou nos grãos. Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de P

João Nakagawa; Ciro Antonio Rosolem

2005-01-01

9

Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. I. Crop yields and system performance.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted on deep vertisols of Bhopal, India to evaluate the manural potential of three organic manures: farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM), phosphocompost (PC) vis-a-vis 0%, 75% and 100% recommended dose of fertilizer-NPK and to find out the most productive cropping system at various combinations of organic manures and chemical fertilizers. The seed yield of intercrop soybean (population converted to 100%) was 8.7% less than sole soybean whereas the grain yield of intercrop sorghum was 9.5% more than that of sole sorghum. However, the productivity in terms of soybean equivalent yield (SEY) was relatively high in intercropping system. The increasing NPK dose from 0% to 100% significantly improved SEY in sole sorghum and soybean/sorghum intercropping system and the integrated use of organics and inorganics recorded significantly more SEY than inorganics. The effect of nutrient management followed the order; 75% NPK + 5 t FYM ha(-1) > 75% NPK + 1.5 t PM ha(-1) > 75% NPK + 5 t PC ha(-1) > 100% NPK. Sorghum, both as sole and intercrop, responded more to PM while soybean to FYM. Application of 75% NPK in combination with PM or FYM or PC to preceding rainy season crops (soybean and sorghum) and 75% NPK to wheat produced significantly higher grain yield of wheat than those in inorganics and control indicating noticeable residual effect on the succeeding wheat crop and saving of 25% fertilizer-NPK. The effect of PC on rainy season crops was not as prominent as those of FYM and PM, but its residual effect on grain yield of wheat was comparable to those two organic manures. Among the cropping systems, soybean as preceding crop recorded the highest seed yield of wheat and was on a par with that of soybean/sorghum intercropping system. The yield of wheat following sorghum was the lowest. The total system productivity (TSP) was the highest in sorghum + soybean-wheat system and the lowest in the soybean-wheat system. PMID:15207299

Ghosh, P K; Ramesh, P; Bandyopadhyay, K K; Tripathi, A K; Hati, K M; Misra, A K; Acharya, C L

2004-10-01

10

Nutrient budgeting in a long term fertilizer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long term field experiment on maize-wheat cropping sequence, the effect of recommended doses of NPK alone and in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) and lime was studied on nutrient budgeting after completing 28 years of cropping cycles. At 100 percent recommendation rate, a total of 6,240 kg N was added through chemical fertilizers to maize and wheat crops

Sarwan Kumar

11

Toxic effects of increased sediment nutrient and organic matter loading on the seagrass Zostera noltii.  

PubMed

As a result of anthropogenic disturbances and natural stressors, seagrass beds are often patchy and heterogeneous. The effects of high loads of nutrients and organic matter in patch development and expansion in heterogeneous seagrass beds have, however, poorly been studied. We experimentally assessed the in situ effects of sediment quality on seagrass (Zostera noltii) patch dynamics by studying patch (0.35 m diameter) development and expansion for 4 sediment treatments: control, nutrient addition (NPK), organic matter addition (OM) and a combination (NPK+OM). OM addition strongly increased porewater sulfide concentrations whereas NPK increased porewater ammonium, nitrate and phosphate concentrations. As high nitrate concentrations suppressed sulfide production in NPK+OM, this treatment was biogeochemically comparable to NPK. Sulfide and ammonium concentrations differed within treatments, but over a 77 days period, seagrass patch survival and expansion were impaired by all additions compared to the control treatment. Expansion decreased at porewater ammonium concentrations >2,000 ?mol L(-1). Mother patch biomass was not affected by high porewater ammonium concentrations as a result of its detoxification by higher seagrass densities. Sulfide concentrations >1,000 ?mol L(-1) were toxic to both patch expansion and mother patch. We conclude that patch survival and expansion are constrained at high loads of nutrients or organic matter as a result of porewater ammonium or sulfide toxicity. PMID:25064458

Govers, Laura L; de Brouwer, Jan H F; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Lamers, Leon P M; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

2014-10-01

12

Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

2012-12-01

13

Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.  

PubMed

Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

2014-10-01

14

Poultry Litter Application Time Effect on Nutrient Availability and Corn Yield In Central Kentucky.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the growing interest in poultry litter use as nutrient sources, knowledge of whether application time is consequential to production is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates (9 and 18 mega grams per ha) of poultry litter and a 19-19-19 NPK b...

15

Effects of intermittent desiccation on nutrient economy and growth of two ecologically contrasted mosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mosses Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) B., S. & G. and Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hedw.) Fleisch, were cultivated for more than 50 d in a growth cabinet with or without weekly drying interludes of 24 h. Some plants also received applications of a dilute NPK nutrient solution al weekly intervals. The continuously hydrated plants showed appreciably more biomass production than those receiving

J. W. Bates

1997-01-01

16

Chapter 7 Nutrient and Virtual Water Flows in Traded Agricultural Commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization and increasing population pressure on food demand and land and water resources have stimulated interest in nutrient and virtual water flows at the international level. West Asia\\/North Africa (WANA), Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers not only of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) but also of virtual water in agricultural commodities. Nevertheless, the widely recognized declines in

Ulrike Grote; Eric T. Craswell; Paul L. G. Vlek

2008-01-01

17

Nutrient and Virtual Water Flows in Traded Agricultural Commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization and increasing population pressure on food demand and land and water resources have stimulated interest in nutrient\\u000a and virtual water flows at the international level. West Asia\\/North Africa (WANA), Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa\\u000a are net importers not only of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) but also of virtual water in agricultural commodities.\\u000a Nevertheless, the widely recognized declines in

Ulrike Grote; Eric T. Craswell; Paul L. G. Vlek

18

PINEAPPLE YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY EFFECTED BY NPK FERTILIZATION IN A TROPICAL SOIL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county).

ADEMAR SPIRONELLO; JOSÉ ANTONIO QUAGGIO; LUIZ ANTONIO; JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA; PEDRO ROBERTO FURLANI; JOSÉ MARIA MONTEIRO SIGRIST

19

Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL PMID:24933901

Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

2014-01-01

20

Consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes de dietas com silagens de grãos úmidos de milho ou sorgo, em ovinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake, the digestibility of nutrients, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) content in sheep diets based on corn and sorghum grains high moisture silages with or without microbial inoculant, were evaluated. The used roughage was Brachiaria hay (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu). Twelve animals were distribuited to treatments: (1) hay+high moisture corn grain silage, (2) hay+high moisture sorghum grain silage;

C. C. B. F. Ítavo; M. G. Morais; L. C. V. Ítavo; A. R. D. L. Souza; F. C. A. Davy; F. A. Biberg; W. B. Alves; M. V. Santos

2009-01-01

21

Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Primary Production and Biomass of Sediment Microalgae in a Subtropical Seagrass Bed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eutrophication of coastal waters often leads to excessive growth of microalgal epiphytes attached to seagrass leaves; however, the effect of increased nutrient levels on sediment microalgae has not been studied within seagrass communities. A slow-release NPK Osmocote fertilizer was added to sedimen...

22

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat  

PubMed Central

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S.; Dawabah, Ahmed A.M.

2013-01-01

23

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.  

PubMed

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

2014-04-01

24

Nutrient Depletion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.

25

Yield and soil nutrient balance of a sugarcane plant–ratoon system with conventional and organic nutrient management in sub-tropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year field trial of sugarcane, comprising 11 treatment combinations of different organic manures with and without Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd), NPK and an absolute control, on an inceptisol was conducted to assess the effect of these treatments on sugarcane total\\u000a and economic yield, the benefit:cost ratio, nutrient balance and soil quality in a sugarcane plant–ratoon system. The highest\\u000a cane yield

K. P. Singh; Archna Suman; P. N. Singh; Menhi Lal

2007-01-01

26

Soil nutrients trump intraspecific effects on understory plant communities.  

PubMed

Understanding the links between intraspecific genetic variation and patterns of diversity in associated communities has been the primary focus of community genetics or 'genes-to-ecosystem' research in ecology. While other ecological factors, such as the abiotic environment, have well-documented influences on communities, the relative contributions of genetic variation versus the environment to species interactions remains poorly explored. In this study, we use a common garden experiment to study a coastal dune plant community dominated by the shrub, Baccharis pilularis, which displays a morphological dimorphism in plant architecture. We found the differences in the understory plant community between erect and prostrate morphs of Baccharis to be statistically significant, but small relative to the impacts of nutrient additions (NPK and C additions), for the richness, cover, and biomass of the understory plant community. There were no significant interactions between Baccharis morphology and nutrient-addition treatments, suggesting the influence of nutrient addition was consistent between erect and prostrate morphs. Moreover, we found no difference in overall plant community composition between Baccharis morphs, while NPK additions led to shifts in understory community composition compared to unfertilized shrubs. In sum, our results indicate that nutrients are the more important factor governing understory plant community structure in a coastal dunes ecosystem followed by intraspecific variation in dominant shrub architecture. Our results address a growing call to understand the extended consequences of intraspecific variation across heterogeneous environments in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:23851987

Crutsinger, Gregory M; Carter, Benjamin E; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2013-12-01

27

Vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition lead to a weaker carbon sink in an ombrotrophic bog.  

PubMed

To study vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition on carbon sequestration capacity, we investigated vegetation and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada in plots that had been fertilized with nitrogen (N) or with N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net CO2 exchange were measured weekly during May-September 2011 using climate-controlled chambers. A substrate-induced respiration technique was used to determine the functional ability of the microbial community. The highest N and NPK additions were associated with 40% less net CO2 uptake than the control. In the NPK additions, a diminished C sink potential was due to a 20-30% increase in ecosystem respiration, while gross photosynthesis rates did not change as greater vascular plant biomass compensated for the decrease in Sphagnum mosses. In the highest N-only treatment, small reductions in gross photosynthesis and no change in ecosystem respiration led to the reduced C sink. Substrate-induced microbial respiration was significantly higher in all levels of NPK additions compared with control. The temperature sensitivity of respiration in the plots was lower with increasing cumulative N load, suggesting more labile sources of respired CO2 . The weaker C sink potential could be explained by changes in nutrient availability, higher woody : foliar ratio, moss loss, and enhanced decomposition. Stronger responses to NPK fertilization than to N-only fertilization for both shrub biomass production and decomposition suggest that the bog ecosystem is N-P/K colimited rather than N-limited. Negative effects of further N-only deposition were indicated by delayed spring CO2 uptake. In contrast to forests, increased wood formation and surface litter accumulation in bogs seem to reduce the C sink potential owing to the loss of peat-forming Sphagnum. PMID:23868415

Larmola, Tuula; Bubier, Jill L; Kobyljanec, Christine; Basiliko, Nathan; Juutinen, Sari; Humphreys, Elyn; Preston, Michael; Moore, Tim R

2013-12-01

28

NPK1, an MEKK1-like mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, regulates innate immunity and development in plants.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are rapidly activated upon plant recognition of invading pathogens. Here, we describe the use of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to study the role of candidate plant MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) homologs of human MEKK1 in pathogen-resistance pathways. We demonstrate that silencing expression of a tobacco MAPKKK, Nicotiana Protein Kinase 1 (NPK1), interferes with the function of the disease-resistance genes N, Bs2, and Rx, but does not affect Pto- and Cf4-mediated resistance. Further, NPK1-silenced plants also exhibit reduced cell size, defective cytokinesis, and an overall dwarf phenotype. Our results provide evidence that NPK1 functions in the regulation of N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated resistance responses and may play a role in one or more MAPK cascades, regulating multiple cellular processes. PMID:12194859

Jin, Hailing; Axtell, Michael J; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Ekwenna, Obi; Zhang, Shuqun; Staskawicz, Brian; Baker, Barbara

2002-08-01

29

Influence of NPK fertilization on calcium and magnesium in Poa pratensis L. with reference to dietary requirements of grazing cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two?year experiment was conducted on Edwards muck (Limnic Medisaprist) on the Pinney?Purdue Agricultural Center at Wanatah, Indiana to study the effect of NPK fertilization on Ca and Mg concentrations in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Eight combinations of N?P?K fertilizer (0–0–0, 0–99–0, 0–0–372, 0–99–372, 168–0–0, 168–99–0, 168–0–372, 168–99–372 kg\\/ha), were applied each spring. Four cuttings were taken annually during

J. W. Lightner; C. L. Rhykerd; D. B. Mengel; G. E. Van Scoyoc; E. L. Hood; C. H. Noller

1983-01-01

30

Differential sensitivity of spinach and amaranthus to enhanced UV-B at varying soil nutrient levels: association with gas exchange, UV-B-absorbing compounds and membrane damage.  

PubMed

The metabolic reasons associated with differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to enhanced UV-B under varying soil nutrient levels are not well understood. In the present study, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var All Green), a C3 and amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L. var Pusa Badi Chaulai), a C4 plant were subjected to enhanced UV-B (280-315 nm; 7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) over ambient under varying soil nutrient levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), 1.5× recommended NPK, 1.5× recommended N and 1.5× recommended K. Enhanced UV-B negatively affected both the species at all nutrient levels, but the reductions varied with nutrient concentration and combinations. Reductions in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were significantly more in spinach compared with amaranthus. The reduction in photosynthetic rate was maximum at 1.5× recommended K and minimum in 1.5× NPK amended plants. The oxidative damage to membranes measured in terms of malondialdehyde content was significantly higher in spinach compared with amaranthus. Enhanced UV-B reduced SOD activity in both the plants except in amaranthus at 1.5× recommended K. POX activity increased under enhanced UV-B at all nutrient levels in amaranthus, but only at 1.5× K in spinach. Amaranthus had significantly higher UV-B-absorbing compounds than spinach even under UV-B stress. Lowest reductions in yield and total biomass under enhanced UV-B compared with ambient were observed in amaranthus grown at 1.5× recommended NPK. Enhanced UV-B did not significantly change the nitrogen use efficiency in amaranthus at all NPK levels, but reduced in spinach except at 1.5× K. These findings suggest that the differential sensitivity of the test species under enhanced UV-B at varying nutrient levels is due to varying antioxidative and UV-B screening capacity, and their ability to utilize nutrients. Amaranthus tolerated enhanced UV-B stress more than spinach at all nutrient levels and 1.5× recommended NPK lowered the sensitivity maximally to enhanced UV-B with respect to photosynthesis, biomass and yield. PCA score has also confirmed the lower sensitivity of amaranthus compared with spinach with respect to the measured physiological and biochemical parameters. PMID:23686471

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2013-07-01

31

Differences in Ozone Sensitivity at Different NPK Levels of Three Tropical Varieties of Mustard ( Brassica campestris L.): Photosynthetic Pigments, Metabolites, and Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ambient O3 at two different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, (recommended and 1.5 times the recommended NPK) on three\\u000a tropical varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti, Aashirwad and Vardan) were explored to unravel the mechanism of protection under higher NPK level at a rural\\u000a experimental site using open top chambers. Ambient O3 concentrations ranged

Poonam Singh; Madhoolika Agrawal; Shashi Bhushan Agrawal

2011-01-01

32

Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

H. Marschner

1994-01-01

33

Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients. Omission of N, P and K also reduced the seed cotton yield by 41, 9.3 and 27.3 per cent respectively. Reduction of cotton yield with omission of other nutrients was meager. It is concluded that rate of reduction in SOC, and cotton yield is more pronounced with omission of N than P and K from the regular fertiliser schedule to Bt cotton in medium black soils. However, omission of secondary and micronutrients had least effect on the soil nutrient status and seed cotton yield.

Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

2012-04-01

34

SFRSF: Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.

35

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

36

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

37

Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.  

PubMed

Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

2014-02-01

38

The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to feed the hundred larvae, each breeding site contains. Treating these breeding sites with deltamethrin reversed the situation as it decreased the competition for food resources and allowed the surviving larvae to share the small amount of food enabling them to pursue their development until adults. If the introduction of NPK in untreated sites has not improved the nutritive qualities of the water, in the treated sites it multiplied the number of emerging adults by 2.5. In the waters containing 5 g/l of plant matter, the larvae did not undergo feeding competition and the impact of insecticide followed of a more traditional selection scheme that expressed itself by a lower number of emerging adults. In these environments treated or nontreated where plant matter is abundant, adding NPK brings food supplement to the larvae therefore increases the survival rate of An. gambiae. To conclude, whether in habitats with little or much plant matter, NPK presence in water results in larger adults with generally, more soluble proteins. PMID:22550627

Darriet, F.; Rossignol, M.; Chandre, F.

2012-01-01

39

Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.  

PubMed

Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

2013-11-15

40

Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.  

PubMed

Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m?² day?¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. PMID:22304244

Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

2012-07-01

41

World Fertilizer Model—The World N-P-K Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a world fertilizers model that is capable of producing fertilizer demand projections by crop, by country, by macronutrients, and by year. For each crop, the most relevant countries in terms of production, consumption, or trade are explicitly modeled. The remaining countries are modeled, for each crop, within a regional aggregate. The nutrient coverage includes nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P),

Juan Rosas

2011-01-01

42

[Effect of NPK and B supply levels on boron uptake and biological properties of different genotypic oilseed rape].  

PubMed

Pot experiment was conducted to study the boron absorption by oilseed rape(Brassica napus), the mechanism of its resistance to boron deficiency, and the effect of boron deficiency on its biological properties under different NPK supply levels. The results indicated that under boron deficiency, increasing NPK supply aggravated boron deficiency symptoms, which led to the decrease of leaf area and its growth rate and nitrate reductase activity(NRA) and the increase of chlorophyll(a + b) content at seedling stage, and the decrease of the number of productive branches and pods of each plant and seed yield at maturity. It was suggested that the ratio of boron concentration in youngest open leaves(YOL) to youngest mature leaves(YML) at seedling stage could be an index to judge the boron mobility in plants of different genotypic oilseed rape. Boron mobility and its utilization efficiency were one of the important nutritional mechanisms responsible for the difference in response of different genotypic oilseed rapes to boron deficiency. PMID:11757364

Lou, Y; Yang, Y

2001-04-01

43

Short-Term Effect of Nutrient Availability and Rainfall Distribution on Biomass Production and Leaf Nutrient Content of Savanna Tree Species  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings’ above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration, our findings provide important insights that can help guide management plans that aim to preserve savanna biodiversity. PMID:24667837

Barbosa, Eduardo R. M.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H. T.; van Langevelde, Frank

2014-01-01

44

Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.  

PubMed

Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration, our findings provide important insights that can help guide management plans that aim to preserve savanna biodiversity. PMID:24667837

Barbosa, Eduardo R M; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T; van Langevelde, Frank

2014-01-01

45

Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of plant nutrient supply from fly ash and biosolids (sewage sludge and poultry manure) may enhance their agricultural use as crop fertilizer. Two mild extraction methods (42-d equilibration with ion-exchange resins; 2-d equilibration with pH 4.8 buffered nutrient solution) and analysis of nutrient data by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) were tested with 29 fly ash samples, four biosolids samples, and their mixtures. The resin method was useful for major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) extraction from fly ashes and organic materials, particularly where mineralizable fractions of N and P under aerobic conditions are required. However, resins were inefficient in extracting P from high-Fe sewage sludges because organic waste samples caused premature failure of semipermeable membranes and fouling of resins. Extraction of fly ash with dilute buffered nutrient solution was more successful because micronutrient recovery was improved, major nutrients were correlated to the resin method, both addition and removal of nutrients were recorded. DRIS analysis was possible, and equilibration was rapid (2 d). The overall nutrient supply from these extremely variable fly ashes was: Cu = Fe {approx} B {approx} Mo > Ca > S > Zn >> Mn > N > Mg > P > K (high micronutrient, low major nutrient supply). For biosolids, the major nutrients ranked: P > N {approx} Ca > S > Mg > K (sewage sludges), and N > Ca {approx} K > P > Mg > S (poultry manures). In mixtures of fly ash with 26% sewage sludge the order was: Ca > S > N > Mg > P > K, while in mixtures of fly ash and 13% poultry manure, the nutrients ranked: Ca > K {approx} N {approx} S > Mg > P. Optimal plant nutrition (especially N-P-K balancing) should be possible by mixing these three waste materials.

Schumann, A.W.; Sumner, M.E.

2000-02-01

46

NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

47

CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting  

E-print Network

planning process ­ Nutrient management training ­ P-Indexes and tools developed ­ Educational materials #12Welcome CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting May 4 and 5, 2004 Atlanta, GA #12;University Objectives · Information Sharing Among States ­ Nutrient management regulations ­ Nutrient management

48

Movement of pesticides and nutrients into tile drainage water. Final report, 22 September 1985-22 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

Concern about contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals has increased in the last five years. The objectives of this study were to determine field-scale pesticide and nutrient losses to tile drains over a 3-year period on a low-organic-matter, poorly structured silt loam soil under typical agricultural management practices. A tile-drainage spacing study was instrumented to measure water outflow rates and to continuously collect tile outflow samples on a flow-proportional basis. Two replicates of 3 tile spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) were included in the study. Water samples were analyzed for all applied pesticides (atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos) as well as major nutrients (N,P,K) and sediment.

Van Scoyoc, G.E.; Kladivko, E.J.

1989-01-01

49

Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida, lucerne and maize presented similar performance for both digestate and the NPK fertilizer applications, which were greater than the control, showing a positive fertilizing effect of the digestate for plant biomass production. Considering the biomass production obtained with the digestate application for sida, lucerne and maize, the results give support for further field experiments which aim to evaluate the fertilizing and conditioning effect of digestates.

Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

2014-05-01

50

NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN CROP PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balanced supply of of essential nutrients is one of the most important factors in increasing crop yields. The objective of this review is to discuss interactions among major and minor nutrients in crop plants. In crop plants, the nutrient interactions are generaly measured in terms of growth response and change in concentration of nutrients. Upon addition of two nutrients, a

V. D. Fageria

2001-01-01

51

Mechanism of nutrient sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term nutrient sensing has emerged to describe the molecular mechanisms by which nutrients and their metabolites interact with various cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling proteins, and nuclear receptors, and modulate the activity of a complex network of signaling pathways that regulat...

52

Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).  

PubMed

The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

2013-04-15

53

Nutrients in an Estuary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model estuaries, artificially enriching both fresh and salt water samples with different amounts of nutrients and observing the growth of algae over several weeks. Learners relate their results to the phenomenon of algae blooms in estuaries. Learners then analyze data for different sites at the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTMNERR) in Florida to discover the relationships between nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen. Finally, learners study how nutrients cycle through an estuary and suggest recommendations for reducing nutrient inputs to estuary waters.

TERC

2012-06-26

54

Optimum NPK management over extended cropping periods in the shifting cultivation system of south-west Cóte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Tai region of south-west Cote d'Ivoire P is the yield-limiting nutrient on (moderately) well drained soils. In order to find the optimum P application rate, a factorial experiment (2N x 4P x 2K) in three replicates was conducted at two sites during six seasons. The factors investigated were N (0 or 50 kg\\/ha), P (0, 12.5, 25 or

Reuler van H; B. H. Janssen

1996-01-01

55

Using a Segmented Model to Describe In situ Nutrient Disappearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gunter, S.A. and Galyean, M.L. 2000. Using a segmented model to describe in situ nutrient disappearance. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 1–14.The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive results and characteristics of exponential (EM) and segmented, models (SM) describing ruminal in situ nutrient disappearance data. Using masticate samples collected from esophageally cannulated steers grazing midgrass prairie rangeland

Stacey A. Gunter; Michael L. Galyean

2000-01-01

56

Food Groups and Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Miss Perry

2007-11-08

57

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth � the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

58

Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

59

Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2005-09-01

60

Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).  

PubMed

The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

2007-08-01

61

Collecting Water Nutrient Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

62

Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

63

SPARROW REGIONAL NUTRIENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...

64

Program Areas Nutrient Management  

E-print Network

Program Areas Nutrient Management Animal Waste Management Irrigation Water Management Drinking University Resources The Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project is led by Water Quality water quality themes such as the web-based Drinking Water and Human Health FAQ Database, which provides

65

Fundamentals of Soil Nutrient  

E-print Network

­ soluble! · Cycles readily through organic matter #12;Sulfur Inputs compared to Tree UptakeSulfur InputsFundamentals of Soil Nutrient Dynamics Steven Perakis #12;N2 P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Mo, Fe, ...... #12;Nutritional Issues at NitrogenNutritional Issues at Nitrogen--Rich SitesRich Sites · Phosphorus · Sulfur

66

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

67

Nutrient element interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of overall tree physiological processes for optimization of either orchard yield or profitability is an annual challenge facing orchard managers. Optimization of chemical nutrient element concentrations within this context is often far more challenging than first appears. Tree or or...

68

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program  

E-print Network

provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility concepts, the nutrient cycles and behavior of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, soil sampling and analysis, crop nutrient recommendations

Guiltinan, Mark

69

Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.  

PubMed

A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17 weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

2014-06-15

70

Slow-release nutrient capsules for microorganism stimulation in oil remediation.  

PubMed

As the concern towards environmental deterioration grows worldwide, new technological achievements become essential for all countries. Among the technologies with great potential of bioremediation is microencapsulation of active material. Several studies have investigated the use of controlled release of active materials as a way of biostimulation and supplying the nutrients necessary for the bioremediation process. In fact, as the use of microorganisms has a great potential in degrading crude oils, this work aims to use that technology and to associate it to produce controlled-release capsules of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K) for bioremediation purposes. For the capsule formulation, polymers of sodium alginate, Capsul®, and the commercial fertilizer NPK from Sempre Verde Inc. were used. Crude oil was the only carbon source and mineral medium for microorganism growth. Controlled-release nutrient capsules, with 4 mm in diameter, made of 3.0 % alginate (w/v) and 4.0 % Capsul® (w/v) were produced. Those capsules were used in association with a microbial consortium, in a liquid phase bioremediation process, having degraded 43.6 % of the total hydrocarbon within 240 h, evidencing thus as a promising tool for hydrocarbon bioremediation. PMID:23306878

Reis, E A; Rocha-Leão, M H M; Leite, S G F

2013-02-01

71

Nutrient profiling: the new environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the ...

72

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 ... search program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, ...

73

Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

74

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system--an empirical approach to uphold food security.  

PubMed

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems. PMID:24817490

Subash, N; Gangwar, B; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A K

2015-01-01

75

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system—an empirical approach to uphold food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.

Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.

2015-01-01

76

Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.

77

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

-Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 5 Nutrition Department, and 6 DepartmentThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA; 7 Food Science and Nutrition Department, California

Hammock, Bruce D.

78

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

of governmental and industrial organizations, including the Department for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High for Dairy Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire

Bequette, Brian J.

79

Is nitrogen transfer among plants enhanced by contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies?  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) transfer among plants has been found where at least one plant can fix N2 . In nutrient-poor soils, where plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies (without N2 fixation) co-occur, it is unclear if N transfer exists and what promotes it. A novel multi-species microcosm pot experiment was conducted to quantify N transfer between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), ectomycorrhizal (EM), dual AM/EM, and non-mycorrhizal cluster-rooted plants in nutrient-poor soils with mycorrhizal mesh barriers. We foliar-fed plants with a K(15) NO3 solution to quantify one-way N transfer from 'donor' to 'receiver' plants. We also quantified mycorrhizal colonization and root intermingling. Transfer of N between plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies occurred at both low and high soil nutrient levels with or without root intermingling. The magnitude of N transfer was relatively high (representing 4% of donor plant N) given the lack of N2 fixation. Receiver plants forming ectomycorrhizas or cluster roots were more enriched compared with AM-only plants. We demonstrate N transfer between plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies, and a preferential enrichment of cluster-rooted and EM plants compared with AM plants. Nutrient exchanges among plants are potentially important in promoting plant coexistence in nutrient-poor soils. PMID:24811370

Teste, François P; Veneklaas, Erik J; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

2015-01-01

80

Chords: Em 022000 Em Em Em Em C C C C  

E-print Network

Verse 1 Chorus Verse 2 Chorus Verse 3 Chords: Em 022000 C 035553 G 320002 F 133211 Intro: Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Em Em Em Em C C C C Verse: Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C C C G G G G G G G G Em Em Em Em C C

Reiners, Peter W.

81

AGRICULTURAL -NUTRIENT PATiIWAYS  

E-print Network

.1.5 Micronutrients 2.1.6 Salinity 2.1.7 Pathogens SOIL 2.2.1 Organic Matter 2.2.2 Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio 2 Issues AIR 3.0 NUTRIENT PATHWAYS IN AGRICULTURE 3.1 ORGANIC MATTER 3.2 NITROGEN 3.3 PHOSPHORUS 3 these nutrients flow. 2.0 IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT The management of agricultural wastes

82

Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways  

PubMed Central

PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

2015-01-01

83

Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Technical Service Providers  

E-print Network

to Water Quality", and "Nutrient & Pest Management ModulesQuality", and "Nutrient & Pest Management ModulesNutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Management Planning Technical Guidance.Management Planning Technical Guidance. Manure and Wastewater Handling

84

Preferential utilization of intracellular nutrients supports microalgal growth under nutrient starvation: multi-nutrient mechanistic model and experimental validation.  

PubMed

Microalgae are able to grow even under exhaustion of some key nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Here, we report a multi-nutrient mechanistic model to predict heterotrophic growth of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG over two sequential phases of fermentation: nutrient sufficient condition to nutrient starved condition. The model assumes that the growth of the microorganism takes place via sequential utilization of extracellular nutrients (ECN) under nutrient replete condition followed by intracellular stored nutrients under exhaustion of limiting nutrients. Further, intracellular nutrient was assumed to be in three different forms: structural form of nutrient (SFN), readily utilizable nutrient (RUN) and non-readily utilizable nutrient (Non-RUN). After the exhaustion of ECN, microorganism switches to RUN followed by Non-RUN to continue its growth, which was experimentally validated by extracting intracellular nitrate and phosphate compounds. The model also incorporates variability in yield coefficients for nitrate and phosphate utilizations. PMID:25305655

Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Das, Debasish

2014-12-01

85

Nutrient availability in rangeland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...

86

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

87

Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

1991-01-01

88

Nutrient biofortification of food crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-based foods offer an array of nutrients that are essential for human nutrition and promote good health. However, the major staple crops of the world are often deficient in some of these nutrients. Traditional agricultural approaches can marginally enhance the nutritional value of some foods, b...

89

N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These results agree with those reported by Jarvis (1993) and Cadish et al (1994). However, 40% of the excretions occurred in the shade buildings and milking parlours ant thus these nutrients did not recycle in the system. An important internal recycling mechanism, especially for nitrogen and potassium, is their remobilization by the rejected pasture to re-use them for the regrowth activity. This is of particular interest in CT-115 Bank, since stems of CT-115 plants left after grazing remobilize an important amount of these nutrients, guarantee a favourable pasture regrowth (Martinez 1996). The return of all the excretion to the grassland is recommended as well as increasing the area of legumes to attain a satisfactory balance of N, P and K in the system. Further studies must consider maintenance fertilization, nutrient losses due to leaching and denitrification, as well as variation of the stable OM in the soil and the influence of hydro physical properties in the recycling process. The "Recycling" software was effective to determine the balance of nutrients in the dairy farm. Cadish, G., Schunke, R.N & Giller, K.E. 1994. Nitrogen cycling in a pure grass pasture and a grass-legume mixture on a red latosol in Brazil. Tropical Grasslands 28:43. Crespo G. y Rodríguez, I. 2006. Contribución al conocimiento del reciclaje de los nutrientes en el sistema suelo-pasto-animal. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Editorial EDICA, La Habana, Cuba, 94 pp. Hirata, M., Sugimoto, Y.G & Ueno, M.1991. Use of a mathematical model to evaluate the effects of dung from grazing animals on pasture production. J. Japan Grassld. Sci. 37:303.

Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

2009-04-01

90

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

. This training provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility concepts, the nutrient cycles recommendations, and how to manage nutrients for crop production and environmental protection. Understanding how

Guiltinan, Mark

91

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

provisional certification. This training provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility sampling and analysis, crop nutrient recommendations, and how to manage nutrients for crop production

Guiltinan, Mark

92

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

93

SOUTHERN REGION NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas BY FIRST AUTHOR, C.) Nitrogen Fertilization: General Information (South Carolina) (Harris, G.) Nutrient Management, and Forages (South Carolina) Renovation Practices to Improve Rainfall Effectiveness on Rangeland and Pastures

94

N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT115 clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming

G. Crespo; I. Rodriguez; O. Martinez

2009-01-01

95

Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

2011-08-01

96

Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling  

PubMed Central

The ability of cells to respond to changes in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and viability. One of the key cellular responses to nutrient withdrawal is the upregulation of autophagy. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mammalian autophagy induction in response to depletion of key nutrients. Intracellular amino acids, ATP, and oxygen levels are intimately tied to the cellular balance of anabolic and catabolic processes. Signaling from key nutrient-sensitive kinases mTORC1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential for the nutrient sensing of the autophagy pathway. Recent advances have shown that the nutrient status of the cell is largely passed on to the autophagic machinery through the coordinated regulation of the ULK and VPS34 kinase complexes. Identification of extensive crosstalk and feedback loops converging on the regulation of ULK and VPS34 can be attributed to the importance of these kinases in autophagy induction and maintaining cellular homeostasis. PMID:24343578

Russell, Ryan C; Yuan, Hai-Xin; Guan, Kun-Liang

2014-01-01

97

Phytoplankton nutrient competition under dynamic light regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physiological processes in phytoplankton, including nutrient uptake, vary on a number of temporal scales. Experiments show that the daily cycle in irradiance affects nutrient uptake rates. We used a Droop-based model of resource competition to investigate how diel variability in nutrient uptake influences phytoplankton competition and community structure. The analytical approximation we derive shows that if nutrient uptake is

Elena Litchman; Christopher A. Klausmeier; Peter Bossard

2004-01-01

98

Nutrient Management in TexasNutrient Management in Texas Sam FeagleySam Feagley  

E-print Network

Practice1. Describe the Nutrient Management Practice Standard process in TexasStandard process in Texas ProcessStandard Process ·· 1. National Nutrient Management Policy1. National Nutrient Management PolicyNutrient Management in TexasNutrient Management in Texas Sam FeagleySam Feagley Texas Cooperative

99

Minimizing nutrient leaching and improving nutrient use efficiency of Liriodendron tulipifera and Larix leptolepis  

E-print Network

Minimizing nutrient leaching and improving nutrient use efficiency of Liriodendron tulipifera. Growth performance, nutrient uptake, and nutrient loss in leaching were mea- sured. Height, root collar. Generally, nutrient losses in leached solutions were higher in constant and three-stage than the exponential

Yanai, Ruth D.

100

Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps  

E-print Network

Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios

Vallino, Joseph J.

101

Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-05-01

102

Effects of biochar and clay amendment on nutrient sorption of an Arenosol in semi-arid NE-Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil nutrient-poor Arenosol with a low capacity to retain water and nutrients is the predominant soil type. Our aim is to provide a long-term melioration of the soils with locally available and inexpensive materials. We hypothesize an increase in nutrient sorption by the addition of biochar and clay. We conducted adsorption experiments according to OECD 106 batch equilibrium method in order to test this hypothesis. Sandy Arenosol, locally produced pyrolized biochar made of Prosopis juliflora, and a clayey Vertisol with a clay content of 69.8 %, all from our project area in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil, were used. The percentage of biochar and Vertisol added were 0 % (pure Arenosol), 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 100 % (pure biochar respectively Vertisol). Samples were shaken for 24 hours in a 1:5 solid-solution ratio in six different concentrations of Ammonium-N, Nitrate-N (0 - 25 mg L-1 each), Phosphorus (0 - 19.8 mg L-1) and Potassium (0 - 50 mg L-1). These concentrations were chosen to represent a common range of nutrients in a prevalent quaternary fertilization scheme of N:P:K of 1:0.4:1, with half NH4-N and NO3-N each. Then, where possible, sorption isotherms according to Langmuir were derived. Addition of biochar and Vertisol only showed marginal effects on Ammonium sorption. We detected a high loss of Ammonium with pure biochar, we assume loss of gaseous NH3. High rates of biochar addition caused Nitrate retention. Biochar increased P sorption with a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 27.35 mg kg-1 for the 5 % amendment, although some P was leached out (up to 1.58 mg kg-1 for the 10 % addition). Phosphate sorption on Vertisol was even higher with a qmax for the 5 % addition of 60.77 mg kg-1. Potassium did not sorb to biochar, but was strongly leached out (84.19 mg kg-1 out of the 5 % addition). For Vertisol we observed a strong Potassium sorption that is linear within the concentration range we tested. A possible enhancement of nutrient retention of an Arenosol by adding biochar was detected for Phosphorus and marginal for Ammonium. For Vertisol we determined a potential to retain Potassium, Phosphorus and, to a minor degree, Ammonium. For Nitrate biochar seems to have a potential to reduce losses. We suggest a mixture of Vertisol and biochar to combine the nutrient retaining effects of both materials.

Beusch, Christine; Kaupenjohann, Martin

2014-05-01

103

REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...

104

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules,  

E-print Network

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules, Regulations, andComprehensive Nutrient Management Software · Developed by USDA-NRCS and University of South Carolina · Uses Clemson

105

Regulating nutrient allocation in plants  

DOEpatents

The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

2014-12-09

106

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans  

E-print Network

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding the best use of manure or poultry litter while also protecting water quality. Storing, handling, and using

Mukhtar, Saqib

107

Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50 years ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens

2003-01-01

108

Nutrient Management in Organic Production  

E-print Network

and pesticides are prohibited #12;Characteristics of Organic Production · Genetically altered or engineered testing ·Nutrient deficiency symptoms ·Plant analysis #12;Organic certification ­ General requirements · "Rotation effect" not related to N Soil physical properties Reduced disease and insects Crop residue effects

Balser, Teri C.

109

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

110

Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings.  

PubMed

To investigate the interactive effects of soil temperature (T(soil)) and nutrient availability on the response of photosynthesis to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to ambient (360 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (720 micromol mol(-1)) [CO(2)], three T(soil) (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three nutrient regimes (4/1.8/3.3, 80/35/66 and 160/70/132 mg l(-1) N/P/K) for 3 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated [CO(2)] increased net photosynthetic rate (A(n)), instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE), internal to ambient carbon dioxide concentration ratio (C(i)/C(a)), triose phosphate utilization (TPU) and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (J(c)), and it decreased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (DeltaF/F(m)'), the fraction of total linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation (J(o)/J(T)) and leaf N concentration. The low T(soil) suppressed A(n), transpiration rate (E), TPU, DeltaF/F(m)' and J(c), but it increased J(o)/J(T). The low nutrient treatment reduced A(n), IWUE, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, TPU, DeltaF/F(m)', J(c) and leaf N concentration, but increased C(i)/C(a). There were two-factor interactions for C(i)/C(a), TPU and leaf N concentration, and a significant effect of CO(2) x T(soil) x nutrient regime on A(n), IWUE and J(c). The stimulations of A(n) and IWUE by elevated [CO(2)] were limited to seedlings grown under the intermediate and high nutrient regimes at the intermediate and high T(soil). For J(c), the [CO(2)] effect was significant only at intermediate T(soil) + high nutrient availability. No significant [CO(2)] effects were observed under the low T(soil) at any nutrient level. Our results support this study's hypothesis that low T(soil) would reduce the positive effect of high nutrient supply on the response of A(n) to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:20007132

Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai; Li, Junlin

2010-02-01

111

ERD Research on Nutrient and Pathogen Dynamics  

EPA Science Inventory

Slide presentation giving an overview on the ERD research on nutrient and pathogen dynamics. Focus is on characterizing the dynamics of pathogen and nutrient stressors in the environment to support water quality objectives....

112

Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52

Scott H. Ensign; Martin W. Doyle

2006-01-01

113

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

114

nutrients and terc.ucdavis.edu 9  

E-print Network

% 15% 4% RTic watersheds NuTRieNTS aNd paRTicLeS The Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program (LTIMP) measures nutrient inorganic nitrogen Water Year Nitrogen contribution by upper Truckee River Since 1989 NuTRieNTS aNd paRTic

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

115

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions  

E-print Network

) Abstract ­ Recirculating nutrient systems offer a good method to control nutrient leaching from greenhouses of recirculating nutrient systems by the greenhouse industry. This review discusses and compares five broadly different methods of disease control in these systems, namely heat, filtration, chemical, radiation

Boyer, Edmond

116

Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

1997-01-01

117

Nutrient Content of Single – Muscle Pork Cuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...

118

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

119

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

120

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility by Clain Jones, Soil Chemist of Extension materials designed to provide pertinent information on a variety of nutrient management, water" as well as offer the potential for credits for CCAs in Nutrient Management (within the "Plant Nutrition

Lawrence, Rick L.

121

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.03.2014 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient & Odor Management Programs Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative

Guiltinan, Mark

122

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.01.2013 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient Management Program Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative and programmatic guidance

Guiltinan, Mark

123

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1  

E-print Network

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1 and J. Baglama2 1. Department, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881-0816 Abstract. Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction with general uptake functions in which nutrient recycling is either instantaneous or de- layed is considered

Baglama, James

124

NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries Nutrient Management Module No. 9  

E-print Network

, and Zn occurring most often (Nutrient Management Module 7, Micronutrients: Cycling, Testing9 NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries 4449-9 May 2009 CCA 1.5 NM CEU Nutrient Management Module No. 9 Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency

Lawrence, Rick L.

125

Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources  

SciTech Connect

Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

1996-12-31

126

Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions.  

PubMed

Field trials were conducted in farmer's field of district Chandauli, Uttar Pradesh, India to assess the impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on the performance of tomato crop during rabi (2008) and kharif (2009) season. Before conducting trials technological gap between actual and potential productivity were analyzed by interviewing growers to find out the major causes for low yield. Overall gap in use of fertilizers was recorded 64.90 % whereas overall mean gap in technology was 43.83%. On-farm experiments on INM were conducted by applying FYM (10t ha(-1)) + (NPK (150:80:60 kg ha(-1)) followed by dipping seedling roots in 1% Azotobacter solution for 15 min and foliar spray with 20 ppm ferrous ammonium sulphate after 30, 45 and 75 days of transplantation. The plant height, root length, number of primary branches, average fruit weight increased in INM plots as compared to farm practice. The increment in yield was found to be 28.84 and 33.86% during rabi and kharif season respectively. The maximum marketable yield obtained in INM plot during kharif and rabi seasons was 1025 q ha(-1) and 955 q ha(-1) respectively, whereas as farm practice yielded 740 q ha(-1) and 713 q ha(-1) during the same seasons. The percent loss from total production was recorded 8.5 % and 8.8 % in control plot and only 4.9 % and 5.7 % in INM plot during rabi and kharif seasons respectively. The higher fruit weight and lower incidence of disease and pest were observed in INM field in comparison to farm practice. The benefit cost ratio with INM treatment was recorded 4.25 and 4.23 in rabi and kharif season respectively against the benefit cost ratio of 2.98 and 2.82 in control plot during the same respective seasons. PMID:24555335

Pandey, S K; Chandra, K K

2013-11-01

127

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

128

Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells  

E-print Network

Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness $\\ell$ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter $\

Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Nelson, David R

2013-01-01

129

Nutrient Composition of Spelt Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of spelt wheat from the 1994 crop year were analyzed for macrocomponents (proximates), selected vitamins and minerals, and the first limiting amino acid lysine. They were also immunoassayed for gluten. All spelt samples differed minimally in the content of various nutrients analyzed except lysine; lysine values differed widely and ranged between 1.96 and 3.96 g\\/100 g protein. All

G. S. Ranhotra; J. A. Gelroth; B. K. Glaser; K. J. Lorenz

1996-01-01

130

Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

1996-01-01

131

Plant Nutrient Phytoremediation Using Duckweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last 40 years a great deal of research has been published on the use of duckweed to treat wastewater both from point\\u000a sources (feedlots, food processing plants) and from non-point sources. These plants can recover nutrients such as nitrogen\\u000a and phosphorus from contaminated waters in those agricultural practices. They can also remove or accumulate metals, radionuclides,\\u000a and other

Louis Landesman; Clifford Fedler; Runbin Duan

132

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

PubMed Central

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

2013-01-01

133

Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Away-From-Home and At-Home Consumption on selected Nutrients.  

E-print Network

higher intakes from FAFH as a percentage of the RDA are the following: em ployed individuals compared with unemployed individuals; nonfood stamp recipients compared with food stamp recipients; and those who are not on special diets compared with those... of various nutrients at home compared with unemployed individuals. As expected, individuals who are on special diets and individuals who receive food stamps consume significantly less nutrients away from home than do their counterparts. An increase...

Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr; Capps, Oral Jr

1994-01-01

134

[Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].  

PubMed

Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

2014-12-01

135

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

136

Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.  

PubMed

Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

1999-01-01

137

Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

Michalzik, B.

2012-04-01

138

Adaptability of growth and nutrient uptake potential of Chlorella sorokiniana with variable nutrient loading.  

PubMed

Chlorella sorokiniana can sustain growth in conditions hostile to other species, and possesses good nutrient removal and lipid accumulation potentials. However, the effects of variable nutrient levels (N and P) in wastewaters on growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake by C. sorokiniana have not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates the ability of this alga to sustain uniform growth and productivity, while regulating the relative nutrient uptake in accordance to their availability in the bulk medium. These results highlight the potential of C. sorokiniana as a suitable candidate for fulfilling the coupled objectives of nutrient removal and biomass production for bio-fuel with wastewaters having great variability in nutrient levels. PMID:25463782

Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

2014-12-01

139

Regulation of Nutrient Transport across the Placenta  

PubMed Central

Abnormal fetal growth, both growth restriction and overgrowth, is associated with perinatal complications and an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. PMID:23304511

Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa L.

2012-01-01

140

Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.

2013-12-01

141

Nutrient-sensing mechanisms and pathways.  

PubMed

The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids, lipids and surrogate metabolites are integrated and coordinated at the organismal level through hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient-sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, whereas scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, such as the mobilization of internal stores through autophagy. Nutrient-sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C; Sabatini, David M

2015-01-15

142

Nutrient-Specific Foraging in Invertebrate Predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to redress specific nutritional imbalances. This selection can take place at different stages of prey handling: The predator may select among foods of different nutritional composition, eat more of a prey if it is rich in nutrients that the predator is deficient in, or extract specific nutrients from a single prey item.

Mayntz, David; Raubenheimer, David; Salomon, Mor; Toft, Søren; Simpson, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

143

NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

1987-01-01

144

Enhanced Plant Nutrient use Efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an Integrated Nutrient Management System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-year field study was conducted with field corn from 2005 to 2007 to test the hypothesis that microbial inoculants that increase plant growth and yield will enhance nutrient uptake, and thereby remove more nutrients, especially N, P, and K from the field as part of an integrated nutrient mana...

145

Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the

Ivan Valiela; Joseph E. Costa

1988-01-01

146

Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrient Density: Meeting Nutrient Goals within Calorie Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although nutrient density is a core nutrition concept of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, there is currently no scientifically valid definition for either nutrient density or nutrient-dense food. The purposes of this American Dietetic Association Practice Paper are to summarize the current...

147

Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of

Ann C. Wilkie; Walter W. Mulbry

2002-01-01

148

Inorganic nutrient limitation of oceanic bacterioplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of algal origin limits bacterial growth in pelagic systems, there arc relatively few empirical studies documenting this effect. Depending on site and season, both organic and inorganic nutrients can limit the growth of freshwater bacteria. By contrast, inorganic nutrients have only recently been implicated as potentially growth-limiting for marine bacteria.

Richard B. Rivkin; M. Robin Anderson

1997-01-01

149

INCORPORATING NUTRIENT SENSING TECHNOLOGY IN PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The greatest impediment to using manual soil sampling followed by laboratory measurement for crop nutrient management is the time and expense associated with sampling, transportation, and analysis of the sample. While improvements in fertilizer nutrient use efficiency have been made relying on these...

150

NUTRIENTS IN WATERSHEDS; DEVELOPING ENHANCED MODELING TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment is one of the most detrimental stressors causing water-resource impairment. Of systems surveyed and reported as impaired, 40% of rivers, 51% of lakes, and 57% of estuaries listed nutrients as a primary cause of impairment (USEPA, 1996). In many cases, these ...

151

SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

Hedgepeth, David J.

1995-01-01

152

Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

1991-01-01

153

Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...

154

Nutrient Density: Making the Pyramid Come Alive  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA’s) and MyPyramid, which accompanies it, emphasize nutrient density as a way to choose foods within food groups. Yet, nutrient density is a difficult concept for consumers to apply to individual foods. In addition, consensus is lacking on how to measur...

155

UNDERSTANDING NUTRIENT VARIABILITY: IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Information on the sources and magnitude of nutrient variability in U.S. foods is often lacking and may include differences due to cultivars, brands, growing or processing conditions, cooking practices, fortification, nutrient stability, and analytical methods. Accurate analytical determi...

156

Biogeochemical Processes and Implications for Nutrient Cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The availability and cycling of nutrients is determined by an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes in an ecosystem. This interaction of processes, collectively known as biogeochemistry, is important as it determines the forms, transformations, and ultimate fate of nutrients in a given system. This chapter focuses on biogeochemical processes in springs and spring runs with an examination

Patrick W. Inglett; Kanika S. Inglett; K. Ramesh Reddy

157

WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH PLANTS IN NUTRIENT FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...

158

NUTRIENT-UPTAKE MODEL IN MARSH ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mechanistic models of nutrient dynamics in natural wetlands were developed and applied in a study of Kissimmee River (Florida) flood-plain marshes. The models describe hydrodynamics and transport diffusion in wetland basins and the ecological processes of nutrient uptake, convers...

159

Nutrient Management: Water Quality/Use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management programs must have a positive impact on water quality. The challenge for producers is to understand the nutrient balance in the soil and to reduce the risk of surface runoff of manure. The challenge for science is to increase our understanding of the value of manure in the soil a...

160

Nutrient movement in soils and its relation to ecosystem nutrient retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. We make use of a first principle model of nutrient diffusion and uptake at the root/micorrhizal surface to address how these soil processes shape levels of nutrient concentration in soil water and the magnitude of ecosystem nutrient export. We combine our analytical framework with available data on root properties and parameters for solute movements. Our results show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nutrients. Our predicted levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations are at the upper end of observed levels in soil water and headwater streams. Further efficient reduction of nutrient levels can be achieved through micorrhizal symbiosis, in particular if exudates reduce the buffering of ammonium, phosphate and other nutrients that tend to sorb to soil surfaces. As we scale our results from the environment of a single root to the entire active soil, we find that plant uptake capacity decreases as the intensity of soil water percolation increases, thereby weakening nutrient retention.

Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.

2012-12-01

161

Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Certification Process and Requirements  

E-print Network

v.07.2012 Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Certification Process and Requirements The Nutrient Management Certification Program certifies specialists to prepare and/or review nutrient management plans to determine compliance with the requirements of Act 38. Requirements for certification

Guiltinan, Mark

162

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

163

SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

164

Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

2011-12-01

165

Nutrients in the Changjiang River.  

PubMed

N, P and SiO3-Si in the Changjiang mainstream and its major tributaries and lakes were investigated in the dry season from November to December, 1997, and in the flood season in August and October, 1998. An even distribution of SiO3-Si was found along the Changjiang River. However, the concentrations of total nitrogen, total dissolved nitrogen, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, nitrate and total phosphorus, total particulate phosphorus increased notably in the upper reaches, which reflected an increasing impact from human activities. Those concentrations in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River were relatively constant. Dissolved N was the major form of N and the particulate P was the major form of P in the Changjiang River. The molar ratio of dissolved N to dissolved P was extremely high (192.5-317.5), while that of the particulate form was low (5.6-37.7). High N/P ratio reflected a significant input of anthropogenic N such as N from precipitation and N lost from water and soil etc. Dissolved N and P was in a quasi-equilibrium state in the process from precipitate to the river. In the turbid river water, light limitation, rather than P limitation, seemed more likely to be a controlling factor for the growth of phytoplankton. A positive linear correlationship between the concentration of dissolved N and the river's runoff was found, mainly in the upper reaches, which was related to the non-point sources of N. Over the past decades, N concentration has greatly increased, but the change of P concentration was not as significant as N. The nutrient fluxes of the Changjiang mainstream and tributaries were estimated, and the result showed that the nutrient fluxes were mainly controlled by the runoff, of which more than a half came from the tributaries. These investigations carried out before water storage of the Three Gorges Dam will supply a scientific base for studying the influences of the Three Gorges Dam on the ecology and environment of the Changjiang River and its estuary. PMID:18484183

Shen, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Qun

2009-06-01

166

Nutrient Management Educational & Planning Resources The Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Education Program provides a wide array of resources  

E-print Network

recommendations, and nutrient requirements for agronomic crops, fertilizer materials, manure nutrient management Management Program. The Soil Fertility Management section provides essential background information for nutrient management planning in Pennsylvania. Topics addressed include soil testing, fertilizer

Guiltinan, Mark

167

CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in  

E-print Network

;2 Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN1 \\ CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN) PPROGRESS REPORT

168

Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promoti...

169

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

170

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

171

Mediterranean nutrient balance and episodes of anoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the causes of anoxia in regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean, which have exchange over sills with adjacent basins. Box models show that the concentration of the limiting nutrient is the major determinant of deep oxygen levels. The most effective way of increasing nutrient concentrations to the point where anoxia occurs is to change the flow pattern across the sills ventilating the basins. With a sill exchange pattern such as that in the present Strait of Sicily, it is difficult to obtain anoxia in the Eastern Mediterranean without also driving the Western Mediterranean to low oxygen and high nutrient levels. Episodes of anoxia in the Eastern Mediterranean are associated with a freshening of surface waters. A reversal in flow directions, presumably resulting from the observed freshening, will inevitably lead to anoxia associated with increased sediment burial rates of the limiting nutrient and will leave the Western Mediterranean largely unaffected, in keeping with the observational evidence.

Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Herbert, Timothy; Toggweiler, J. R.

1988-12-01

172

USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States. It provides the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors....

173

NUTRIENTS IN WATERSHEDS: DEVELOPING ENHANCED MODELING TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment is one of the most important stressors causing water-resource impairment. These impairments are causing devastating changes: 1) high nitrate concentrations have rendered the groundwaters and reservoirs in many regions impotable -- especially in the rural area...

174

NRMRL'S NUTRIENT-RELATED RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic loadings of nutrients into our Nation's atmosphere, aquatic, and terrestrial ecosystems have increased dramatically within the past few decades. Environmental impairments associated with this over fertilization include aquatic habitat loss due to low dissolved oxyge...

175

The stoichiometry of particulate nutrients in Lake Tanganyika – implications for nutrient limitation of phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential nutrient limitation of phytoplankton by means of seston nutrient stoichiometry and nutrient enrichment bioassays in the epilimnion of Lake Tanganyika. In most cases, the particulate carbon to phosphorus (C:P) ratio was high and indicated moderate P deficiency, while the respective C:N ratio mainly suggested moderate N deficiency. The N:P ratios of seston indicated rather balanced N

Marko Järvinen; Kalevi Salonen; Jouko Sarvala; Kristiina Vuorio; Anne Virtanen

1999-01-01

176

Nutrient Management in Conservation Tillage Systems  

E-print Network

of the lack of substantial mechanical soil mixing. Nutrient levels tend to be higher near the soil surface Extension Number Four C O N S E R V A T I O N T I L L A G E S E R I E S o understand soil fertility and nutrient management in conservation tillage surface mulch reduces the soil tempera- ture, which slows

Kaye, Jason P.

177

Nutrient shielding in clusters of cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ? of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ? that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ? can vary over many orders of magnitude among different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ? decreases with increasing ?, increasing cell volume fraction ?, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ??. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ?.

Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

2013-06-01

178

Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the introduction of benthivorous fish, nutrient loss may be reduced, because of the re-mobilisation of nutrients

M. M. Rahman

2006-01-01

179

Modeling the Response of Nutrient Concentrations and Primary Productivity in Lake Michigan to Nutrient Loading Scenarios  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality model, LM3 Eutro, will be used to estimate the response of nutrient concentrations and primary productivity in Lake Michigan to nutrient loading scenarios. This work is part of a larger effort, the Future Midwestern landscapes study, that will estimate the produc...

180

Louisiana's Nutrient ManagementLouisiana's Nutrient Management Educational/Research ProgramsEducational/Research Programs  

E-print Network

Louisiana's Nutrient ManagementLouisiana's Nutrient Management Educational/Research ProgramsEducational/Research Programs Matthew F. Stephens Area Agent Calhoun, La. #12;Louisiana Facts Poultry production is largest #12;Louisiana Facts Cotton .....491,000 acres Rice.....530,000 acres Soybeans....770,000 acres Grain

181

Spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient loads, nutrient concentrations, and algal biomass in Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, exemplifies the severity of eutrophication problems in rapidly developing regions. We used long term land use, water quality, and hydrologic data from 26 in-lake and 32 tributary locations to describe the spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient loads, nutrient concentration, algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a), in Lake Taihu. Point and nonpoint sources, as

Yiping Li; Kumud Acharya; Mark C. Stone; Zhongbo Yu; Michael H. Young; David S. Shafer; Jianting Zhu; Karen Gray; Asako Stone; Lili Fan; Chunyan Tang; John Warwick

2011-01-01

182

Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, Number 10: Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. Third Revised Edition, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report deals with the nutrient requirements of seven species of animals used extensively for biomedical research in the United States. Following an introductory chapter of general information on nutrition, chapters are presented on the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, gerbil, guinea pig, hamster, vole, and fishes. Each…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agricultural and Renewable Resources.

183

Nutrient ManagementNutrient Management Program in OklahomaProgram in Oklahoma  

E-print Network

. Plant Removal Plant Removal Severe No Appl. No Appl. No Appl. OK Phosphorus Risk Assessment Ratings forOK Phosphorus Risk Assessment Ratings for NonNon--Nutrient Limited WatershedNutrient Limited Watershed #12;0 ­ 8 ­ 300 Half Rate Half Rate Half Rate Severe > 300 No Appl. No Appl. No Appl. OK Phosphorus Risk

184

Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to form Ca phosphate, an insoluble compound of phosphate that is generally not available to plants, especially roots. Mixing soil with humin produced from composted SW before application of fertilizers (T5 and T6) significantly increased maize dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency. Additionally, this practice does not only improve N, P, and K use efficiency, but it also helps to reduce the use of N-, P-, and K-based fertilizers by 50%. PMID:20623087

Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

2010-01-01

185

Variations in concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients related to catchment scale human interventions in Pamba River, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River basins are geo-hydrological units. Water flowing out of the basin bears the imprint of natural factors such as geology, soil, vegetation and rainfall along with anthropogenic factors including the type and degree of human intervention within the basin. Pamba, a small mountainous river in the SW coast of India with a population density of ~1,400 persons km-2 was studied for its varying land use and human interventions as the global database are biased towards temperate regions while little is know about the smaller catchments from tropical regions. Land use comprised of dense forest in the highland region together with forest plantation and the human impacted Sabarimala temple- the second largest pilgrim, settlement with mixed tree crop (smt) in the midland and lowland paddy cultivated region. 50-60 million devotees visiting Sabarimala during November to January every year associated with the ritual bathing, discharge of human wastes emanating from the influx of millions of pilgrims due to inadequate number of sanitary latrines and the lack of facilities for sewage collection and treatment caused several ecological variations during pilgrim season. In order to asses the effect of land use and pilgrims in combination with seasonal variations in hydrology we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations in physicochemical and nutrient concentrations. Samples were collected from March 2010 to February 2012 during premonsoon (January-May), SW(June to September) and NE monsoon(October to December), from sites varying in land use. Nutrient budgets (load and yield) were calculated to quantify the inputs from various land use segments. Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and dissolved nutrient concentrations were observed along the course of the river. Upstream forest region had highest dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH together with lowest dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) values indicating almost pristine conditions. DIN in the temple region had the maximum value during the pre and NE monsoon. Highest DIN with ammonium(NH4+) as the major component in January were observed during the peak pilgrim season. Except for the temple locations NH4+ values were low in the rest of the catchment. Nitrate(NO3-) was dominant during SW monsoon in the midland and low land regions due to the various agricultural practices displaying variability along the course of the river. Maximum values for phosphate (PO43-) and silicate (Si(OH)4) were in the temple area during the premonsoon months. Average NPK fertilizer use in the basin was 80.2 kg ha-1.When compared to the average of all India (72 kg.ha-1) usage is high but lower than Western Europe and U.S (250 kg.ha-1).Yield calculated were 7186.6 kg km-2yr-1for DIN, 453.2 kg km-2yr-1for PO43--P and 17728.9 kg km-2yr- for dissolved Si. NH4+-N and dissolved Si yield were maximum in the temple and forest dominated regions, NO3--N and PO43--P in smt regions respectively. When compared to other tropical rivers, nutrient yield from the Pamba River found to be higher points to the significant hydrological and land use practices. To conclude, land use activities in the basin are the key factor contributing to varying water quality and nutrient concentrations and loading in the Pamba catchment the main being pilgrim event and agriculture in our study.

David, S. E.; Jennerjahn, T. C.; Chattopadhyay, S.

2012-12-01

186

Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

Wurtman, R. J.

1987-01-01

187

Microbial life at extremely low nutrient levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many microorganisms (``oligotrophs'') grow in distilled water: Pseudomonas spp., Caulobacter spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Seliberia spp., Bactoderma alba, Corynebacterium spp., Amycolata (Nocardia) autotrophica, Mycobacterium spp., yeasts, and Chlorella spp. Also, certain lower fungi can be found here. In the laboratory, these organisms thrive on contaminations of the air (CO, hydrocarbons, H2, alcohols etc.). All are euryosmotic and often grow also in higher concentrations of salts and nutrients. Natural locations with extremely low nutrient levels (snow, rain water pools, springs, free ocean water, Antarctic rocks and soils) do not contain more than 1-5 mg/1 of organic carbon. Oligotrophs found here are especially adapted to constant famine: they frequently live attached to surfaces, form polymers and storage products even while starving, and often aggregate. Many of these oligotrophs alter their morphology (surface to volume ratio) with changing nutrient concentrations. Extreme oligotrophs also occur in generally nutrient-rich environments such as sewage aeration tanks or compost soil. Here they are thought to survive in nutrient-depauperate microhabitats.

Hirsch, P.

188

Nutrient excess stimulates ?-cell neogenesis in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Persistent nutrient excess results in a compensatory increase in the ?-cell number in mammals. It is unknown whether this response occurs in nonmammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish, a model for genetics and chemical genetics. We investigated the response of zebrafish ?-cells to nutrient excess and the underlying mechanisms by culturing transgenic zebrafish larvae in solutions of different nutrient composition. The number of ?-cells rapidly increases after persistent, but not intermittent, exposure to glucose or a lipid-rich diet. The response to glucose, but not the lipid-rich diet, required mammalian target of rapamycin activity. In contrast, inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in ?-cells blocked the response to the lipid-rich diet, but not to glucose. Lineage tracing and marker expression analyses indicated that the new ?-cells were not from self-replication but arose through differentiation of postmitotic precursor cells. On the basis of transgenic markers, we identified two groups of newly formed ?-cells: one with nkx2.2 promoter activity and the other with mnx1 promoter activity. Thus, nutrient excess in zebrafish induces a rapid increase in ?-cells though differentiation of two subpopulations of postmitotic precursor cells. This occurs through different mechanisms depending on the nutrient type and likely involves paracrine signaling between the differentiated ?-cells and the precursor cells. PMID:22721970

Maddison, Lisette A; Chen, Wenbiao

2012-10-01

189

Efect of organic barley-based crop rotations on soil nutrient balance in a semiarid environment for a 16-year experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In natural ecosystems with no percolating moisture regime, the biogeochemical cycle can be considered a closed system because the nutrients extracted by the roots will be returned to the soil after a certain time. In organic farming, a cycle model as close as possible is taken as a guideline, but we have to consider that unlike natural ecosystems, where most of the nutrients remain in the cycle, the agrosystems are open cycles. To achieve a sustainable fertility of the soil, the soil nutrient levels, the extractions according to the expected crop yields and the export refunds in the form of crop residues, biological nitrogen fixation, green manure or compost will have to be determined. Nutrient balance should be closed with external inputs, always avoiding to be a source of negative impacts on the environment. In organic farming without exogenous inputs, the effect of the crop rotations is much more noticeable in the nutrient balance than in the conventional farming fields which every year receive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the form of chemical fertilizers. The most extractive crop rotations are those that produce a greater decrease in soil reserves, and in these cases exogenous inputs to maintain sustainability should be considered; however, in less extractive crop rotations, extractions can be restored by the edaphogenesis processes. In this work, soil organic matter, phosphorus and potassium balances were analyzed in different organic barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture [b-b] and in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-Vh], vetch as green manure [B-Vm], sunflower [B-S], chickpea [B-C] and fallow [B-F]) in clay soils under a semiarid environment ("La Higueruela" Experimental Farm, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain) over a 16 year period. Additionally, barley monoculture in conventional farming [B-B] was included. In the organic system, the fertilization involved the barley straw in all rotations, the sunflower straw in B-S, the symbiotic nitrogen from the vetch crops and the green manure in B-Vm. In the conventional system, fertilization consisted on barley straw and chemical fertilizers at a rate of 80-60-30 kg N-P-K ha-1. Before the organic management, the whole plot was subjected to conventional practices. The highest total yields (and therefore the nutrients extractions) were obtained in B-Vh, followed in this order by B-B, B-S, B-F, B-Vm, B-C and b-b. The crop rotations with the highest yields favoured the microbial activity and the organic residues mineralization, although this caused, eventually, a small decrease in the soil organic matter content. Since the eighth year, this parameter remained more stable until the end of the study period. The highest decrease of soil organic matter took place in B-F and B-S, while the lowest ones happened in B-B, where the great amounts of barley straw incorporated into the soil compensated the organic matter losses. The conversion from conventional to organic management with the incorporation of the straw to the soil implies a re-adaptation process with a decrease of the soil phosphorus level by the increasing soil microbial biomass. A decrease of phosphorus during the first six years of the experiment and a posterior recovery and stabilization of this ratio by the solubilisation of the fixed phosphorus was observed. B-F and B-S presented the lowest soluble phosphorus losses, while B-C the highest ones. In the same way, the potassium level decreased during the first eight years and after that remained constant. The highest decreases took place in the rotations with the biggest amounts of barley straw; this decrease could be explained by the nutrient immobilization caused by the microbial biomass.

Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta; Lacasta, Carlos; Moreno, Carmen

2013-04-01

190

Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.  

PubMed

We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

2014-04-01

191

Quantitative evolutionary design of nutrient processing: Glucose  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evolutionary design involves the numerical relationships, evolved through natural selection, of biological capacities to each other and to natural loads. Here we study the relation of nutrient-processing capacities of the intestine and of organs beyond it (such as liver and kidneys) to each other and to natural loads of nutrients normally consumed. To control experimentally the rate of nutrient delivery to organs beyond the intestine, we administered nutrients directly into the veins of rats by the method of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Control rats consuming the TPN solution by mouth ingested glucose at 42 mmol/day and processed it completely, as gauged by negligible appearance of glucose in urine and feces. Experimental rats receiving TPN were able to process infused glucose completely at rates up to 92 mmol/day. At higher infusion rates, they were unable to process further glucose, as gauged by rises in serum and urinary glucose levels and serum osmolality. At the highest infusion rates, they exhibited diuresis, dehydration, and both decreased weight gain and survival. These symptoms closely resemble the human diabetic condition known as nonketotic hypertonicity. Thus, a rat's body has a safety factor of 2.2 (=92/42) for glucose processing: it can process glucose at a rate 2.2 times its voluntary intake. This safety factor represents apparent excess capacity that may have evolved to process other nutrients converted into glucose, to minimize the risk of loads swamping capacities, to handle suddenly increased nutrient requirements, or to effect rapid mobilization of glucose. PMID:12077313

Steyermark, Anthony C.; Lam, Mandy M.; Diamond, Jared

2002-01-01

192

Nutrient Requirements of the Cow and Calf.  

E-print Network

Requirements and Minimum Feed Quality, 9 Composition of Texas Grasses and Other Feeds, 13 Nutrient Requirements Of the Cow and Calf In c tir (la IIRLISHED NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS for beef Cat- digestible nutrients (TDN) system to tlescribe... concern of stocking rates, time of calving, time to start supplemental feeding, illhat and how much to feed, time to wean calues and when to incl-ease or decrease n~im bers. The calorie is the basic unit used to measure the amount of energy in feeds...

Maddox, L. A. Jr.

1965-01-01

193

Fast Detection of Nutrient Limitation in Macroalgae and Seagrass with Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming. For phytoplankton, a rapid method has been described based on short-term changes in chlorophyll fluorescence upon nutrient addition, also known as Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence Transients (NIFTs). Thus far, though, the NIFT technique was not well suited for macroalgae and seagrasses. Methodology & Principal Findings We developed a new experimental setup so that the NIFT technique can be used to assess nutrient limitation of benthic macroalgae and seagrasses. We first tested the applicability of the technique on sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) cultured in the laboratory on nutrient-enriched medium without either nitrogen or phosphorus. Addition of the limiting nutrient resulted in a characteristic change in the fluorescence signal, whereas addition of non-limiting nutrients did not yield a response. Next, we applied the NIFT technique to field samples of the encrusting fan-leaf alga Lobophora variegata, one of the key algal species often involved in the degradation of coral reef ecosystems. The results pointed at co-limitation of L. variegata by phosphorus and nitrogen, although it responded more strongly to phosphate than to nitrate and ammonium addition. For turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) we found the opposite result, with a stronger NIFT response to nitrate and ammonium than to phosphate. Conclusions & Significance Our extension of the NIFT technique offers an easy and fast method (30–60 min per sample) to determine nutrient limitation of macroalgae and seagrasses. We successfully applied this technique to macroalgae on coral reef ecosystems and to seagrass in a tropical inner bay, and foresee wider application to other aquatic plants, and to other marine and freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23861947

den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Dekker, Friso; ten Brinke, Jacomina L.; Ford, Amanda K.; van Ooijen, Jan; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

2013-01-01

194

Plasticity of the Arabidopsis root system under nutrient deficiencies.  

PubMed

Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program. PMID:23852440

Gruber, Benjamin D; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2013-09-01

195

NUTRIENT RESPONSE IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Aquatic Stressor Framework and associated Nutrient Implementation Plan define scientific and regulatory needs, and lay-out research goals too for a cross divisional program to investigate stressor-response relati...

196

ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MODELING AND MONITORING OF NUTRIENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk presents an overview of the capabilities and roles that regional atmospheric deposition models can play with respect to multi-media environmental problems. The focus is on nutrient deposition (nitrogen). Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is an important contributor to...

197

Nutrients and Food Composition: Data Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For more than 100 years the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has supported the generation and compilation of food composition data. Today the Agricultural Research Service, USDA develops and maintains the National Nutrient Data Bank, a repository of food composition data which provides the foun...

198

Agronomy Facts 38-D A Nutrient Management  

E-print Network

assessment, and management option selection for the next plan. This process is facilitated by the appropriate is part of the nutrient management approach described in this series. Any part of the process management process that identifies the role of performance criteria. management process options? assess

Kaye, Jason P.

199

Can Nutrients in Water Cause Harm?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this water pollution activity, learners create pond water cultures and investigate the effects of adding chemicals or natural nutrients. Learners investigate, on a small scale, the changes that occur when fertilizers are added to pond water cultures over the course of a few days. This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2010-01-01

200

nutrients and terc.ucdavis.edu 9  

E-print Network

% 15% 4% RTic loads from 10 watersheds NuTRieNTS aNd paRTicLeS The Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program (LTIMPTRieNTS aNd paRTicLeS Nitrogen (N) is important because it, along with phosphorus (P), stimulates algal growth

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

201

Methyl nutrients, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Diet plays an important role in the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. DNA methylation has been implicated as an underlying molecular mechanism that may account for the effect of dietary factors on the development and prevention of CVD. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process that provides "marks" in the genome by which genes are set to be transcriptionally activated or silenced. Epigenomic marks are heritable but are also responsive to environmental shifts, such as changes in nutritional status, and are especially vulnerable during development. S-adenosylmethionine is the methyl group donor for DNA methylation and several nutrients are required for the production of S-adenosylmethionine. These methyl nutrients include vitamins (folate, riboflavin, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, choline) and amino acids (methionine, cysteine, serine, glycine). As such, imbalances in the metabolism of these nutrients have the potential to affect DNA methylation. The focus of this review is to provide an overview on the current understanding of the relationship between methyl nutrient status and DNA methylation patterns and the potential role of this interaction in CVD pathology. PMID:23661599

Glier, Melissa B; Green, Timothy J; Devlin, Angela M

2014-01-01

202

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen base cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) are generally in sufficient supply in seawater. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most

Jochem, Frank J.

203

Pesticide and Nutrient Management for Orchards  

E-print Network

management as a three-part process of nutrient manage- ment, safe and effective pesticide use, and integrated management practices and identify areas where you can make improvements. Safe and effective use of pesticides to humans, livestock and wildlife. Improved pesticide use can prevent pesti- cides from polluting surface

204

Estimation of Nutrient Requirements from Growth Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two least squares methods of estimating nutrient require ments from growth data were compared. One method involved fitting a broken line by the method of least squares. The requirement was taken as the abscissa of the breakpoint in the curve. The other method involved fitting an appropriate exponential function to the growth data and estimat ing the requirement as the

KELLY R. ROBBINS; HORACE W. NORTON; ANDDAVID H. BAKER

205

Can nutrient loads predict marine water quality?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Chemical Society article explores whether phosphorous or nitrogen plays a larger role in creating the algal blooms of the Mississippi River dead zone. It documents results of a study that finds that the algae-nutrient interaction is complex, but that the system is more phosphorous limited upstream and becomes more nitrogen limited farther downstream.

Janet Pelley

206

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study critically evaluates the potential value of animal manure as feedstuffs for livestock and poultry using information in the published literature. The paper provides an assessment of the nutrient and economic value of manures as a function of their composition when compa...

207

DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

208

Nutrient Effects on Spring Flora and Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many of Florida's springs and spring runs are enriched in nitrate due to broad-scale contamination of groundwater supplies. This observation fosters two primary and interrelated concerns regarding the effects of nutrients on flora and fauna in spring systems. High nitrate concentrations can affect fauna directly through toxicity. In addition, high nitrate concentrations can promote eutrophication or an increase in

Charles A. Jacoby; Thomas K. Frazer; Edward J. Phlips

209

Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of

D. Sarkhot; T. A. Ghezzehei; A. A. Berhe

2009-01-01

210

Characterization of Nutrient Assimilation from Extraembryonic Intracapsular \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of gastropod snails undergo development from a zygote to a juvenile while enclosed within an egg capsule. Egg capsules are embedded within a discrete gelatinous mass that is deposited onto a substratum. Within each capsule, an embryo is bathed in a nutrient-rich intracapsular fluid. This fluid serves as the primary source of nourishment and is essential for the

Tisoncik Jennifer

2003-01-01

211

FREQUENCY OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN CORN PRODUCTION  

E-print Network

of plant tissue is much less common, and in- terpretation data is limited across crops and growth stages on corn tissue nutrient diagnostic criteria at early growth stages, with more substantial data for ear) emissions, in Jan- uary, 2009 the Innovation Center (IC) for U.S. Dairy announced a vol- untary goal

Maxwell, Bruce D.

212

nutrients And terc.ucdavis.edu 9  

E-print Network

contribution by upper truckee River since 1989 nutRIents and paRtICLes Nitrogen concentration is importantRt 2008 9.1 16% 15.5% 55% 0.5% 0.5% 12.5% Total Nitrogen 39% 26% 15% 1% 4% 15% Urban Watershed Non urban Watershed Atmospheric Deposition Stream Channel Erosion Shoreline Erosion Groundwater Total Phosphorus 72% 9

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

213

Nutrient management on pasture and haylands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management on pastures is a critical part of maintaining and improving their ability to provide key ecosystem services including forage and fuel production, clean air and water, and climate mitigation. Our objective was to determine the scientific underpinning for purported benefits of nutr...

214

MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1992 to 1994, the University of Idaho conducted a research project on the water quality- limited section of the MIddle Snake River from Twin Falls downstream to Upper Salmon Falls Dam in an effort to determine the relationship between the nutrients and sediments entering thi...

215

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

216

Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.  

EPA Science Inventory

New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

217

Chromium as an Essential Nutrient for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium is an essential nutrient required for sugar and fat metabolism. Normal dietary intake of Cr for humans is suboptimal. The estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake for Cr is 50 to 200 ?g. However, most diets contain less than 60% of the minimum suggested intake of 50 ?g. Insufficient dietary intake of Cr leads to signs and symptoms

Richard A Anderson

1997-01-01

218

NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

219

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling,  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations by ClainManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries 4449-3 Dec. 2001 #12;2 Module 3 · Nitrogen Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations Background, it is important to first understand the various transformations that N undergoes within the soil. Nitrogen Cycling

Lawrence, Rick L.

220

Influence of marine protozoa on nutrient regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per unit weight, marine protozoa excrete dissolved phosphorus one to two orders of magnitude faster than marine microcrustaceans and several orders of magnitude faster than marine macrofauna. Protozoa may therefore be responsible for a major fraction of faunal nutrient excretion even though present only as a minor fraction of the faunal biomass. Regeneration of dissolved inorganic phosphate from organic detritus

R. E. JOHANNES

1965-01-01

221

Nutrient Management Module No. 15 Sustainable  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 15 Sustainable Agriculture by Ann McCauley, Soil Scientist, Clain Jones, Soil Chemist, and Jeff Jacobsen, Soil Scientist Introduction This module is the fifteenth production. The adoption of these and other practices into a sustainable management plan will depend on each

Lawrence, Rick L.

222

AGRICIJLTURAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT LOWER FRASER VALLEY  

E-print Network

to Groundwater 21 5.2 Phosphorus 21 5.3 Potassium 22 5.4 Sensitivity Analysis 22 5.5 Extreme Value Analysis 23 6.0 IMPROVED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 49 6.1 Reduced Fertilizer Applications 49 6.2 Improved Manure Handling 49 6.3 Feeding Strategies 7.0 IMPACTS OF REDUCED FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS AND IMPROVED MANURE

223

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling,  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations management 4.Be able to make a phosphorus fertilizer recommendation based on a soil test report 5.Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of different phosphorus fertilizers 4 CCACCACCACCACCA 2 NM2 NM2 NM2 NM2 NM

Lawrence, Rick L.

224

Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

225

Nutrient Cycles and Responses to Disturbance  

E-print Network

14 Nutrient Cycles and Responses to Disturbance Michael E. McClain, Robert E. Bilby, and Frank J. Triska Overview l This chapter examines the cycling of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S, and sulfur cycling, owing to the intensification of biological and sorptive processes in streamside soils

McClain, Michael

226

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

227

HARVESTING WINTER FORAGES TO EXTRACT MANURE NUTRIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvested hay captures soil manure nutrients which, if not utilized, could cause pollution of surface water or aquifer. This study determined yields of hay and N,P,K,Mg,Mn,Ca,Fe,Zn, and Cu of three winter forages in five harvesting systems. Dormant bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.] sod regul...

228

Nutrient digestibility of brewers single cell protein.  

PubMed

Six growing wethers were used in a total collection digestion trial to estimate the nutrient digestibility of brewers single cell protein (BSCP). The BSCP product was obtained by allowing microbial growth to occur aerobically on the effluent wash waters of a brewery and then harvesting the solids through a spray drying procedure. This process produced a dry powder product containing 50% crude protein. Wethers were fed a corn-based diet with BSCP replacing corn at 0, 20 and 40% of the diet in a 3 X 3 replicated Latin square design. There were no consumption or palatability problems encountered when wethers were fed BSCP-containing diets. Nutrient digestibility of BSCP was estimated by a least-squares analysis regressing apparent digestibility of each nutrient on BSCP content. Digestion coefficients of BSCP for dry matter, energy and crude protein were calculated as 66.6, 73.3 and 86.5%, respectively. The addition of BSCP to corn-based diets decreased the overall diet digestibility of dry matter, energy and carbohydrate (P less than .05). Diet crude protein digestibility was not significantly affected by the BSCP addition. Nutrient digestibilities indicate brewers single cell protein is a satisfactory source of supplemental protein, approximately equivalent to cottonseed meal on a weight basis. PMID:6841302

Johnson, D E; Remillard, R L

1983-03-01

229

Novel software applications using nutrient databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer software facilitates the use of nutrient data by both research and clinical users. Numerous embellishments have been added to contemporary software in response to user needs. Recent embellishments include: (1) the addition of a scale to a computer application for calculating controlled diets, (2) adapting a database application for use with a college nutrition text, (3) providing access to

Phyllis J. Stumbo

2003-01-01

230

Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants

J. P. Bassin

2012-01-01

231

Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography.  

PubMed

The major nutrients nitrate and phosphate have one of the strongest correlations in the sea, with a slope similar to the average nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) content of plankton biomass (N/P = 16:1). The processes through which this global relationship emerges despite the wide range of N/P ratios at the organism level are not known. Here we use an ocean circulation model and observed nutrient distributions to show that the N/P ratio of biological nutrient removal varies across latitude in Southern Ocean surface waters, from 12:1 in the polar ocean to 20:1 in the sub-Antarctic zone. These variations are governed by regional differences in the species composition of the plankton community. The covariation of dissolved nitrate and phosphate is maintained by ocean circulation, which mixes the shallow subsurface nutrients between distinct biogeographic provinces. Climate-driven shifts in these marine biomes may alter the mean N/P ratio and the associated carbon export by Southern Ocean ecosystems. PMID:20882009

Weber, Thomas S; Deutsch, Curtis

2010-09-30

232

Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

1999-01-01

233

Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow  

SciTech Connect

The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%).

Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1990-06-01

234

Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.  

PubMed

Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein percentages in ration formulation models. PMID:24035027

Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

2013-01-01

235

Seasonal Asynchrony in Terrestrial Nutrient Production and Demand Drives Nutrient Delivery to Arctic Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant species that currently dominate the terrestrial plant community in the Arctic become dormant and cease to require nutrients shortly after the peak in the growing season in late-July to early August. However, deeper soils in the active layer may not freeze until much later, in mid-October to mid-November. Thus, there is a period of time in which vegetation demand for nutrients is low but soils are sufficiently warm to maintain microbial activity and to allow continued runoff from land to streams. Previously we hypothesized that this "seasonal asynchrony" in nutrient dynamics should lead to increased nutrient loading to streams in the fall. We used a small watershed close to the Toolik Lake Field Station on the North Slope of Alaska to test this hypothesis. We collected phenological observations to assess plant senescence, spectral irradiance data to calculate vegetation "greenness" (NDVI), and samples of stream water for nutrient analyses from mid-July through early October 2011. We found, as hypothesized, that the concentration and flux of nitrate increased significantly in this test watershed coincident with declines in NDVI that occur as plants senesced (Figure). Increases in other important nutrients (phosphate and ammonium) were not significant. We confirmed that this was a general phenomenon and not a unique characteristic of the test watershed by sampling nutrients in five other watersheds in the area ranging from tundra to mountain terrain. All watersheds exhibited the same general behavior of elevated nitrate during the transition from the growing season to the early winter season. We conclude that this is a general phenomenon that we have not observed previously because our long-term water research and monitoring programs have, until recently, been restricted to the core summer season. Increased nutrient loading due to seasonal asynchrony in nutrient dynamics is unlikely to be a new phenomenon. However, we expect the duration of this seasonal asynchrony - the period between plant dormancy and complete freeze up of soils - to increase as the Arctic region continues to warm. The effects of greater nutrient loading to arctic streams late in the season are unknown but include alteration of local stream ecosystem dynamics and/or increased delivery of nutrients to oligotrophic coastal and marine ecosystems.

Bowden, W. B.; Khosh, M. S.; Waldvogel, G.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Jacobson, A. D.; McClelland, J. W.; Douglas, T. A.; Lehn, G. O.; Barker, A.

2012-12-01

236

Global nutrients data synthesis based on Reference Material of Nutrients of Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic distributions of nitrate, phosphate and silicate and inventories of them in the world's ocean are basic issues of geochemical study of nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon cycles as well as tracer use of nutrients for deep ocean circulation. WOA09 and WGHC were global hydrographic datasets created by objective analysis and offset correction/objective analysis, respectively. However synthesis using mathematics methods and experience could get apparent global comparability but does not have a firm foundation, therefore accuracy is unknown for nutrients data in WOA05/09 and WGHC. Recently hydrographic dataset such as CARINA and PACIFICA were also created by synthesis. We did global synthesis work based on Reference Material of Nutrients in Seawater (RMNS) for WOCE/CLIVAR cruises datasets, WGHC datasets and some new hydrographic cruises which cover the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Among 69982 profiles in 5174 cruises, we could put correction factors of nutrients concentration for 14491 profiles in 268 cruises for nitrate, 18378 profiles in 412 cruises for phosphate and 15825 profiles in 268 cruises for silicate. Global Nutrients Dataset 2010, GND10, is newly created as 0.5 deg. × 0.5 deg. and 50 m interval of 138 levels gridded dataset based on corrected nutrients profiles described above. One feature of GND10 is that nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in deep waters in WOA dataset showed a peak at 14.6 while nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in GND10 showed a peak at 14.3 and kurtosis of frequency distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio is larger in GND10 dataset rather than that in WOA dataset. A reason of larger kurtosis of distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio might be that comparability of nitrate and phosphate concentration data was improved. Newly created GND10 can provide more realistic distribution of nutrients in the world ocean because comparability of nutrients concentration in GND10 is improved based on RMNS. The GND10 would be useful to study changes in the distribution of concentrations of nutrients in the world ocean and also useful as new initial conditions for modelers who studies global changes. Carbonate system data and oxygen data will be merged with factor corrected nutrients data to study coupling of carbonate system and nutrients cycles, too.

Aoyama, Michio; Murata, Akihiko; Nishino, Shigeto

2013-04-01

237

ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

238

Version 2.1 January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet  

E-print Network

balance sheet must be developed using soil test results for the next manure application. #12;Version 2Version 2.1 ­ January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet Prepared For Operator's Name Operator's Address _________________________________ County of Origin _____________________________________ Nutrient Balance Worksheet Appendices

Kaye, Jason P.

239

Nutrient Management, Mississippi 2004 Larry Oldham, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management, Mississippi 2004 Larry Oldham, Ph.D. Associate Extension Professor - Soils #12 · Mississippi 303 (d) and 305(b) reports #12;Mississippi Nutrient Management · MSU NM & WQ Task Force ­ MSU

240

NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN RELATION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY OF RIVERINE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Variation in water depth and soil properties associated with geomorphic structures can affect riverine wetland nutrient dynamics by altering biogeochemical processes. We examined the seasonal influence of soils and geomorphology on nutrient forms and concentrations in riverine we...

241

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are dramatically altering global biodiversity. Theory predicts these changes to be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive excl...

242

Comparison of Nutrient Drivers and Response Metrics in Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

With the goal of assessing sensitivity to nutrient enrichment, we present a cross-estuary comparison of nutrient sources, levels, and biological responses (phytoplankton and macroalgae) for thirteen Oregon estuaries. Nitrogen levels in the upstream portions of the estuaries are ...

243

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program Technical Manual January 2013 Appendix 7 Stormwater. Specific fields include: HF1, HF4, HF7, HF9 and HFP1." #12;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program

Guiltinan, Mark

244

Nutrient Attenuation Under Natural Conditions in Agricultural Drainage Ditches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drainage ditches are common practice in agricultural landscapes with poorly drained soils. Even though high concentrations of nutrients and other agricultural chemicals have been reportedly associated with agricultural drainage ditches, processes affecting nutrient transport in these ditches are not...

245

Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity  

E-print Network

Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity Forest of chronic nutrient enrichment on ecosystem productivity, and for indirect effects of enrichment on productivity mediated by re- sultant species losses. We found that ecosystem productivity decreased through

Minnesota, University of

246

Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain  

E-print Network

Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain Floodplains Gregory B. Noe floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay. Key words: floodplain; sediment; nitrogen; phosphorus; retention; wetland; river

247

Role of contemporary and historic vegetation on nutrients in Missouri reservoirs: implications for developing nutrient criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jones, J.R., M.F. Knowlton, D.V. Obrecht, A.P. Thorpe and J.D. Harlan. 2009. Role of contemporary and historic vegetation on nutrients in Missouri reservoirs: implications for developing nutrient criteria. Lake Reserv. Manage. 25:111–118.Using vegetative survey records from the time of Euro-American settlement (circa 1815–1850) we found the proportion of historic prairie accounted for 42% of cross-system variation in total phosphorus (TP)

John R. Jones; Matthew F. Knowlton; Daniel V. Obrecht; Anthony P. Thorpe; James D. Harlan

2009-01-01

248

The Effect of Boiling on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients in Two non Conventional Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of boiling on the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of two vegetables Solanum nigrum and Solanecio biafrae was investigated. The vegetables were boiled and the boiled and raw samples were analysed for proximate composition and some anti nutritional compounds. The protein, ash, fat and fibre in Solanum nigrum was found to be 4.63, 2.99, 0.96 and 1.13%, respectively while

Ajala Lola

2009-01-01

249

Changes in nutrient structure of river-dominated coastal waters: stoichiometric nutrient balance and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of extensive nutrient data sets from two river-dominated coastal ecosystems, the northern Adriatic Sea and the northern Gulf of Mexico, demonstrating significant changes in surface nutrient ratios over a period of 30 years. The silicon:nitrogen ratios have decreased, indicating increased potential for silicon limitation. The nitrogen:phosphorus and the silicon:phosphorus ratios have also changed substantially, and the

Dubravko Justic; Nancy N. Rabalais; R. Eugene Turner; Quay Dortch

1995-01-01

250

Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system.  

PubMed

The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively. PMID:25176308

Wang, Yi; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Pei, Li-Ying; Ke, Li; Peng, Dang-Cong; Xia, Si-Qing

2014-01-01

251

Nutrients Variability in the Subtropical Gyres in the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients analyses were accomplished on 16,000 samples together with the reference material of nutrients in seawater (RMNS) during R\\/V Mirai cruise which revisited WHP P06, A10, I03 and I04 in the Southern Hemisphere in 2003\\/2004. The target nutrients are nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate, respectively. To establish the traceability of nutrients concentrations and to get higher quality data, we used

M. Aoyama; S. Watanabe; M. Fukasawa

2004-01-01

252

Developing a web-based forecasting tool for nutrient management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modern nutrient management planning tools provide strategic guidance that, in the best cases, educates farmers and others involved in nutrient management to make prudent management decisions. The strategic guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support require...

253

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Jonathan W. Moore and Daniel E. Schindler Abstract: Anadromous and semelparous salmon transport nutrients of research on the role of salmon-derived nutrients in coastal ecosys- tems. However, salmon also transport

254

Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

255

Improving Mississippi water quality: CAFO regulations and nutrient TMDLs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are regulated to reduce nutrient discharges to local waters, although nutrient water quality standards do not yet exist. At first, it may seem that there is some discontinuity between requiring CAFOs to limit nutrient discharges without knowing what levels...

256

Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

2013-01-01

257

Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on aquatic…

Brothers, Chris; And Others

258

Stability in chemostat equations with delayed nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of a species feeding on a limiting nutrient supplied at a constant rate is modelled by chemostat-type equations with a general nutrient uptake function and delayed nutrient recycling. Conditions for boundedness of the solutions and the existence of non-negative equilibria are given for the integrodifferential equations with distributed time lags. When the time lags are neglected conditions for

E. Beretta; G. I. Bischi; F. Solimano

1990-01-01

259

Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

2004-01-01

260

Nutrient Input into the Caspian Sea with River Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term observational data are used to compare and analyze time and space variations in the concentrations of nutrients in the water of major rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea and assess the nutrients runoff into the sea. Annual variations in the normal monthly values of river runoff and nutrient compound concentrations and input into the sea are considered (18 compounds

A. V. Leonov; N. A. Nazarov

2001-01-01

261

Land Cover - Nutrient Export Relationships in Space and Time  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between watershed land-cover composition and nutrient export has been well established through several meta-analyses. The meta-analyses reveal that nutrient loads from watersheds dominated by natural vegetation tend to be lower than nutrient loads from watershed...

262

Modeling the Water and Nutrient Freshwater Aquaculture in Thailand  

E-print Network

Modeling the Water and Nutrient Flows of Freshwater Aquaculture in Thailand A Material Flow Annex 66 #12;Modeling the nutrient flows of freshwater aquaculture in Thailand I. Wittmer 1 1 Abstract aquaculture was identified to be one of the pollution sources. This study looks at nutrient loads coming from

Richner, Heinz

263

Nutrient streams and their induction into the mixed layer  

E-print Network

), Nutrient streams and their induction into the mixed layer, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB1016, doi:10 in the stream? [4] The mechanism by which the nutrients in the stream are transferred to the surface is exploredNutrient streams and their induction into the mixed layer Richard G. Williams,1 Vassil Roussenov,1

Williams, Ric

264

Physical Transport of Nutrients and the Maintenance of Biological Production  

E-print Network

nutrients within the water column through transport and mixing. The combined role of biogeochemicalChapter 2 Physical Transport of Nutrients and the Maintenance of Biological Production Richard G. Williams · Michael J. Follows 2.1 Introduction The oceanic distributions of nutrients and patterns

Follows, Mick

265

Nutrient Management Module No. 6 Macronutrients: Cycling, Testing  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 6 Secondary Macronutrients: Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer. Understand the major processes that determine the availability of the secondary nutrients, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium, in the soil 2. Know the factors that affect each of these nutrient cycling processes 3. Recognize

Lawrence, Rick L.

266

Nitrogenous Nutrition of Marine Phytoplankton in Nutrient-Depleted Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in the small-scale temporal and spatial patterns in nitrogenous nutrient supply, coupled with an enhanced uptake capability for nitrogenous nutrients induced by nitrogen limitation, make it possible for phytoplankton to maintain nearly maximum rates of growth at media nutrient concentrations that cannot be quantified with existing analytical techniques.

James J. McCarthy; Joel C. Goldman

1979-01-01

267

The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for

U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Møller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; S. Salvini; L. Serra-Majem; G. Skeie; W. van Staveren; I. Unwin; S. Westenbrink; N. Slimani; E. Ribol

2002-01-01

268

Alternative approaches to the calculation of nutrient density  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over thirty years ago researchers developed a variety of different methods for rating or measuring the nutritional quality of foods. Nutrient density as the initial concept emerged was most commonly defined as the ratio of the amount of nutrients in a food to the energy provided. The nutrient dens...

269

Assessment of Nutrient Stability in Space Foods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health and safety. Early polar expeditions and exploration expeditions by sailing vessels have taught us that a deficiency, or excess, of even a single vitamin in the food supply can be catastrophic. Evidence from ground-based research indicates that some vitamins are destroyed and fatty acids are oxidized (and therefore rendered dangerous or useless) by different types of radiation and by conditions of long-term storage. We hypothesize that radiation and long-term storage in the space-flight environment will affect the stability of vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids in the space food system. The research objectives of our ongoing stability studies are to determine the stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids in the space food supply before and after space flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Foods were analyzed after 2 weeks (a flight control), 11, 19, and 28 months of flight. Along with the space-flown foods, ground-based controls matched for time, light, and temperature are analyzed. The flight studies complement planned ground-based studies of the effects of radiation on vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. Flight studies are needed because a model based on ground-based data cannot predict all of the effects of the space-flight environment. Flight studies provide a more accurate test system to determine the effects on these nutrients of the temperature, and radiation conditions in the space-flight environment. Ground studies are required to evaluate longer missions and higher radiation levels expected outside low-Earth orbit. In addition to providing information about nutrient stability in space, the results of these studies will help NASA determine if a need exists to develop special packaging that can ensure stability of foods and nutrients in space, or if further studies of nutrient metabolism or nutrient requirements are needed.

Zwart, S. R.; Perchonok, M.; Braby, L. A.; Kloeris, V. A.; Smith, S. M.

2009-01-01

270

Linkages Between Nutrients and Assemblages of Macroinvertebrates and Fish in Wadeable Streams: Implication to Nutrient Criteria Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled 240 wadeable streams across Wisconsin for different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, and assemblages of macroinvertebrates\\u000a and fish to (1) examine how macroinvertebrate and fish measures correlated with the nutrients; (2) quantify relationships\\u000a between key biological measures and nutrient forms to identify potential threshold levels of nutrients to support nutrient\\u000a criteria development; and (3) evaluate the importance of

Lizhu Wang; Dale M. Robertson; Paul J. Garrison

2007-01-01

271

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014 Supplement 3 Nutrient Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act (NMA) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) programs to meet be downloaded from the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http

Guiltinan, Mark

272

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Appendix 1 Nutrient. #12;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Appendix 1 Nutrient

Guiltinan, Mark

273

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 3 Nutrient Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act (NMA) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) programs to meet be downloaded from the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http

Guiltinan, Mark

274

Development of a nutrient pollution indicator using the seagrass, Zostera marina, along nutrient gradients in three New England estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, seagrasses provide important habitats in coastal ecosystems, but seagrass meadows are often degraded or destroyed by cultural eutrophication. Presently, there are no available tools for early assessment of nutrient over-enrichment; direct measurements of water column nutrients are ineffective since the nutrients typical of early enrichment are rapidly taken up by plants within the ecosystem. We investigated whether, in a

Kun-Seop Lee; Frederick T Short; David M Burdick

2004-01-01

275

Table 1. Nutrient content of corn grain and stover at 150 bu/acre yield Nutrient Grain Stover Total  

E-print Network

Nitrogen (N) 120 51 171 Phosphorus (P2O5)a 57 14 71 Potassium (K2O)b 37 150 187 Calcium (Ca) 1 29 30 nutrients. A deficiency of any of these nutrients can reduce yields. The best way to determine the level or symptoms charac- teristic of deficiency for the spe- cific nutrient. Deficiency symp- toms for several

Balser, Teri C.

276

Nutrient detection by incretin hormone secreting cells  

PubMed Central

The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted after a meal. Like other enteroendocrine hormones they help to orchestrate the bodies' response to the availability of newly absorbable nutrients and are noteworthy as they stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, underlying what is known as the incretin effect. GLP-1-mimetics are now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and advantages over older insulinotropic therapies include weight loss. An alternative treatment regime might be the recruitment of endogenous GLP-1, however, very little is known about the physiological control of enteroendocrine responses. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms to detect nutrient arrival in the gut that have been implicated within the incretin secreting cells. PMID:22182802

Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

2012-01-01

277

Obesity: Interactions of Genome and Nutrients Intake  

PubMed Central

Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals’ obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic approaches in nutritional sciences is referred as “nutrigenomics”. Nutrigenomics explores the interaction between genetic factors and dietary nutrient intake on various disease phenotypes such as obesity. Therefore, this novel approach might suggest a solution for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity through individual genetic profiles and help improve health conditions. PMID:25866743

Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

2015-01-01

278

Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for ammonium-nitrogen.

Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

2015-02-01

279

Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system.  

PubMed

A 3 year field study was conducted with field corn from 2005 to 2007 to test the hypothesis that microbial inoculants that increase plant growth and yield can enhance nutrient uptake, and thereby remove more nutrients, especially N, P, and K from the field as part of an integrated nutrient management system. The field trial evaluated microbial inoculants, which include a commercially available plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), and their combination across 2 tillage systems (no-till and conventional till) and 2 fertilization regimes (poultry litter and ammonium nitrate). Data were collected on plant height, yield (dry mass of ears and silage), and nutrient content of corn grain and silage. In addition, nutrient content of soil was determined, and bioavailability of soil nutrient was measured with plant root simulator probes. Results showed that inoculants promoted plant growth and yield. For example, grain yields (kg.ha(-1)) in 2007 for inoculants were 7717 for AMF, 7260 for PGPR+AMF, 7313 for PGPR, 5725 for the control group, and for fertilizer were 7470 for poultry litter and 6537 for NH4NO3. Nitrogen content per gram of grain tissues was significantly enhanced in 2006 by inoculant, fertilizer, and their interactions. Significantly higher amounts of N, P, and K were removed from the plots with inoculants, based on total nutrient content of grain per plot. These results supported the overall hypothesis and indicate that application of inoculants can lead to reduction in the build up of N, P, and K in agricultural soils. Further studies should be conducted to combine microbial inoculants with reduced rates of fertilizer. PMID:18923557

Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

2008-10-01

280

Seasonal sediment and nutrient transport patterns.  

PubMed

It is essential to understand sediment and nutrient sources and their spatial and temporal patterns to design effective mitigation strategies. However, long-term data sets to determine sediment and nutrient loadings are scarce and expensive to collect. The goal of this study was to determine seasonal patterns of suspended sediment (SS), total N (TN), and total P (TP) concentrations and loadings for three USGS gauge sites located at the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed (FCREW) located in southwestern Oklahoma. Measured instantaneous discharge, SS, TN, and TP concentration data were used to develop lognormal water quality-discharge relationships. The water quality-discharge relationships were used to generate estimated seasonal concentrations and loads based on hourly or 30-min interval discharge. The estimated concentrations and loads were used to determine seasonal patterns for SS, TN, and TP relative to the respective state water quality criteria. Decreasing and increasing monotonic trends were observed for the seasonal time series loads for all three sites, but they were insignificant based on the Spearman test (? = 0.05). The largest loads were estimated during the wet springs and summers. The study SS, TN, and TP target concentrations were exceeded in one season or another. The study results showed that the priority locations to implement the TN and TP conservation practices were the Lake Creek and Willow Creek subwatersheds during the winter and spring seasons. Common practices to mitigate nutrients and suspended sediments include nutrient management, no-till, conversion of cultivated land to pasture, riparian buffers, and animal exclusion. PMID:25603081

Moriasi, D N; Guzman, J A; Steiner, J L; Starks, P J; Garbrecht, J D

2014-07-01

281

Chasing Nutrients with an Arctic Sedge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has put the Arctic into a state of flux. Understanding the effects an altered climate will have on vegetation and nutrient cycling requires more knowledge of the key plant and soil functions of major arctic ecosystems. One of these ecosystems, moist acidic tussock tundra, is dominated by a single plant species, the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. This plant has unusual underground biomass: long, fast-growing, non-branching, non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast to many other plants in nutrient-limiting environments, this sedge is highly successful without maximizing its root surface area to volume ratio. The benefits of this growth strategy to the plants and its effects on the accompanying soil-microbe-plant relationships are not fully understood. One possibility is that the roots may help the plant take advantage of nutrients released into the active layer of soil as it thaws in the spring. The roots may also stimulate microbial activity, increasing nutrient turnover and availability. A study was undertaken to explore the nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) dynamics in these plants, as well as the microbial populations associated with active E. vaginatum roots. Intact tussock microcosms (plant and accompanying soil) were removed from the tundra and cultivated in transparent boxes. Half the plants were kept in light to encourage photosynthesis (and thus greater plant activity), while the other half was kept in the dark to inhibit it. Using a 15N isotopic tracer injected at the extremity of root penetration into the soil, the N uptake capacity of E. vaginatum roots at depth was explored. This uptake capacity is compared to measures of plant activity, microbial activity, and soil solution chemistry in order to paint a clearer picture of the role of E. vaginatum in the soil ecosystem.

Iverson, S. L.; Schimel, J.

2013-12-01

282

Mineral Nutrient Requirements of Cucumber Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Mineral nutrient requirements for maximum growth rate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings are estimated on the basis of three criteria. 1. The optimal weight proportions among the nutrients present in the seedlings. In relation to N = 100, close to 75 K, 13 P, 9 Ca, and 9 Mg are required. 2. The optimal ratio between the nitrogen sources NH4 and NO3 in the solution. The best growth is recorded with about equivalent amounts. Nitrate alone is also highly productive. Cucumber prefers nitrate and is sensitive to high ammonium concentrations. 3. The optimal total concentration in the solution corresponds to 200 to 300 milligrams of nitrogen per liter, with the proportions of the nutrients according to criterion 1. Simple growth methods are suggested in which the three criteria are fulfilled. Calcium, especially, is found to accumulate in older leaves. It is proposed that this is not an expression for a physiological requirement for calcium but a mechanism for deposition of excess uptake important in adaptation to calcareous soils. This mechanism also operates at low calcium uptake rates, causing deficiency in the young parts, despite relatively high contents in the old leaves. Cucumber is therefore interpreted to be an obligate calcicole. The results are discussed in relation to similar experiments with birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) seedlings, a species able to grow on very acid soils. PMID:16658558

Ingestad, Torsten

1973-01-01

283

Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

284

Nutrient Addition Dramatically Accelerates Microbial Community Succession  

PubMed Central

The ecological mechanisms driving community succession are widely debated, particularly for microorganisms. While successional soil microbial communities are known to undergo predictable changes in structure concomitant with shifts in a variety of edaphic properties, the causal mechanisms underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Thus, to specifically isolate how nutrients – important drivers of plant succession – affect soil microbial succession, we established a full factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization plot experiment in recently deglaciated (?3 years since exposure), unvegetated soils of the Puca Glacier forefield in Southeastern Peru. We evaluated soil properties and examined bacterial community composition in plots before and one year after fertilization. Fertilized soils were then compared to samples from three reference successional transects representing advancing stages of soil development ranging from 5 years to 85 years since exposure. We found that a single application of +NP fertilizer caused the soil bacterial community structure of the three-year old soils to most resemble the 85-year old soils after one year. Despite differences in a variety of soil edaphic properties between fertilizer plots and late successional soils, bacterial community composition of +NP plots converged with late successional communities. Thus, our work suggests a mechanism for microbial succession whereby changes in resource availability drive shifts in community composition, supporting a role for nutrient colimitation in primary succession. These results suggest that nutrients alone, independent of other edaphic factors that change with succession, act as an important control over soil microbial community development, greatly accelerating the rate of succession. PMID:25050551

Knelman, Joseph E.; Schmidt, Steven K.; Lynch, Ryan C.; Darcy, John L.; Castle, Sarah C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Nemergut, Diana R.

2014-01-01

285

Nutrient addition dramatically accelerates microbial community succession.  

PubMed

The ecological mechanisms driving community succession are widely debated, particularly for microorganisms. While successional soil microbial communities are known to undergo predictable changes in structure concomitant with shifts in a variety of edaphic properties, the causal mechanisms underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Thus, to specifically isolate how nutrients--important drivers of plant succession--affect soil microbial succession, we established a full factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization plot experiment in recently deglaciated (?3 years since exposure), unvegetated soils of the Puca Glacier forefield in Southeastern Peru. We evaluated soil properties and examined bacterial community composition in plots before and one year after fertilization. Fertilized soils were then compared to samples from three reference successional transects representing advancing stages of soil development ranging from 5 years to 85 years since exposure. We found that a single application of +NP fertilizer caused the soil bacterial community structure of the three-year old soils to most resemble the 85-year old soils after one year. Despite differences in a variety of soil edaphic properties between fertilizer plots and late successional soils, bacterial community composition of +NP plots converged with late successional communities. Thus, our work suggests a mechanism for microbial succession whereby changes in resource availability drive shifts in community composition, supporting a role for nutrient colimitation in primary succession. These results suggest that nutrients alone, independent of other edaphic factors that change with succession, act as an important control over soil microbial community development, greatly accelerating the rate of succession. PMID:25050551

Knelman, Joseph E; Schmidt, Steven K; Lynch, Ryan C; Darcy, John L; Castle, Sarah C; Cleveland, Cory C; Nemergut, Diana R

2014-01-01

286

Nutrient-sensing nuclear receptors coordinate autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that recycles nutrients upon starvation and maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Its acute regulation by nutrient-sensing signalling pathways is well described, but its longer-term transcriptional regulation is not. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are activated in the fasted and fed liver, respectively. Here we show that both PPAR? and FXR regulate hepatic autophagy in mice. Pharmacological activation of PPAR? reverses the normal suppression of autophagy in the fed state, inducing autophagic lipid degradation, or lipophagy. This response is lost in PPAR? knockout (Ppara(-/-), also known as Nr1c1(-/-)) mice, which are partially defective in the induction of autophagy by fasting. Pharmacological activation of the bile acid receptor FXR strongly suppresses the induction of autophagy in the fasting state, and this response is absent in FXR knockout (Fxr(-/-), also known as Nr1h4(-/-)) mice, which show a partial defect in suppression of hepatic autophagy in the fed state. PPAR? and FXR compete for binding to shared sites in autophagic gene promoters, with opposite transcriptional outputs. These results reveal complementary, interlocking mechanisms for regulation of autophagy by nutrient status. PMID:25383539

Lee, Jae Man; Wagner, Martin; Xiao, Rui; Kim, Kang Ho; Feng, Dan; Lazar, Mitchell A; Moore, David D

2014-12-01

287

Nutrient sensing and signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein-coupled receptor system, and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing target of rapamycin pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance, and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing, and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth. PMID:24483210

Conrad, Michaela; Schothorst, Joep; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M

2014-01-01

288

Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking. PMID:25173729

Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J; Harrison, Paul J; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter; Moschonas, Grigorios

2014-12-15

289

Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants.  

PubMed

Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic rumen models, but data on nutrient-specific FPR are scarce. Such models generally rely on conventional external marker techniques, which do not always describe digesta passage kinetics in a satisfactory manner. Here the use of stable isotope-labelled dietary nutrients as a promising novel tool to assess nutrient-specific passage kinetics is discussed. Some major limitations of this technique include a potential marker migration, a poor isotope distribution in the labelled feed and a differential disappearance rate of isotopes upon microbial fermentation in non-steady state conditions. Such limitations can often be circumvented by using intrinsically stable isotope-labelled plant material. Data are limited but indicate that external particulate markers overestimate rumen FPR of plant fibre compared with the internal stable isotope markers. Stable isotopes undergo the same digestive mechanism as the labelled feed components and are thus of particular interest to specifically measure passage kinetics of digestible dietary nutrients. PMID:24114801

Warner, Daniel; Dijkstra, Jan; Hendriks, Wouter H; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

2014-03-30

290

High fertigation frequency: the effects on uptake of nutrients, water and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present research was to explore the effects of combined irrigation and fertilization (fertigation) frequency on growth, yield and uptake of water and nutritional elements by plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. Iceberg) was used as the model plant. Two experiments were conducted in a screen-house: compound fertilizer at a constant N:P:K ratio at different concentrations was

A. Silber; G. Xu; I. Levkovitch; S. Soriano; A. Bilu; R. Wallach

2003-01-01

291

Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.  

PubMed

Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal's requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an estimation of maintenance energy requirements. We collated data on nutrient composition of diets fed to captive wild canids, felids, hyenids, mustelids, pinnipeds, and ursids and the digestibility coefficients from the literature (45 species, 74 publications) to test whether differences in protein and fat digestibility could be detected between species groups, and whether approaches suggested for the estimation of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content in domestic carnivores (NRC [2006] Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.) can be applied to wild carnivores as well. Regressions of digestible protein or fat content vs. the crude protein (CP) or fat content indicated no relevant differences in the digestive physiology between the carnivore groups. For diets based on raw meat, fish, or whole prey, applying the calculation of ME using "Atwater factors" (16.7 ?kJ/g CP; 16.7? kJ/g nitrogen-free extracts; 37.7 ?kJ/g crude fat) provided estimates that compared well to experimental results. This study suggests that ME estimation in such diets is feasible without additional digestion trials. For comparative nutrition research, the study implicates that highly digestible diets typically fed in zoos offer little potential to elucidate differences between species or carnivore groups, but research on diets with higher proportions of difficult-to-digest components (fiber, connective tissues) is lacking. PMID:20073050

Clauss, Marcus; Kleffner, Helen; Kienzle, Ellen

2010-01-01

292

Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area. PMID:22439570

Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

2011-12-01

293

Optimizing Nutrient Uptake in Biological Transport Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological systems employ complex networks of vascular tubes to facilitate transport of solute nutrients, examples include the vascular system of plants (phloem), some fungi, and the slime-mold Physarum. It is believed that such networks are optimized through evolution for carrying out their designated task. We propose a set of hydrodynamic governing equations for solute transport in a complex network, and obtain the optimal network architecture for various classes of optimizing functionals. We finally discuss the topological properties and statistical mechanics of the resulting complex networks, and examine correspondence of the obtained networks to those found in actual biological systems.

Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

2013-03-01

294

Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

1998-07-01

295

Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail".  

PubMed

Building on the work of the late John Myers, MD, the author has used an intravenous vitamin-and-mineral formula for the treatment of a wide range of clinical conditions. The modified "Myers' cocktail," which consists of magnesium, calcium, B vitamins, and vitamin C, has been found to be effective against acute asthma attacks, migraines, fatigue (including chronic fatigue syndrome), fibromyalgia, acute muscle spasm, upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, and other disorders. This paper presents a rationale for the therapeutic use of intravenous nutrients, reviews the relevant published clinical research, describes the author's clinical experiences, and discusses potential side effects and precautions. PMID:12410623

Gaby, Alan R

2002-10-01

296

Nutrient-induced intestinal adaption and its effect in obesity.  

PubMed

Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth of the intestine is driven by the amount of luminal nutrients, with high nutrient content resulting in increases in cell number, villi length and crypt depth. In addition, the type of nutrient appears to contribute to alterations in the morphology and function of the epithelial cells. This intestinal adaptation may be what is driving the differences in nutrient processing in lean versus obese individuals. This review describes how nutrients may be able to induce changes in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and function and the link between intestinal adaptation and obesity. PMID:24704111

Dailey, Megan J

2014-09-01

297

Nutrient Mgt. in KentuckyNutrient Mgt. in Kentucky Bill ThomBill Thom  

E-print Network

Software & website available for PlansSoftware & website available for Plans #12;Nutrient Management/acre (P Threshold is 533 lbs P/acre (MehlichMehlich III)III) N based app. app. loss Low rating N based app.Low rating N based app. Medium rating N based app.Medium rating N based app

298

Modelling nutrient emissions and the impact of nutrient reduction measures in the Weser river basin, Germany.  

PubMed

To implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) into German law, measures have to be taken to reduce the unacceptably high nutrient input into rivers. To identify the most effective measures, the sources and pathways of nutrient emissions into rivers have to be quantified. Therefore, the MONERIS model is applied, which quantifies nutrients emissions into river basins, via various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers. Most nitrogen emissions come from groundwater flow (43%), tile drainages (30%), and point sources (12%), whereas most phosphorus emissions come from groundwater flow (31%), point sources (23%), erosion (13%) and overland flow (12%). Because of their great distance from the river basin outlet, the southern sub-basins Werra and Fulda-Diemel have an 8% reduction in their nitrogen loads and a 15% and 16% reduction in their phosphorus loads, respectively. This reduction is due to retention in the main part of the river Weser. For the choice of the most effective measures, the different retention in the river is relevant. PMID:19092203

Hirt, Ulrike; Venohr, Markus; Kreins, Peter; Behrendt, Horst

2008-01-01

299

Nutrient Limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): Phytoplankton Communities and Photosynthesis Respond to Nutrient Pulse  

PubMed Central

Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (?max) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption. PMID:24551144

Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

2014-01-01

300

Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse.  

PubMed

Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (?max ) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax ) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption. PMID:24551144

Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

2014-01-01

301

Nutrient reduction in field wetlands: do they work for dissolved nutrients?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution of natural waters arises from both point sources (direct inputs) and diffuse inputs (many small sources entering the waterways by numerous pathways). Legislation has ensured that pollution from point sources has been reduced, thus increasing the significance of diffuse sources, and the contribution from agriculture in particular. Field wetlands (small sediment and nutrient trapping features, < 500 m2), constructed along runoff pathways, are one set of options for diffuse pollution mitigation. Polluted surface runoff as well as subsurface drainage is slowed down by passage through the field wetland, allowing more opportunity for sediment and associated nutrients to settle out. However, the nutrients transported from soil to water are not only attached to the sediment but also in soluble form, and field drains have been identified as a fast pathway for dissolved nutrients to reach the waterways. The soluble form is critical in the short term because it is readily available for aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the particulate form (associated with sediment) is a reservoir for growth and development of aquatic organisms and represents a problem in the long term. The ability of field wetlands to reduce both the particulate and dissolved nutrient loads is being tested in the UK as part of a project on Mitigation Options for Phosphorus and Sediment. Ten field wetlands have been built on farms in the UK, capturing surface runoff and subsurface field drainage, to quantify the sediment and nutrient retention under a range of different conditions. At Whinton Hill in Cumbria (sandy soil), samples from the inlet and outlet of a field wetland system showed an average decrease in the concentration of total solids of 11%. Total phosphorus (TP) was reduced by an average of 43%. However, soluble reactive phosphorus, which accounted for approximately 50% of the TP at the inlet, was reduced by an average of 74%, showing that this wetland made a significant difference to both the particulate and dissolved fractions of phosphorus. For nitrogen, at least 80% of the total nitrogen was in dissolved form at the inlet, with most of this being in the form of ammonium. Concentrations of ammonium were reduced by an average of 72% between the inlet and outlet. We conclude that the long hydraulic residence times in this field wetland, due to very limited flow at the outlet of the wetland, maximise the opportunity for biological activity and uptake of soluble nutrients.

Favaretto, N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

2012-04-01

302

Organic matter stability and nutrient availability in Taupo Pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils derived from rhyolitic Taupo pumice when under permanent pasture accumulate organically bound nutrients in the top soil to a high degree. The available nutrient supply is thereby reduced.Respirometry studies show that this accumulation is not due to a reduced microbial activity resulting from a deficiency of a major or minor nutrient element.Raising the pH increases the microbial activity of

R. H. Jackman

1960-01-01

303

Nutrient Pollution of Coastal Rivers, Bays, and Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 'Issues in Ecology' article from the Ecological Society of America provides information about the consequences of nutrient enrichment along the US coast. It describes problems such as harmful algal blooms (HABs), anoxia, hypoxia, and dead zones. It explains which nutrients are involved and describes implications of excess nutrients in regions such as the Gulf of Mexico/Mississippi River basin. The article features several color photographs, maps, and diagrams.

Robert Howarth

304

Nutrient Supply in Organic Agriculture – Plant Availability, Sources and Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the practice of applying nutrients in organic or slowly soluble inorganic form in the belief that plants\\u000a will obtain balanced nutrition through the actions of soil microbes. The organic principle of only fertilising the soil and\\u000a not directly feeding the crop with water-soluble nutrients has no support in science. The release of organically bound nutrients\\u000a in soil

Holger Kirchmann; Thomas Kätterer; Lars Bergström

305

Natural Variation for Nutrient Use and Remobilization Efficiencies in Switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient management in biomass production systems serves to maximize yield and minimize production costs and environmental\\u000a impact. Loss of soil nutrients with harvested biomass can be reduced by the judicious choice of genotype and harvest time.\\u000a Sustainable production of switchgrass for biofuel will depend, in part, on breeding of varieties that are conservative in\\u000a their use of soil nutrients to

Jiading Yang; Eric Worley; Mingyi Wang; Brett Lahner; David E. Salt; Malay Saha; Michael Udvardi

2009-01-01

306

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

307

Gut microbiota, nutrient sensing and energy balance.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a highly specialized sensory organ that provides crucial negative feedback during a meal, partly via a gut-brain axis. More specifically, enteroendocrine cells located throughout the GI tract are able to sense and respond to specific nutrients, releasing gut peptides that act in a paracrine, autocrine or endocrine fashion to regulate energy balance, thus controlling both food intake and possibly energy expenditure. Furthermore, the gut microbiota has been shown to provide a substantial metabolic and physiological contribution to the host, and metabolic disease such as obesity has been associated with aberrant gut microbiota and microbiome. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can impact the gut-brain axis controlling energy balance, at both the level of intestinal nutrient-sensing mechanisms, as well as potentially at the sites of integration in the central nervous system. A better understanding of the intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and host energy-regulating pathways is crucial for uncovering the mechanisms responsible for the development of metabolic diseases and for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25200299

Duca, F A; Lam, T K T

2014-09-01

308

Compatibility considerations in parenteral nutrient solutions.  

PubMed

Information on compatibility of nutrients and drugs with parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions is reviewed and evaluated. Precipitation of calcium phosphate when calcium and phosphate salts are added can be affected by pH, amino acid concentration, amino acid product, temperature, sequence of additives, specific salt used, and time since admixture; precipitate formation can occur gradually over 24 hours. Insulin is chemically stable in PN solutions, but adsorption to the infusion system can cause decreased availability. Poor delivery of vitamin A via PN solutions has been reported. The sodium bisulfite content of amino acid injections may cause degradation of thiamine, but studies simulating clinical use are needed. Folic acid stability in PN solutions has been demonstrated, and phytonadione appears to be stable. Drug administration via PN solutions may be advantageous when fluid intake is restricted or peripheral vein access is limited and in home PN therapy. Summarized are results of studies involving heparin, cimetidine hydrochloride, aminophylline, amphotericin B, iron dextran, hydrochloric acid, corticosteroids, narcotics, metoclopramide, digoxin, and fluorouracil. Many antibiotics are probably stable, especially when administered by co-infusion rather than by direct mixture in the PN solution container. When lipids are mixed in the same container with amino acid-dextrose solutions, compatibility and stability of electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements must be reassessed. Practical research is needed, and availability of additives should be studied in specific patient populations and for specific PN formulations. Valid conclusions are dependent on careful study design. PMID:6328980

Niemiec, P W; Vanderveen, T W

1984-05-01

309

Nutrient Enrichment Drives Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known “dead zones” proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007].

Boesch, Donald F.; Boynton, Walter R.; Crowder, Larry B.; Diaz, Robert J.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mee, Laurence D.; Nixon, Scott W.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Rosenberg, Rutger; Sanders, James G.; Scavia, Donald; Turner, R. Eugene

2009-04-01

310

[Temporal and spatial variation of water nutrient level after exogenous nutrient input].  

PubMed

In order to study the spatial and temporal variations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) nutrition in artificial wetlands after a single exogenous nutrient input, 6 mosaic communities of 7 plant species were set up in a cement channel in the greenhouse. After the addition of N and P nutritional solutions, the concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), dissolved total phosphorous (DTP), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) in the surface, middle, and bottom layers of the bulk water were determined regularly within 22 days. The results show that: (1) the water depth and measuring date have significant effects on nutritional contents while the type of plant communities have no such an influence; (2) the diffusion of nutrient from surface to the middle water layers is relatively slow, which costs 6 days under the current experimental condition; (3) in the bottom water layer, nutritional concentrations had no significant changes except for NO2-N, thus the exogenous nutrient input mainly affects the nutrient contents of surface and middle-level bulk water; (4) DTP and NH4(+) -N contents gradually decline to similar levels that before the nutritional input event until the end of experimental period, though DTN and NO3(-) -N content decrease much more slowly; (5) the fact that NO2(-) -N contents rise in water layers of all depths demonstrates that nitrification and denitrification in the process of N circulation are enhanced. It is concluded that exogenous nutrient inputs not only harm aquatic ecosystems but also directly threat human health. PMID:24946576

Fu, Ling; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Ou, Yuan; Fan, Zhou; Mao, Li-Na; Zhang, Jia; Han, Rui-Ming

2014-04-01

311

Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to lakes and watersheds has been increasing steadily due to various anthropogenic activities. Because such anthropogenic N is widely distributed, even lakes relatively removed from direct human disturbance are potentially impacted. However, the effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on lakes are not well documented, We examined phytoplankton biomass, the absolute and relative abundance of limiting nutrients (N and phosphorus [P]), and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (USA) receiving elevated (>6 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) or low (<2 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) levels of atmospheric N deposition. Highdeposition lakes had higher NO3-N and total N concentrations and higher total N : total P ratios. Concentrations of chlorophyll and seston carbon (C) were 2-2.5 times higher in highdeposition relative to low-deposition lakes, while high-deposition lakes also had higher seston C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Short-term enrichment bioassays indicated a qualitative shift in the nature of phytoplankton nutrient limitation due to N deposition, as highdeposition lakes had an increased frequency of primary P limitation and a decreased frequency and magnitude of response to N and to combined N and P enrichment. Thus elevated atmospheric N deposition appears to have shifted nutrient supply from a relatively balanced but predominantly N-deficient regime to a more consistently P-limited regime in Colorado alpine lakes. This adds to accumulating evidence that sustained N deposition may have important effects on lake phytoplankton communities and plankton-based food webs by shifting the quantitative and qualitative nature of nutrient limitation. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Elser, J.J.; Kyle, M.; Steuer, L.; Nydick, K.R.; Baron, J.S.

2009-01-01

312

The Plant Ionome Revisited by the Nutrient Balance Concept  

PubMed Central

Tissue analysis is commonly used in ecology and agronomy to portray plant nutrient signatures. Nutrient concentration data, or ionomes, belong to the compositional data class, i.e., multivariate data that are proportions of some whole, hence carrying important numerical properties. Statistics computed across raw or ordinary log-transformed nutrient data are intrinsically biased, hence possibly leading to wrong inferences. Our objective was to present a sound and robust approach based on a novel nutrient balance concept to classify plant ionomes. We analyzed leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg of two wild and six domesticated fruit species from Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand sampled during reproductive stages. Nutrient concentrations were (1) analyzed without transformation, (2) ordinary log-transformed as commonly but incorrectly applied in practice, (3) additive log-ratio (alr) transformed as surrogate to stoichiometric rules, and (4) converted to isometric log-ratios (ilr) arranged as sound nutrient balance variables. Raw concentration and ordinary log transformation both led to biased multivariate analysis due to redundancy between interacting nutrients. The alr- and ilr-transformed data provided unbiased discriminant analyses of plant ionomes, where wild and domesticated species formed distinct groups and the ionomes of species and cultivars were differentiated without numerical bias. The ilr nutrient balance concept is preferable to alr, because the ilr technique projects the most important interactions between nutrients into a convenient Euclidean space. This novel numerical approach allows rectifying historical biases and supervising phenotypic plasticity in plant nutrition studies. PMID:23526060

Parent, Serge-Étienne; Parent, Léon Etienne; Egozcue, Juan José; Rozane, Danilo-Eduardo; Hernandes, Amanda; Lapointe, Line; Hébert-Gentile, Valérie; Naess, Kristine; Marchand, Sébastien; Lafond, Jean; Mattos, Dirceu; Barlow, Philip; Natale, William

2013-01-01

313

Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

1999-01-01

314

Nitrate and nutrient accumulation in two varieties of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) as influenced by soil applied fertilizer nutrients  

E-print Network

NITRATE AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN TWO VARIETIES OF BDRKIDllddlidd (C~d ~dt L (L. ) F . ) AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL APPLIED FERTILIZER NUTRIENTS A Thesis By DALE A. LOVELACE Submitted to the Graduate College of the TEXAS A6H UNIVERSITY... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject: Agronomy NITRATE AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN TWO VARIETIES DP EEEEDDECEEEE EC~d ~dt L EL. ) P . ) AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL APPLIED FERTILIZER NUTRl...

Lovelace, Dale Allen

1968-01-01

315

Lateral diffusion of nutrients by mammalian herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

2013-01-01

316

Nutrient Controls on Biocomplexity of Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems that provide a variety of ecological and societal services. These intertidal, tree-dominated communities along tropical coastlines are often described as 'simple systems,' compared to other tropical forests with larger numbers of plant species and multiple understory strata; however, mangrove ecosystems have complex trophic structures, and organisms exhibit unique physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations to environmental conditions characteristic of the land-sea interface. Biogeochemical functioning of mangrove forests is also controlled by interactions among the microbial, plant, and animal communities and feedback linkages mediated by hydrology and other forcing functions. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to understand more fully the impact of nutrient variability on these delicate and important ecosystems.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

317

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

318

The effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching

Dale W. Johnson; John Turner; J. M. Kelly

1982-01-01

319

Monitoring nutrient loss in runoff from dairy cattle lots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue. For dairy, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored nutrient runoff for 3.5 years from plots representing cattle lots and corn silage cropland, and tested t...

320

Development of Sampling Strategies for Foods to Determine Nutrient Values  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National nutrient databases rely, in part, on the generation of original analytical data to estimate nutrient values for commonly consumed foods. The generation of representative analytical values for nutritional components requires the development of a sampling plan which includes both the demograp...

321

THE REVISED USDA NUTRIENT DATA SET FOR FRESH PORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient composition data for fresh pork products in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) have not been updated since 1991. Since that time, changes in animal husbandry practices and industry procedures have led to the availability of leaner cuts. In order to provide up-to...

322

Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

323

Nutrient removal by prairie filter strips in agricultural landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural landscapes have been identified as a primary source of excess nutrients in aquatic systems. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in removing nutrients from cropland runoff in 12 small watersheds...

324

Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an extensive literature review that deals with the assessment of the effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire and fertilization. 123 refs.

Dale W. Johnson; John Turner; J. M. Kelly

1982-01-01

325

SOUTHEASTERN PLAINS IN-STREAM NUTRIENT AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE (SPINBR)  

EPA Science Inventory

States and EPA lack a tool to characterize and measure biological response to nutrients in flowing waters. This study is designed to describe, examine and characterize the relationship between biological response and aquatic nutrients as a potential causal variable along a gradi...

326

November 2006 Issue #2 2006 TILLAGE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT STRATIFICATION  

E-print Network

. Because P, K, and to some extent soil pH are immobile in soils nutrient and pH stratification will develop that long-term no-till fields should also be sampled at the 0- to 2- inch depth for soil pH. Tillage to alfalfa at optimum soil test levels it could be expected that nutrient stratification would develop

Balser, Teri C.

327

CERTIFIED TEXAS NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST CEU REPORTING FORM  

E-print Network

per year. Related areas include soil fertility and water quality related to nutrient management. 2/or county related to nutrient management. d. Author of Educational Materials: (3 CEU maximum) Author. Documentation must include dates of the activities, provide reasonable proof of your involvement, and show

Mukhtar, Saqib

328

Soil nutrient levels on grazing farms in the northeast USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock producers in the northeastern USA rely more on forages, pasture, and grazing management to reduce production costs and remain competitive. Soil nutrient levels are one indicator of the level of nutrient management on farms. Our objective was to gain some insight into the level of various s...

329

Nutrient Composition in Ground Pork using Regression Techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New data on nutrient composition of ground pork products available in the US retail market were needed to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and to support nutritional intake studies of the population. A collaborative study was conducted to determine the mathemati...

330

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems  

E-print Network

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems of the Sierra de Gata mountains - The present work fits into a general study on nutrient cycling in four Quercus pyrenaica oak forests and one from that of the oak forests. It is also possible to differentiate three groups of bioelements: 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Manure Application under Winter Conditions: Nutrient Runoff and Leaching Losses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses can be difficult to predict due to wide variations in weather within a year and between years. This study was conducted to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure ...

332

Nutrient mitigation capacity in Mississippi Delta, USA drainage ditches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eutrophication and hypoxia within aquatic systems are a serious international concern. Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate nutrient loads transported to the Gulf of Mexico and other high-profile aquatic systems. The current study examined the nutrient mitigation capac...

333

Original article Litter fall and nutrient turnover in Kermes oak  

E-print Network

Original article Litter fall and nutrient turnover in Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands; accepted 26 November 1997) Abstract - Litter fall has been measured in three Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera, and showed litter fall peaks in May. Leaf litter was the most important source of nutrient return to the soil

Boyer, Edmond

334

Food Allergies in Children Affect Nutrient Intake and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To identify if specific food allergies, elimination diets, or other variables associated with food allergies have an impact on the growth and nutrient intake of children with food allergies.Design Measurements of height, weight, and body mass index were used to determine potential growth problems. Estimates of energy and nutrient intakes were based on 3-day diet records. A questionnaire was

LYNN CHRISTIE; R. JEAN HINE; JAMES G. PARKER; WESLEY BURKS

2002-01-01

335

ASSIGNING PYRAMID SERVINGS TO USDA NUTRIENT DATABASE CODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals utilizes the USDA Nutrient Database (NDB) for Standard Reference and the Survey Recipe Database to calculate the nutrient values for USDA survey foods. The Community Nutrition Research Group (CNRG) has assigned Pyramid servings to USDA survey foo...

336

MACRO NUTRIENT Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Minerals 0.3-6.0% Calcium Ca++ Soil Minerals 0.1-3.0% Magnesium Mg++ Soil Minerals 0.05-1.0% Sulfur SO4 · Nutrients are ranked from most deficient to most excessive Disadvantages · Computations are complicated 2. B 3. K 4. Mg #12;Mobile vs. Immobile Nutrients #12;What deficiency is shown in these photos? 1. K

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

337

Manure Application Under Winter Conditions: Nutrient Runoff and Leaching Losses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses are difficult to predict. This study was conducted in order to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure based on its relative placement with respect to snow. A labo...

338

Ceratophyllum demersum – phosphorus interactions in nutrient enriched aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

High macrophyte density in shallow lakes is often associated with clear water, especially when the non-rooted, submerged angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum is dominant. Lack of true roots and high surface area:volume ratio suggest that nutrient uptake from the water column by C. demersum may be high. Therefore, possible competition for nutrients, including phosphorus (P), could contribute to phytoplankton inhibition.

Paola Lombardo; G. Dennis Cooke

2003-01-01

339

Association of arsenic with nutrient elements in rice plants.  

PubMed

Rice is the main cereal crop that feeds half of the world's population, and two thirds of the Chinese population. Arsenic (As) contamination in paddy soil and irrigation water elevates As concentration in rice grains, thus rice consumption is an important As intake route for populations in south and south-east Asia, where rice is the staple food. In addition to direct toxicity of As to human, As may limit the accumulation of micro-nutrients in rice grains, such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). These micro-nutrients are essential for humans, while mineral deficiencies, especially iron (Fe) and Zn, are prevalent in China. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between As and micro-nutrients in rice plants, which is the principal source of these nutrients for people on rice diets. In addition, during the processes of As uptake, translocation and transformation, the status of macro-nutrients (e.g. silicon (Si), phosphors (P), sulfur (S)) are important factors affecting As dynamics in soil-plant systems and As accumulation in rice grains. Recently, synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been applied to map the distribution of As and nutrient elements in rice plants, which will aid to understand how As are accumulated, complexed and transported within plants. This paper reviews the interactions between As and macro-nutrients, as well as micro-nutrients in rice plants. PMID:23771154

Duan, Guilan; Liu, Wenju; Chen, Xueping; Hu, Ying; Zhu, Yongguan

2013-06-01

340

Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

341

Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

342

Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

343

Landscape influence on soil carbon and nutrient levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Past runoff, erosion, and management practices influence nutrient levels on the landscape. These starting levels affect future nutrient transport due to runoff, erosion, and leaching events. The purpose of this study was to examine closed-depression landscape effects on surface soil organic matter, ...

344

EFFICIENCY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) IN MITIGATING NUTRIENT RUNOFF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyper-eutrophication of US surface waters is one of the leading causes of impairment for water quality. With nutrient criteria development and TMDL issues looming for regulators, agricultural research is focusing on practices aimed at decreasing nutrient contributions to receiving aquatic ecosystem...

345

Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health.

Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M.; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2013-12-01

346

NUTRIENT CONTENT OF THE FOOD SUPPLY, 1909 - 1999  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Secretary Shirley Watkins the publication the "Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply, 1909-94" was released. It was prepared by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion and presents historical data on the nutrient content of the U.S. food supply through 1994, w...

347

NUTRIENT LIMITATION AND PHOSPHATE REGENERATION IN ARTIFICIAL CUTAWAY  

E-print Network

NUTRIENT LIMITATION AND PHOSPHATE REGENERATION IN ARTIFICIAL CUTAWAY PEATLAND LAKES Tara Higgins), with particular focus on nutrient dynamics and the potential for phosphate to be regenerated from the organic cover increasing the vulnerability of cutaway lakes to phosphate runoff (Wheeler and Shaw 1995; Higgins

McCarthy, T.K.

348

Nutrient Enhancement Peter A. Bisson, Research Fish Biologist  

E-print Network

to freshwater food webs showed that nutrients from salmon carcasses were an important contributor to aquatic to transmit fish diseases or persistent organic pollutants to streams, and to increase nutrient loading addition for salmon restoration in the Pacific Northwest. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 4

349

BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006. Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

350

Nutrition Fact Sheet A Positive Approach: Choose Nutrient-Rich  

E-print Network

Nutrition Fact Sheet A Positive Approach: Choose Nutrient-Rich Foods for the Most Nutrition What to eat or what not to eat? That's the question many of us struggle with every day. For decades nutrition and meet personal nutrition needs over a lifetime. Choosing nutrient-rich foods first is a positive

Burke, Peter

351

USDA updates nutrient values for fast food pizza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of quick service pizza has increased as Americans are spending more on food away from home. Pizza is consistently a primary Key Food in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) because it is a contributor of more than 14 nutrients of public health significance to the...

352

Original article Nutrient leaching in a cracked vertisol in Romania  

E-print Network

Original article Nutrient leaching in a cracked vertisol in Romania Cristian PALTINEANU* Academy of leaching losses of fertilizers or pesticides through soil cracks below the soil rooting depth. This could be minimized by applying irri- gation water at a low rate. swell-shrink soils / nutrient leaching

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Manure application under winter conditions: Nutrient runoff and leaching losses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses are difficult to predict. This study was conducted in order to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure based on its relative placement with respect to snow. A labo...

354

Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

Thun, Tim Von

2013-01-01

355

Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various…

Goodman, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

356

Phycoremediation: key issues for cost-effective nutrient removal processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phycoremediation applied to the removal of nutrients from animal wastewater and other high organic content wastewater is a field with a great potential and demand considering that surface and underground water bodies in several regions of the world are suffering of eutrophication. However, the development of more efficient nutrient removal algal systems requires further research in key areas. Algae growth

Eugenia J. Olgu??n

2003-01-01

357

Biotechnology of nutrient uptake and assimilation in plants.  

PubMed

Plants require a complex balance of mineral nutrients to reproduce successfully. Because the availability of many of these nutrients in the soil is compromised by several factors, such as soil pH, cation presence, and microbial activity, crop plants depend directly on nutrients applied as fertilizers to achieve high yields. However, the excessive use of fertilizers is a major environmental concern due to nutrient leaching that causes water eutrophication and promotes toxic algae blooms. This situation generates the urgent need for crop plants with increased nutrient use efficiency and better-designed fertilization schemes. The plant biology revolution triggered by the development of efficient gene transfer systems for plant cells together with the more recent development of next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing and other omics platforms have advanced considerably our understanding on the molecular basis of plant nutrition and how plants respond to nutritional stress. To date, genes encoding sensors, transcription factors, transporters, and metabolic enzymes have been identified as potential candidates to improve nutrient use efficiency. In addition, the study of other genetic resources, such as bacteria and fungi, allows the identification of alternative mechanisms of nutrient assimilation, which are potentially applicable in plants. Although significant progress in this respect has been achieved by conventional breeding, in this review we focus on the biotechnological approaches reported to date aimed at boosting the use of the three most limiting nutrients in the majority of arable lands: nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. PMID:24166442

López-Arredondo, Damar L; Leyva-González, Marco A; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2013-01-01

358

Medication-Nutrient Interactions and Individuals with Special Healthcare Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children and adults with special healthcare needs receive one or more medications on a regular basis. Parents and healthcare professionals who care for these individuals should be aware of each medication and potential interactions with foods/nutrients. Those who require long term or multiple medications are at highest risk for drug-nutrient

Brizee, Lori S.

2008-01-01

359

Porous tube plant nutrient delivery system development: A device for nutrient delivery in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery Systems or PTPNDS (U.S. Patent #4,926,585) has been under development for the past six years with the goal of providing a means for culturing plants in microgravity, specifically providing water and nutrients to the roots. Direct applications of the PTPNDS include plant space biology investigations on the Space Shuttle and plant research for life support in the Space Station Freedom. In the past, we investigated various configurations, the suitability of different porous materials, and the effects of pressure and pore size on plant growth. Current work is focused on characterizing the physical operation of the system, examining the effects of solution aeration, and developing prototype configurations for the Plant Growth Unit (PGU), the flight system for the Shuttle mid-deck. Future developments will involve testing on KC-135 parabolic flights, the design of flight hardware and testing aboard the Space Shuttle.

Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.

1994-01-01

360

Covariance in water- and nutrient budgets of Dutch peat polders: what governs nutrient retention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and nutrient budgets were constructed for 13 low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands that varied in elevation relative\\u000a to sea level (?0.2 to ?2.4 m below sea level), land use (7–70% of the total polder area covered by agriculture; largely dairy\\u000a farming), and surface water prevalence (6–43%). Water balances were verified with chloride budgets and accepted when both\\u000a met the

Jan E. Vermaat; Fritz Hellmann

2010-01-01

361

The Coupling of Solution Chemistry to Plant Nutrient Demand in an on Demand Nutrient Delivery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the proposal will be to determine the suitability of the DASI instrument in providing a signal that can be recognized and be utilized as an indicator of plant stress. The method to be utilized for evaluating stress is the presentation of an every increasing level of nutrient deficiency and salinity stress (addition of salt (NACl) or increasing concentration of balanced nutrient) while simultaneously recording spectral reflectance using the DASI instrument and monitoring the traditional processes of gas exchange and nutrient uptake parameters. In this manner, we will be able to directly compare the DASI measurements with known stresses as determined by the traditional gas exchange and nutrient uptake measures of stress. We anticipate that the DASI will provide a sensitive identifier of plant stress; recording signals of the resulting changes in plant metabolism in real time, far before any visible effects of stress could be observed. Thus, there is a potential for very early management intervention to correct a stress condition before damage could develop. The present response time for the observation of visual symptoms of plant stress is considerable and only provides an indication that a stress is present after it has been present for an extended period of time. Thus, the impact of a plant-based life support function will have already been significant. An additional benefit of this research to regenerative life support will be the characterization of a potential recovery scenario from various degrees of stress. The experimental approach to be employed includes the removal of the stress at various points in the stress gradient and the characterization of plant performance and reflectance spectra during recovery from various degrees of stress. Spectral reflectance imaging techniques have been developed and used to measure the biochemical composition of plants and relate these characteristics to the fluxes of biochemical elements within the ecosystem.

Savage, Wayne

1998-01-01

362

Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J.; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

363

Strategies for optimization of mineral nutrient transport in plants: multilevel regulation of nutrient-dependent dynamics of root architecture and transporter activity.  

PubMed

How do sessile plants cope with irregularities in soil nutrient availability? The uptake of essential minerals from the soil influences plant growth and development. However, most environments do not provide sufficient nutrients; rather nutrient distribution in the soil can be uneven and change temporally according to environmental factors. To maintain mineral nutrient homeostasis in their tissues, plants have evolved sophisticated systems for coping with spatial and temporal variability in soil nutrient concentrations. Among these are mechanisms for modulating root system architecture in response to nutrient availability. This review discusses recent advances in knowledge of the two important strategies for optimizing nutrient uptake and translocation in plants: root architecture modification and transporter expression control in response to nutrient availability. Recent studies have determined (i) nutrient-specific root patterns; (ii) their physiological consequences; and (iii) the molecular mechanisms underlying these modulation systems that operate to facilitate efficient nutrient acquisition. Another mechanism employed by plants in nutrient-heterogeneous soils involves modification of nutrient transport activities in a nutrient concentration-dependent manner. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the diverse functions of transporters for specific nutrients; it is now clear that the expression and activities of nutrient transporters are finely regulated in multiple steps at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels for adaptation to a wide range of nutrient conditions. PMID:25378690

Aibara, Izumi; Miwa, Kyoko

2014-12-01

364

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

365

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato.  

PubMed

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS. PMID:11538817

McKeehen, J D; Mitchell, C A; Wheeler, R M; Bugbee, B; Nielsen, S S

1996-01-01

366

The influence of the forest canopy on nutrient cycling.  

PubMed

Rates of key soil processes involved in recycling of nutrients in forests are governed by temperature and moisture conditions and by the chemical and physical nature of the litter. The forest canopy influences all of these factors and thus has a large influence on nutrient cycling. The increased availability of nutrients in soil in clearcuts illustrates how the canopy retains nutrients (especially N) on site, both by storing nutrients in foliage and through the steady input of available C in litter. The idea that faster decomposition is responsible for the flush of nitrate in clearcuts has not been supported by experimental evidence. Soil N availability increases in canopy gaps as small as 0.1 ha, so natural disturbances or partial harvesting practices that increase the complexity of the canopy by creating gaps will similarly increase the spatial variability in soil N cycling and availability within the forest. Canopy characteristics affect the amount and composition of leaf litter produced, which largely determines the amount of nutrients to be recycled and the resulting nutrient availability. Although effects of tree species on soil nutrient availability were thought to be brought about largely through differences in the decomposition rate of their foliar litter, recent studies indicate that the effect of tree species can be better predicted from the mass and nutrient content of litter produced, hence total nutrient return, than from litter decay rate. The greater canopy complexity in mixed species forests creates similar heterogeneity in nutritional characteristics of the forest floor. Site differences in slope position, parent material and soil texture lead to variation in species composition and productivity of forests, and thus in the nature and amount of litter produced. Through this positive feedback, the canopy accentuates inherent differences in site fertility. PMID:12414379

Prescott, Cindy E

2002-11-01

367

Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.  

PubMed

Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits - growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content - that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and nutrients will be critical for developing realistic predictions about ecological responses to multiple, simultaneous drivers of global change, including climate warming and elevated nutrient supply. PMID:25400273

Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

2015-03-01

368

The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and peas (legumes), and nuts and seeds that are prepared without added solid fats, added sugars, and sodium' as nutrient dense. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans further states that nutrient-dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few (kilo)calories or kilojoules. Finally, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been 'diluted' by the addition of energy from added solid fats, added sugars or by the solid fats naturally present in the food. However, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and other scientists have failed to clearly define 'nutrient density' or to provide criteria or indices that specify cut-offs for foods that are nutrient dense. Today, 'nutrient density' is a ubiquitous term used in the scientific literature, policy documents, marketing strategies and consumer messaging. However, the term remains ambiguous without a definitive or universal definition. Classifying or ranking foods according to their nutritional content is known as nutrient profiling. The goal of the present commentary is to address the research gaps that still exist before there can be a consensus on how best to define nutrient density, highlight the situation in the USA and relate this to wider, international efforts in nutrient profiling. PMID:25166614

Nicklas, Theresa A; Drewnowski, Adam; O'Neil, Carol E

2014-12-01

369

Nutrient transport and mixing in the Gulf Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of nutrient flux (geostrophic velocity times concentration) in five sections across the Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Current (from the Florida Straits to 35°W) is characterized by an intense core, centered at the depth of the 26.8 ?t isopycnal surface (typically 500 m). This "nutrient stream" carries nutrient transports of the order of 103 kmol s-1 of nitrate and proportional amounts of other nutrients. Between the Florida Straits and the Mid-Atlantic Bight, water transport doubles, but nutrient transport trebles, because along-isopycnal inflow from the subtropical gyre is concentrated in the layers of the upper thermocline, which are rich in nutrients. Beyond the Mid-Atlantic Bight, both water and nutrient transports decline slowly. Water mass and nutrient balances of nine isopycnal layers reveal significant upward entrainment and mixing of thermocline waters in the sector of the stream between the Florida Straits and the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A two-box model of the nutrient-depleted surface layers (?t < 26.8) and the nutrient-rich thermocline layers (26.8 < ?t < 27.5) shows an upward entrainment rate of about 1.6 m2 s-1 per unit length of the stream, or a diapycnal velocity of 2×10-5 m s-1 over the 80-km width of the stream. In addition, there is two-way diapycnal mass exchange at approximately the same rate. The rate of inflow from the surface layers of the Sargasso Sea is about 12×106 m3 s-1, from the thermocline layers 15×106 m3 s-1.

Pelegrí, J. L.; Csanady, G. T.

1991-02-01

370

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND CONTAINER VOLUME ON FLOWERING, FRUITING, AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SWEET PEPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower abortion and low fruit set has long been a problem in sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.), especially when the flowers are cross-pollinated. Restrictions of nutrient element supply and root volume affect plant vigor and size. To study the interactive effects of nutrient element supply and container volume on pepper flowering and fruiting, a complete interactive experiment (3 × 3)

Guohua Xu; S. Wolf; Uzi Kafkafi

2001-01-01

371

Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

2009-01-01

372

Evaluation of nutrient variability in highly consumed "fast foods" under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program generates means and standard errors (S.E.) of nutrients in foods from nationally representative sample sets used in dietary assessment and consumer education. However, genetic makeup, growing/shipping/storage conditions, preparation techniques, and ...

373

REGIONAL DATABASE FOR WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION, NUTRIENT-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS, AND DIAGNOSTIC INDICATORS IN SUPPORT OF NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA has published recommended nutrient criteria for streams as a starting point for protecting surface water resources and is encouraging states/tribes to refine the proposed nutrient criteria, with help from EPA's Regional offices. . . In cooperation with EPA's Office of Envir...

374

SUSPENDED AND BENTHIC SEDIMENT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON: NUTRIENT PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of nutrient loading and subsequent nutrient processing are fundamental for determining biogeochemical processes in rivers and estuaries. In Oregon coastal watersheds, nutrient transport is strongly seasonal with up to 94% of the riverine dissolved nitrate and silic...

375

Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications for  

E-print Network

Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications of Thesis: Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications Cultus Lake, British Columbia experiences significant anthropogenic nutrient loadings and eutrophication

376

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

planning in Pennsylvania. Topics addressed include soil testing, fertilizer recommendations, and nutrient. The Soil Fertility Management section provides essential background information for nutrient management requirements for agronomic crops, fertilizer materials, manure nutrient management, and manure spreader

Guiltinan, Mark

377

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

in Pennsylvania. Topics addressed include soil testing, fertilizer recommendations, and nutrient requirements Fertility Management section provides essential background information for nutrient management planning for agronomic crops, fertilizer materials, manure nutrient management, and manure spreader calibration

Guiltinan, Mark

378

A Comparison of the Role of Episode Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in Upwelling Regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrient supply is episode in the ocean even in regions of fairly high and continuous nutrient supply, such as coastal upwelling regimes. The structure of the ecosystem depends on nutrient availability and the different requirements of phytoplankton cells.

Carr, M. E.

1997-01-01

379

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014 Identification versus standard animal weights is #12;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual Facts 54 - Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act (Act 38): Who Is Affected? provides helpful

Guiltinan, Mark

380

Coping with uncertainty: Nutrient deficiencies motivate insect migration at a cost to immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Migration is often associated with movement away from areas with depleted nutrients or other resources, and yet migration itself is energetically demanding. Migrating Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) lack nutrients, and supplementation of deficient nutrients slows migrator...

381

Nutrient vectors and riparian nutrient processing in African semiarid savanna ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This review article describes vectors for nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to riparian zones in semiarid African savannas, the processing of nutrients in the riparian zone and the effect of disturbance on these processes. Semiarid savannas exhibit sharp seasonality, complex hillslope hydrology and high spatial heterogeneity, all of which ultimately impact nutrient fluxes between riparian, upland and aquatic environments. Our review shows that strong environmental drivers such as fire and herbivory enhance nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment transport to lower slope positions by shaping vegetative patterns. These vectors differ significantly from other arid and semiarid ecosystems, and from mesic ecosystems where the impact of fire and herbivory are less pronounced and less predictable. Also unique is the presence of sodic soils in certain hillslopes, which substantially alters hydrological flowpaths and may act as a trap where nitrogen is immobilized while sediment and phosphorus transport is enhanced. Nutrients and sediments are also deposited in the riparian zone during seasonal, intermittent floods while, during the dry season, subsurface movement of water from the stream into riparian soils and vegetation further enrich riparian zones with nutrients. As is found in mesic ecosystems, nutrients are immobilized in semiarid riparian corridors through microbial and plant uptake, whereas dissimilatory processes such as denitrification may be important where labile nitrogen and carbon are in adequate supply and physical conditions are suitablea??such as in seeps, wallows created by animals, ephemeral wetlands and stream edges. Interaction between temporal hydrologic connectivity and spatial heterogeneity are disrupted by disturbances such as large floods and extended droughts, which may convert certain riparian patches from sinks to sources for nitrogen and phosphorus. In the face of increasing anthropogenic pressure, the scientific challenges are to provide a basic understanding of riparian biogeochemistry in semiarid African savannas to adequately address the temporal and spatial impact of disturbances, and to apply this knowledge to better regional land and water management. An integrated, multidisciplinary approach applied in protected as well as human-disturbed ecosystems in southern Africa is essential for underpinning a strong environmental basis for sustainable human-related expansion.

Jacobs, Shayne M.; Bechtold, J.S.; Biggs, H.C.; Grimm, N. B.; McClain, M.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Perakis, Steven S.; Pinay, G.; Scholes, M.C.

2007-01-01

382

Thinning affects nutrient resorption and nutrient-use efficiency in two Pinus sylvestris stands in the Pyrenees.  

PubMed

Needle chemical composition was measured, and nutrient resorption, nutrient-use efficiency (NUE), and other indexes were estimated for 24 months in two contrasting natural Pinus sylvestris L. forests in the western Pyrenees in Spain. For each location (Aspurz, 650 m elevation, 7% slope; Garde, 1335 m elevation, 40% slope), there were three reference plots (P0), three plots with 20% of the basal area removed (P20), and three with 30% of the basal area removed (P30). Needle P, Ca, and Mg concentrations were higher in Garde, but N concentration was higher for Aspurz, without differences for K. Nutrient-resorption efficiency of P was higher in Aspurz, of Mg higher in Garde, and there were no differences between sites in N and K. Nutrient-resorption proficiency was significantly higher in the site with lower soil nutrient availability, i.e., for P, Ca, and Mg in Aspurz, but N in Garde (no differences in K); this may be an indicator of nutrient conservation strategy. Annual nutrient productivity (A) was higher for all nutrients in Aspurz, whereas the mean residence time (MRT) was higher in Garde in all nutrients but P. NUE was significantly higher in Garde for all nutrients but P, which was more efficiently used in Aspurz. In both sites, N, P, and K concentrations were higher in the 2002 cohort, Ca in the 2000 cohort, and maximum Mg was found in the 2001 cohort. Thinning caused a reduction of Mg concentration in the 2001 cohort in Aspurz, an increase of Ca resorption proficiency in Aspurz and Mg resorption at both sites, and reduction of P, K, and Mg nutrient response efficiency (NRE) in Garde. Thinning may have caused an increase of the C:Mg ratio through facilitating the development of more biosynthesis apparatus in a more illuminated canopy, but it seemed not to affect resorption in a significant way. Changes in NRE in Garde after thinning show that forest management can affect how trees use nutrients. Our results indicate that the strategy to optimize NUE is different in each stand. In Aspurz (a Mediterranean ecosystem), pine trees carried out resorption more efficiently, while in Garde (a continental forest), trees used nutrients for longer periods of time and reduced their efficiency in using the available soil nutrients after reduced competition by thinning. PMID:19425431

Blanco, Juan A; Imbert, J Bosco; Castillo, Federico J

2009-04-01

383

Enhanced nutrient removal in a modified step feed process treating municipal wastewater with different inflow distribution ratios and nutrient ratios.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale modified step feed process was proposed to enhance organics and nutrient (N and P) removal performance from municipal wastewater. It combined University of Cape Town (UCT) and step feed process. Effects of inflow distribution ratios and nutrients ratios were investigated. The highest removal efficiencies of 89% for chemical oxygen demanding (COD), 88% for total nitrogen (TN) and 93% for phosphorus were obtained, respectively, at the inflow distribution ratio of 40:30:30%. The phosphorus removal exhibited an upward trend with the increasing of influent COD/P and TN/P, and the nitrogen removal had a positive correlation with influent COD/TN. In addition, aerobic simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and anoxic denitrifying phosphorus uptake made a distinct contribution to enhance nutrient removal. The proposed system was demonstrated to be an attractive enhanced biological nutrient removal process for wastewater treatment plants due to relatively high nutrient removal, robust sludge settleability and energy savings. PMID:20650632

Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Guo, Jianhua; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Xu

2010-12-01

384

Nutrient management effects on sweetpotato genotypes under controlled environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sweetpotato is one of several crops recommended by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for bioregenerative life support studies. One of the objectives of the Tuskegee University NASA Center is to optimize growth conditions for adaptability of sweetpotatoes for closed bioregenerative systems. The role of nutrient solution management as it impacts yield has been one of the major thrusts in these studies. Nutrient solution management protocol currently used consists of a modified half Hoagland solution that is changed at 14-day intervals. Reservoirs are refilled with deionized water if the volume of the nutrient solution was reduced to 8 liters or less before the time of solution change. There is the need to recycle and replenish nutrient solution during crop growth, rather than discard at 14 day intervals as previously done, in order to reduce waste. Experiments were conducted in an environmental growth room to examine the effects of container size on the growth of several sweetpotato genotypes grown under a nutrient replenishment protocol. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15cm length and were planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Nutrient replenishment protocol consisted of daily water replenishment to a constant volume of 30.4 liters in the small containers and 273.6 liters in the large container. Nutrients were replenished as needed when the EC of the nutrient solution fell below 1200 mhos/cm. The experimental design used was a split-plot with the main plot being container size and genotypes as the subplot. Nine sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated. Results showed no effect of nutrient solution container size on storage root yield, foliage fresh and dry mass, leaf area or vine length. However, plants grown using the large nutrient solution container accumulated more storage root dry mass than those with the small containers. Although plants grown with the smaller containers showed greater water uptake, plant nutrient uptake was lower than with the larger container. All genotypes evaluated showed variation in their responses to all parameters measured.

David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Trotman, A. A.; Douglas, D. Z.

1996-01-01

385

The Mauna Loa environmental matrix: foliar and soil nutrients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in soils, available soil nutrients, and foliar nutrients in the native dominant Metrosideros polymorpha were determined across a wide elevational range on 9 lava flows on Mauna Loa, Hawai'i. The flows included a young (2800 y) a??a?? (rough surface texture) and pa??hoehoe (smooth) flow on the wet east and dry northwest side of the mountain. Soil element pools and nutrient availability increased with flow age independent of climate. The dry sites accumulated organic matter and nutrients more slowly than comparable wet sites, but relative nutrient availability to plants (as indicated by soil assays and foliar nutrients) was greater in the dry sites. Accumulation of soil organic matter and nutrients occurred most rapidly in lowerelevation sites on the young flows, but the largest accumulations occurred at higher elevations on old flows. The range of sites sampled represents a complete and largely independent matrix of major factors governing ecosystem structure and function. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Vitousek, P.M.; Aplet, G.; Turner, D.; Lockwood, J.J.

1992-01-01

386

The gastrointestinal tract as a nutrient-balancing organ  

PubMed Central

Failure to provision tissues with an appropriate balance of nutrients engenders fitness costs. Maintaining nutrient balance can be achieved by adjusting the selection and consumption of foods, but this may not be possible when the nutritional environment is limiting. Under such circumstances, rebalancing of an imbalanced nutrient intake requires post-ingestive mechanisms. The first stage at which such post-ingestive rebalancing might occur is within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), by differential release of digestive enzymes—releasing less of those enzymes for nutrients present in excess while maintaining or boosting levels of enzymes for nutrients in deficit. Here, we use an insect herbivore, the locust, to show for the first time that such compensatory responses occur within the GIT. Furthermore, we show that differential release of proteases and carbohydrases in response to nutritional state translate into differential extraction of macronutrients from host plants. The prevailing view is that physiological and structural plasticity in the GIT serves to maximize the rate of nutrient gain in relation to costs of maintaining the GIT; our findings show that GIT plasticity is integral to the maintenance of nutrient balance. PMID:20129973

Clissold, Fiona J.; Tedder, Benjamin J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Simpson, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

387

Water and nutrient acquisition by roots and canopies  

SciTech Connect

Water and nutrient supply rates, as well as internal (plant) and external (soil) deficits, can have major effects on physiological activity and growth. Effects of water or nutrient deficits on growth can be demonstrated separately, but they often interact, as shown for several Pinus species, and by Turner (1982) for Pinus radiata. Moist soil and wet canopy surfaces facilitate nutrient uptake through roots and foliage, respectively. Water uptake is affected by the number and distribution of roots in relation to the distribution of soil moisture, and by the wetness and hydraulic permeability of foliage. Nutrient uptake is similarly affected by tissue characteristics and nutrient concentration, but also depends on the moisture regime in the bulk soil and in the vicinity of absorbing surfaces. In this chapter, we discuss generalities based on results from observational studies of unmanipulated plants and of stands. We also consider information from experimental manipulation of nutrient and water availability. A more thorough treatment of the effects of mycorrhizae and anthropogenic pollution on water and nutrient acquisition is given, respectively.

Oren, R.; Sheriff, D.W.

1995-07-01

388

The micro and macro of nutrients across biological scales.  

PubMed

During the past decade, we have gained new insights into the profound effects that essential micronutrients and macronutrients have on biological processes ranging from cellular function, to whole-organism performance, to dynamics in ecological communities, as well as to the structure and function of ecosystems. For example, disparities between intake and organismal requirements for specific nutrients are known to strongly affect animal physiological performance and impose trade-offs in the allocations of resources. However, recent findings have demonstrated that life-history allocation trade-offs and even microevolutionary dynamics may often be a result of molecular-level constraints on nutrient and metabolic processing, in which limiting reactants are routed among competing biochemical pathways. In addition, recent work has shown that complex ecological interactions between organismal physiological states such as exposure to environmental stressors and infectious pathogens can alter organismal requirements for, and, processing of, nutrients, and even alter subsequent nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Furthermore, new research is showing that such interactions, coupled with evolutionary and biogeographical constraints on the biosynthesis and availability of essential nutrients and micronutrients play an important, but still under-studied role in the structuring and functioning of ecosystems. The purpose of this introduction to the symposium "The Micro and Macro of Nutrient Effects in Animal Physiology and Ecology" is to briefly review and highlight recent research that has dramatically advanced our understanding of how nutrients in their varied forms profoundly affect and shape ecological and evolutionary processes. PMID:24935988

Warne, Robin W

2014-11-01

389

Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.  

PubMed

For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

2012-10-01

390

Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants  

PubMed Central

For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

Puijalon, Sara

2012-01-01

391

Nutrient load summaries for major lakes and estuaries of the Eastern United States, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient enrichment of lakes and estuaries across the Nation is widespread. Nutrient enrichment can stimulate excessive plant and algal growth and cause a number of undesirable effects that impair aquatic life and recreational activities and can also result in economic effects. Understanding the amount of nutrients entering lakes and estuaries, the physical characteristics affecting the nutrient processing within these receiving waterbodies, and the natural and manmade sources of nutrients is fundamental to the development of effective nutrient reduction strategies. To improve this understanding, sources and stream transport of nutrients to 255 major lakes and 64 estuaries in the Eastern United States were estimated using Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) nutrient models.

Moorman, Michelle C.; Hoos, Anne B.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Moore, Richard B.; García, Ana María; Ator, Scott W.

2014-01-01

392

Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities.  

PubMed

Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature. PMID:22842011

Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

2012-11-01

393

Nutrient sources and transport along urban flowpaths to aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality of urban freshwater ecosystems is widely impaired by eutrophication, with little recent improvement and much potential for further degradation due to urban expansion and intensification. Despite the degradation of water quality in urban streams and lakes and adjacent coastal areas, relatively little is known about the relative importance of specific nutrient sources and the processes that regulate their movement across highly modified land-water interfaces. To better understand the nutrient sources and cycling that affect aquatic ecosystems, we assess nutrient movement through urban drainage networks in St. Paul, Minnesota. Nutrient concentrations and flux in stormwater at six intensively monitored sites show consistent seasonal patterns, with peaks in total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the late spring. Trees contributed to nutrient movement via litterfall and throughfall to impervious surfaces, with peaks in inputs that corresponded to stormwater nutrient patterns. Despite runoff generated primarily from impervious surfaces, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations were high, with organic N accounting for >80% of stormwater N loading. Together, these data suggested an important role for urban tree canopies in nutrient mobilization in stormwater. Base flow, present in larger storm drains and buried streams, results primarily from groundwater seepage and from outflow of surface water connected to drains. Base flow contributed significantly to nutrient export, particularly for N (33 to 68% of warm season export) but also for P (8 to 34%). Sites with upstream hydrologic connections to lakes and remnant above-ground stream reaches had higher baseflow organic carbon and P, and reduced N concentrations compared to sites dominated by groundwater. Together, these data show that the characteristics of urban vegetation and the nature of human alterations to hydrologic connections are dominant features influencing the form and amount of nutrient movement from urban landscapes to streams and lakes.

Finlay, J. C.; Janke, B.; Baker, L. A.; Hobbie, S. E.; Nidzgorski, D.; Sterner, R.; Wilson, B. N.

2012-12-01

394

Volatile anesthetics affect nutrient availability in yeast.  

PubMed Central

Volatile anesthetics affect all cells and tissues tested, but their mechanisms and sites of action remain unknown. To gain insight into the cellular activities of anesthetics, we have isolated genes that, when overexpressed, render Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistant to the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. One of these genes, WAK3/TAT1, encodes a permease that transports amino acids including leucine and tryptophan, for which our wild-type strain is auxotrophic. This suggests that availability of amino acids may play a key role in anesthetic response. Multiple lines of evidence support this proposal: (i) Deletion or overexpression of permeases that transport leucine and/or tryptophan alters anesthetic response; (ii) prototrophic strains are anesthetic resistant; (iii) altered concentrations of leucine and tryptophan in the medium affect anesthetic response; and (iv) uptake of leucine and tryptophan is inhibited during anesthetic exposure. Not all amino acids are critical for this response since we find that overexpression of the lysine permease does not affect anesthetic sensitivity. These findings are consistent with models in which anesthetics have a physiologically important effect on availability of specific amino acids by altering function of their permeases. In addition, we show that there is a relationship between nutrient availability and ubiquitin metabolism in this response. PMID:12072454

Palmer, Laura K; Wolfe, Darren; Keeley, Jessica L; Keil, Ralph L

2002-01-01

395

A predictive approach to nutrient criteria.  

PubMed

Violation of a water quality standard triggers the need for a total maximum daily load (TMDL); this should result in actions that improve water quality, but sometimes at significant cost. If the standard is well-conceived, a designated-use statement characterizes societal values, and a criterion provides a measurable surrogate for designated use. This latter provision means that scientists measure the criterion and view violations of the criterion as equivalent to noncompliance with the designated use. However, if a criterion is not a good indicator of designated use, it is apt to result in misallocation of the limited resources for water quality improvement through the TMDL process. This concern provides the basis for our assessment of the national nutrient criteria strategy recently proposed by the U.S. EPA. We acquired data sets for four case studies (Lake Washington, Neuse River Estuary, San Francisco Bay, and Lake Mendota) and then used expert elicitation to quantify designated-use attainment for each case. Applying structural equation modeling, we identified good water quality criteria as the best predictors of the designated use elicited response variable. Further, we used the model to relate the level (concentration) of each criterion to the probability of compliance with the designated use; this provides decision-makers with an estimate of risk associated with the criterion level, facilitating the selection of appropriate water quality criteria. PMID:15926533

Reckhow, K H; Arhonditsis, G B; Kenney, M A; Hauser, L; Tribo, J; Wu, C; Elcock, K J; Steinberg, L J; Stow, C A; McBride, S J

2005-05-01

396

Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

1993-01-01

397

Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Data Laboratory presents the National Nutrient Database, which has an easy-to-search interface that quickly retrieves nutritional data for every food item that contains a specific keyword. For instance, searching for "soybean" calls up a long list of food items for which soybean is an ingredient: various margarines, salad dressings, and oils; raw soybeans; steamed soybeans; roasted soybeans; and so on. The complete nutrition report for each item can then be viewed after selecting a unit of measurement (e.g., per 100 grams). The database may also be search by single nutrients, such as iron or folic acid.

398

The mycorrhizal-associated nutrient economy: a new framework for predicting carbon-nutrient couplings in temperate forests.  

PubMed

Understanding the context dependence of ecosystem responses to global changes requires the development of new conceptual frameworks. Here we propose a framework for considering how tree species and their mycorrhizal associates differentially couple carbon (C) and nutrient cycles in temperate forests. Given that tree species predominantly associate with a single type of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi), and that the two types of fungi differ in their modes of nutrient acquisition, we hypothesize that the abundance of AM and ECM trees in a plot, stand, or region may provide an integrated index of biogeochemical transformations relevant to C cycling and nutrient retention. First, we describe how forest plots dominated by AM tree species have nutrient economies that differ in their C-nutrient couplings from those in plots dominated by ECM trees. Secondly, we demonstrate how the relative abundance of AM and ECM trees can be used to estimate nutrient dynamics across the landscape. Finally, we describe how our framework can be used to generate testable hypotheses about forest responses to global change factors, and how these dynamics can be used to develop better representations of plant-soil feedbacks and nutrient constraints on productivity in ecosystem and earth system models. PMID:23713553

Phillips, Richard P; Brzostek, Edward; Midgley, Meghan G

2013-07-01

399

Response to fertilization by various plant growth forms in an Alaskan tundra: nutrient accumulation and growth  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization responses of six tundra species belonging to three plant growth forms were compared to test the hypothesis that species of the same plant growth form are more similar to one another than to other growth forms in their response to a controlled perturbation. The controlled perturbation was a complete factorial NPK fertilization experiment in tussock tundra at Eagle Creek, Alaska, USA. We compared deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and functionally deciduous graminoids in terms of mineral and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations, and annual production per stem or tiller.

Shaver, G.R. (San Diego State Univ., CA); Chapin, F.S. III

1980-06-01

400

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

401

A Nutrient Combination that Can Affect Synapse Formation  

E-print Network

Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients—uridine, the omega-3 ...

Wurtman, Richard Jay

402

Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras  

E-print Network

Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...

Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)

2006-01-01

403

9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... 317.363 Section 317.363 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.363 Nutrient...

2011-01-01

404

9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... 381.463 Section 381.463 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.463 Nutrient...

2011-01-01

405

9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... 381.463 Section 381.463 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.463 Nutrient...

2010-01-01

406

9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... 317.363 Section 317.363 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.363 Nutrient...

2010-01-01

407

ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE BOUND NUTRIENTS IN URBAN STORMWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrients are important players in the degradation of waterbodies because they are often the elements that limit primary productivity and, hence, are the key factors controlling eutrophication. Eutrophication causes unsightly algal blooms leading to oxygen depletion, stress on o...

408

[Spatial variability of farmland soil nutrients at Taihang piedmont].  

PubMed

By the method of geostatistics, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil nutrients in 30,490 hm2 crop field in Luancheng region and in 15 hm2 experimental field in Luancheng Ecological Agriculture Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the variation of soil nutrient contents differed obviously, and the semivariograms could be simulated by Gaussian and spherical models with some nugget variances. The limit distance of spatial correlation was 4.2-15.6 km and 112-223 m in Luancheng region and in experimental field, respectively, and the spatial variability of soil organic matter, N, P and K was of semivariance structure. It revealed that there existed a spatial correlation in soil nutrient contents under relatively large-block scale, which made it possible to develop regionalized soil nutrient precision management. PMID:15707311

Zhang, Yuming; Mao, Renzhao; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhu, Anning

2004-11-01

409

COMPOST INFORMATION SHEET MSU SOIL & PLANT NUTRIENT LABORATORY  

E-print Network

COMPOST INFORMATION SHEET MSU SOIL & PLANT NUTRIENT LABORATORY 1066 BOGUE ST. ROOM A81 EAST LANSING _______________________________________________________________________ SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION:___________________________ COUNTY: ________________ COMPOST TYPE: LEAF COMPOST MSW COMPOST MANURE COMPOST OTHER: (specify) ____________________________________________________ TEST

Isaacs, Rufus

410

Ecological Patterns and Comparative Nutrient Dynamics of Natural and Agricultural  

E-print Network

Ecological Patterns and Comparative Nutrient Dynamics of Natural and Agricultural Mediterranean agricultural activities and animal husbandry. The behavior of nitrogen and phosphorus showed remarkable of environmental protection has grown and formed an incentive for research towards the reduction of soil

Arhonditsis, George B.

411

Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation  

E-print Network

Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in the manufacture of poly- carbonate

Mayfield, John

412

Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes  

E-print Network

Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes Gary G. Meadows # Springer the mechanisms under- lying antimetastatic activity of some phytochemicals are being delineated, the impact of diet, dietary components, and various phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes is underexplored

Collins, Gary S.

413

The Effects of Nutrient Dynamics on Root Patch Choice  

PubMed Central

Plants have been recognized to be capable of allocating more roots to rich patches in the soil. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to their sensitivity to absolute differences in nutrient availability, plants are also responsive to temporal changes in nutrient availability. Different roots of the same Pisum sativum plants were subjected to variable homogeneous and heterogeneous temporally – dynamic and static nutrient regimes. When given a choice, plants not only developed greater root biomasses in richer patches; they discriminately allocated more resources to roots that developed in patches with increasing nutrient levels, even when their other roots developed in richer patches. These results suggest that plants are able to perceive and respond to dynamic environmental changes. This ability might enable plants to increase their performance by responding to both current and anticipated resource availabilities in their immediate proximity. PMID:20520811

Gersani, Mordechai; Ovadia, Ofer; Novoplansky, Ariel

2010-01-01

414

NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF ALGAE AT LAKE EUCHA, OKLAHOMA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Eucha has come into sharp legal, political, and environmental focus because of a settlement agreement between the municipal drinking water supply (plaintiffs) and several poultry integrators and one municipal wastewater treatment plant (defendants). We determined the limiting nutrient (nitroge...

415

Tillage effect on early growth and nutrient accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage is widely used in cotton production (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A review of the literature suggests optimizing production with conservation tillage management may require some modifications to nutrient management programs. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur are the four nu...

416

Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed  

SciTech Connect

Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

2000-04-01

417

Molecular Targets For Nutrients In Prostate Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Science Research Group RFA CA-04-004: Molecular Targets For Nutrients In Prostate Cancer Prevention Principal Investigator and Organization Title of Project Bray, TammyOregon State University Diet, Endocrine-Immune Interactions & Prostate

418

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

PubMed

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light. PMID:24670649

Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

2014-04-24

419

Marsh Soil Responses to Nutrients: Belowground Structural and Organic Properties.  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal marsh responses to nutrient enrichment apparently depend upon soil matrix and whether the system is primarily biogenic or minerogenic. Deteriorating organic rich marshes (Jamaica Bay, NY) receiving wastewater effluent had lower belowground biomass, organic matter, and soi...

420

Marsh Soil Responses to Nutrients: Belowground Structural and Organic Properties  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal marsh responses to nutrient enrichment apparently depend upon soil matrix and whether the system is primarily biogenic or minerogenic. Deteriorating organic rich marshes (Jamaica Bay, NY) receiving wastewater effluent had lower belowground biomass, organic matter, and soi...

421

Upper Mississippi Basin Loading Database (Sediment and Nutrients): Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) provides this updated database on sediments and nutrients of the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Included in the database are maps (Shape) showing the locations of monitoring stations; figures displaying rates of Nitrogen/ Phosphorus loadings and yields; and sediment and nutrient data by sub-area (ascii, .xls, Lotus). In addition, background information is provided on the monitoring sites.

422

Selection of Optimal Auxiliary Soil Nutrient Variables for Cokriging Interpolation  

PubMed Central

In order to explore the selection of the best auxiliary variables (BAVs) when using the Cokriging method for soil attribute interpolation, this paper investigated the selection of BAVs from terrain parameters, soil trace elements, and soil nutrient attributes when applying Cokriging interpolation to soil nutrients (organic matter, total N, available P, and available K). In total, 670 soil samples were collected in Fuyang, and the nutrient and trace element attributes of the soil samples were determined. Based on the spatial autocorrelation of soil attributes, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for Fuyang was combined to explore the coordinate relationship among terrain parameters, trace elements, and soil nutrient attributes. Variables with a high correlation to soil nutrient attributes were selected as BAVs for Cokriging interpolation of soil nutrients, and variables with poor correlation were selected as poor auxiliary variables (PAVs). The results of Cokriging interpolations using BAVs and PAVs were then compared. The results indicated that Cokriging interpolation with BAVs yielded more accurate results than Cokriging interpolation with PAVs (the mean absolute error of BAV interpolation results for organic matter, total N, available P, and available K were 0.020, 0.002, 7.616, and 12.4702, respectively, and the mean absolute error of PAV interpolation results were 0.052, 0.037, 15.619, and 0.037, respectively). The results indicated that Cokriging interpolation with BAVs can significantly improve the accuracy of Cokriging interpolation for soil nutrient attributes. This study provides meaningful guidance and reference for the selection of auxiliary parameters for the application of Cokriging interpolation to soil nutrient attributes. PMID:24927129

Song, Genxin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ke

2014-01-01

423

Inventory of nutrient compounds in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient species were analyzed from samples collected in the Yellow Sea in May 1998, including NO3?, NO2?, NH4+, PO43?, SiO32?, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), particulate phosphorus, etc. The exchange fluxes of nutrients across the sediment\\/water interface were determined by incubation of sediment on board the ship. The concentrations of N, P and Si compounds

S. M Liu; J Zhang; S. Z Chen; H. T Chen; G. H Hong; H Wei; Q. M Wu

2003-01-01

424

Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species. PMID:17913725

Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

2007-01-01

425

Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quantify the required reduction of nutrient input.<\\/TT>To investigate the effects of nutrient loading on the receiving water,

R. Portielje

1994-01-01

426

Root sprouting in Rumex acetosella under different nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Rumex acetosella, a root sprouting plant, was studied in a pot experiment. Each plant of R. acetosella consisted of two ramets which were interconnected by a root about 9 cm long. One of the ramets was placed in a compartment with nutrient-rich soil, the other with nutrient-poor soil. The root connection between the ramets either remained intact or was

Leoš Klimeš; Jitka Klimešová

1999-01-01

427

Nutrient profiling systems: are science and the consumer connected?  

PubMed

The other articles in this supplement to the Journal presented the science behind 4 nutrient profiling systems currently available in the US marketplace that cross manufacturers and apply to multiple food categories and have considered their value as tools to promote positive behavior change in American consumers. This article discusses these nutrient profiling systems in terms of the consumer's understanding of science, familiarity with label messaging, and potential to facilitate healthy food decisions. PMID:20130096

Gerrior, Shirley A

2010-04-01

428

Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of

Claude E. Boyd

1970-01-01

429

Groundwater - the underestimated component in lake nutrient balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is one of the most important threats to lakes in temperate climatic zones. It is necessary to determine the relevance of different nutrient sources to conduct effective management measures, to understand in-lake processes and to model future scenarios. A prerequisite for nutrient balances are water balances. Surface inflows from streams, rivers and ditches can be precisely quantified and based on local weather data precipitation and evaporation can be calculated. Quantifications of groundwater infiltration and exfiltration are more difficult. Often they are determined as residual in the water balance equation or estimated based on groundwater flow models. For nutrient balances some additional input paths have to be taken into account, for example, dry deposition, waterfowl, swimmer and anglers. Furthermore, concentration fluctuations of the different inflows have to be considered. The determination of nutrient imports via the groundwater paths is quite complex and often disregarded in nutrient balances or based on dubious assumptions. Nevertheless, groundwater might be an important nutrient source in several lakes. There are three major reasons for neglecting the groundwater path: (1) The groundwater-lake interface is difficult to access, especially in deeper lakes. (2) The size of the interface gives much space for spatial heterogeneity and requires an enormous amount of measurements for reliable determinations. (3) The lake sediment is a reactive interface, i. e., there might be some processing of the nutrients at the immediate groundwater-lake interface. In the present study we suggest a combined approach of localization of major water infiltration zones with distributed temperature sensing, quantification of water infiltration at some locations based on temperature gradients at the groundwater-lake interface and determination of nutrient concentrations with seepage meters at the same locations.

Lewandowski, Joerg; Nuetzmann, Gunnar

2010-05-01

430

Biochemical Markers and Nutrient Constraints Diagnosis in Citrus: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral deficiencies are well-established causal factor(s) for sub-optimum production in citrus. Identifying nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf\\/soil analysis is often misleading, especially with reference to remediating the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The task becomes further confounded by other co-factors under the conditions favoring the occurrence of multi-nutrient deficiency. Important biochemical markers for

A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

2006-01-01

431

Grazers, producer stoichiometry, and the light: nutrient hypothesis revisited  

E-print Network

model approach to plankton stoichiometry and consumer-resource stability. Freshwater Biology 38:447–472. Hessen, D. O., P. J. Færøvig, and T. Andersen. 2002. Light, nutrients, and P:C ratios in algae: grazer performance related to food quality.... This natural emphasis reflects evidence that decreasing light supply can increase the nutrient content of algal cells grown in grazer-free, single species laboratory cultures (Healey 1985, Urabe and Sterner 1996, Hessen et al. 2002), and phytoplankton...

Hall, Spencer R.; Leibold, Mathew A.; Lytle, David A.; Smith, Val H.

2007-05-01

432

Grazers, producer stoichiometry, and the light?: nutrient hypothesis revisited.  

E-print Network

model approach to plankton stoichiometry and consumer-resource stability. Freshwater Biology 38:447–472. Hessen, D. O., P. J. Færøvig, and T. Andersen. 2002. Light, nutrients, and P:C ratios in algae: grazer performance related to food quality.... This natural emphasis reflects evidence that decreasing light supply can increase the nutrient content of algal cells grown in grazer-free, single species laboratory cultures (Healey 1985, Urabe and Sterner 1996, Hessen et al. 2002), and phytoplankton...

Hall, Spencer R.; Leibold, Mathew A.; Lytle, David A.; Smith, Val H.

2007-01-01

433

Changes in phytoplankton communities along nutrient gradients in Lake Taihu: evidence for nutrient reduction strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An annual investigation on phytoplankton communities was conducted to reveal the effects of nutrients on phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Taihu, East China. A total of 78 phytoplankton taxa were identified. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the northern part of the lake than in the southern part. Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta alternated dominance in the northern area, where algal blooms often appear, and co-dominated in the southern area. In the northern part, the proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta varied significantly in total biovolume, both along the phosphorus (P) gradient, and between total nitrogen levels (?3 mg/L and >3 mg/L TN). The proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta had no significant variations in total biovolume along P and N (nitrogen) gradients in the southern part. Correlation analysis and CCA results revealed that P was the key factor regulating phytoplankton community structure. Nitrogen was also important for the phytoplankton distribution pattern. It was concluded that nutrient structure was heterogeneous in space and shaped the distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lake. Both exogenous P and internally sourced P release needs to be considered. N reduction should be considered simultaneously with P control to efficiently reduce eutrophication and algal blooms.

Ai, Ying; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

2014-11-01

434

Changes in phytoplankton communities along nutrient gradients in Lake Taihu: evidence for nutrient reduction strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An annual investigation on phytoplankton communities was conducted to reveal the effects of nutrients on phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Taihu, East China. A total of 78 phytoplankton taxa were identified. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the northern part of the lake than in the southern part. Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta alternated dominance in the northern area, where algal blooms often appear, and co-dominated in the southern area. In the northern part, the proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta varied significantly in total biovolume, both along the phosphorus (P) gradient, and between total nitrogen levels (?3 mg/L and >3 mg/L TN). The proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta had no significant variations in total biovolume along P and N (nitrogen) gradients in the southern part. Correlation analysis and CCA results revealed that P was the key factor regulating phytoplankton community structure. Nitrogen was also important for the phytoplankton distribution pattern. It was concluded that nutrient structure was heterogeneous in space and shaped the distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lake. Both exogenous P and internally sourced P release needs to be considered. N reduction should be considered simultaneously with P control to efficiently reduce eutrophication and algal blooms.

Ai, Ying; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

2015-03-01

435

Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions  

PubMed Central

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

2013-01-01

436

Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

2010-01-01

437

Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research.  

PubMed

Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the maintenance of nutrient quality which is fundamental to ensure nutrient security for world populations. Modeling how these systems function requires data from different sectors including agricultural, environmental, social, and economic, but also must incorporate basic nutrition and other biomedical sciences. Improving the agri-food system through advances in pre- and post-harvest processing methods, biofortification, or fortifying processed foods will aid in targeting nutrition for populations and individuals. The challenge to maintain and improve nutrient quality is magnified by the need to produce food locally and globally in a sustainable and consumer-acceptable manner for current and future populations. An unmet requirement for assessing how to improve nutrient quality, however, is the basic knowledge of how to define health. That is, health cannot be maintained or improved by altering nutrient quality without an adequate definition of what health means for individuals and populations. Defining and measuring health therefore becomes a critical objective for basic nutritional and other biomedical sciences. PMID:25876838

Kaput, Jim; Kussmann, Martin; Mendoza, Yery; Le Coutre, Ronit; Cooper, Karen; Roulin, Anne

2015-05-01

438

Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation and completion of a standardized weight loss regimen in dogs. Results Dogs remained healthy throughout the study, and no signs attributable to nutrient deficiency were noted. Percentage weight loss was 28.3% (16.0-40.1%) starting body weight, over a period of 250 days (91–674 days). Median energy intake during the weight loss period was 62 (44 to 74) Kcal/kg0.75 target weight per day. Choline (P?=?0.046) and threonine (P?=?0.02) decreased after weight loss. Glycine (P?=?0.041), and urinary selenium:creatinine ratio (P?=?0.006) both increased after weight loss. There were no other significant differences in plasma nutrient concentrations. Conclusions Since concentrations of most measured nutrients did not change significantly, the data are not consistent with widespread nutrient deficiency in dogs undergoing caloric restriction using a diet formulated for weight loss. However, the significance of the decrease in plasma choline concentration requires further assessment. PMID:24156605

2013-01-01

439

Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few non-scientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

Barbara E. Goodman (Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2010-06-01

440

Putting the nutrient-rich foods index into practice.  

PubMed

With approximately 2 out of 3 Americans currently overweight or obese, many continue to come up short on recommendations for certain nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and fiber in their diet. Numerous attempts have been made to provide consumers with nutrient-profiling tools, such as manufacturer-specific symbols, to improve dietary selections, but many of the tools have focused on assisting consumers in making single food selections and do not provide guidance about planning total diets. In response to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's recommendation for research to define nutrient density, the Nutrient Rich Foods Coalition (NRFC) embarked on the development of a scientifically valid definition of nutrient density and consumer-driven educational tools to communicate the concept of nutrient-rich foods (NRF) to consumers. The science-based, consumer-driven NRF approach to eating may help Americans make multiple small changes in their diet that ultimately lead to better diet quality and significant improvements in public health. PMID:20368383

Mobley, Amy R; Kraemer, Dan; Nicholls, Jill

2009-08-01

441

Tracing anthropogenic nutrient inputs into Cape Cod coastal plain ponds using stable isotopes, nutrient analysis, and water budget modeling  

E-print Network

concentrations in incoming groundwater through field wellpoint surveys, colorimetric nutrient analysis concentrations and high 15 N values in their incoming groundwater. These values generally decreased for larger contributing areas. Keywords: Coastal plain ponds, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, groundwater

Vallino, Joseph J.

442

NUTRIENT FLOWS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: ECOLOGICAL AND POLICY ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of environmental and ecological impacts of nutrient flows within and between countries by reviewing and presenting data on nutrient balances and global nutrient movements. The results for nutrient depletion in agricultural soils during 1996-1999 show that in most countries in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean rates of depletion are so high that current

Eric T. Craswell; Ulrike Grote; Julio Henao; Paul L. G. Vlek

2004-01-01

443

A universal nutrient application strategy for the bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high tide line and we simulated numerically beach hydraulics, which allowed us to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. Our

Hailong Li; Qinghong Zhao; Michel C. Boufadel; Albert D. Venosa

2007-01-01

444

Adaptive management and the USDA-NRCS Nutrient Management (590) conservation practice standard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the USDA-NRCS Nutrient Management (590) conservation practice standard is to budget and supply nutrients for plant production, to properly utilize organic amendments as plant nutrient sources, to minimize pollution from application of nutrients, and to maintain or improve the conditio...

445

Effects of Herbivore Damage and Nutrient Level on Induction of Iridoid Glycosides in Plantago lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage by larvae of the buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) resulted in removal of 15–25% of Plantago lanceolata leaf area. Plants grown under high nutrients were larger than those grown under low nutrients. Twenty-eight days after herbivory, plants grown under high nutrients were still larger than those grown under low nutrients, and plants exposed to herbivores were significantly smaller than those

Karolyn Darrow; M. Deane Bowers

1999-01-01

446

Temporal Asynchrony in Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Plant Production in a Semiarid Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central goal of ecosystem ecology is to understand how the cycling of nutrients and the growth of organisms are linked. Ecologists have repeatedly observed that nutrient mineralization and plant production are closely coupled in time in many terrestrial ecosystems. Typically, mineralization rates of limiting nutrients, particularly of nitrogen, during the growing season determine nutrient availability while pools of mineral

David J. Augustine; Samuel J. McNaughton

2004-01-01

447

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

448

Light, nutrients, and herbivore growth in oligotrophic streams  

SciTech Connect

The light : nutrient hypothesis posits that herbivore growth is increasingly constrained by low food quality as the ratio of light to nutrients increases in aquatic ecosystems. We tested predictions of this hypothesis by examining the effects of large seasonal cycles in light and nutrients on the mineral content of periphyton and the growth rate of a dominant herbivore (the snail Elimia clavaeformis) in two oligotrophic streams. Streambed irradiances in White Oak Creek and Walker Branch (eastern Tennessee, USA) varied dramatically on a seasonal basis due to leaf phenology in the surrounding deciduous forests and seasonal changes in sun angle. Concentrations of dissolved nutrients varied inversely with light, causing light : nitrate and light : phosphate to range almost 100-fold over the course of any individual year. Periphyton nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were much lower than the concentrations of these elements in snails, and they bottomed out in early spring when streambed irradiances were highest. Snail growth, however, peaked in early spring when light:nutrient ratios were highest and periphyton nutrient concentrations were lowest, Growth was linearly related to primary production (accounting for up to 85% of growth variance in individual years), which in turn was driven by seasonal variation in light. Conceptual models of herbivore growth indicate that growth should initially increase as increasing light levels stimulate primary production, but then level off, and then decrease as the negative effects of decreasing algal nutrient content override the positive effects of increased food production. Our results showed no evidence of an inflection point where increasing ratios of light to nutrients negatively affected growth. Snail growth in these intensively grazed streams is probably unaffected by periphyton nutrient content because exploitative competition for food reduces growth rates to levels where the demand for nitrogen and phosphorus is small enough to be satisfied by even low levels of these nutrients in periphyton. Competition for limited food resources in habitats where herbivore densities are uncontrolled by predation or other mortality factors should strongly influence the potential for herbivores to be limited by mineral deficits in their food

Hill, Walter R [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2010-02-01

449

Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.  

PubMed

Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. PMID:25700914

Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

2015-03-01

450

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENT LOADING, NUTRIENT RETENTION AND NET ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM IN THREE TIDAL RIVER ESTUARIES DIFFERING PREDOMINATELY BY THEIR WATERSHED LAND USE TYPES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract and oral presentation for the Estuarine Research Federation Conference. Estuarine retention of watershed nutrient loads, system-wide nutrient biogeochemical fluxes, and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) were determined in three estuaries exhibiting differing magnitud...

451

Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.  

PubMed

Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

2014-02-01

452

Reducing future nutrient inputs to the Black Sea.  

PubMed

Rivers export increasing amounts of dissolved inorganic (DIN, DIP) and organic (DON, DOP) nitrogen and phosphorus to the Black Sea causing coastal eutrophication. The aim of this study is to explore future trends in river export of these nutrients to the sea through a sensitivity analysis. We used the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to this end. We calculated that between 2000 and 2050 nutrient inputs to the Black Sea may increase or decrease, depending on the assumed environmental management. We analyzed the effects of agricultural and sewage management on nutrient inputs to the sea in 2050 relative to two Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios, Global Orchestration (GO) and Adaptive Mosaic (AM). In these baselines, total N and P inputs to the Black Sea decrease between 2000 and 2050, but not for all rivers and nutrient forms. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce nutrient inputs to the sea further between 2000 and 2050 in particular for dissolved inorganic N and P and for many river basins, but not for all. For scenarios assuming combined agricultural and sewage management dissolved inorganic N and P inputs to the Black Sea are reduced by up to two-thirds between 2000 and 2050 and dissolved organic N and P inputs by one-third. River export of DIN is mainly affected by agricultural management and that of DIP by sewage management. On the other hand, in scenarios assuming increased fertilizer use for, for instance bioenergy crops, nutrient inputs to the sea increase. An increase in DIP inputs by southern rivers seems difficult to avoid because of the increasing number of people connected to sewage systems. PMID:23906857

Strokal, Maryna Petrivna; Kroeze, Carolien; Kopilevych, Volodymyr Abramovych; Voytenko, Larysa Vladyslavivna

2014-01-01

453

Nutrient transport through a Vegetative Filter Strip with subsurface drainage.  

PubMed

The transport of nutrients and soil sediments in runoff has been recognized as a noteworthy environmental issue. Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as one of the best management practices (BMPs) for retaining nutrients and sediments from surface runoff, thus preventing the pollutants from reaching receiving waters. However, the effectiveness of a VFS when combined with a subsurface drainage system has not been investigated previously. This study was undertaken to monitor the retention and transport of nutrients within a VFS that had a subsurface drainage system installed at a depth of 1.2 m below the soil surface. Nutrient concentrations of NO(3)-N (Nitrate Nitrogen), PO(-)(4) (Orthophosphorus), and TP (Total Phosphorus) were measured in surface water samples (entering and leaving the VFS), and subsurface outflow. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for plant available Phosphorus (Bray P1) and NO(3)-N concentrations. Results showed that PO(-)(4), NO(3)-N, and TP concentrations decreased in surface flow through the VFS. Many surface outflow water samples from the VFS showed concentration reductions of as much as 75% for PO(-)(4) and 70% for TP. For subsurface outflow water samples through the drainage system, concentrations of PO(-)(4) and TP decreased but NO(3)-N concentrations increased in comparison to concentrations in surface inflow samples. Soil samples that were collected from various depths in the VFS showed a minimal buildup of nutrients in the top soil profile but indicated a gradual buildup of nutrients at the depth of the subsurface drain. Results demonstrate that although a VFS can be very effective in reducing runoff and nutrients from surface flow, the presence of a subsurface drain underneath the VFS may not be environmentally beneficial. Such a combination may increase NO(3)-N transport from the VFS, thus invalidating the purpose of the BMP. PMID:19171414

Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar; Patel, Mita Kanu

2009-04-01

454

Reduction of mineral nutrient availability accelerates flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The time of flowering is regulated by various environmental cues, and in some plant species, it is known to be affected by abiotic stresses. We investigated the effect of nutrient stress caused by an abrupt reduction of mineral nutrition on flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana. We used a hydroponic culture system that enabled us to precisely control nutrient levels. When plants were grown in full-strength nutrient solution for several weeks and then transferred to a diluted medium, the time from sowing to bud appearance was significantly shortened. This acceleration of flowering was more pronounced in short days than in long days, and stronger in the ecotype Landsberg erecta than in Columbia and San Feliu-2. The response was also affected by the age of plants at the beginning of nutrient stress and by the concentration of the diluted medium: earlier treatment and more diluted solutions strengthened the effect. Flowering was affected by nutrient stress, not by a change in the osmotic potential of the medium: addition of mannitol to a 1000-fold diluted solution had no effect on the promotion of flowering. When 3-week-old Landsberg erecta plants were exposed to 1000-fold diluted nutrient solution in an 8-h day length, flower bud appearance was strongly and reproducibly advanced by 10.8-12.8d compared with control plants (which developed buds 41.1-46.2d after sowing). This treatment can serve as an optimized protocol for future studies concerning physiological, molecular and ecological aspects of flower induction by nutrient stress in A. thaliana. PMID:18308426

Kolár, Jan; Senková, Jana

2008-10-01

455

Sleep Symptoms Associated with Intake of Specific Dietary Nutrients  

PubMed Central

Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

2013-01-01

456

Soil Nutrient Assessment for Urban Ecosystems in Hubei, China  

PubMed Central

Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142–425 m a.s.l], hilly [66–112 m a.s.l], and plain [26–30 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers. PMID:24086647

Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Zhang, Run-hua; Chen, Fang

2013-01-01

457

Nutrient management is the correct placement of the correct amount of nutrients in the soil at the right time and in the right form. Nutrient management should  

E-print Network

. If you are receiving state or federal agricultural cost share funds. If your animal waste is regulated and Water Conservation (DSWC), the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA or animal waste. For many applications in North Carolina, nutrient management must meet the standards set

458

Nutrient management is the correct placement of the correct amount of nutrients in the soil at the right time and in the right form. Nutrient management should  

E-print Network

. If the producer is receiving state or federal agricultural cost-share funds. If the animal waste is regulated (NCDENR)--Division of Soil and Water Conservation (DSWC), state Department of Agriculture and Consumer or animal waste. For many applications in North Carolina, nutrient management must meet the standards set

459

Plants may alter competition by modifying nutrient bioavailability in rhizosphere: a modeling approach.  

PubMed

Plants modify nutrient availability by releasing chemicals in the rhizosphere. This change in availability induced by roots (bioavailability) is known to improve nutrient uptake by individual plants releasing such compounds. Can this bioavailability alter plant competition for nutrients and under what conditions? To address these questions, we have developed a model of nutrient competition between plant species based on mechanistic descriptions of nutrient diffusion, plant exudation, and plant uptake. The model was parameterized using data of the effects of root citrate exudation on phosphorus availability. We performed a sensitivity analysis for key parameters to test the generality of these effects. Our simulations suggest the following. (1) Nutrient uptake depends on the number of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse little, because individual roots are nearly independent in terms of nutrient supply. In this case, bioavailability profits only species with exudates. (2) Competition for nutrients depends on the spatial arrangement of roots when nutrients diffuse little but exudates diffuse widely. (3) Competition for nutrients depends on the nutrient uptake capacity of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse widely. In this case, bioavailability profits all species. Mechanisms controlling competition for bioavailable nutrients appear to be diverse and strongly depend on soil, nutrient, and plant properties. PMID:18171150

Raynaud, Xavier; Jaillard, Benoît; Leadley, Paul W

2008-01-01

460

The effect of the nutrient intensity and buffering power of a soil, and the absorbing power, size and root hairs of a root, on nutrient absorption by diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A portion of a single plant root is treated as an absorbing cylindrical sink to which nutrients move by diffusion. Assuming that the rate of uptake of nutrient is proportional to its concentration at the root surface, and that the nutrient, though reacting with the solid, moves only through the soil solution, standard diffusion equations are used to calculate

P. H. Nye

1966-01-01

461

Critical source times for nutrient loss in agricultural catchment streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying periods of the year when there is a high risk of incidental nutrient loss from farms via runoff to streams underpins current nutrient management legislation in Europe. This research explored high-temporal resolution nutrient transfer patterns relative to the time that manure and fertiliser are prohibited from being spread (the mandatory spreading 'closed' period) in five Irish agricultural catchments. Catchment nutrient losses during the 12 week closed periods in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 were compared with losses during the remainder of the year, and with losses in the two week 'shoulder' periods immediately before and after the closed period. The closed period losses were assumed to be residual from soil nutrient stores and the 'shoulder' periods were considered to also include incidental losses. Nutrient loss was measured at sub-hourly frequency as total phosphorus (P) and total oxidised nitrogen (mostly nitrate-N) fluxes in streamflow. The streamflow fluxes showed that the proportion of the annual nitrate-N loss occurring during the closed periods (33-61%) was high compared with the remainder of the year. Six to ten times more nitrate-N loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These two week 'shoulder' period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 2.5 kg nitrate-N/ha and 9% of total annual nitrate-N loss in streamflow. On average, 40-53% of the annual P loss occurred during the closed periods but in a runoff-prone catchment in a year with a wet summer, the closed period was the less risky period. Similar to nitrate-N, two to twenty times more P loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These shoulder period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 0.027 kg/ha and 4.2% of total annual P loss in streamflow. The proportion of the shoulder period loss that could be attributed to recently spread nutrients was not known but can be informed by farm practice and nutrient flow pathways analysis. Losses after the closed period, especially P, could include a significant contribution from eroded soil, which would not be prevented by extending the spreading closed period. Policy proposals to extend the mandatory closed period should consider the long term potential for nutrient runoff and plant growth conditions during the 'shoulder' periods, infrastructure costs of further storage requirements, production costs of restricting critical farm operations during the shoulders and unintended environmental costs such as shifting farm activities towards periods when water bodies are more susceptible to eutrophication.

Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger; Murphy, Paul; Jordan, Phil

2014-05-01

462

Parallel Exploitation of Diverse Host Nutrients Enhances Salmonella Virulence  

PubMed Central

Pathogen access to host nutrients in infected tissues is fundamental for pathogen growth and virulence, disease progression, and infection control. However, our understanding of this crucial process is still rather limited because of experimental and conceptual challenges. Here, we used proteomics, microbial genetics, competitive infections, and computational approaches to obtain a comprehensive overview of Salmonella nutrition and growth in a mouse typhoid fever model. The data revealed that Salmonella accessed an unexpectedly diverse set of at least 31 different host nutrients in infected tissues but the individual nutrients were available in only scarce amounts. Salmonella adapted to this situation by expressing versatile catabolic pathways to simultaneously exploit multiple host nutrients. A genome-scale computational model of Salmonella in vivo metabolism based on these data was fully consistent with independent large-scale experimental data on Salmonella enzyme quantities, and correctly predicted 92% of 738 reported experimental mutant virulence phenotypes, suggesting that our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of host nutrient supply, Salmonella metabolism, and Salmonella growth during infection. Comparison of metabolic networks of other pathogens suggested that complex host/pathogen nutritional interfaces are a common feature underlying many infectious diseases. PMID:23633950

Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A.; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Mazé, Alain; Bumann, Dirk

2013-01-01

463

[Nutrients in atmospheric wet deposition in the East China Sea].  

PubMed

92 rainwater samples were collected at Shengsi Archipelago from January 2008 to December 2009. The pH and the concentrations of nutrients (NH4(+), NO3(-) + NO2(-), PO4(3-), SiO3(2-)) were analyzed using spectrophotometry to understand the impacts of the atmospheric wet deposition on the ecosystem of the East China Sea. The results showed that the pH of 85% samples were less than 5.0, and had significant effect on the environment. There were significant differences among monthly average concentrations of nutrients and rainfall and seasonal average wet deposition of nutrients in investigation periods. The annual average wet deposition flux was 52.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for DIN, 0.08 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for PO4(3-), 2.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for SiO3(2-). The average molar ratios of NO3(-)/NH4(+) is 0.73, N: P ratio is 684: 1, indicating that nutrients composition in rainwater was different from seawater of the East China Sea Shelf (10-150). The wet deposition may change the nutrients structure, pH and lead to change the phytoplankton production in the surface seawater of the East China Sea, even lead to the red tide. PMID:22165245

Zhu, Yu-Mei; Liu, Su-Mei

2011-09-01

464

The imprint of crop choice on global nutrient needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions to meet growing food requirements in a world of limited suitable land and degrading environment focus mainly on increasing crop yields, particularly in poorly performing regions, and reducing animal product consumption. Increasing yields could alleviate land requirements, but imposing higher soil nutrient withdrawals and in most cases larger fertilizer inputs. Lowering animal product consumption favors a more efficient use of land as well as soil and fertilizer nutrients; yet actual saving may largely depend on which crops and how much fertilizer are used to feed livestock versus people. We show, with a global analysis, how the choice of cultivated plant species used to feed people and livestock influences global food production as well as soil nutrient withdrawals and fertilizer additions. The 3 to 15-fold differences in soil nutrient withdrawals per unit of energy or protein produced that we report across major crops explain how composition shifts over the last 20 years have reduced N, maintained P and increased K harvest withdrawals from soils while contributing to increasing dietary energy, protein and, particularly, vegetable fat outputs. Being highly variable across crops, global fertilization rates do not relate to actual soil nutrient withdrawals, but to monetary values of harvested products. Future changes in crop composition could contribute to achieve more sustainable food systems, optimizing land and fertilizer use.

Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

2014-08-01

465

Nutrient depletion in Bacillus subtilis biofilms triggers matrix production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of bacteria form colonies that grow into physically robust and strongly adhesive aggregates known as biofilms. A distinguishing characteristic of bacterial biofilms is an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix that encases the cells and provides physical integrity to the colony. The EPS matrix consists of a large amount of polysaccharide, as well as protein filaments, DNA and degraded cellular materials. The genetic pathways that control the transformation of a colony into a biofilm have been widely studied, and yield a spatiotemporal heterogeneity in EPS production. Spatial gradients in metabolites parallel this heterogeneity in EPS, but nutrient concentration as an underlying physiological initiator of EPS production has not been explored. Here, we study the role of nutrient depletion in EPS production in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. By monitoring simultaneously biofilm size and matrix production, we find that EPS production increases at a critical colony thickness that depends on the initial amount of carbon sources in the medium. Through studies of individual cells in liquid culture we find that EPS production can be triggered at the single-cell level by reducing nutrient concentration. To connect the single-cell assays with conditions in the biofilm, we calculate carbon concentration with a model for the reaction and diffusion of nutrients in the biofilm. This model predicts the relationship between the initial concentration of carbon and the thickness of the colony at the point of internal nutrient deprivation.

Zhang, Wenbo; Seminara, Agnese; Suaris, Melanie; Brenner, Michael P.; Weitz, David A.; Angelini, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

466

Insect herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling and increases plant production  

PubMed Central

Ecologists hold two views about the role of herbivory in ecosystem dynamics. First, from a food web perspective in population/community ecology, consumption by herbivores reduces plant abundance. Second, from a nutrient cycling perspective in ecosystem ecology, herbivory sometimes slows down cycling, which decreases plant abundance, but at other times speeds up cycling, which possibly increases plant abundance. The nutrient cycling perspective on herbivory has been experimentally addressed more thoroughly in aquatic systems than in terrestrial systems. We experimentally examined how grasshoppers influence nutrient cycling and, thereby, plant abundance and plant species composition over a period of 5 years. We examined how grasshoppers influence nutrient (nitrogen) cycling (i) by their excrement, (ii) by changing the abundance of and the decomposition rate of plant litter, and (iii) by both. Grasshoppers may speed up nitrogen cycling by changing the abundance and decomposition rate of plant litter, which increases total plant abundance (up to 32.9 g/m2 or 18%), especially, the abundance of plants that are better competitors when nitrogen is more available. However, whether grasshoppers enhance plant abundance depends on how much they consume. Consequently, ecosystems and food web perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Finally, under some conditions, grasshoppers may decrease nutrient cycling and plant abundance. PMID:11106378

Belovsky, G. E.; Slade, J. B.

2000-01-01

467

Nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A preliminary nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir is reported as a first attempt to quantify the behaviour of nutrients entering this reservoir. This work is part of a larger Indonesia-Australia collaborative research and training project, involving Padjadjaran University and Monash University, established to study nutrient dynamics in Saguling Reservoir. Saguling Reservoir, the first of a chain of three large reservoirs (Saguling, Cirata and Jatilahur), built on the Citarum River in central Java, was completed in 1985. It has already become highly polluted, particularly with domestic and industrial effluent (organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals) from the urban areas of Bandung (population 2 million). The reservoir experiences major water quality problems, including excessive growths of floating plants, toxic cyanobacterial blooms and regular fish-kills. The work reported in this paper shows that Saguling receives a very large nutrient load from the city of Bandung and because of this, is highly eutrophic. It is unlikely that the water quality of Saguling will improve until a substantial part of Bandung is sewered and adequate discharge controls are placed on the many industries in the region upstream of the reservoir. PMID:12092591

Hart, Barry T; van Dok, Wendy; Djuangsih, Nani

2002-04-01

468

Circulation and nutrient modeling of Thermaikos Gulf, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermaikos Gulf is considered to be one of the most polluted coastal zones in Greece. It is the final receptor of both municipal and industrial wastewaters from the city of Thessaloniki and of two heavily polluted rivers, Axios and Aliakmon. Nutrient enrichment and consequent eutrophication is the primary water quality issue of Thermaikos. The mathematical model WASP 6.0 was used to simulate the hydrodynamics, nutrient dynamics and phytoplakton evolution in the gulf. The model is a physical-based model that compartmentalizes the water body into high dispersivity, uniform concentration compartments. It then performs mass balances on water quantity and quality. In addition to the hydrodynamics, the model can simulate the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous and plankton concentrations in the water body. Monthly hydrologic and water quality fluxes from 1997 to 1998, inputs to the gulf and seasonal nutrient surveys in the gulf were used to calibrate nutrient dynamics. The gulf was compartmentalized into 12 compartments, six were horizontal and two were vertical. Salinity data were used to calibrate the hydrodynamic variables of the model. Model calibration was conducted by minimizing the root mean square error between field observations and model simulation. The model was able to capture the variation of salinity and nutrient concentrations. The results showed the importance of Thessaloniki effluents to the Thessaloniki Bay and Gulf and the Axios and Aliakmon River loads to the degree of eutrophication of the entire gulf. The model can be used to assess management scenarios to improve the water quality of the gulf.

Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Marconis, Giannis; Drakopoulou, Paraskevi; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Pagou, Kalliopi

2006-04-01

469

Quantifying the nutrient flux within a lowland karstic catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient contamination of surface and groundwaters is an issue of growing importance as the risks associated with agricultural runoff escalate due to increasing demands on global food production. In this study, the nutrient flux occurring within the surface and groundwaters of a lowland karst catchment in western Ireland was investigated with the aid of alkalinity sampling and a hydrological model. Water samples were collected and tested from a variety of rivers, lakes (or turloughs), boreholes and springs at monthly intervals over a three year period. Alkalinity sampling was used to elucidate the contrasting hydrological functioning between different turloughs. Such disparate hydrological functioning was further investigated with the aid of a hydrological model which allowed for an estimate of allogenic and autogenic derived nutrient loading into the karst system. The model also allowed for an investigation of mixing within the turloughs, comparing observed behaviours with the hypothetical conservative behaviour allowed for by the model. Results indicated that at the system outlet to the sea, autogenic recharge had added approximately 35% to the total flow and approximately 85% to the total N-load. Within some turloughs, nutrient loads were found to reduce over the flooded period, even though the turloughs hydrological functioning (and the hydrological model) suggested this should not occur. As such, it was determined that nutrient loss processes were occurring within the system. Denitrification was deemed to be the main process reducing nitrogen concentrations within the turloughs whereas phosphorus loss is thought to occur mostly within the diffuse/epikarst zone.

McCormack, T.; Naughton, O.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

2015-01-01

470

Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for microorganisms in the sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

1999-07-13

471

Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

Colwell, Frederick S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Geesey, Gill G. (Bozeman, MT); Gillis, Richard J. (Bozeman, MT); Lehman, R. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

472

Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet.  

PubMed

This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy. PMID:16129088

Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M

2005-09-01

473

Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

Colwell, Frederick S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Geesey, Gill G. (Bozeman, MT); Gillis, Richard J. (Bozeman, MT); Lehman, R. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

474

Assessing the susceptibility of two UK estuaries to nutrient enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The susceptibility of two UK estuaries, the Severn and Solva Estuaries to the risks and impacts of nutrient enrichment was investigated in this study by examining nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity concentrations in the estuaries and applying a risk assessment model based on the UK's Comprehensive Studies Task Team (CSTT) modelling approach. Both estuaries were found to be nutrient enriched. However, there was no evidence of oxygen depletion in the Severn and algal blooms were not observed due to high turbidity, strong tidal currents and tidally induced vertical mixing conditions in the estuary. Although algal blooms were observed in the Solva Estuary, the estuary was well-oxygenated due to the relatively high water exchange rate and consistent rapid flushing in the estuary. The conditions in the Solva Estuary were predicted to be favourable for phytoplankton productivity and the wider potential implications for future water quality protection strategies in the Solva were discussed.

Kadiri, Margaret; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Rauen, William B.

2014-10-01

475

Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-10-01

476

Food waste as nutrient source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation.  

PubMed

Glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN), and phosphate were recovered from food waste by fungal hydrolysis using Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae. Using 100g food waste (dry weight), 31.9 g glucose, 0.28 g FAN, and 0.38 g phosphate were recovered after 24h of hydrolysis. The pure hydrolysate has then been used as culture medium and nutrient source for the two heterotrophic microalgae Schizochytrium mangrovei and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, S. mangrovei and C. pyrenoidosa grew well on the complex food waste hydrolysate by utilizing the nutrients recovered. At the end of fermentation 10-20 g biomass were produced rich in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results of this study revealed the potential of food waste hydrolysate as culture medium and nutrient source in microalgae cultivation. PMID:23587816

Pleissner, Daniel; Lam, Wan Chi; Sun, Zheng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2013-06-01

477

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides is the first report in a series of non-technical publications from the US Geological Survey. Based on findings of the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment Program), this first report "presents insights on nutrients and pesticides in water and on pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue." Subsequent reports will cover other water-quality topics including arsenic, radon, other trace elements, and industrial chemicals, as well as chemical and physical effects on aquatic communities. Targeting resource managers, regulators, and policy makers, the report (.pdf format) provides a general overview of findings on nutrients and pesticides, in addition to technical discussions of "the sources, distributions, and potential effects of these chemicals."

478

The Everglades are still threatened by excess nutrients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1985, a Florida state agency constructed and maintained hundreds of square kilometers of wetlands built to regulate the amount of nutrients reaching the Everglades in southern Florida. However, Zapata-Rios et al. show that this is proving to be ineffective in controlling concentrations of phosphorous, a key nutrient, in the surface waters of the wetland. Historically, the Everglades has been a nutrient-poor environment, a characteristic that determines the delicate ecological balance and distinct flora and fauna in this region. Agricultural development and urbanization since the 1800s have not only claimed two- thirds of the natural Everglades (only 6000 square kilometers now exist in their natural form) but have also dramatically increased phosphorus levels in surface water, at times exceeding the acceptable limit of 10 micrograms per liter by severalfold.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-10-01

479

Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus is described for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

1997-11-11

480

Nutrient dynamics management based on GIS modeling tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient sources and fate are investigated in the Evrotas, a temporary river in Greece. We assess field monitoring and modelling tools for the estimation of nutrient fate and transport through various diffuse pathways. The `total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class and measures are recommended and applied for each flow status. Using this approach in Evrotas basin, it was estimated that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Kassotaki, Eliza; Cooper, David; Papadoulakis, Vasilis

2013-08-01

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