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1

Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield. PMID:16023343

Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir

2005-07-14

2

12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

2011-12-01

3

Responses of citrus (Citrus sinensis) to nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertiliser on 2 soils of Rarotonga, Cook Islands 1. Effects of NPK fertiliser rate on soil properties and leaf nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertiliser trials on citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) conducted on 2 soil types of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, the relationships between fertiliser applied and nutrient levels in soils and citrus leaves were studied. Topsoils of the 2 soil types were distinguishable by their chemical properties. The older, more weathered and leached Pouara soil had lower

L. J. Hume; W. B. Healy; K. Tama; W. J. Hosking; A. Manarangi; J. Reynolds

1985-01-01

4

Effect of long-term NPK application on secondary and micro nutrient contents of Coffea canephora Pierre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Ca, Mg, S, Mn and Cu contents in leaves ofCoffea canephora trees selected in 64 plots under a 4󫶖 NPK trial were determined after seven years of fertilizer application. It was observed that NPK applications increased Mn uptake, P application increased the uptake of Cu, Ca and S while application of N and K did not enhance the

S. O. Ojeniyi

1981-01-01

5

Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment

R. Jagadeeswaran; V. Murugappan; M. Govindaswamy

2005-01-01

6

Microbial biomass C, N and P in two arctic soils and responses to addition of NPK fertilizer and sugar: implications for plant nutrient uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil microbial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools were quantified in the organic horizon of soils from an arctic\\/alpine low-altitude heath and a high-altitude fellfield by the fumigation-extraction method before and after factorial addition of sugar, NPK fertilizer and benomyl, a fungicide. In unamended soil, microbial C, N and P made up 3.33.6%, 6.17.3% and 34.7% of

Sven Jonasson; Anders Michelsen; Inger K. Schmidt; Esben V. Nielsen; Terry V. Callaghan

1996-01-01

7

Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube

8

Effect of compost, nitrogen salts, and NPK fertilizers on methane oxidation potential at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The effects of compost, nitrogen salts, and nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK) fertilizers on the methane oxidation potential (MOP) of landfill cover soil at various temperatures were assessed. For this, we used batch assays conducted at 5癈, 15癈, and 25癈 with microcosms containing landfill cover soil slurries amended with these elements. Results indicated variable impacts dependent on the type of amendment and the incubation temperature. For a given incubation temperature, MOP varied from one compost to another and with the amount of compost added, except for the shrimp/peat compost. With this latter compost, independent of the amount, MOP values remained similar and were significantly higher than those obtained with other composts. Amendment with most of the tested nitrogen salts led to similar improvements in methanotrophic activity, except for urea. MOP with NPK fertilizer addition was amongst the highest in this study; the minimum value obtained with NPK (20-0-20) suggested the importance of P for methanotrophs. MOP generally increased with temperature, and nutrient limitation became less important at higher temperatures. Overall, at each of the three temperatures tested, MOP with NPK fertilizer amendments provided the best results and was comparable to those observed with the addition of the shrimp/peat compost. The results of this study provide the first evidence of the following: (1) compost addition to improve methanotrophic activity in a landfill cover soil should consider the amount and type of compost used and (2) the importance of using NPK fertilizers rather than nitrogen salts, in enhancing this activity, primarily at low temperatures. One can also consider the potential beneficial impact of adding these elements to enhance plant growth, which is an advantage for MOP. PMID:21894478

Jugnia, Louis-B; Mottiar, Yaseen; Djuikom, Euphrasie; Cabral, Alexandre R; Greer, Charles W

2011-09-06

9

Effect of EM on Soil Properties and Nutrient Cycling in a Citrus Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on soil and on natural cycling of nutrients, a field investigation was conducted with citrus in the State of S鉶 Paulo, Brazil. A Typic Hapludox soil predominates as a deep, well-drained, clay soil with high hydrogen and aluminum contents and low base saturation, The organic matter content of the soil is moderate,

D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; M. J. A. Jorge; M. C. S. Nogueira

10

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha.

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

11

[Aedes aegypti oviposition in response to NPK fertilizers].  

PubMed

Fertilizers are mineral associations intended to bring to the plants nutritive complements necessary to their growth. Modern fertilizers (NPK) combine the three basic elements which are the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In this study, we investigated in tunnel apparatus the influence of aqueous solutions containing low, moderate and high concentrations of NPK on the oviposition of Aedes aegypti. The results showed that the solutions containing moderate concentrations (NK = 17-33 mg/l and P = 23-47 mg/l) attracted significantly more gravid females than distilled water (P < 0.001). Conversely, the solutions containing either low or high concentrations of NPK (NK = 8 mg/l and P = 12 mg/l; NK = 50 mg/I and P = 70 mg/l) did not induce significant attraction (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that NPK fertilizers may influence the egg-laying behaviour of Ae. aegypti in field situations. PMID:18416252

Darriet, F; Corbel, V

2008-03-01

12

Carbon and nutrient stocks of tea plantations differing in age, genotype and plant population density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial evergreen shrub managed intensively for continuous growth of young shoots. Most tea plantations were established\\u000a at the expense of native forest. Change in carbon (C) and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) accumulation in\\u000a forests over time has been intensively studied, but how C and NPK stocks in tea plantations are associated with age,

D. M. Kamau; J. H. J. Spiertz; O. Oenema

2008-01-01

13

Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven

Anoop Singh; S. B. Agrawal; Dheeraj Rathore

2005-01-01

14

Growth and nitrogen nutrition of Chinese fir seedlings exposed to nutrient loading and fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loaded and non-loaded Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) seedlings were transplanted in a pot trial to examine effects of exponential nutrient loading and fertilization\\u000a treatments on first season growth and N nutrition. The treatments tested four rates of N (0, 30, 60, and 90 mg tree-1) as a mixed NPK fertilizer applied before planting to create a soil

Xinjian Xu; Victor R. Timmer

1999-01-01

15

Response of wheat to dual inoculation with VA?mycorrhiza and azospirillum, fertilized with NPK and irrigated with sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to investigate the dual effect of inoculation with Azospirillum and VA?mycorrhiza on wheat growth and nutrition. The effects of irrigation with sewage water and NPK fertilization were determined. Potted wheat plants in a greenhouse were used. The highest increase in dry matter production and N and P content was recorded for NPK and VA?mycorrhiza + Azospirillum

Abdel Hakeem M. Gomah

1991-01-01

16

Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

2012-04-30

17

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Mart韓-Ortiz, Diego; Hern醤dez-Apaolaza, Lourdes; G醨ate, Agust韓

2010-07-14

18

Longevity of microbial and enzyme activity and their influence on NPK content in pressmud vermicasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total microbial population and their activity (CO2 evolution), macronutrients (N, P, K) and enzymes (dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities) in the uningested pressmud, fresh casts and 15- and 30-d-old pressmud vermicasts of two composting worms, Lampito mauritii and Eudrilus eugeniae, have been determined. Enhancement of microbial population and activity, NPK content and enzyme activities in the fresh casts are due to

Kasi Parthasarathi; Lalpet S. Ranganathan

1999-01-01

19

Modification in growth, biomass and yield of radish under supplemental UV-B at different NPK levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, biomass, yield and quality characteristics of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Pusa Himani) were investigated under supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 280320nm; +7.2kJm?2d?1) radiation at varying levels of soil NPK. Combinations of NPK were recommended, 1.5 times NPK, 1.5 times N and 1.5 times K. sUV-B radiation negatively affected the growth and economic yield with more reductions at 1.5 times recommended

Suruchi Singh; Rima Kumari; Madhoolika Agrawal; S. B. Agrawal

2011-01-01

20

Growth and nutrient relations of a grass-legume mixture on sodic coal-mine spoil as affected by some amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and growth chamber investigations were conducted to study the effects of fertilizers, gypsum, H釹O, and leonardite (oxidized lignite) on the growth and nutrient relations of a mixed crop of thickspike wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) on a calcareous sodic coal-mine spoil. Application of NPK increased the dry matter yield of the

N. M. Safaya; M. K. Wali

1979-01-01

21

Proceedings: International Workshop-NPK Fertilizer Production Alternatives. Held in Madras/Bombay, India in February 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of an international workshop on fertilizers are presented. Topics include: Role of NPK fertilizers in optimizing agricultural production; Fertilizer products and farmer needs; Review of the fertilizer situation in Asia and the Pacific with...

J. J. Schultz E. D. Frederick

1988-01-01

22

SUBSOIL COMPACTION EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND YIELD OF MAIZE FODDER (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted during the years 2003-2004 at Soil Chemistry Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, to evaluate the effect of hardpan and NPK fertilizers on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of maize fodder. Three hardpan levels, natural hardpan broken by chiseling (HP0); natural hardpan (HP1) and artificial hardpan (HP2) by compacting soil with 10 ton-loaded trolley, were

WASEEM RAZA; SOHAIL YOUSAF; ABID NIAZ; M. KHALID RASHEED; IQBAL HUSSAIN

23

Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000癈 in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf

2010-01-01

24

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient Management is the science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economical returns, while reducing off-site...

25

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearly 600,000 acres of sunflower are grown in the Central Great Plains Region. Because sunflower is relatively new to the region, producers have many questions regarding optimal nutrient management of this crop. This writeup provides the regions producers timely information regarding nutrient manag...

26

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Mart韓-Ortiz, Diego; Hern醤dez-Apaolaza, Lourdes; G醨ate, Agust韓

2009-10-14

27

Differential invasion of a wetland grass explained by tests of nutrients and light availability on establishment and clonal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae) is aggressively invading wetlands across North America. We tested the hypotheses that open canopies and increased nutrients facilitate vegetative establishment in the field, using a phytometer (6 rhizome fragments\\/plot, 24 plots\\/wetland). In each of three wetlands, phytometers received three levels of an NPK fertilizer or served as controls. Emergence and survival differed among sites (P=0.0005), but not

Deborah A. Maurer; Joy B. Zedler

2002-01-01

28

Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

H. Marschner

1994-01-01

29

Differential sensitivity of spinach and amaranthus to enhanced UV-B at varying soil nutrient levels: association with gas exchange, UV-B-absorbing compounds and membrane damage.  

PubMed

The metabolic reasons associated with differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to enhanced UV-B under varying soil nutrient levels are not well understood. In the present study, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var All Green), a C3 and amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L. var Pusa Badi Chaulai), a C4 plant were subjected to enhanced UV-B (280-315爊m; 7.2爇J爉(-2)燿ay(-1)) over ambient under varying soil nutrient levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), 1.5 recommended NPK, 1.5 recommended N and 1.5 recommended K. Enhanced UV-B negatively affected both the species at all nutrient levels, but the reductions varied with nutrient concentration and combinations. Reductions in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were significantly more in spinach compared with amaranthus. The reduction in photosynthetic rate was maximum at 1.5 recommended K and minimum in 1.5 NPK amended plants. The oxidative damage to membranes measured in terms of malondialdehyde content was significantly higher in spinach compared with amaranthus. Enhanced UV-B reduced SOD activity in both the plants except in amaranthus at 1.5 recommended K. POX activity increased under enhanced UV-B at all nutrient levels in amaranthus, but only at 1.5 K in spinach. Amaranthus had significantly higher UV-B-absorbing compounds than spinach even under UV-B stress. Lowest reductions in yield and total biomass under enhanced UV-B compared with ambient were observed in amaranthus grown at 1.5 recommended NPK. Enhanced UV-B did not significantly change the nitrogen use efficiency in amaranthus at all NPK levels, but reduced in spinach except at 1.5 K. These findings suggest that the differential sensitivity of the test species under enhanced UV-B at varying nutrient levels is due to varying antioxidative and UV-B screening capacity, and their ability to utilize nutrients. Amaranthus tolerated enhanced UV-B stress more than spinach at all nutrient levels and 1.5 recommended NPK lowered the sensitivity maximally to enhanced UV-B with respect to photosynthesis, biomass and yield. PCA score has also confirmed the lower sensitivity of amaranthus compared with spinach with respect to the measured physiological and biochemical parameters. PMID:23686471

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2013-05-18

30

Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients. Omission of N, P and K also reduced the seed cotton yield by 41, 9.3 and 27.3 per cent respectively. Reduction of cotton yield with omission of other nutrients was meager. It is concluded that rate of reduction in SOC, and cotton yield is more pronounced with omission of N than P and K from the regular fertiliser schedule to Bt cotton in medium black soils. However, omission of secondary and micronutrients had least effect on the soil nutrient status and seed cotton yield.

Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

2012-04-01

31

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

32

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient requirements of tilapia are reviewed. The dietary protein requirements vary from 20% to 56% depending upon many factors such as species, size, protein quality, level of non-protein energy in the diets, water salinity, water quality, availability of natural food and feeding management. Til...

33

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

2010-02-09

34

Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers. PMID:18340443

Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

2008-03-14

35

Foliar sprays of NPK fertilizers induce systemic protection against Puccinia sorghi and Exserohilum turcicum and growth response in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

One spray of 0.1 M aqueous solutions of NPK fertilizers on the upper sides of maize leaves 1, 2, and 3, 24 h prior to inoculation, induced systemic resistance (ISR) against northern leaf blight (NLB) caused byExserohilum turcicum andPuccinia sorghi which were developed on leaves 4, 5, 6, and 7. ISR was expressed as a reduction in the number and

Reuven Reuveni I; Moshe Reuveni; Vladimir Agapov

1996-01-01

36

Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in

A. Charles; A. Karam; A. Jaouich

2009-01-01

37

Forbidden Lines in ns2npk Ground Configurations and nsnp Excited Configurations of Beryllium through Molybdenum Atoms and Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed and predicted wavelengths of magnetic dipole lines arising within ground configurations of the type ns2npk(n=2 and 3, k=1 to 5) are compiled. For n=2 the compilation includes the elements B through Kr, and for k=5 it extends to Mo. For n=3 Al through Mo are included. In addition the 2s2p excited configuration of the Be i isoelectronic sequence for

Victor Kaufman; Jack Sugar

1986-01-01

38

Selenium content of wheat as affected by selenate and selenite contained in a Cl or SO 4 -based NPK fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In areas where soils supply inadequate Se to crops to meet animal nutritional needs, it may be necessary to supplement Se in some fashion. This greenhouse experiment was designed to study the effect of selenate and selenite, incorporated with a Cl- or a SO4-based NPK (16-5-12) fertilizer added to a low-Se soil, on the Se concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum

B. R. Singh

1991-01-01

39

Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.  

PubMed

The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

40

Nutrient absorption.  

PubMed

Many advances in the study of nutrient absorption have been made with the use of molecular and genetic techniques; however, standard in vivo studies have provided interesting and important new information. Omega-3 long-chain fatty acids have unexpected effects on lipoprotein formation and secretion in neonatal intestinal cells; this needs to be considered in the modification of infant formulas. Rexinoids affect intestinal cholesterol homeostasis via two receptors: retinoic acid receptor/liver X receptor (cholesterol efflux to lumen) and retinoic acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor (cholesterol catabolism). Absorption of the antioxidant plant polyphenol quercetin involves interaction with the glucose transporter and deglycolsylation and conjugation reactions. Cells of the polarized human colon cancer cell line, CaCo-2, take up phenylalanine by two mechanisms: passive uptake across the basolateral membrane, and temperature-dependent transcellular movement from apical to basolateral media. Absorption of vitamins A and E is markedly enhanced in normal and damaged intestine by the administration of restructured triacylglycerols derived from fish oil and medium-chain fatty acids. Surprisingly, dietary protein and phosphorus apparently have no significant effect on the efficiency of calcium absorption in adult women. Finally, many studies examined a variety of genes that regulate iron absorption and homeostasis. PMID:17033282

Nutting, David F; Kumar, N Suresh; Siddiqi, Shadab A; Mansbach, Charles M

2002-03-01

41

Nutrient Content Claims  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Final Rule: Food Labeling; Nutrient Content Claims, Expanded Use of the Nutrient Content Claim, "Lean" January 12, 2007. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

42

NPK1, a tobacco gene that encodes a protein with a domain homologous to yeast BCK1, STE11, and Byr2 protein kinases.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a cDNA (cNPK1) that encodes a predicted protein kinase of 690 amino acids from suspension cultures of tobacco cells. The deduced sequence is closely related to those of the protein kinases encoded by the STE11 and BCK1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the byr2 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. STE11 and Byr2 function in the yeast mating pheromone response pathways, and BCK1 acts downstream of the yeast protein kinase C homolog encoded by the PKC1 gene, which is essential for normal growth and division of yeast cells. Overexpression in yeast cells of a truncated form of cNPK1, which encodes only the putative catalytic domain, replaced the growth control functions of BCK1 and PKC1 but not the mating pheromone response function of STE11. Thus, the catalytic domain of NPK1 specifically activates the signal transduction pathway mediated by BCK1 in yeast. In tobacco cells in suspension culture, the NPK1 gene is transcribed during logarithmic phase and early stationary phase but not during late stationary phase. In a tobacco plant, it is also transcribed in stems and roots but not in mature leaves, which rarely contain growing cells. The present results suggest that a signal transduction pathway mediated by this BCK1- and STE11-related protein kinase is also conserved in plants and that a function of NPK1 is controlled at least in part at a transcriptional level. Images

Banno, H; Hirano, K; Nakamura, T; Irie, K; Nomoto, S; Matsumoto, K; Machida, Y

1993-01-01

43

Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of plant nutrient supply from fly ash and biosolids (sewage sludge and poultry manure) may enhance their agricultural use as crop fertilizer. Two mild extraction methods (42-d equilibration with ion-exchange resins; 2-d equilibration with pH 4.8 buffered nutrient solution) and analysis of nutrient data by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) were tested with 29 fly ash samples, four biosolids samples, and their mixtures. The resin method was useful for major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) extraction from fly ashes and organic materials, particularly where mineralizable fractions of N and P under aerobic conditions are required. However, resins were inefficient in extracting P from high-Fe sewage sludges because organic waste samples caused premature failure of semipermeable membranes and fouling of resins. Extraction of fly ash with dilute buffered nutrient solution was more successful because micronutrient recovery was improved, major nutrients were correlated to the resin method, both addition and removal of nutrients were recorded. DRIS analysis was possible, and equilibration was rapid (2 d). The overall nutrient supply from these extremely variable fly ashes was: Cu = Fe {approx} B {approx} Mo > Ca > S > Zn >> Mn > N > Mg > P > K (high micronutrient, low major nutrient supply). For biosolids, the major nutrients ranked: P > N {approx} Ca > S > Mg > K (sewage sludges), and N > Ca {approx} K > P > Mg > S (poultry manures). In mixtures of fly ash with 26% sewage sludge the order was: Ca > S > N > Mg > P > K, while in mixtures of fly ash and 13% poultry manure, the nutrients ranked: Ca > K {approx} N {approx} S > Mg > P. Optimal plant nutrition (especially N-P-K balancing) should be possible by mixing these three waste materials.

Schumann, A.W.; Sumner, M.E.

2000-02-01

44

Multiple Nutrient Markers. Energy and Nutrient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates h...

T. D. Luckey B. Venugopal D. P. Hutcheson

1975-01-01

45

Nutrient Density Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

1979-01-01

46

Nutrient Density Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)|

Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

1979-01-01

47

The variations of NPK of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) leaves with tillage, plant maturity and flooding on a clay soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The NPK concentrations in cowpea leaves (cv California Blackeye No. 5) with stage of plant development did not vary significantly with tillage treatment but several features of the concentration of these different ions with age, stage of plant development, incidence of flooding and soil water content are significant.

F. A. Gumbs; J. I. Lindsay; S. Osei-Yeboah

1982-01-01

48

Effect of Effective Microorganism Application on Crop Growth, Yield, and Nutrition in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Different Soil Amendment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in heat-sterilized soil to evaluate the effect of effective microorganism (EM) application on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. NIAB Mung 98 in different soil amendment systems. Pot soil was amended with farmyard manure (FYM), Trifolium alexanrinum L. crop residues (TCR), and half (NPK) and recommended dose (NPK) of chemical

Arshad Javaid; Rukhsana Bajwa

2011-01-01

49

Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely 憌ater-soluble' (Cu-sol), 慹xchangeable' (Cu-exc), 憇pecifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), 憃rganic-bound' (Cu-org) and 憆esidual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

50

Movement of pesticides and nutrients into tile drainage water. Final report, 22 September 1985-22 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

Concern about contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals has increased in the last five years. The objectives of this study were to determine field-scale pesticide and nutrient losses to tile drains over a 3-year period on a low-organic-matter, poorly structured silt loam soil under typical agricultural management practices. A tile-drainage spacing study was instrumented to measure water outflow rates and to continuously collect tile outflow samples on a flow-proportional basis. Two replicates of 3 tile spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) were included in the study. Water samples were analyzed for all applied pesticides (atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos) as well as major nutrients (N,P,K) and sediment.

Van Scoyoc, G.E.; Kladivko, E.J.

1989-01-01

51

Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi.  

PubMed

The application of anaerobically digested biosolids as a nutrient source for pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangeh.) K. Koch, cultivar Western, was evaluated. Conventional NPK fertilizers (CF) and biosolids included a treatment with the rhizospheric fungi Pisolithus tinctorius+Scleroderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. After an average of three years, the tree trunks with biosolid treatment grew 9.5% more than with CF; the length of the bearing shoots was 18.1 and 18.3cm and the production of nuts/tree was 9.26 and 8.75kg for pecans with CF and with biosolids, respectively. Western foliar nutrient concentration and nut quality were statistically equal in trees with CF and with biosolids. Soil inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi improved shoot growth by 19.4% when CF was applied, but did not when biosolids were used. Nutrient status and yield did not increase with mycorrhizal fungi. The addition of Trichoderma sp. did not favor any of the variables evaluated with both nutrient sources. Biosolids are efficient fertilizer at promoting the growth, production and nut quality of pecan trees. PMID:18993060

Tarango Rivero, S H; Nev醨ez Moorill髇, V G; Orrantia Borunda, E

2008-11-06

52

Nutrients in vegetarian foods.  

PubMed

Persons who use tables of food composition have often found that foods that vegetarians commonly eat are not included. To help remedy this situation, a table is presented which includes the 49 foods on the vegetarian Exchange Lists and 18 additional nonmeat foods. Nutrient contents of household measures of these foods are given for water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folacin. Nutrient amounts were derived from USDA sources and from other published research when available. Nutrient amounts from foods assumed to be identical to those in the table were placed in parentheses. When nutrient amounts were not available, they were estimated from similar foods and placed in brackets. When values found for a single nutrient in a food varied by 20% or more, the total range was shown. When a dash was found in a literature reference and the amount of the nutrient was known to be insignificant, a zero was presented in the table. Thus, there are no gaps in the table. Until accurate laboratory-derived data are available for the nutrients in vegetarian foods, this table, used with appropriate judgment, should be useful for estimating the nutrient intakes of persons who eat vegetarian foods. PMID:6361102

Truesdell, D D; Whitney, E N; Acosta, P B

1984-01-01

53

Yield trends, and changes in soil organic-C and available NPK in a long-term rice杦heat system under integrated use of manures and fertilisers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice杦heat rotations, practised in 12.5million ha in Indo-Gangetic Plain region (IGPR), are the most important production system for food security of south Asian countries. Recent reports, however, indicate that the system is under production fatigue as yields have started declining due to continuous rice杦heat cultivation. We analysed the yield trends and effect of fertiliser NPK application, alone or in combination

R. L Yadav; B. S Dwivedi; Kamta Prasad; O. K Tomar; N. J Shurpali; P. S Pandey

2000-01-01

54

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth 寐⒚旅 the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

55

Integrated Urban Nutrient Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most cities, especially from the developing countries, are facing serious problems with the management of nutrients, necessitating an urgent review of current waste management systems. Whilst highly efficient technologies are available, the inclusion of these in a well-thought out and systematic approach is necessary to contain the nutrient influxes and outfluxes from towns. Five intervention measures are proposed in this paper. The first is to manage the use and generation of nutrients by drastically minimising water consumption and employing other cleaner production approaches. The second deals with the optimal reuse of nutrients and water at the smallest possible level, like at the household and on-plot level. The second option is to covert the waste into something useful for reuse, and, where not possible, to something which is envi- ronmentally neutral. This involves treatment, but applying technologies that makes the best use of side products via reuse. Where the first three options will have failed, two least preferred options could be used. Waste can be dispersed or diluted to enhance self-purification capacities of downstream water bodies. The last option is to store the wastewater for some parts of the year when there is water shortage to allow for polishing during the standing period. The success of urban nutrient planning requires an integrated approach, proving specific solutions to specific situations. This, in turn, requires appropriate institutional responses.

Nhapi, I.; Veenstra, S.; Siebel, M. A.; Gijzen, H. J.

56

Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

57

Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

58

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

59

Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the

McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

60

Ocean nutrient enhancer \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean nutrient enhancer (ONE) is composed of a spar type floating structure from which is suspended a 175 m long compliant steel riser. The ONE was installed at the center of Sagami-Bay in May 2003 for the purpose of discharging density controlled water, which is adjusted by mixing the up-welled deep ocean water (DOW) and surface water, into the

Satoshi Masuda; Masayuki Yonezawa; Masao Morikawa

2004-01-01

61

Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the

McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

62

EFEITO DA PELETIZA敲O E ADI敲O DE ENZIMAS E VITAMINAS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E APROVEIT AMENTO DA ENERGIA E NUTRIENTES EM FRANGOS DE COR TE DE 1 A 21 DIAS DE IDADE Effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was carried out an experiment to evaluate the effect of pelleting and addition of enzymes and vitamins on the performance and advantage of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days old. A total of 350 broiler chickens, COBB, males, were used ( (47g 2.5g) in a completely randomized design, with the treatments in a

Jos Laureano Barbosa Leite; Paulo Borges Rodrigues; Elias Tadeu Fialho; Rilke Tadeu; Fonseca de Freitas; Adriano Kaneo Nagata; Vin韈ius de Souza Cantarelli

63

Spatial Reflectance at Sub-Leaf Scale Discriminating NPK Stress Characteristics in Barley Using Multiway Partial Least Squares Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive stress diagnostics is essential to optimise variable nutrient application with a minimal environmental load. The identifying characteristics when spectrally determining nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium stress in a canopy are dominantly non- specific symptoms expressed as varying levels of chlorophyll in the leaves. The challenge is spectrally based discrimination between N, P and K stress. This paper introduces a methodology

L. K. Christensen; R. N. J鴕gensen

2003-01-01

64

Urban nutrient balance for Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the options for recycling of nutrients from mega-cities to agricultural land, a nutrient balance model was developed. The balancing was done for Bangkok Province and considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To estimate the food supply, the most decisive nutrient flow, an online database (faostat) was employed; its country level data are disaggregated to the urban level. A

Jens F鎟ge; Jakob Magid

2001-01-01

65

Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in Pastures astures astures astures astures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients in a pasture system cycle through soil organisms, pasture plants, and grazing livestock. Appropriate management can enhance the nutrient cycle, increase productivity, and reduce costs. Two practical indicators of soil health are the number of earthworms and the percentage of organic matter in the soil. A diversity of pasture plants growing on healthy soils use sunlight and the nutrient

Alice E. Beetz

2002-01-01

66

Nutrient removal from farm effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

N. S. Bolan; L. Wong; D. C. Adriano

2004-01-01

67

Closing the nutrient loop.  

PubMed

A pattern of hauling nutrients from rural to urban areas prevails in thousands of cities on the planet. This massive shifting of nutrients had diminished the vitality of many of the planet's most productive croplands, grazing lands, and fisheries, and it could accelerate more of the human population concentrates in the cities in the coming decades. It is also creating a dilemma of feeding the growing number of people who are far removed from their main sources of food, without unbalancing and collapsing the ecosystems on which those people ultimately depend. City dwelling people are adopting urban farming to support their feeding needs. The approach will not only feed the people but it can also play an important role in the municipal waste management. Governments are beginning to recognize that local food production may be an important component of food security; these include the US, Germany, the Netherlands, and Canada, where empty lots are turned into farmland that propagates vegetation. PMID:12349475

Nelson, T

68

Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

69

Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Current water quality conditions; Ecological trends as related to nutrient enrichment; Nutrient sources and controllability; Nutrient transport and algal standing crop mathematical models; Eutrophication control; Establishment of nutrient criter...

N. A. Jaworski D. W. Lear O. Villa

1971-01-01

70

Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition\\u000a relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic\\u000a studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases\\u000a such as coronary heart disease,

Regina C. Casper

2004-01-01

71

Changes in nutrient dynamics throughout water transfers in a Tropical Forest and Pasture of Rondonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clearing of tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon for cattle pasture since the 70s is a globally important land use change that has consequences for soil biogeochemical cycles. Generally, five to ten years after deforestation, pastures become degraded due to inadequate management practices. Development of strategies for restoration of low productivity pastures constitutes the main goal for Rond鬾ia state. We analyzed the concentrations of the main nutrient of the biogeochemical cycles in three representative land uses at Fazenda Nova Vida, in central Rond鬾ia (10o30'S, 62o30'W). The treatments were: (1) native forest; (2) pasture dominated by the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha but containing some weeds, under non- intensive management and; (3) a section of the same pasture that was subjected to tilling, replanting and fertilization (NPK + micronutrients) to eliminate weeds and improve grass productivity. Water samples from rain, throughfall, overland flow, tension lysimeter and zero-tension lysimeter (1.0 m soil depth), were collected during the rainy seasons from January to May of 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of C (DOC and DIC), inorganic-N (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl- were measured in all treatments. Rain water was dominated by the nutrients (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) and DOC. Forest throughfall was enriched in most of the elements. Concentrations of elements in the overland flow showed higher variations in the pasture and in the plowed pasture, however samples were not collected in forest. Soil solution waters (tension lysimeter) and lysimeter waters (zero-tension lysimeter) too had higher variations for elements concentrations in all treatments. Forest clearing for pasture and pasture submitted to tillage practices profoundly influence soil properties and, consequently, the nutrient availability in soil profiles. The soil solution composition may be indicative of altered patterns of nutrient availability in this land use change.

Piccolo, M. D.; Neill, C.; Krusche, A.; Laclau, J. P.; Cerri, C. C.

2006-12-01

72

Assessment of the interactive effects of ambient O? and NPK levels on two tropical mustard varieties (Brassica campestris L.) using open-top chambers.  

PubMed

Rising O(3) concentrations in agricultural areas have been identified as a significant threat to crop production in Asia including India. The present work reports the results of a field study conducted to assess the usefulness of higher than recommended NPK dose in modifying the physiological, growth, yield, and seed quality responses of two mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Vardan and Aashirwad) varieties under ambient ozone level at a rural site of India, using open-top chambers. Twelve hourly mean O(3) concentrations ranged between 27.7 and 59.04 ppb during the growth period. Plants in nonfiltered chambers (NFCs) showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and growth parameters compared to the plants in filtered chambers (FCs), but reductions were of lower magnitude at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK (1.5 RNPK) compared to recommended (RNPK). Yield and seed quality reduced significantly in plants of NFCs compared to FCs at RNPK, but no significant differences were recorded at 1.5 RNPK. There were higher N uptake and N uptake efficiency of plants in FCs compared to NFCs. Nitrogen utilization efficiency increased in Vardan, but decreased in Aashirwad in NFCs compared to FCs suggesting higher capability of N acquisition and utilization under ambient O(3), which led to a less pronounced reduction in the yield of the former than the latter variety. The differential nitrogen utilization efficiency in these varieties may be potentially used as measure of sensitivity characteristics in breeding programs for yield improvement in mustard under the present trend of increase in O(3) concentrations. PMID:22072445

Singh, Poonam; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2011-11-10

73

Nutrient Cycling Study  

SciTech Connect

The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

Peter A. Pryfogle

2005-09-01

74

Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood.  

PubMed

Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and stroke in adulthood. Prenatal caloric malnutrition, low birth weight, and prematurity also increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Placebo-controlled studies in medicated patients suggest that add-on treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid, may ameliorate symptoms of major depressive disorder. Additional studies are necessary to confirm any benefits for bipolar disorders. PMID:15538990

Casper, Regina C

2004-12-01

75

Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to

Cassel, Russell N.

1987-01-01

76

Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)|

Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

1991-01-01

77

Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing all the critical nutrients during pregnancy is essential for the mother's and baby's health. Nutrition plays an important role in the outcome of pregnancy. Low birthweight (LBW), which is a common cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States, may be reduced if all the essential nutrients are available in sufficient amounts in the diets of pregnant

J. Arena; E. Kilbashian; Y. Labita; L. Torres; S. Wunderlich

1998-01-01

78

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)|

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

79

THE FUTURE OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fertilization is an essential part of cropping systems to sustain profitable crop production. Over application of nutrients can lead to degraded water quality, resulting from increased levels of nutrients in runoff waters. Degradation of a drinking water source in Oklahoma led to a lawsuit in whic...

80

Nutrient availability in rangeland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...

81

Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery.  

PubMed

Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth-HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in each cycle, the potential of nutrient reduction, as well as cell morphology changes. This study demonstrates progress towards the standalone operation of algae biorefineries. PMID:23828814

Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, Mathijs P; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R A; Brilman, Derk W F

2013-07-04

82

Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called 搘ater cultures had a simple composition and consisted of salts like KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, KHPO4, MgSO4, and

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt

2007-01-01

83

Plant Nutrients in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective nutrient management is essential in organic farming systems. Processed soluble fertilisers such as ammonium nitrate,\\u000a which feed the plant directly and are thought to bypass the natural processes of the soil, are not generally acceptable. Nutrient\\u000a supply to crop plants is supported through recycling, the management of biologically-related processes such as nitrogen fixation\\u000a by clover and other legumes, and

Keith Goulding; Elizabeth Stockdale; Christine Watson

84

REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...

85

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

86

Nutrients in a calcareous soil affected by Cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calcareous soil (Haploxeroll calcic) was amended in two different forms according with the standard nutritional requirements of tomato plant. The treatments applied were: i) an organic fertilization applying sewage sludge (SS), ii) an inorganic fertilization (IN) using mineral fertilizers (NPK), and iii) a treatment called W where no fertilizer was applied. For each treatment, cadmium (Cd) pollution was added

Raul Moral; Jose Navarro Pedre駉; Joaquin Moreno Caselles; Ignacio G髆ez; Jorge Mataix Solera

1998-01-01

87

Animal-plant-soil nutrient relationships on Marion Island (Subantarctic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manuring by the many seals and seabirds forms the major source of N and P to the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem and plants at manured sites exhibit enhanced vitality and increased N and P contents in their leaf tissue and saps. A similar effect results from small applications of NPK fertilizer. Non-manured soils possess very low levels of available N

V. R. Smith

1978-01-01

88

Nutrient enrichment and nutrient regeneration stimulate bacterioplankton growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial abundance results from predatory losses of individuals and replacement of losses through growth. Growth depends on sustained input of organic substrates and mineral nutrients. In this work we tested the hypothesis that bacterial growth in two oligotrophic Canadian shield lakes was limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). We also determined whether consumer-regenerated resources contributed substantially to net bacterial

T. H. Chrzanowski; R. W. Sterner; J. J. Elser

1995-01-01

89

Nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing knowledge of nutrient limitation for mangrove species and how mangroves adapt to low nutrients, there is\\u000a scant information about the relative importance of N:P ratio and leaf phenolics variability in determining nutrient conservation.\\u000a In this study, we evaluated possible nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation. 1. The leaf nutrient concentrations of R.

Yi-Ming Lin; Xiao-Wei Liu; Hui Zhang; Hang-Qing Fan; Guang-Hui Lin

2010-01-01

90

DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

91

SUMMING NUTRIENTS FOR BONE HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States Surgeon General issued the first report on osteoporosis in Americans in 2004 with a major emphasis on prevention through better nutrition. The first set of Dietary Reference Intakes in 1997 made recommendations for those nutrients most closely associated with promoting and mainta...

92

Stillage processing for nutrient recovery  

SciTech Connect

Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

1983-06-01

93

Nutrient retranslocation in temperate conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Controversy exists about the relationship between retranslocation from leaves and uptake from soil in the mineral nutrition of trees. Evidence is presented to show that uncertainty has arisen partly because the significance of retranslocation from young leaves has been overlooked. Retranslocated nutrients are important for the production of new tissues at all stages of development from the seedling to

E. K. SADANANDAN NAMBIAR; DAVID N. FIFE

1991-01-01

94

Hunting Nutrients and Trapping Carbon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fertility is enhanced directly by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) efficiently absorbing the maximum amount of nutrients available and indirectly by formation of stabilized soil aggregates. Glomalin is sticky, not easily soluble substance, on AMF hyphae and provides a protective coating to b...

95

Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50爕ears ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens

2003-01-01

96

On-Line Wastewater Nutrient Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identifying and testing continuous monitoring technologies to track and control nutrients in source and product waters, including treated effluents, is important to achieving further reduction of nutrients in the aquatic environment. In 2005, the U.S. EPA...

J. McKernan

2009-01-01

97

Aerobic Decomposition of Algae and Nutrient Regeneration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents definitive hypotheses for natural aerobic algal decomposition and nutrient regeneration. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the refractory organic fraction of algae in the decay and nutrient regeneration processes. Other variabl...

W. J. Jewell P. L. McCarty

1968-01-01

98

NUTRIENT CYCLING IN FORAGE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient cycling in forage production systems is complicated and crucial; complicated, because elements can exist in many forms and are affected by both biological and physical processes, and crucial, because nutrients affect productivity, profitability, and environmental sustainability of forage sy...

99

Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo

2005-01-01

100

Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo

2004-01-01

101

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids meals was assessed...

102

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

103

Nutrient Content of Single Muscle Pork Cuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...

104

Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

1997-01-01

105

Nutrient mobilization and yield of soybean genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from leaf and carpel tissue during seed growth was estimated for 18 diverse, field?grown soybean lines and cultivars during two years. The objective was to determine whether lines differed in nutrient mobilization and, if so, whether such differences were related to yielding ability.Lines differed in nutrient concentration and tissue mass and in nutrient content,

Gregory L. Loberg; Richard Shibles; D. E. Green; J. J. Hanway

1984-01-01

106

Seed Treatment With EM and Micronutrients for Controlling Rice and Maize Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine whether seed treatment of rice and maize with Effective Microorganisms (EM) and micro nutrients could reduce the incidence of disease and parasite injury, and prevent nutrient imbalances after germination. Potassium and certain micro nutrient metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) are essential activators of enzyme systems for the biosynthesis of organic compounds in plants.

A. M. Primavesi; Fazenda Ecol骻ica; Ita SP Brazil

107

Biomass and nutrient allocation of sawgrass and cattail along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and nutrient allocation in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) were examined along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades in 1994. This north to south nutrient gradient, created by discharging nutrient-rich agricultural runoff into the northern region of Water Conservatio ea 2A, was represented by three areas (impacted, transitional and reference). Contrasting changes of plant

S. L. Miao; F. H. Sklar

1997-01-01

108

Protein accumulation and composition in wheat grains: Effects of mineral nutrients and high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of mineral nutrition and temperature on accumulation and composition of protein in wheat grains and on baking quality were studied under controlled environments. Under a moderate temperature regimen of 24癈 days and 17癈 nights (24\\/17癈), post-anthesis N:P:K 20:20:20 (NPK) supplied by continuous drip irrigation increased the rate of protein accumulation, doubled flour protein percentage and slightly increased final single

Frances M. Dupont; William J. Hurkman; William H. Vensel; Charlene Tanaka; Kerry M. Kothari; Okkyung K. Chung; Susan B. Altenbach

2006-01-01

109

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

110

A mechanistic model for predicting the nutrient requirements and feed biological values for sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Pro- tein System (CNCPS), a mechanistic model that pre- dicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for cattle, was modified for use with sheep. Pub- lished equations were added for predicting the energy and protein requirements of sheep, with a special em- phasis on dairy sheep, whose specific needs are not considered by most

A. Cannas; L. O. Tedeschi; D. G. Fox; A. N. Pell; P. J. Van Soest

111

Characterization of selected nutrients and bacteria from anaerobic swine manure lagoons on sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the Mid-South USA.  

PubMed

Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) production in the Mid-South USA comprises sow, nursery, and finisher farms. A 2007 packing plant closure started a regional shift from finisher to sow and nursery farms. Changes in manure stored in lagoons and land-applied as fertilizer were expected but were unknown because nutrient and bacterial levels had not been characterized by farm type. The objectives of this study were to quantify selected nutrients and bacteria, compare levels by farm types, and project impacts of production shifts. Nutrients and bacteria were characterized in 17 sow, 10 nursery, and 10 finisher farm lagoons. Total and thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers, Enterococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber) Hauduroy et al., Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. Highest levels were from total coliforms (1.4- 5.7x10(5) cfu 100 mL(-1)), which occurred with E. coli, Campylobacter spp., C. perfringens, and Enterococcus spp., in every lagoon and virtually every sample. Lowest levels were from Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. (NPK and N:P and suggest modification of nutrient management plans. PMID:19875798

McLaughlin, Michael R; Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir

2009-10-29

112

Stimulation of hybrid poplar growth in petroleum-contaminated soils through oxygen addition and soil nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34) were grown in a green-house using hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from a phytoremediation demonstration site in Health, Ohio. Two independent experiments investigated the effect of nutrient addition on poplar growth and the importance of oxygen addition to root development and plant growth. Biomass measurements, poplar height, and leaf color were used as indicators of plant health in the selection of a 10/5/5 NPK fertilizer applied at 1121 kg/ha (112 kg-N, 24.4 kg-P, 46.5 kg-K per ha) to enhance hybrid poplar growth at the Health site. Five passive methods of oxygen delivery were examined, including aeration tubes, gravel addition, and an Oxygen Release Compound (ORC). When ORC was placed in coffee filters above hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, a statistically significant increase of 145% was observed in poplar biomass growth, relative to unamended controls. The ORC in filters also stimulated significant increases in root density. A 15.2-cm interval of soil directly below ORC addition exhibited an increase from 2.6 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3 to 4.8 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3, showing stimulation of root growth in hydrocarbon-stained soil. The positive response of hybrid poplars to oxygen amendments suggests that overcoming oxygen limitation to plants should be considered in phytoremediation projects when soil contamination exerts a high biochemical oxygen demand, such as in former refinery sites. PMID:12710235

Rentz, Jeremy A; Chapman, Brad; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

2003-01-01

113

Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared to prior studies of the other three NOAA-managed reference marshes in the Hudson Valley. The data supplements carbon content data (presented in a companion poster) to estimate the carbon cycling and sequestration capacity of the Marsh sediments. Nutrient data is being collected as one component of a broad ecological and geochemical study of the Marsh and its adaptation to human influence (see companion posters on carbon cycling and habitat utilization in the Marsh). All data were collected and analyzed as part of Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program, which engages NYC high school teachers and students in research in the Hudson/Raritan estuarine environment.

Diaz, K.; Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.

2011-12-01

114

N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT115 clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming

G. Crespo; I. Rodriguez; O. Martinez

2009-01-01

115

Regulation of Nutrient Transport across the Placenta  

PubMed Central

Abnormal fetal growth, both growth restriction and overgrowth, is associated with perinatal complications and an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose.

Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa L.

2012-01-01

116

Nutrient intake, adiposity, and diabetes.  

PubMed Central

To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of glucose tolerance correlated positively with the degree of adiposity but tended to be negatively correlated with total food energy intake and its component nutrients (total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fat). This inverse trend was largely accounted for by highly significant inverse correlations between food energy intake and adiposity, a relation found in both sexes and in all three population samples and which extended across the whole range of nutrient intake and BMI. These findings suggest that greater degrees of adiposity are associated with lower than average food energy intakes and hence lower total energy expenditures. The association of increased adiposity with low food energy consumption may indicate an underlying "low energy throughput" state, and it may be the mechanisms of this, as well as the obesity, that are responsible for disease.

Keen, H; Thomas, B J; Jarrett, R J; Fuller, J H

1979-01-01

117

Utilization of Energy Nutrients by Cerebellar Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an ontogenetic study about the utilization of glycine, glutamine, -hydroxybutyrate and glycerol as energy nutrients by rat cerebellum slices. Production of CO2 from glycerol and glutamine increased with the animals' age and glutamine was the most used nutrient for CO2 production. In adult age, glutamine oxidation to CO2 was 15 to 35 times higher than all other nutrients

Liane N. Rotta; Sandra C. Valle; Ingrid Schweigert; Luciana Dei Ricardi; Maria E. Ferronatto; Luciane da Silva; Diogo O. Souza; Marcos L. S. Perry

2002-01-01

118

Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

Evans, R. D.

1994-11-01

119

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.

2008-01-11

120

NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

1987-01-01

121

Do nutrient-competition models predict nutrient availabilities in limnetic ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theory on resource competition, predicated on the importance of hypothesized trade-offs between minimum requirements\\u000a for nutrient resources, predicts that there should be negative correlations between the supply rate of major limiting nutrients\\u000a and the availability of at least some secondary nutrients and\\/or among the availabilities of different limiting nutrients.\\u000a However, an analysis of four data sets from large-scale surveys

Mathew A. Leibold

1997-01-01

122

Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3 year field study was conducted with field corn from 2005 to 2007 to test the hypothesis that microbial inoc- ulants that increase plant growth and yield can enhance nutrient uptake, and thereby remove more nutrients, especially N, P, and K from the field as part of an integrated nutrient management system. The field trial evaluated microbial inoculants, which

A. O. Adesemoye; H. A. Torbert; J. W. Kloepper

2008-01-01

123

Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused

Adam Drewnowski; Victor Fulgoni

2008-01-01

124

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT WITH A LINKED MODELING SYSTEM: CALIBRATION OF AQUATOX ACROSS A NUTRIENT GRADIENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are leading causes of water quality impairment in the Nation's rivers, lakes and estuaries. To address this problem, states need the technical resources to establish nutrient criteria, adopt them into their water quality standards, and implement them in regulatory programs. In recent years EPA developed and finalized a series of nutrient criteria documents to assist the

Richard A. Park; Jonathan S. Clough; Marjorie C. Wellman; Anthony S. Donigian

125

Procedures for Estimating Nutrient Values for Food Composition Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used to assess the nutrient content of diets, recipes, or commercial food products, a nutrient database should provide a complete nutrient profile for each food in the database. Chemical analyses for a wide range of nutrients in the many foods included in a database are not always practical. Therefore, some nutrient values must be estimated. Common methods for estimating

Sally F. Schakel; I. Marilyn Buzzard; Susan E. Gebhardt

1997-01-01

126

Nutrient flow in a major urban settlement: Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient balance is established for the contemporary urban ecosystem of Hong Kong. The flow of nutrients in the Hong Kong food system in particular is examined, including current and potential nutrient recycling patterns. Losses of nutrients in food for human consumption are found to be up to 20% for major nutrients. The flow of mineral phosphorus in the Hong

Ken Newcombel

1977-01-01

127

Ecosystem functioning in the German bight under continental nutrient inputs by rivers  

SciTech Connect

The functioning of the German Bight ecosystem is determined largely by nutrient fluxes in and out of the system from the central and southern North Sea; by nutrient inputs through direct continental river runoff into the German Bight (Elbe, Weser, and Ems rivers); and by atmospheric nutrient inputs originating from land. The nutrient situation is assessed by estimating from available data. For the entire North Sea, the total input of phosphorus increased by 7.7% and nitrogen by about 11.4% from 1950 to 1980. The percentage of Atlantic input of phosphorus into the entire North Sea decreased from 91% to 85%, while river input increased from 2% to 13%. In the continental coastal strip the total inputs increased by 80%. The share of river input increased to 52%, both for phosphorus (1950: 14%) and nitrogen (1950: 20%). Of the winter nutrient content of the upper 30 m of the North Sea 33.5% of phosphate and 16.1% of nitrate are taken up by algae until summer. About 50% of total new production is generated in the coastal areas, with 32.8% of the volume and 34.4% of the area of the North Sea. In the German Bight, phosphate and nitrate concentrations increased during the last four decades. At Helgoland the five-year-medians of phosphate and nitrate increased by a factor of 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. As the nutrient inputs by river discharges are only slightly larger than advective contributions, the nutrient concentrations rose comparatively slowly. Diatoms stagnated and flagellates increased 10-fold. Common winter values in the early 1980s resemble those during summer blooms in the early 1960's. The German Bight ecosystem has changed drastically on all time scales under the anthropogenic nutrient inputs during the last 40 years; the plankton system is no longer in an annual quasiperiodic state.54 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Radach, G. (Universitaet Hamburg (Germany))

1992-12-01

128

Nutrient regulation of endocrine function in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones play a central role in the regulation of growth and nutrient utilization in fish. Consequently, fish endocrine systems are sensitive to alterations in nutrient intake. Procedures routinely employed in the development of diets and feeding protocols for cultured fish have pronounced effects on endocrine systems. We review the evidence that alterations in ration level (including food restriction and food

Duncan S MacKenzie; Cinnamon Moore VanPutte; Kevin A Leiner

1998-01-01

129

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SOLANACEOUS VEGETABLE CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solanaceous group of vegetables (tomato, eggplant, chili and bell peppers) generally take up large amounts of nutrients. The amount of nutrients they take up depends on the quan- tity of fruit and dry matter they produce, which in turn is influenced by a number of genetic and environmental variables. For tomato to produce 1 mt of fresh fruit, plants

D. M. Hegde

130

REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES FOR MANURE NUTRIENT LOADED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Many soils in the United States contain excessive levels of nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), due to repeated heavy applications of animal manure. Also, soils with a history of long-term poultry litter or swine manure applications have elevated levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and arsenic (As). Runoff and eroded soils carry dissolved and sediment-associated nutrients to wa-

Hailin Zhang; Thanh H. Dao; Nicholas T. Basta; Elizabeth A. Dayton; Tommy C. Daniel

131

Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships.

D. L. DeAngelis; P. J. Mulholland; A. V. Palumbo; A. D. Steinman; M. A. Huston; J. W. Elwood

1989-01-01

132

Urban Nutrient Balance Modelling Parameterized for Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the options for recycling of nutrients from mega-cities to agricultural land, a nutrient balance model was developed. The parameterization was established for Bangkok Province and considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To estimate the food supply, the most decisive model parameter, an online database (FAOSTAT) estimating supply at country levels, was employed. It is argued that disaggregation to

Jakob Magid; Frits W. T. Penning de Vries

1998-01-01

133

Nutrient losses in surface irrigation runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from surface-irrigated fields is typically managed to improve infiltration uniformity by reducing differences in infiltration opportunity times between the upper and lower ends of fields. Runoff water not used on other fields within an irrigation tract is discharged to streams or rivers, along with sediment and nutrients. Return flow nutrient and sediment concentrations may be greater than in the

D. L. Bjorneberg; D. T. Westermann; J. K. Aase

134

On the source of Gulf Stream nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along density surfaces, nutrient concentrations in the Gulf Stream are elevated relative to concentrations to either side of the current. We assess the source of these elevated nutrient concentrations in the western boundary current using historical hydrographic data. The analysis is extended to the separated Gulf Stream with four hydrographic sections recently occupied as part of the Climate Variability and

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier

2008-01-01

135

On the source of Gulf Stream nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Along density surfaces, nutrient concentrations in the Gulf Stream are elevated relative to concentrations to either side of the current. We assess the source of these elevated nutrient concentrations in the western boundary current using historical hydrographic data. The analysis is extended to the separated Gulf Stream with four hydrographic sections recently occupied as part of the Climate Variability

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier

2008-01-01

136

Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...

137

Acidic deposition, nutrient leaching and forest growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Germany and confirmed in North America established that the forest decline that developed in the late 1970's and 80's resulted from a deficiency in one or more of the nutrient cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. These nutrients are essential to the structure of the foliage, to photosynthesis and to the growth of the trees. The reactions and mechanisms

George H. Tomlinson

2003-01-01

138

NUTRIENT BIOAVAILABILITY IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt affected soils limit crop yields around the world. Knowledge of how nutrient availability is affected in plants growing on salt affected soils is important in adopting appropriate management practices to satisfy plants nutritional requirements and improve yields to meet food demands of increasing world populations. In the salt affected environment plants required to absorb essential nutrients from a dilute

N. K. Fageria; H. R. Gheyi; A. Moreira

2011-01-01

139

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods using this new and improved ... items. In addition, you can now access the USDA Ground Beef Calculator from the same search page. ...

140

NUTRIENTS IN WATERSHEDS; DEVELOPING ENHANCED MODELING TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment is one of the most detrimental stressors causing water-resource impairment. Of systems surveyed and reported as impaired, 40% of rivers, 51% of lakes, and 57% of estuaries listed nutrients as a primary cause of impairment (USEPA, 1996). In many cases, these ...

141

WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH PLANTS IN NUTRIENT FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...

142

SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)|

Hedgepeth, David J.

1995-01-01

143

Soil nutrient balances: what use for policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of the nutrient budget and balance approach from a range of settings and scales in Africa. The paper asks: can such analyses help in the design of effective policy which supports improved soil fertility management by Africa's small-holder farmers? Through the examination of existing studies, the paper highlights some of the difficulties with nutrient budget

I Scoones; C Toulmin

1998-01-01

144

Nutrient recycling affects autotroph and ecosystem stoichiometry.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric nutrient ratios are the consequence of myriad interacting processes, both biotic and abiotic. Theoretical explanations for autotroph stoichiometry have focused on species' nutrient requirements but have not addressed the role of nutrient availability in determining autotroph stoichiometry. Remineralization of organic N and P supplies a significant fraction of inorganic N and P to autotrophs, making nutrient recycling a potentially important process influencing autotroph stoichiometry. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between available N and P, autotroph N:P, and nutrient recycling, we analyze a stoichiometrically explicit model of autotroph growth, incorporating Michaelis-Menten-Monod nutrient uptake kinetics, Droop growth, and Liebig's law of the minimum. If autotroph growth is limited by a single nutrient, increased recycling of the limiting nutrient pushes autotrophs toward colimitation and alters both autotroph and environmental stoichiometry. We derive a steady state relationship between input stoichiometry, autotroph N:P, and the stoichiometry of organic losses that allows us to estimate the relative recycling of N to P within an ecosystem. We then estimate relative N and P recycling for a marine, an aquatic, and two terrestrial ecosystems. Preferential P recycling, in conjunction with greater relative P retention at the organismal and ecosystem levels, presents a strong case for the importance of P to biomass production across ecosystems. PMID:20374138

Ballantyne, Ford; Menge, Duncan N L; Ostling, Annette; Hosseini, Parviez

2008-04-01

145

Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability  

SciTech Connect

The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships. What are the effects of limiting nutrients on the stability of ecosystem food webs Most of the literature on food web stability centers around the dynamics of population numbers and/or biomasses. Nevertheless, a growing body of theoretical and empirical research considers the role that both nutrient limitation and recycling can play in stability. In this paper, it is the authors objective to summarize the current understanding of several important types of stability. The theoretical and empirical evidence relating these types of stability and nutrient cycling is described. A central generalization is produced in each case.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Palumbo, A.V.; Steinman, A.D.; Huston, M.A.; Elwood, J.W. (Environmental Sciences Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1989-01-01

146

Nutrient-rich foods: applying nutrient navigation systems to improve public health.  

PubMed

The American diet is high in calories, but low in nutrients. To help consumers obtain more nutrition from the calories they consume, research is underway to develop a nutrient profiling approach that can be used to evaluate individual foods and help people build healthful diets. A nutrient profiling system that rates individual foods based on their nutrient content needs to be both science-driven and user-friendly, allowing consumers to make more healthful food choices within and across all the food groups. A recent survey, commissioned by the Nutrient Rich Food Coalition, reveals that the majority of consumers and nutrition professionals believe that better information about a food's total combined nutrient content would be effective and useful in helping them make more nutrient-rich food choices. PMID:19021805

Drewnowski, A; Fulgoni, V L; Young, M K; Pitman, S

2008-11-01

147

21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims ...method for assaying the nutrient in the particular food. The validation data...actual level of the nutrient in the food qualifies the...

2010-04-01

148

21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims ...method for assaying the nutrient in the particular food. The validation data...actual level of the nutrient in the food qualifies the...

2009-04-01

149

SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

150

Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake.  

PubMed

The metabolic machinery of marine microbes can be remarkably plastic, allowing organisms to persist under extreme nutrient limitation. With some exceptions, most theoretical approaches to nutrient uptake in phytoplankton are largely dominated by the classic Michaelis-Menten (MM) uptake functional form, whose constant parameters cannot account for the observed plasticity in the uptake apparatus. Following seminal ideas by earlier researchers, we propose a simple cell-level model based on a dynamic view of the uptake process whereby the cell can regulate the synthesis of uptake proteins in response to changes in both internal and external nutrient concentrations. In our flexible approach, the maximum uptake rate and nutrient affinity increase monotonically as the external nutrient concentration decreases. For low to medium nutrient availability, our model predicts uptake and growth rates larger than the classic MM counterparts, while matching the classic MM results for large nutrient concentrations. These results have important consequences for global coupled models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, which lack this regulatory mechanism and are thus likely to underestimate phytoplankton abundances and growth rates in oligotrophic regions of the ocean. PMID:22143781

Bonachela, Juan A; Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon A

2011-12-05

151

Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake  

PubMed Central

The metabolic machinery of marine microbes can be remarkably plastic, allowing organisms to persist under extreme nutrient limitation. With some exceptions, most theoretical approaches to nutrient uptake in phytoplankton are largely dominated by the classic Michaelis朚enten (MM) uptake functional form, whose constant parameters cannot account for the observed plasticity in the uptake apparatus. Following seminal ideas by earlier researchers, we propose a simple cell-level model based on a dynamic view of the uptake process whereby the cell can regulate the synthesis of uptake proteins in response to changes in both internal and external nutrient concentrations. In our flexible approach, the maximum uptake rate and nutrient affinity increase monotonically as the external nutrient concentration decreases. For low to medium nutrient availability, our model predicts uptake and growth rates larger than the classic MM counterparts, while matching the classic MM results for large nutrient concentrations. These results have important consequences for global coupled models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, which lack this regulatory mechanism and are thus likely to underestimate phytoplankton abundances and growth rates in oligotrophic regions of the ocean.

Bonachela, Juan A.; Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon A.

2011-01-01

152

Nutrient spiralling in streams: implications for nutrient limitation and invertebrate activity  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient cycling in streams occurs in conjunction with downstream transport as spatially distributed process that has been termed spiralling. The intensity of reutilization of nutrients as they pass downstream can be quantified in terms of the length of stream required for a nutrient atom to complete one (abstract) cycle; this distance is termed the spiralling length. The model for steady-state spiralling of a limiting nutrient predicts that most of the downstream transport of nutrient occurs in particulate or unavailable form when nutrient limitation is severe; in this case, transportability of particulates is a major determinant of spiralling length. On the other hand, when nutrient limitation is moderated by density-dependent mechanisms, transport in the dissolved phase dominates, and transportability of particles has little influence on spiralling length. The potential role of invertebrate consumers in controlling spiralling was investigated by considering their influence on regeneration, transportability, and uptake of nutrients. Functional processes of grazing and filter feeding appear most likely to shorten spiralling length when nutrient limitation is severe, while the process of shredding is more likely to shorten spiralling length when nutrient limitation is weak. In some cases there may be levels of consumer activity at which spiralling length is minimized.

Newbold, J.D.; O'Neill, R.V.; Elwood, J.W.; Van Winkle, W.

1982-11-01

153

Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused on nutrients to limit, others have emphasized nutrients known to be beneficial to health, or some combination of both. Although nutrient profile models are often tailored to specific goals, the development process ought to follow the same science-driven rules. These include the selection of index nutrients and reference amounts, the development of an appropriate algorithm for calculating nutrient density, and the validation of the chosen nutrient profile model against healthy diets. It is extremely important that nutrient profiles be validated rather than merely compared to prevailing public opinion. Regulatory agencies should act only when they are satisfied that the scientific process has been followed, that the algorithms are transparent, and that the profile model has been validated with respect to objective measures of a healthy diet. PMID:18254882

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor

2008-01-01

154

Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the爊eedles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; P鋜n, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

2011-03-05

155

Nutrient-Contaminant (Pu) Plant Accumulation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increas...

C. E. Cowan E. A. Jenne J. C. Simpson D. A. Cataldo

1981-01-01

156

Predator control of ecosystem nutrient dynamics.  

PubMed

Predators are predominantly valued for their ability to control prey, as indicators of high levels of biodiversity and as tourism attractions. This view, however, is incomplete because it does not acknowledge that predators may play a significant role in the delivery of critical life-support services such as ecosystem nutrient cycling. New research is beginning to show that predator effects on nutrient cycling are ubiquitous. These effects emerge from direct nutrient excretion, egestion or translocation within and across ecosystem boundaries after prey consumption, and from indirect effects mediated by predator interactions with prey. Depending on their behavioural ecology, predators can create heterogeneous or homogeneous nutrient distributions across natural landscapes. Because predator species are disproportionately vulnerable to elimination from ecosystems, we stand to lose much more from their disappearance than their simple charismatic attractiveness. PMID:20602626

Schmitz, Oswald J; Hawlena, Dror; Trussell, Geoffrey C

2010-10-01

157

Stability Indicators for Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of models for nutrient cycling in ecosystems are examined, both numerically and analytically, to determine ecosystem responses to perturbations. The structure of the decomposer-detritus dynamics is found to play a governing role in the stability...

M. Dudzik J. Harte D. Levy J. Sandusky

1975-01-01

158

Single Nutrient Effects on Immunological Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immune system dysfunction can result from single nutrient deficiencies or excesses, alone, or in combination with generalized protein-energy malnutrition. Acquired immune dysfunctions occur in man during deficiencies of iron, zinc, vitamins A and B12, pyr...

W. R. Beisel R. Edelman K. Nauss R. M. Suskind

1980-01-01

159

NRMRL'S NUTRIENT-RELATED RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic loadings of nutrients into our Nation's atmosphere, aquatic, and terrestrial ecosystems have increased dramatically within the past few decades. Environmental impairments associated with this over fertilization include aquatic habitat loss due to low dissolved oxyge...

160

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

161

Algal Nutrient Studies of the Potomac Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nutrient requirements of the phytoplankton of the Potomac Estuary were studied during the summer of 1977 employing the following laboratory tests: NH4(t)-N uptake, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity; extractable surplus orthophosphate; tissue analys...

J. L. Slayton E. R. Trovato

1977-01-01

162

Signaling crosstalk: integrating nutrient availability and sex.  

PubMed

In yeast, the mating response pathway is activated when a peptide pheromone binds to a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, which leads to the activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and the stimulation of mating behavior. However, when nutrients in the environment are limiting, stimulation of the mating response would be maladaptive. A study indicates that the signaling pathways that respond to nutrient availability dampen the mating response by directly phosphorylating Gpa1, the G protein ? subunit that initiates the mating response pathway. Snf1, the yeast homolog of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, is a highly conserved kinase that maintains energy homeostasis in response to nutrient limitation. The study found that the upstream kinases and phosphatase that control the activity of Snf1 also act on Gpa1 and provide a direct means to coordinate cell behavior and integrate the mating response with nutrient sensing. PMID:24003253

Schmidt, Martin C

2013-09-03

163

Species performance: The relationship between nutrient availability ...  

Treesearch

Jul 21, 2013... between nutrient availability, life history traits and stress [Chapter 8] ... determine how a species affects and responds to the environment, life history traits that ... We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the...

164

Nutrient-Uptake Model in Marsh Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanistic models of nutrient dynamics in natural wetlands were developed and applied in a study of Kissimmee River (Florida) flood-plain marshes. The models describe hydrodynamics and transport diffusion in wetland basins and the ecological processes of...

L. A. Burns R. B. Taylor

1979-01-01

165

10. Ap閚dice B: Requisitos adicionales para nutrientes ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Afirmaciones que utilizan el t閞mino "antioxidante". Para las afirmaciones que caracterizan el nivel de nutrientes antioxidantes de un alimento: ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

166

Palaeoecology: Megafauna as a nutrient pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the Pleistocene epoch saw the extinction of large-bodied herbivores around the world. Numerical modelling suggests that continental-scale effects of this extinction on nutrient transport are ongoing.

Daufresne, Tanguy

2013-09-01

167

Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. [1-3] After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.[1,3] Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements) has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms) for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

Kerksick, Chad M; Leutholtz, Brian

2005-01-01

168

Nutrient Contribution of Food Away From Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased popularity of dining out has raised some concerns about its impact on diet quality. Between 1977-78 and 1994-95, away-from-home foods showed smaller nutritional improvements than foods at home. Away-from-home foods generally contain more of the nutrients overconsumed and less of the nutrients undercon- sumed in the United States. Since there is no expectation that the trend toward increased

Biing-Hwan Lin; Joanne Guthrie; Elizabeth Fraz鉶

169

Nutrient availability links mitochondria, apoptosis, and obesity  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are the dominant source of the cellular energy requirements through oxidative phosphorylation, but they are also central players in apoptosis. Nutrient availability may have been the main evolutionary driving force behind these opposite mitochondrial functions: production of energy to sustain life and release of apoptotic proteins to trigger cell death. Here, we explore the link between nutrients, mitochondria and apoptosis with known and potential implications for age-related decline and metabolic syndromes.

Pintus, Francesca; Floris, Giovanni; Rufini, Alessandro

2012-01-01

170

A mathematical model of plant nutrient uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

.牋 The classical model of plant root nutrient uptake due to Nye, Tinker and Barber is developed and extended. We provide an\\u000a explicit closed formula for the uptake by a single cylindrical root for all cases of practical interest by solving the absorption-diffusion\\u000a equation for the soil nutrient concentration asymptotically in the limit of large time. We then use this

T. Roose; A. C. Fowler; P. R. Darrah

2001-01-01

171

Nutrient-Responsive Plant microRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Being sessile, plants have to cope with many adverse environmental changes, including changing nutrient availability. Adequate\\u000a availability of mineral macronutrients (e.g., N, P, K, S) and micronutrients (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn) in the soil and their acquisition\\u000a are vitally important for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Too little or too much of the nutrients negatively\\u000a affects these traits and hence

Wolf-R黡iger Scheible; Bikram Datt Pant; Magdalena Musialak-Lange; Przemyslaw Nuc

172

Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river\\/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and\\/or

Jing Zhang

1996-01-01

173

Nutrient fluxes from water to land: seabirds affect plant nutrient status on Gulf of California islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and nutrient fluxes across habitat boundaries can exert profound direct and indirect effects on the dynamics of recipient\\u000a systems. Transport from land to water is common and well studied; here, we document a less recognized process, substantial\\u000a flows from water to land. On hyperarid, naturally nutrient poor islands in the Gulf of California, nutrient input via seabird\\u000a guano directly

Wendy B. Anderson; Gary A. Polis

1999-01-01

174

Ecosystem Nutrient Use Efficiency, Productivity, and Nutrient Accrual in Model Tropical Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem nutrient use efficiency杢he ratio of net primary productivity to soil nutrient supply杋s an integrative measure\\u000a of ecosystem functioning. High productivity and nutrient retention in natural systems are frequently attributed to high species\\u000a diversity, even though some single-species systems can be highly productive and effective at resource capture. We investigated\\u000a the effects of both individual species and life-form diversity on

Ankila J. Hiremath; John J. Ewel

2001-01-01

175

Spatial variability in nutrient concentration and biofilm nutrient limitation in an urban watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient enrichment threatens river ecosystem health in urban watersheds, but the influence of urbanization on spatial variation\\u000a in nutrient concentrations and nutrient limitation of biofilm activity are infrequently measured simultaneously. In summer\\u000a 2009, we used synoptic sampling to measure spatial patterns of nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?), ammonium (NH4\\u000a +), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration, flux, and instantaneous yield throughout the

Timothy J. HoelleinClay; Clay P. Arango; Yana Zak

176

Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the 慴oss cow of the nutrient herd and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken

1995-01-01

177

Evaluating NUTMON nutrient balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient balances for the last two decades in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) reveal, almost unequivocally, alarming nutrient deficiencies. The nutrient balancing in SSA was initiated by Stoorvogel and Smaling [Report 28, Winand Staring Centre, 1990] and Smaling et al. [Fert. Res. 35 (2003) 237]. Their nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) concept is conducted as input杘utput analysis. Inputs are fertilizers, mineral and organic, wet

Jens F鎟ge; Jakob Magid

2004-01-01

178

Geologic sources of nutrients for aquatic ecosystems (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient inputs from geologic materials are not typically considered an ecologically significant source of nutrients for freshwater aquatic ecosystems. However, in volcanic terrains where regional groundwater interacts with volcanic and underlying sedimentary deposits, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from geologic sources can provide ecologically significant inputs of nutrients to fuel aquatic food webs. The Big Springs-Shasta River complex emanating from the

R. A. Dahlgren; C. Jeffres; A. L. Nichols; M. Deas; A. Willis; J. Mount

2010-01-01

179

Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the introduction of benthivorous fish, nutrient loss may be reduced, because of the re-mobilisation of nutrients

M. M. Rahman

2006-01-01

180

Effects of whole-tree harvesting on nutrient supplies and nutrient cycles in a forest ecosystem: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive harvesting, whole-tree harvesting, and complete-tree utilization are being incorporated into management plans. Plants require sixteen or more nutrients. To determine impacts of intensive harvesting, research has begun to investigate nutrient losses associated with the removal of harvested material. Research efforts are focusing on quantifying direct nutrient loss from removal of additional biomass and identifying direct nutrient losses associated with

Lyman

1982-01-01

181

Spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient loads, nutrient concentrations, and algal biomass in Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, exemplifies the severity of eutrophication problems in rapidly developing regions. We used long term land use, water quality, and hydrologic data from 26 in-lake and 32 tributary locations to describe the spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient loads, nutrient concentration, algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a), in Lake Taihu. Point and nonpoint sources, as

Yiping Li; Kumud Acharya; Mark C. Stone; Zhongbo Yu; Michael H. Young; David S. Shafer; Jianting Zhu; Karen Gray; Asako Stone; Lili Fan; Chunyan Tang; John Warwick

2011-01-01

182

Are nutrient databases and nutrient analysis systems ready for the International implications of nutrigenomics?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective is to discuss the implications internationally of the increased focus on nutrigenomics as the underlying basis for individualized health promotion and chronic disease prevention and the challenges presented to existing nutrient database and nutrient analysis systems by these trends. De...

183

WATER NUTRIENTS, PLANT NUTRIENTS, AND INDICATORS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL ON WATERHYACINTH AT TEXAS FIELD SITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) can take up water nutrients sufficient for growth under highly variable conditions. Few studies have linked water and plant nutrients to measures of biological control in field populations. Fifteen sites in coastal Texas were sampled in 2003 and 2...

184

YAQUINA ESTUARY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation provides an introduction to the Yaquina Estuary Nutrient Case Study which includes considerations for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consistin...

185

DEVELOPMENT OF SAV LOSS-NUTRIENT LOAD RELATIONSHIPS AND FACTORS WHICH CONTROL SAV RESPONSE TO NUTRIENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research aims to understand the relationship between SAV loss and nutrient loading (N and P). A set of models will be developed and used to examine how nutrients interact with the physical and biological components to affect the health of SAV populations. First, a literat...

186

Quality control procedures for the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies nutrient values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate dietary assessment depends on a high-quality food and nutrient database. While much progress has been made in the quality of analytical nutrient data, the area of database quality control remains largely uncovered. Increased automation of database maintenance and update processes necessitates stringent quality control procedures. A detailed quality control (QC) plan has advanced over the years and is in

Jaspreet K. C. Ahuja; Betty P. Perloff

2008-01-01

187

Assessment of nutrient budgets at regional scales based on spatially distributed water and nutrient balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the new European water framework directive nutrient emissions from point and diffuse sources have to be quantified for all river basins in the member states. The future management plans have to document measures by which a good status of surface water and groundwater quality can be achieved. A common strategy for prediction of management effects on nutrient emissions

M. Eisele; H. Behrendt; Ch. Leibundgut

2003-01-01

188

Symptoms of mineral nutrient deficiencies and the nutrient concentration ranges in seedlings of Eucalyptus maculata Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the establishment of plantation eucalypts around the world there is an increasing need for reference data which can be used to diagnose the nutrient status of eucalypt seedlings. Therefore, deletion glasshouse nutrient trials were set up in sand and solution culture to obtain deficiencies of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in the spotted

J. M. Robinson

1993-01-01

189

Nutrient budgeting as an approach for improving nutrient management on Australian dairy farms.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy farming in Australia continues to intensify. Increased stocking rates have resulted in increased milk production per ha, but have also required greater inputs of purchased feed and fertiliser. The imbalance between nutrient inputs, primarily as feed and fertiliser, and nutrient outputs, in mil...

190

Modeling the Response of Nutrient Concentrations and Primary Productivity in Lake Michigan to Nutrient Loading Scenarios  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality model, LM3 Eutro, will be used to estimate the response of nutrient concentrations and primary productivity in Lake Michigan to nutrient loading scenarios. This work is part of a larger effort, the Future Midwestern landscapes study, that will estimate the produc...

191

Porous tube plant nutrient delivery system development: A device for nutrient delivery in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System or PTPNDS (U. S. Patent #4,926,585) has been under development for the past six years with the goal of providing a means for culturing plants in microgravity, specifically providing water and nutrients to the roots. Direct applications of the PTPNDS include plant space biology investigations on the Space Shuttle and plant research for

T. W. Dreschel; C. S. Brown; W. C. Piastuch; C. R. Hinkle; W. M. Knott

1994-01-01

192

Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, Number 10: Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. Third Revised Edition, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report deals with the nutrient requirements of seven species of animals used extensively for biomedical research in the United States. Following an introductory chapter of general information on nutrition, chapters are presented on the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, gerbil, guinea pig, hamster, vole, and fishes. Each

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agricultural and Renewable Resources.

193

Experimental evidence that soil fauna enhance nutrient mineralization and plant nutrient uptake in montane grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This microcosm study is concerned with understanding those factors which regulate ecosystem processes of nutrient cycling and plant productivity in a montane grassland ecosystem. We examined the effects of different groups of soil fauna, namely bacterial-feeding nematodes and Collembola, on nutrient mineralization (N and P) in an acid, organic soil taken from a montane grassland in the Peak District National

Richard D Bardgett; Kin F Chan

1999-01-01

194

Nutrient Stream in the Kuroshio region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuroshio, the western boundary current in the western North Pacific, plays major roles in transporting heat and organic/inorganic materials from the subtropical region to the subarctic one. The impact of the Kuroshio on the neiboring ecosystem is doubtedly enormous as well as on climate changes through air-sea interactions, however the Kuroshio is generally recognized as a mere boundary between the oligotrophic Subtropical waters to the south and more productive Slope waters to the north. The three-dimensional structure of the ecosystem on the Kuroshio jet is not so clear in contrast to an accumulation of intensive studies on the productive enhancement at the frontal region. Our intensive observation in Apr. 2009 detected that nutrient (nitrate, silicate and phosphate) and AOU maxima are located along the jet on the isopycnal surface in the range of 24.5-26.5?? through the CTD and multi-samplings at intervals of 10 miles along the 5 lines transecting the Kuroshio in 137-141?E south of Japan. The nuitrient maximum along the Kuroshio jet is analogous to the characteristic structure well-known as Nutrient Stream found in the Gulf Stream region. Moreover, the characteristic nutrient/AOU structure similar to one observed in Apr. 2009 was detected in other regions by analysing historical hydrographic data obtained in spring extracted from JODC: in both the Kuroshio upstream region in the East China Sea and the downstream region along the Kuroshio Extension. The historical data indicates that the nutrient/AOU maxima along the Kuroshio jet are distributed starionarily in the whole region of the Kuroshio and their absolute values changes significantly year by year. The nutrient/AOU maxima along the Kuroshio jet seem related to three biogeochemical processes as follows. Firstly, the high nutrient/AOU water originated from the upstream and its surrounding regions is transported isopycnally along the Kuroshio to the downstream region. It can be estimated from the histrocal and climatological data. Secondly, supply of high nutrient/AOU water from the deeper (denser) layer to the target subserface layer is more intensive on the jet and its inshore side in comparison with suppy on the offshore subtropical side. The direct measurement of microstructure conducted in the cruise in Apr. 2009 indicated higher dyapicnal mixing on the jet and its inshore side. Thirdly, the strong baroclinicity inclines isobathes on the isopycnal surfaces; the water depth on the inshore side is much shalower than the offshore one. The nutrient consumption is more active in the inshore Slope water due to higher primaly production enhanced by sufficient irradiance as observed. Consequently the nutrient maximum seems to be formed along the Kuroshio jet on the isopycnal surfaces.

Komatsu, K.; Yasuda, I.; Itoh, S.; Ikeya, T.; Hidaka, K.; Yagi, M.; Nonomura, T.; Osafune, S.; Nishikawa, H.; Kaneko, H.

2010-12-01

195

Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123  

PubMed Central

Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role.

King, Janet C

2011-01-01

196

Microbial life at extremely low nutrient levels.  

PubMed

Many microorganisms ("oligotrophs") grow in distilled water: Pseudomonas spp., Caulobacter spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Seliberia spp., Bactoderma alba, Corynebacterium spp., Amycolata (Nocardia) autotrophica, Mycobacterium spp., yeasts, and Chlorella spp. Also, certain lower fungi can be found here. In the laboratory, these organisms thrive on contaminations of the air (CO, hydrocarbons, H2, alcohols etc.). All are euryosmotic and often grow also in higher concentrations of salts and nutrients. Natural locations with extremely low nutrient levels (snow, rain water pools, springs, free ocean water, Antarctic rocks and soils) do not contain more than 1-5 mg/l of organic carbon. Oligotrophs found here are especially adapted to constant famine: they frequently live attached to surfaces, form polymers and storage products even while starving, and often aggregate. Many of these oligotrophs alter their morphology (surface to volume ratio) with changing nutrient concentrations. Extreme oligotrophs also occur in generally nutrient-rich environments such as sewage aeration tanks or compost soil. Here they are thought to survive in nutrient-depauperate microhabitats. PMID:11537832

Hirsch, P

1986-01-01

197

Microbial life at extremely low nutrient levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many microorganisms (``oligotrophs'') grow in distilled water: Pseudomonas spp., Caulobacter spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Seliberia spp., Bactoderma alba, Corynebacterium spp., Amycolata (Nocardia) autotrophica, Mycobacterium spp., yeasts, and Chlorella spp. Also, certain lower fungi can be found here. In the laboratory, these organisms thrive on contaminations of the air (CO, hydrocarbons, H2, alcohols etc.). All are euryosmotic and often grow also in higher concentrations of salts and nutrients. Natural locations with extremely low nutrient levels (snow, rain water pools, springs, free ocean water, Antarctic rocks and soils) do not contain more than 1-5 mg/1 of organic carbon. Oligotrophs found here are especially adapted to constant famine: they frequently live attached to surfaces, form polymers and storage products even while starving, and often aggregate. Many of these oligotrophs alter their morphology (surface to volume ratio) with changing nutrient concentrations. Extreme oligotrophs also occur in generally nutrient-rich environments such as sewage aeration tanks or compost soil. Here they are thought to survive in nutrient-depauperate microhabitats.

Hirsch, P.

198

Nutrient excess stimulates ?-cell neogenesis in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Persistent nutrient excess results in a compensatory increase in the ?-cell number in mammals. It is unknown whether this response occurs in nonmammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish, a model for genetics and chemical genetics. We investigated the response of zebrafish ?-cells to nutrient excess and the underlying mechanisms by culturing transgenic zebrafish larvae in solutions of different nutrient composition. The number of ?-cells rapidly increases after persistent, but not intermittent, exposure to glucose or a lipid-rich diet. The response to glucose, but not the lipid-rich diet, required mammalian target of rapamycin activity. In contrast, inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in ?-cells blocked the response to the lipid-rich diet, but not to glucose. Lineage tracing and marker expression analyses indicated that the new ?-cells were not from self-replication but arose through differentiation of postmitotic precursor cells. On the basis of transgenic markers, we identified two groups of newly formed ?-cells: one with nkx2.2 promoter activity and the other with mnx1 promoter activity. Thus, nutrient excess in zebrafish induces a rapid increase in ?-cells though differentiation of two subpopulations of postmitotic precursor cells. This occurs through different mechanisms depending on the nutrient type and likely involves paracrine signaling between the differentiated ?-cells and the precursor cells. PMID:22721970

Maddison, Lisette A; Chen, Wenbiao

2012-06-20

199

Nutrient Excess Stimulates ?-Cell Neogenesis in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Persistent nutrient excess results in a compensatory increase in the ?-cell number in mammals. It is unknown whether this response occurs in nonmammalian vertebrates, including zebrafish, a model for genetics and chemical genetics. We investigated the response of zebrafish ?-cells to nutrient excess and the underlying mechanisms by culturing transgenic zebrafish larvae in solutions of different nutrient composition. The number of ?-cells rapidly increases after persistent, but not intermittent, exposure to glucose or a lipid-rich diet. The response to glucose, but not the lipid-rich diet, required mammalian target of rapamycin activity. In contrast, inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in ?-cells blocked the response to the lipid-rich diet, but not to glucose. Lineage tracing and marker expression analyses indicated that the new ?-cells were not from self-replication but arose through differentiation of postmitotic precursor cells. On the basis of transgenic markers, we identified two groups of newly formed ?-cells: one with nkx2.2 promoter activity and the other with mnx1 promoter activity. Thus, nutrient excess in zebrafish induces a rapid increase in ?-cells though differentiation of two subpopulations of postmitotic precursor cells. This occurs through different mechanisms depending on the nutrient type and likely involves paracrine signaling between the differentiated ?-cells and the precursor cells.

Maddison, Lisette A.; Chen, Wenbiao

2012-01-01

200

Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance is a major metabolic feature of obesity and is a key factor in the etiology of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms by which brief nutrient excess and obesity lead to insulin resistance and propose that these mechanisms of action are different but interrelated. We discuss how pathways that 搒ense nutrients within skeletal muscle are readily able to regulate insulin action. We then discuss how obesity leads to insulin resistance via a complex interplay among systemic fatty acid excess, microhypoxia in adipose tissue, ER stress, and inflammation. In particular, we focus on the hypothesis that the macrophage is an important cell type in the propagation of inflammation and induction of insulin resistance in obesity. Overall, we provide our integrative perspective regarding how nutrients and obesity interact to regulate insulin sensitivity.

Schenk, Simon; Saberi, Maziyar; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

2008-01-01

201

Information from USDA's Nutrient Data Bank.  

PubMed

The United States Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Data Bank contains a wealth of information on the composition of foods. These data are made available to the public through Agriculture Handbook No. 8, Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared, its computerized form-the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference, and other publications. Food components in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 include proximate components, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, cholesterol, phytosterols, and amino acids. Other tables and data sets containing food components of special interest such as vitamins D and K, selenium, and sugars, are also available. This paper describes how to obtain the data in either printed or electronic form. Information on obtaining the data through the Nutrient Data Bank Bulletin Board or the Internet is also presented. PMID:7616313

Haytowitz, D B

1995-07-01

202

Nutrient limitations to secondary forest regrowth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old, highly weathered soils of the lowland forest within the Amazon Basin generally exhibit conservative P cycles and leaky N cycles. This generalization applies to mature forests, but accelerating land use change is altering Amazonian landscapes. About 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 160,000 km2 is in secondary forest cover. Secondary forests are common in agricultural regions, but few persist in one place for much more than 5 years. The nutrients within ephemeral forests are important for smallholder traditional slash-and-burn agriculture and in alternatives developed to conserve nutrients. Forest clearing causes an initial loss of nutrients through timber harvesting, fire, erosion, soil gaseous emissions, and hydrologic leaching, with N losses exceeding P losses. In contrast, the Ca, Mg, and K present in woody biomass are largely conserved as ash following fire, redistributing these nutrients to the soil. After the initial postclearing pulse of nutrient availability, rates of N cycling and loss consistently decline as cattle pastures age. Fertilization experiments have demonstrated that growth of young forests in abandoned agricultural land is nutrient limited. Several N cycling indicators in a secondary forest chronosequence study also demonstrated a conservative N cycle in young forests. Variable N limitation in young forests helps explain a negative relationship observed between the burn frequency during previous agricultural phases and the rate of forest regrowth. Recuperation of the N cycle gradually occurs during decades of secondary forest succession, such that mature lowland forests eventually recover abundant N relative to a conservative P cycle.

Davidson, Eric A.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

203

Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vermicomposting differs from conventional composting because the organic material is processed by the digestive systems of worms. The egested casts can be used to improve the fertility and physical characteristics of soil and potting media. In this study, the effects of earthworm casts (EW), conventional compost (CP) and NPK inorganic fertilizer (FT) amendments on N mineralization rates, microbial respiration, and

Hala I Chaoui; Larry M Zibilske; Tsutomu Ohno

2003-01-01

204

Nutrient management, food and the environment  

SciTech Connect

TVA's fertilizer programs were a key in America's agricultural revolution. Its re-oriented programs will be a key in maintaining the capabilities of our agricultural industry[emdash]safely. The nutrient management programs of TVA are distinctive. They complement what others are doing. TVA is extremely effective in technology transfer, launching innovative programs, targeting problem areas, and producing and implementing results that are practical. TVA's success in plant nutrient development and management reflects not only the scientific and engineering expertise of its own staff but also its flexibility and capability for working across boundaries that may be perceived as barriers by others.

Not Available

1992-04-01

205

Nutrient management, food and the environment  

SciTech Connect

TVA`s fertilizer programs were a key in America`s agricultural revolution. Its re-oriented programs will be a key in maintaining the capabilities of our agricultural industry{emdash}safely. The nutrient management programs of TVA are distinctive. They complement what others are doing. TVA is extremely effective in technology transfer, launching innovative programs, targeting problem areas, and producing and implementing results that are practical. TVA`s success in plant nutrient development and management reflects not only the scientific and engineering expertise of its own staff but also its flexibility and capability for working across boundaries that may be perceived as barriers by others.

Not Available

1992-04-01

206

Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.

2011-12-01

207

Adequa玢o do consumo de ferro por gestantes e mulheres em idade f閞til atendidas em um servi鏾 de pr-natal Adequacy of iron consumption in pregnant and fertile women assisted by a prenatal service Adecuaci髇 del consumo de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y f閞tiles asistidas por un servicio prenatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Anemia por car阯cia alimentar de ferro o problema nutricional mais prevalente em n韛el de sa鷇e coletiva e afeta crian鏰s e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em especial as gestantes. Este estudo avaliou o consumo de alimentos fontes de ferro, naturais e fortificados, e a adequa玢o de energia e nutrientes de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, gestantes ou n鉶. Desenvolveu-se um

Juliana Moreira Lino Viana; Adriana Uehara Santos; Maria Alice Tsunechiro; Ana Paula; Sayuri Sato; Isabel Bonadio; Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc; Elizabeth Fujimori

208

Inventory of nutrients in the Bohai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical observations were carried out to address the influence of major sources on nutrient composition and the ecosystem of the Bohai. Relatively high concentrations of nutrients off the Huanghe mouth and the shallow water areas were observed in the Bohai suggesting the effects of tidal and residual currents and anthropogenic perturbation. Sediment in the Bohai represents a source for ammonium, phosphate and dissolved silicate, while it is a sink for nitrite and nitrate. Benthic nutrient fluxes were 2-3 times higher than the riverine input with the regeneration rate of phosphate being slower relative to DIN and dissolved silicate. The release of dissolved silicate and phosphate from sediments may mitigate the decrease of dissolved silicate and phosphate due to the reduction of freshwater discharge. Compared with submarine groundwater discharge, nutrient regeneration in sediment provides similar DIN flux, 2-5 times phosphate and dissolved silicate fluxes. DIN/P molar ratios in the three mentioned sources were 155-845, indicating that phosphorus limitation for phytoplankton growth could be intensified, which likely results in changes of ecosystems of the Bohai.

Mei Liu, Su; Wei Li, Ling; Zhang, Zhinan

2011-10-01

209

ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MODELING AND MONITORING OF NUTRIENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk presents an overview of the capabilities and roles that regional atmospheric deposition models can play with respect to multi-media environmental problems. The focus is on nutrient deposition (nitrogen). Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is an important contributor to...

210

Balancing nutrient inputs to Lake Kivu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary production in meromictic Lake Kivu is sustained by external nutrient inputs and by internal loading due to upwelling caused by sub-aquatic sources. We present here the results of external loading of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and silica (Si) by rivers and atmospheric deposition measured from 2006 to 2008. These external inputs are compared to internal loading. The input

Fabrice A. Muvundja; Natacha Pasche; Fred W. B. Bugenyi; Mwapu Isumbisho; Beat M黮ler; Jean-N閜omusc鑞e Namugize; P鋓vi Rinta; Martin Schmid; Ruth Stierli; Alfred W黣st

2009-01-01

211

The search for organic nutrient standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for organic nutrient standards is approached from two sides. On the one hand, useful standards are selected from currently available SRMs; on the other hand, a representative food is developed representing the daily intake of a typical consumer. It is a composite of 201 foods, collected and prepared in a table-ready fashion.

James T. Tanner; Jeffrey S. Smith; Gerald Angyal; Phillip W. Defibaugh; Melina C. Villalobos; Martin P. Bueno; G. V. Iyengar; Wayne Wolf; Rolf Zeisler

1987-01-01

212

HARVESTING WINTER FORAGES TO EXTRACT MANURE NUTRIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvested hay captures soil manure nutrients which, if not utilized, could cause pollution of surface water or aquifer. This study determined yields of hay and N,P,K,Mg,Mn,Ca,Fe,Zn, and Cu of three winter forages in five harvesting systems. Dormant bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.] sod regul...

213

Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants

J. P. Bassin

2012-01-01

214

Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

215

Estimation of Nutrient Requirements from Growth Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two least squares methods of estimating nutrient require ments from growth data were compared. One method involved fitting a broken line by the method of least squares. The requirement was taken as the abscissa of the breakpoint in the curve. The other method involved fitting an appropriate exponential function to the growth data and estimat ing the requirement as the

KELLY R. ROBBINS; HORACE W. NORTON; ANDDAVID H. BAKER

216

Food technology of the antioxidant nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence that the antioxidant nutrients (vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta?carotene) may play a much more important role in our health and well being is growing rapidly. The knowledge gained by the nutritionists and biochemists will ultimately require a technical transformation to achieve successful application in foods. The physical and chemical properties of these compounds require specialized forms and

L. E. Johnson

1995-01-01

217

Influence of marine protozoa on nutrient regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per unit weight, marine protozoa excrete dissolved phosphorus one to two orders of magnitude faster than marine microcrustaceans and several orders of magnitude faster than marine macrofauna. Protozoa may therefore be responsible for a major fraction of faunal nutrient excretion even though present only as a minor fraction of the faunal biomass. Regeneration of dissolved inorganic phosphate from organic detritus

R. E. JOHANNES

1965-01-01

218

Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper functioning of the pathways that are involved in the sensing and management of nutrients is central to metabolic homeostasis and is therefore among the most fundamental requirements for survival. Metabolic systems are integrated with pathogen-sensing and immune responses, and these pathways are evolutionarily conserved. This close functional and molecular integration of the immune and metabolic systems is emerging

Ebru Erbay; G鰇han S. Hotamisligil

2008-01-01

219

The Effects of Amniotic Nutrient Administration, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: In ovo feeding (IOF), injecting nutrients into the amnion, may improve growth performance by enhancing circulating IGF's and glycogen reserves. To test this hypothesis 400 Hybrid turkey eggs were injected into the amnion with 1.5 ml saline solutions consisting of 4 IOF formulation treatments consisting of a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of arginine (ARG 0 or 0.7%)

2006-01-01

220

Good Sources of Nutrients. (17 Fact Sheets).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These 17 fact sheets can help you select foods that provide the vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber you need every day as you follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Each fact sheet explains the function of one nutrient, lists good sources of the n...

1990-01-01

221

Revised U.S. nutrient management standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly revised National Nutrient Management Standard could have "a continental impact on how we use nutrients" on potentially hundreds of millions of acres of farmland in the United States, Dave White, chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA/NRCS), said at a 13 December news briefing. NRCS uses the voluntary standard, which was last updated in 2006, to help producers better manage the application of nutrients梚ncluding fertilizers, animal manures, legumes, and crop cover梠n agricultural land. Proper application of nitrogen and phosphorous is of particular concern, White said, adding that the new standard has an increased emphasis on the "four R's" of nutrient management: using the right amount of fertilizer and the right source, and applying the fertilizer in the right place at the right time. In addition, he said, the new standard emphasizes a number of technological tools for fertilizer and farmland management that have become available since the last update of the standards.

Showstack, Randy

222

Roles for nutrients in epigenetic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of epigenetics is the study of modifications of DNA and DNA-binding proteins that alter the structure of chromatin without altering the nucleotide sequence of DNA; some of these modifications may be associated with heritable changes in gene function. Nutrients play essential roles in the following epigenetic events. First, folate participates in the generation of S-adenosylmethionine, which acts as

Anna M. Oommen; Jacob B. Griffin; Gautam Sarath; Janos Zempleni

2005-01-01

223

What's In It For Me.- The Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video discusses the six classes of nutrients--protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water. It shows what bodies are built of and what gives them energy. Specific reference is made of USDA tools such as the type A pattern.

1994-01-01

224

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

225

River Nutrient Loads and Catchment Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a total of 496 sample sites to calibrate a simple regression model for calculating dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes via runoff to the ocean. The regression uses the logarithms of runoff and human population as the independent variables and estimates the logarithms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loading with R2 values near 0.8. This predictive capability is

S. V. Smith; D. P. Swaney; R. W. Buddemeier; M. R. Scarsbrook; M. A. Weatherhead; C. Humborg; H. Eriksson; F. Hannerz

2005-01-01

226

Effect of Nutrient Supplements on Cowpea Nodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about ideal conditions for initiation of biological nitrogen fixation. It has been shown that field cropping history, nitrogen availability, and soil condition play a major role in nodulation. It is thought that some nitrogen increases nodulation but that too much inhibits it. This study examined the nodulation response of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) to nutrient supplement. Plants

Sallee Reynolds

227

Nutrient Content of South African Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient content of South African chicken, of three genotypes (308 Ross, Cobb, 788 Ross), two treatments (fresh and frozen (spin chilled)), raw and\\/or cooked (dry and moist) and different portions (white and dark meat, skin and separable fat) was determined. Frozen compared to fresh chicken skin had a higher mineral and vitamin A, but lower vitamin E content. Medium-chain

S. M. van Heerden; H. C. Sch鰊feldt; M. F. Smith; D. M. Jansen van Rensburg

2002-01-01

228

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

229

Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.  

EPA Science Inventory

New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

230

NUTRIENT RESPONSE IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Aquatic Stressor Framework and associated Nutrient Implementation Plan define scientific and regulatory needs, and lay-out research goals too for a cross divisional program to investigate stressor-response relati...

231

Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration capacity and productivity of soil and many researchers have now focused on utilizing this phenomenon to create fertile, carbon-rich soils, called Terra Preta Nova. Although the highly adsorptive nature of biochar is well characterized, the potential for using biochar in environmental cleanup efforts is relatively unexplored. Dairy waste is a source of significant water pollution because it introduces excess nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates into the soil and water system. Since many soils have limited capacity to retain nitrate and phosphate, especially for long periods of time, the utility of dairy waste manure to enhance soil fertility and nutrient availability to plants is limited. Here, we present results from a project that we started to determine the potential of biochar to recover the excess nutrients from dairy flushed manure. In this initial study, a commercially available biochar amendment was ground and used in a batch sorption experiment with the dairy flushed manure from a local dairy in Merced, California. Four manure dilutions viz. 10, 25, 50 and 100%, and three shaking times, viz. 1, 12 and 24 hours were used for this study. We then calculated the amount of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate adsorbed by the biochar using differences in nutrient concentrations before and after the sorption experiment. Biochar showed significant capacity of adsorbing these nutrients, suggesting a potential for controlling the dairy pollution. The resulting enriched biochar can potentially act as a slow release fertilizer and enhance soil productivity as well as increasing the long-term carbon sequestration potential of soils. We are currently initiating further research to determine the desorption potenial of the biochar sorbed nutrients in soil.

Sarkhot, D.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

2009-12-01

232

Plasticity of the Arabidopsis root system under nutrient deficiencies.  

PubMed

Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program. PMID:23852440

Gruber, Benjamin D; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wir閚, Nicolaus

2013-07-12

233

Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization.  

PubMed

Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P. PMID:11543409

Golden, D C; Ming, D W

234

Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow  

SciTech Connect

The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%).

Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1990-06-01

235

Nutrient signaling and developmental timing of maturation.  

PubMed

In animals, developmental timing of sexual maturation is tightly linked to nutrition and growth. Maturation only occurs once the juvenile has acquired sufficient nutrients and completed enough growth to produce a reproductively mature adult with a genetically predefined body size. Animals therefore adjust the duration of juvenile development to the dietary conditions. When nutrients are scarce the juvenile growth phase is extended to compensate for slow growth. Conversely, development is accelerated in nutrient rich environments where animals rapidly reach their genetic target size. To achieve such flexibility, nutrient-dependent growth regulators must feed into the endocrine system that controls the timing of maturation. Work on the fruit fly Drosophila has revealed a central role of secreted signal molecules with similarity to the conserved insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the decision making process. These molecules are involved in checkpoints that allow the endocrine system to decide whether to release the steroid hormone, ecdysone, that triggers maturation or extent development, depending on nutrient levels and growth status. Importantly, different dietary components influence timing of maturation in Drosophila, with proteins having the greatest impact; fat and sugar play a minor role, at least within the limits of what can be considered a balanced diet. Remarkably, excess dietary sugar concentrations that mimic physiological conditions associated with diabetes, negatively affect growth and delays maturation. Altogether, this shows that the source of energy in the diet is important for timing and may provide a paradigm for understanding the emerging links between diet, obesity and diabetes, and the onset of puberty. Here, we provide an overview of the system underlying developmental timing of maturation in Drosophila and review recent success in understanding its coupling to nutrition and growth. PMID:23962838

Danielsen, E Thomas; Moeller, Morten E; Rewitz, Kim F

2013-01-01

236

Lake Minnetonka: Nutrients, Nutrient Abatement, and the Photosynthetic System of the Phytoplankton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density of planktonic algae, rates of photosynthesis, nutrient concentrations, and other limnological characteristics were recorded during 1968-1970 in different parts of Lake Minnetonka, Minn. In the course of the past 30 years, the density of algae incr...

R. O. Megard H. E. Wright

1970-01-01

237

Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. Number 11: Nutrient Requirements of Trout, Salmon, and Catfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the known nutrient requirements of these species and discusses special considerations for diet formulation and storage. Tables of feed composition presented provide values for good diet efficiency for fish intensively reared in fish ...

1973-01-01

238

WATER NUTRIENTS, PLANT NUTRIENTS, AND INDICATORS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN WATERHYACINTH AT TEXAS FIELD SITES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interactions occur under controlled conditions between the nutrient content of floating waterhyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and reporduction of waterhyacinth weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) introduced for biocontrol. Few studies have linked water nutrition, plant nutrition, a...

239

Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.  

PubMed

Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV)=18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV=16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV=22%), lignin (CV=15%), and ash (CV=11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV=48%), Na (%; CV=42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV=38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein percentages in ration formulation models. PMID:24035027

Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

2013-09-12

240

Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a watershed-scale biogeochemical model. The rationale of this approach relies on the fact that the working unit for the nutrient in-stream processes of most watershed-scale models is the reach, the same unit used in field research based on the Nutrient Spiralling concept. Automatic calibration of the model using data from the study watershed confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Following calibration, the model was used as a heuristic tool in two ways. First, we compared the Nutrient Spiralling metrics obtained during calibration with results obtained during field-based research in the study watershed. The simulated and measured metrics were similar, suggesting that information collected at the reach scale during research based on the Nutrient Spiralling concept can be directly incorporated into models, without the problems associated with upscaling results from fine-scale studies. Second, we used results from our model to examine some patterns observed in several reports on Nutrient Spiralling metrics measured in impaired streams. Although these two exercises involve circular reasoning and, consequently, cannot validate any hypothesis, this is a powerful example of how models can work as heuristic tools to compare hypotheses and stimulate research in ecology.

Marc, R.; Armengol, J.

2009-01-01

241

External nutrient sources, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production in Chesapeake Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

External nutrient loadings, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production were examined for three major subsystems\\u000a of the Chesapeake Bay Estuary梩he upper Mainstem, the Patuxent Estuary, and the \\u000a 01 Potomac Estuary梔uring 19851989. The atomic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (TN:TP) of total loads to the \\u000a 01 Mainstem, Patuxent, and the Potomac were 51, 29 and 35, respectively. Most of these loads entered

Robert E. Magnien; Robert M. Summers; Kevin G. Sellner

1992-01-01

242

Alternate bearing influences annual nutrient consumption and the total nutrient content of mature pistachio trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of alternate bearing on nutrient utilization and total tree nutrient content was investigated in mature pistachio\\u000a (Pistacia vera L. cv Kerman trees). Removal of N, P and Zn in fruit and abscised leaves of cropping (憃n) trees averaged 5, 6, and 2 times,\\u000a respectively, the removal in abscised leaflets of the non-fruiting, 憃ff year trees. One hundred and

Patrick H. Brown; Steven A. Weinbaum; Geno A. Picchioni

1995-01-01

243

NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN RELATION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY OF RIVERINE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Variation in water depth and soil properties associated with geomorphic structures can affect riverine wetland nutrient dynamics by altering biogeochemical processes. We examined the seasonal influence of soils and geomorphology on nutrient forms and concentrations in riverine we...

244

Nutrient and carbon retention in riparian and hillslope forests after ...  

Treesearch

Source: In: Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association 2012 Summer ... Online: http://www.awra.org/proceedings/Summer2012/Riparian/ index.html ... Here, we compare nutrient leaching and soil nutrient pools between ...

245

BAM Media M113: Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M113: Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus). January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M113 Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

246

OXYGEN UPTAKE AND NUTRIENT REGENERATION IN THE PECONIC ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND NUTRIENT REGENERATION IN THE PECONIC ESTUARY Rates of oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration were measured annually throughout the Peconic Estuarine System. Sediment and water column oxygen uptake were measured to determine the potential...

247

Solution Culture Method for Studying Nutrient Uptake and Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to study the uptake of two (or more) different mineral nutrients at very low concentrations, a solution culture system with new capabilities was developed. It allows tight control of nutrient concentrations of very low levels, accurate uptake rat...

L. E. Kay V. P. Gutschick

1984-01-01

248

DUPLICITY OF PLANTS IN NUTRIENT UPTAKE WITHIN AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands in the amelioration of nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. Amelioration of nutrient pollution has wide reaching consequences on receiving water pollution and possibly implications for aquatic community structure and Gulf hypoxia. ...

249

The nutrient-load hypothesis: patterns of resource limitation and community structure driven by competition for nutrients and light.  

PubMed

Resource competition theory predicts that the outcome of competition for two nutrients depends on the ratio at which these nutrients are supplied. Yet there is considerable debate whether nutrient ratios or absolute nutrient loads determine the species composition of phytoplankton and plant communities. Here we extend the classical resource competition model for two nutrients by including light as additional resource. Our results suggest the nutrient-load hypothesis, which predicts that nutrient ratios determine the species composition in oligotrophic environments, whereas nutrient loads are decisive in eutrophic environments. The underlying mechanism is that nutrient enrichment shifts the species interactions from competition for nutrients to competition for light, which favors the dominance of superior light competitors overshadowing all other species. Intermediate nutrient loads can generate high biodiversity through a fine-grained patchwork of two-species and three-species coexistence equilibria. Depending on the species traits, however, competition for nutrients and light may also produce multiple alternative stable states, suppressing the predictability of the species composition. The nutrient-load hypothesis offers a solution for several discrepancies between classical resource competition theory and field observations, explains why eutrophication often leads to diversity loss, and provides a simple conceptual framework for patterns of biodiversity and community structure observed in nature. PMID:22617261

Brauer, Verena S; Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef

2012-04-25

250

Nutrients Variability in the Subtropical Gyres in the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients analyses were accomplished on 16,000 samples together with the reference material of nutrients in seawater (RMNS) during R\\/V Mirai cruise which revisited WHP P06, A10, I03 and I04 in the Southern Hemisphere in 2003\\/2004. The target nutrients are nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate, respectively. To establish the traceability of nutrients concentrations and to get higher quality data, we used

M. Aoyama; S. Watanabe; M. Fukasawa

2004-01-01

251

Spatial variations in nutrient and microbial transport from feedlot surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient and microbial transport by runoff may vary at different locations within a beef cattle feedlot. If the areas making the greatest contributions to nutrient and microbial transport can be identified, it may be possible to institute precision management practices to reduce nutrient and microbi...

252

Response of Periphyton to Nutrient Enrichment in Lake Chelan, WA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced growth of periphyton (primarily attached algae) is an early indicator of nutrient enrichment in lakes. Periphyton abundance, composition, and spatial distribution were examined in ultra-oligotrophic Lake Chelan, Washington to characterize relationships to nutrient inputs. The wide range in the nutrient content of tributaries discharging to Lake Chelan provided a unique opportunity to evaluate nearshore periphyton development in relation to

Jean M. Jacoby; Debra D. Bouchard; Clayton R. Patmont

1991-01-01

253

DrugNutrient Interaction Considerations in Pregnancy and Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Describe the physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy and how they may impact on drug disposition.\\u000a \\u000a Identify nutrient requirements in pregnancy and medication that may influence nutrient status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Describe the physiologic changes and nutrient requirements of lactation and influences with drug disposition.

Myla E. Moretti; Danela L. Caprara

254

Nutrient management in food production: achieving agronomic and environmental targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of management has undergone many changes during the past century. Nowadays, management is perceived as 搒pecialized activity to achieve targets. Skill in management is the single most important factor determining the economic and environmental performance of agroecosystems. Nutrient management is 搈anagement of nutrients to achieve agronomic and environmental targets; it requires proper understanding of nutrient cycling, site- and

Oene Oenema; Stefan Pietrzak

2002-01-01

255

Changes in Dietary Guidance: Implications for Food and Nutrient Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of dietary guidance for Americans have recently been released, and both have important implications for the way data are organized on food and nutrient databases. New dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for 17 nutrients, and in several cases the units for these recommendations do not match those traditionally carried on nutrient databases. Furthermore, some of the

Suzanne P. Murphy

2001-01-01

256

Plant nutrient efficiency: A comparison of definitions and suggested improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of plant cultivars tolerant of low nutrient supply may increase productivity on low fertility soils and reduce fertilizer requirements. Considerable effort has been directed towards identifying nutrient efficient species and germplasms, but the many different definitions for efficiency make the use of the term ambiguous. The concept of nutrient efficiency was evaluated using data from a study of differences

C. J. P. Gourley; D. L. Allan; M. P. Russelle

1994-01-01

257

The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific variation in polyphenol production by plants has been interpreted in terms of defense against herbivores. Several recent lines of evidence suggest that polyphenols also influence the pools and fluxes of inorganic and organic soil nutrients. Such effects could have far-ranging consequences for nutrient competition among and between plants and microbes, and for ecosystem nutrient cycling and retention. The significance

Stephan H鋞tenschwiler; Peter M. Vitousek

2000-01-01

258

Sedimentary nutrient dynamics in a tropical estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove sediments play a pivotal role in the nutrient biogeochemical processes by behaving as both source and sink for nutrients and other materials. Surface and core sediments were collected from various locations of the Pichavaram mangrove (India) and analyzed for grain size distribution, nutrients and stable N isotope (?15N) signatures in order to understand the spatial and vertical distribution of

M. Bala Krishna Prasad; A. L. Ramanathan

2008-01-01

259

Improving Mississippi water quality: CAFO regulations and nutrient TMDLs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are regulated to reduce nutrient discharges to local waters, although nutrient water quality standards do not yet exist. At first, it may seem that there is some discontinuity between requiring CAFOs to limit nutrient discharges without knowing what levels...

260

Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and

Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

2004-01-01

261

Light, nutrients, and herbivore growth in oligotrophic streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light : nutrient hypothesis posits that herbivore growth is increasingly constrained by low food quality as the ratio of light to nutrients increases in aquatic ecosystems. We tested predictions of this hypothesis by examining the effects of large seasonal cycles in light and nutrients on the mineral content of periphyton and the growth rate of a dominant herbivore (the

Walter R. Hill; John G. Smith; Arthur J. Stewart

2010-01-01

262

BROILER LITTER AS A COMPLETE NUTRIENT SOURCE FOR COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of poultry litter to support plant growth by supplying essential nutrients in the absence of other sources of the nutrients has not been studied thoroughly. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of broiler litter, as the sole nutrient source, in meeting the mineral...

263

Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and

Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

2004-01-01

264

Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance

Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

2013-01-01

265

The USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: update 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was designed in 1997 to develop robust and nationally representative estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's National Nutrient Databank. The underlying aims defining the process behind the NFNAP are: (1)

P. R. Pehrsson; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden

2003-01-01

266

USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Food Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) is designed to develop robust estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Databank. The program objectives are: (1) evaluation of existing data; (2) identification of Key Foods and

P. R. Pehrsson; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden; C. R. Perry; D. G. Beckler

2000-01-01

267

Developing a web-based forecasting tool for nutrient management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modern nutrient management planning tools provide strategic guidance that, in the best cases, educates farmers and others involved in nutrient management to make prudent management decisions. The strategic guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support require...

268

Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance

Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

2013-01-01

269

Nutrient availability in rangeland soils: influence of prescribed ...  

Treesearch

Description: Soil nutrient availability influences plant invasions. ... which included prescribed burning, herbaceous vegetation removal, and controls. ... Nutrient availability can be out of phase with plant growth; plants capable of taking up ... utility in quantifying the effects of treatments on the availability of many soil nutrients.

270

Nutrient Input into the Caspian Sea with River Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term observational data are used to compare and analyze time and space variations in the concentrations of nutrients in the water of major rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea and assess the nutrients runoff into the sea. Annual variations in the normal monthly values of river runoff and nutrient compound concentrations and input into the sea are considered (18 compounds

A. V. Leonov; N. A. Nazarov

2001-01-01

271

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or not include the nutrient in the product, may bear...g., 鈒ow sodium chicken noodle soup). ...for the absence of a nutrient in a product, or that...attaches (e.g., 鈉hicken breast meat, a low sodium food). (f) A nutrient content claim...

2009-01-01

272

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or not include the nutrient in the product, may bear...g., 鈒ow sodium chicken noodle soup). ...for the absence of a nutrient in a product, or that...attaches (e.g., 鈉hicken breast meat, a low sodium food). (f) A nutrient content claim...

2010-01-01

273

Nutrient uptake and benthic regeneration in Danube Delta Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the nutrient uptake capacity of three lakes (Uzlina, Matita and Rosu) within the Danube Delta during high water level in June and low water level in September 1999. Special emphasis was placed on nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface and on the self-purification capacity of the lakes in the Danube Delta. In order to estimate the nutrient uptake

Jana Friedrich; Christian Dinkel; Erwin Grieder; Silviu Radan; Dan Secrieru; Sandra Steingruber; Bernhard Wehrli

2003-01-01

274

Soil-Plant Nutrient Interactions on Manure Enriched Calcareous Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient accumulations on heavily manured soils can trigger soil and plant nutrient interactions. The goal of the study was to determine the current impact of dairy manure applications on nutrient concentrations in soil and tissue for irrigated corn silage crops grown in Southern Idaho. At harvest,...

275

Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on

Brothers, Chris; And Others

276

Nutrient minimisation in the pulp and paper industry: an overview.  

PubMed

This paper reviews nutrient issues within the pulp and paper industry summarising: nitrogen and phosphorus cycles within treatment systems; sources of nutrients within pulping and papermaking processes; minimising nutrient discharge; new approaches to nutrient minimisation; and the impact of nutrients in the environment. Pulp and paper industry wastewaters generally contain insufficient nitrogen and phosphorus to satisfy bacterial growth requirements. Nutrient limitation has been linked to operational problems such as sludge bulking and poor solids separation. Nutrients have been added in conventional wastewater treatment processes to ensure optimum treatment performance. Minimising the discharge of total nitrogen and phosphorus from a nutrient limited wastewater requires both optimised nutrient supplementation and effective removal of suspended solids from the treated wastewater. In an efficiently operated wastewater treatment system, the majority of the discharged nutrients are contained within the biomass. Effective solids separation then becomes the controlling step, and optimisation of secondary clarification is crucial. Conventional practice is being challenged by the regulatory requirement to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus discharge. Two recent developments in pulp and paper wastewater treatment technologies can produce discharges low in nitrogen and phosphorus whilst operating under conventionally nutrient limited conditions: i) the nutrient limited BAS process (Biofilm-Activated Sludge) which combines biofilm and activated sludge technologies under nutrient limited conditions and ii) an activated sludge process based on the use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Aerated stabilisation basins often operate without nutrient addition, relying on settled biomass in the benthal zone feeding back soluble nutrients, or the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Thus effective nutrient minimisation strategies require a more detailed understanding of nutrient cycling and utilisation. Where it is not possible to meet discharge constraints with biological treatment alone, a tertiary treatment step may be required. In setting nutrient control guidelines, consideration should be given to the nutrient limitations of the receiving environment, including other cumulative nutrient impacts on that environment. Whether an ecosystem is N or P limited should be integrated with wastewater treatment considerations in the further design and development of treatment technology and regulatory guidelines. End-of-pipe legislation alone cannot predict environmental effects related to nutrients and must be supplemented by an effects-based approach. PMID:15461405

Slade, A H; Ellis, R J; vanden Heuvel, M; Stuthridge, T R

2004-01-01

277

Linkages Between Nutrients and Assemblages of Macroinvertebrates and Fish in Wadeable Streams: Implication to Nutrient Criteria Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled 240 wadeable streams across Wisconsin for different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, and assemblages of macroinvertebrates\\u000a and fish to (1) examine how macroinvertebrate and fish measures correlated with the nutrients; (2) quantify relationships\\u000a between key biological measures and nutrient forms to identify potential threshold levels of nutrients to support nutrient\\u000a criteria development; and (3) evaluate the importance of

Lizhu Wang; Dale M. Robertson; Paul J. Garrison

2007-01-01

278

Nutrient-Dense Food Groups Have High Energy Costs: An Econometric Approach to Nutrient Profiling1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers wishing to replace some of the foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options need to be able to identify such foods on the basis of nutrient profiling. The present study used nutrient profiling to rank 7 major food groups and 25 subgroups in terms of their contribution to dietary energy, diet quality, and diet cost for 1332 adult

Matthieu Maillot; Nicole Darmon; Michel Darmon; Lionel Lafay; Adam Drewnowski

279

Sediment nutrient accumulation and nutrient availability in two tidal freshwater marshes along the Mattaponi River, Virginia, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment deposition is the main mechanism of nutrient delivery to tidal freshwater marshes (TFMs). We quantified sediment nutrient accumulation in TFMs upstream and downstream of a proposed water withdrawal project on the Mattaponi River, Virginia. Our goal was to assess nutrient availability by comparing relative rates of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) accumulated in sediments with the C,

Jennifer L. Morse; J. Patrick Megonigal; Mark R. Walbridge

2004-01-01

280

Influence of nutrient availability and tree wildling density on nutrient uptake by Oxalis acetosella and Acer saccharum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of nutrients following pulses of nutrient input in northern hardwood forests and the general effects of atmospheric deposition on forest communities are of concern. Uptake of nutrients by ground layer vegetation, including herbs and tree wildlings, may be important in both of these processes. We brought plants from the field (Catskill Mts, New York) and grew them under controlled

Jack T. Tessier; Samuel J. McNaughton; Dudley J. Raynal

2001-01-01

281

Basal food sources for the invertebrate food web in nutrient poor and nutrient enriched raised bog pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact raised bog pools are extremely nutrient-poor and represent a harsh environment for invertebrates. In the Netherlands, nutrient availability in raised bog pools is increased, due to atmospheric nitro- gen and sulphur deposition, and the macroinvertebrate species compo- sition is altered. This paper assesses whether the increased nutrient availability has changed the importance of food sources at the basis of

G. A. van Duinen; K. Vermonden; A. M. T. Brock; R. S. E. W. Leuven; A. J. P. Smolders; G. van der Velde; W. C. E. P. Verberk; H. Esselink

282

Micro nutrient toxicity in French marigold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of elevated levels of micronutrients on the growth and flowering of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) was investigated. Plants were grown with nutrient solution containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 mM boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), or zinc (Zn) and toxicity development was monitored. The threshold micronutrient concentrations that

Chiwon W. Lee

1996-01-01

283

Regeneration of plants using nutrient mist culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary牋A nutrient mist was used forin vitro culture of plant tissue in a novel bioreactor, wherein the tissues were grown on a biologically inert screen within a sterile\\u000a chamber which allows excess media to drain away from the tissue. Plants tested includedDaucus, Lycopersicon, Ficus, Cinchona, andBrassica. The latter 4 genera were fully regenerated within the bioreactor. Tissue inocula included callus,

Pamela J. Weathers; Kenneth L. Giles

1988-01-01

284

Integration of Growth Factor and Nutrient Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signaling networks that promote cell growth are frequently dysregulated in cancer. One regulatory network, which converges on effectors such as 4EBP1 and S6K1, leads to growth by promoting protein synthesis. Here, we discuss how this network is regulated by both extracellular signals, such as growth factors, and intracellular signals, such as nutrients. We discuss how mutations amplifying either type of

Alykhan F. Shamji; Paul Nghiem; Stuart L. Schreiber

2003-01-01

285

Nutrient Content of Rainwater in the Gambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

QUANTITIES of nutrients deposited by rainfall in the tropics have been measured by several workers. Venema1, in reviewing work on the nitrogen content of rain, showed wide variations from 2.2 to 41.7 lb.\\/acre\\/year. He observed that total nitrogen is at its highest concentration when a period of drought is followed by heavy rainfall; when rainfall is small, its nitrogen content

I. Thornton

1965-01-01

286

Chelation of trace metals in nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chelating agents added to nutrient solutions on plants growing in these solutions was investigated. Chelating chemicals used were: 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (carbamate), sodium 1:8 dihydroxynaphthalene 3:6 disulphonate (chromatropic salt), sodium 1-nitroso-2-naphthol 3:6 disulphonate (nitroso-R-salt), tetrahydroxyanthraquinone (quinalizarin), and hydroxy-benzoic acid (salicylic acid). Germination and seedling studies with tomato, pea, bean, corn, and radish, and water culture tests

WALTER W. HECK; LOWELL F. BAILEY

1950-01-01

287

DrugNutrient Interactions in Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Update developments within the field of transplant drugnutrient interactions.\\u000a \\u000a Describe the biology of immunosuppressive medications used for transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Evaluate the nutritional impairments associated with solid organ transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Offer recommendations to health-care providers caring for these medically complex patients.

Matthew J. Weiss; Vincent T. Armenti; Nicole Sifontis; Jeanette M. Hasse

288

Biotechnology: a solution for improving nutrient bioavailability.  

PubMed

Biotechnology strategies are now available to improve the amount and availability of nutrients in plant crops. Those strategies include simple plant selection for varieties with high nutrient density in the seeds, cross-breeding for incorporating a desired trait within a plant, and genetic engineering to manipulate the nutrient content of the plant. In plant cross-breeding, all genes of the parent plants are combined and the progeny have both desirable and undesirable traits. To eliminate undesirable traits, plant breeders "back-cross" the new plant varieties with other plants over several generations. This technique, called hybridization, has been used to create varieties of low-phytate corn, barley, and rice. Using the techniques of genetic engineering, the gene(s) encoding for a desired trait(s) in a plant are introduced in a precise and controlled manner within a relatively short period of time. Golden rice, containing carotenoids, and rice with higher amounts of iron, are two examples of genetically engineered plants for improved nutrition. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential for revolutionizing nutrition. However, public concerns regarding safety, appearance, and ethics must be overcome before these products can be effectively introduced into the food supply. PMID:11887755

King, Janet C

2002-01-01

289

Remembering nutrient quality of sugar in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Taste is an early stage in food and drink selection for most animals [1, 2]. Detecting sweetness indicates the presence of sugar and possible caloric content. However, sweet taste can be an unreliable predictor of nutrient value because some sugars cannot be metabolized. In addition, discrete sugars are detected by the same sensory neurons in the mammalian [3] and insect gustatory systems [4, 5], making it difficult for animals to readily distinguish the identity of different sugars using taste alone [68]. Here we used an appetitive memory assay in Drosophila [911] to investigate the contribution of palatability and relative nutritional value of sugars to memory formation. We show that palatability and nutrient value both contribute to reinforcement of appetitive memory. Non-nutritious sugars formed less robust memory that could be augmented by supplementing with a tasteless but nutritious substance. Nutrient information is conveyed to the brain within minutes of training when it can be used to guide expression of a sugar-preference memory. Therefore flies can rapidly learn to discriminate between sugars using a post-ingestive reward evaluation system and they preferentially remember nutritious sugars.

Burke, Christopher J.; Waddell, Scott

2011-01-01

290

Ceramide starves cells to death by downregulating nutrient transporter proteins.  

PubMed

Ceramide induces cell death in response to many stimuli. Its mechanism of action, however, is not completely understood. Ceramide induces autophagy in mammalian cells maintained in rich media and nutrient permease downregulation in yeast. These observations suggested to us that ceramide might kill mammalian cells by limiting cellular access to extracellular nutrients. Consistent with this proposal, physiologically relevant concentrations of ceramide produced a profound and specific downregulation of nutrient transporter proteins in mammalian cells. Blocking ceramide-induced nutrient transporter loss or supplementation with the cell-permeable nutrient, methyl pyruvate, reversed ceramide-dependent toxicity. Conversely, cells became more sensitive to ceramide when nutrient stress was increased by acutely limiting extracellular nutrients, inhibiting autophagy, or deleting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Observations that ceramide can trigger either apoptosis or caspase-independent cell death may be explained by this model. We found that methyl pyruvate (MP) also protected cells from ceramide-induced, nonapoptotic death consistent with the idea that severe bioenergetic stress was responsible. Taken together, these studies suggest that the cellular metabolic state is an important arbiter of the cellular response to ceramide. In fact, increasing nutrient demand by incubating cells in high levels of growth factor sensitized cells to ceramide. On the other hand, gradually adapting cells to tolerate low levels of extracellular nutrients completely blocked ceramide-induced death. In sum, these results support a model where ceramide kills cells by inducing intracellular nutrient limitation subsequent to nutrient transporter downregulation. PMID:18981422

Guenther, Garret G; Peralta, Eigen R; Rosales, Kimberly Romero; Wong, Susan Y; Siskind, Leah J; Edinger, Aimee L

2008-11-03

291

[Effect of different fertilization system on soil nutrient budget].  

PubMed

A long-term experiment was carried out on a damp palm soil about ten years under the condition of nutrient recycling and reutilization. The quantity of crop nutrients transferred from the system, and the nutrient budget of N, P and K in soil were studied. The results of a ten-year field experiment indicated that the use of nutrients recycled in the farming systems with appropriate amount of fertilizers applied according to the soil nutrient supplying ability could not only produce high crop yield, but also balance the soil nutrient budget, so that, there were no significant surplus of nutrients (mainly inorganic nitrogen) which might emit or leach out of soil into environment. PMID:12682957

Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu; Yin, Xiuyan; Ma, Qiang; Shen, Shanmin

2002-12-01

292

Effect of fertilization on biomass and nutrient content of fine roots in a beech-birch-maple stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative samples of fine roots (d=3 mm) were extracted from the soil of a 90-year-old beech-birch-maple stand that had been previously treated with lime (1120 kg\\/ha) or lime plus 15-10-10 NPK fertilizer (6720 kg\\/ha). Estimates of fine root biomass were: 124694 g\\/m2, control; 1229194 g\\/m2, lime only; and 2711423 g\\/m2, lime+NPK. Increased root concentration in the fertilized plot was greatest

L. O. Safford

1974-01-01

293

Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide discharge range. This implies that both small and larger streams may be impacted by human activities in terms of nutrient retention capacity, suggesting that larger rivers located in human populated areas can exert considerable influence on phosphorus exports from watersheds. The role of biological activity in this efficiency loss showed by nutrient enriched streams remained uncertain, because the phosphorus mass transfer coefficient did not show consistent relationships with streamflow and phosphorus concentration in water. The heterogeneity of the compiled data and the possible role of additional inorganic processes on phosphorus in-stream dynamics may explain this. We suggest that more research on phosphorus dynamics at the reach scale is needed, specially in large, human impacted watercourses.

Marc, R.; Armengol, J.

2009-07-01

294

Noninvasive detection of plant nutrient stress using fiber optic spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper, we described the use of fiber optic spectrophotometry as a non-destructive and sensitive method to detect early symptoms of plant nutrient deficiency. We report further developments of our work on Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey) showing reproducibility of our data collected at a different seasonal period. Plants at the mid-log growth phase were subjected to nutrient stress by transferring them to nitrate- and calcium- deficient nutrient solution in a standing aerated hydroponic system. After tracking changes in leaf reflectance by FOSpectr for nine days, the plants were returned to complete nutrient solution and their recovery was monitored for a further nine days. The responses of nutrient stressed plants were compared with those grown under complete nutrient solution over the 18-day trial period. We also compared the sensitivity of FOSpectr detection against plant growth measurements vis-a-vis average leaf number and leaf width and show that the former method gave an indication of nutrient stress much earlier than the latter. In addition, this work indicated that while normal and nutrient-stressed plants could not be distinguished within the first 7 days by tracking plant growth indicators, stressed plants did show a clear decline in average leaf number and leaf width in later stages of growth even after the plants were returned to complete nutrient solution. The results further reinforce the need for early detection of nutrient stress, as late remedial action could not reverse the loss in plant growth in later stages of plant development.

Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.; Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S.

2001-05-01

295

Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.  

PubMed

Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal's requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an estimation of maintenance energy requirements. We collated data on nutrient composition of diets fed to captive wild canids, felids, hyenids, mustelids, pinnipeds, and ursids and the digestibility coefficients from the literature (45 species, 74 publications) to test whether differences in protein and fat digestibility could be detected between species groups, and whether approaches suggested for the estimation of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content in domestic carnivores (NRC [2006] Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.) can be applied to wild carnivores as well. Regressions of digestible protein or fat content vs. the crude protein (CP) or fat content indicated no relevant differences in the digestive physiology between the carnivore groups. For diets based on raw meat, fish, or whole prey, applying the calculation of ME using "Atwater factors" (16.7 ?kJ/g CP; 16.7? kJ/g nitrogen-free extracts; 37.7 ?kJ/g crude fat) provided estimates that compared well to experimental results. This study suggests that ME estimation in such diets is feasible without additional digestion trials. For comparative nutrition research, the study implicates that highly digestible diets typically fed in zoos offer little potential to elucidate differences between species or carnivore groups, but research on diets with higher proportions of difficult-to-digest components (fiber, connective tissues) is lacking. PMID:20073050

Clauss, Marcus; Kleffner, Helen; Kienzle, Ellen

296

Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail".  

PubMed

Building on the work of the late John Myers, MD, the author has used an intravenous vitamin-and-mineral formula for the treatment of a wide range of clinical conditions. The modified "Myers' cocktail," which consists of magnesium, calcium, B vitamins, and vitamin C, has been found to be effective against acute asthma attacks, migraines, fatigue (including chronic fatigue syndrome), fibromyalgia, acute muscle spasm, upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, and other disorders. This paper presents a rationale for the therapeutic use of intravenous nutrients, reviews the relevant published clinical research, describes the author's clinical experiences, and discusses potential side effects and precautions. PMID:12410623

Gaby, Alan R

2002-10-01

297

Optimizing Nutrient Uptake in Biological Transport Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological systems employ complex networks of vascular tubes to facilitate transport of solute nutrients, examples include the vascular system of plants (phloem), some fungi, and the slime-mold Physarum. It is believed that such networks are optimized through evolution for carrying out their designated task. We propose a set of hydrodynamic governing equations for solute transport in a complex network, and obtain the optimal network architecture for various classes of optimizing functionals. We finally discuss the topological properties and statistical mechanics of the resulting complex networks, and examine correspondence of the obtained networks to those found in actual biological systems.

Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

2013-03-01

298

Enhancing crop growth, nutrients availability, economics and beneficial rhizosphere microflora through organic and biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiment was conducted on fodder maize to explore the potential of integrated use of chemical, organic and biofertilizers\\u000a for improving maize growth, beneficial microflora in the rhizosphere and the economic returns. The treatments were designed\\u000a to make comparison of NPK fertilizer with different combinations of half dose of NP with organic and biofertilizers viz. biological\\u000a potassium fertilizer (BPF), Biopower,

Ghulam Jilani; Abida Akram; Raja M. Ali; Fauzia Y. Hafeez; Imran H. Shamsi; Arshad N. Chaudhry; Abid G. Chaudhry

2007-01-01

299

EVALUATION OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC NUTRIENT SOURCE IMPACTS IN NUTRIENT TMDLs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a resurgence of interest in controlling the excessive fertilization (eutrophication) of surface waters in order to protect domestic water supplies and other beneficial uses of waters from impairment (pollution) by excessive growths of algae or other aquatic plants whose growth is stimulated by nitrogen and phosphorus. An area of particular concern is the nutrients added to waterbodies through

Anne Jones-Lee; G. Fred Lee

300

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a

J. D. McKeehen; C. A. Mitchell; R. M. Wheeler; B. Bugbee; S. S. Nielsen

1996-01-01

301

NUTRIENT TRANSPORT IN STARFISH. II. UPTAKE OF' NUTRIENTS BY ISOLATED ORGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

nutrient materials may be released from the storage tissues into the coelornic fluid,. (2) nutrientmaterialsmaybe extractedfromthe coelomic fluidby the tissuesre quiring them, and (3 ) these operations may occur at rates sufficient to satisfy the metabolic needs of the animals. These processes, common to most animals, may be quite readily studied in star fish. Several of the major organs of

JOHN CARRUTHERS FERGUSON

302

Soil nutrient audits for China to estimate nutrient balances and output\\/input relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been able to feed a rapidly growing population by increasing crop yields, partly through the use of mineral fertilizers. Although now faced with a lower population growth rate, the prospects for increasing food production are uncertain because of the decline in the rate of increase in crop yields. This paper describes the use of a nutrient audit model

William F Sheldrick; J. Keith Syers; John Lingard

2003-01-01

303

Nutrient Enrichment Drives Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known 揹ead zones proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007].

Boesch, Donald F.; Boynton, Walter R.; Crowder, Larry B.; Diaz, Robert J.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mee, Laurence D.; Nixon, Scott W.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Rosenberg, Rutger; Sanders, James G.; Scavia, Donald; Turner, R. Eugene

2009-04-01

304

Nutrient supply and intervertebral disc metabolism.  

PubMed

The metabolic environment of disc cells is governed by the avascular nature of the tissue. Because cellular energy metabolism occurs mainly through glycolysis, the disc cells require glucose for survival and produce lactic acid at high rates. Oxygen is also necessary for cellular activity, although not for survival; its pathway of utilization is unclear. Because the tissues are avascular, disc cells depend on the blood supply at the margins of the discs for their nutrients. The nucleus and inner anulus of the disc are supplied by capillaries that arise in the vertebral bodies, penetrate the subchondral bone, and terminate at the bone-disc junction. Small molecules such as glucose and oxygen then reach the cells by diffusion under gradients established by the balance between the rate of transport through the tissue to the cells and the rate of cellular demand. Metabolites such as lactic acid are removed by the reverse pathway. The concentrations of nutrients farthest from the source of supply can thus be low; oxygen concentrations as low as 1% have been measured in the discs of healthy animals. Although gradients cannot be measured easily in humans, they can be calculated. Measured concentrations in surgical patients are in agreement with calculated values. PMID:16595440

Grunhagen, Thijs; Wilde, Geoffrey; Soukane, Dahbia Mokhbi; Shirazi-Adl, Saeed A; Urban, Jill P G

2006-04-01

305

Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.  

PubMed

Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

2012-05-17

306

Nutrient control of phytoplankton production in Lake Naivasha, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Naivasha, a shallow tropical lake in Kenya's Rift Valley, has an unstable water column and is moderately eutrophic. Nutrient (bottom-up) control of primary production is more important than grazing (top-down) control. Experimental nutrient enrichment was used to investigate bottom-up control in more detail. Minor nutrients were not found to be limiting, whilst nitrogen was more limiting than phosphorus with

David S. Hubble; David M. Harper

2002-01-01

307

Nutrient control of phytoplankton production in Lake Naivasha, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Naivasha, a shallow tropical lake in Kenya's Rift Valley, has an unstable water column and is moderately eutrophic. Nutrient (bottom-up) control of primary production is more important than grazing (top-down) con- trol. Experimental nutrient enrichment was used to investigate bottom-up control in more detail. Minor nutrients were not found to be limiting, whilst nitrogen was more limiting than phosphorus

David S. Hubble; D avid M. Harper

2002-01-01

308

Nutrient Supply in Organic Agriculture Plant Availability, Sources and Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the practice of applying nutrients in organic or slowly soluble inorganic form in the belief that plants\\u000a will obtain balanced nutrition through the actions of soil microbes. The organic principle of only fertilising the soil and\\u000a not directly feeding the crop with water-soluble nutrients has no support in science. The release of organically bound nutrients\\u000a in soil

Holger Kirchmann; Thomas K鋞terer; Lars Bergstr鰉

309

Natural Variation for Nutrient Use and Remobilization Efficiencies in Switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient management in biomass production systems serves to maximize yield and minimize production costs and environmental\\u000a impact. Loss of soil nutrients with harvested biomass can be reduced by the judicious choice of genotype and harvest time.\\u000a Sustainable production of switchgrass for biofuel will depend, in part, on breeding of varieties that are conservative in\\u000a their use of soil nutrients to

Jiading Yang; Eric Worley; Mingyi Wang; Brett Lahner; David E. Salt; Malay Saha; Michael Udvardi

2009-01-01

310

The Diverse Nutrient Strategies of Harmful Algae: Focus on Osmotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic forms of nutrients originate from various sources, natural and anthropogenic. Organic nutrients are, in turn, used\\u000a by many HAB species that have multiple acquisition mechanisms. The strategies for nutrient and carbon acquisition by HABs\\u000a are thus far more complex than were thought a decade or two ago. With the application of the host of methods now available\\u000a to characterize

P. M. Glibert; C. Legrand

311

Planktonic Bacterial Responses to Nutrient Amendments in Wetland Mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bacteria are important in the processing of anthropogenic nutrient inputs to wetlands, the effects of nutrient type\\u000a and stoichiometry on bacterial communities have rarely been studied in natural systems. In this study, mesocosm enclosures\\u000a were constructed in wetland pools at the Herrick Aquatic Ecology Research Facility at Kent State University (Kent, OH, USA)\\u000a and amended with nutrients. Several experiments

Melissa A. Barlett; Laura G. Leff

2010-01-01

312

Plankton abundance and dynamics across nutrient levels: tests of hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lakes and reservoirs in which Daphnia is able to suppress the biomass of edible algae far below the level set by nutrients, the interaction is stable across the range of nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich environments. This phenomenon contradicts standard con- sumer-resource models, which predict that dynamics should become increasingly unstable with enrichment. We test four hypotheses that might account for

W. W. Murdoch; R. M. Nisbet; E. McCauley; Roos de A. M; W. S. C. Gurney

1998-01-01

313

Nutrient Recommendations and Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for selected nutrients increase appreciably during pregnancy. The recommended intakes for the following nutrients\\u000a are >25% higher than are the amounts recommended for nonpregnant women: protein, ?-linolenic acid, iodine, iron, zinc, folate,\\u000a niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B6. The needs for protein, iron, folate, and vitamin B6 are about 50% higher. Good food sources of these nutrients are

Lorrene D. Ritchie; Janet C. King

314

NUTRIENTS AND TROPHIC STATUS OF THE DANUBE DELTA LAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics and processes related to bio-available nutrients in the Danube Delta were studied by algae bioassays. The bio-available nutrients quantity from sediments and suspensions was estimated. The biolimiting nutrient for the primary produc.tion was determined for diffrenet areas of the delta. Toxicity generated by pollutants bound to sediments from the delta was assesed. bio-limiting factor, algae biotest Raphldocelis subcapitaia,

Mihnea Bosrrrunl; Michel PRRoos

315

Hypothalamic nutrient sensing in the control of energy homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothalamus is a center of convergence and integration of multiple nutrient-related signals. It can sense changes in circulating adiposity hormones, gastric hormones and nutrients, and receives neuroanatomical projections from other nutrient sensors, mainly within the brainstem. The hypothalamus also integrates these signals with various cognitive forebrain-descending information and reward\\/motivation-related signals coming from the midbrain-dopamine system, to coordinate neuroendocrine, behavioral

Cl閙ence Blouet; Gary J. Schwartz

2010-01-01

316

Physiological Growth Responses by Nutrient Interruption in Aeroponically Grown Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to retard potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Superior, Atlantic, and Jasim) shoot growth by nutrient interruption and thereby induce tuber formation in an aeroponic\\u000a cultivation system. In the period between 25 and 55燿ays after transplanting (DAT), a 10-day nutrient interruption was carried\\u000a out on the potato plants. The interruption of nutrient supply significantly increased root activity

Dong Chil Chang; Choun Soo Park; Sung Yeul Kim; Su Jeong Kim; Yong Beom Lee

2008-01-01

317

Spanish children's diet: compliance with nutrient and food intake guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the diet of Spanish children against the nutrient and food intake guidelines. To calculate an index of overall diet quality and check its validity against nutrient intake.Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in four cities in Spain, where information on food and nutrient intake was obtained from schoolchildren through a food frequency questionnaire.Participants: The sample included 1112 children

M A Royo-Bordonada; L Gorgojo; J M Mart韓-Moreno; C Garc閟; F Rodr韌uez-Artalejo; M Benavente; A Mangas; M de Oya

2003-01-01

318

Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to lakes and watersheds has been increasing steadily due to various anthropogenic activities. Because such anthropogenic N is widely distributed, even lakes relatively removed from direct human disturbance are potentially impacted. However, the effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on lakes are not well documented, We examined phytoplankton biomass, the absolute and relative abundance of limiting nutrients (N and phosphorus [P]), and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (USA) receiving elevated (>6 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) or low (<2 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) levels of atmospheric N deposition. Highdeposition lakes had higher NO3-N and total N concentrations and higher total N : total P ratios. Concentrations of chlorophyll and seston carbon (C) were 2-2.5 times higher in highdeposition relative to low-deposition lakes, while high-deposition lakes also had higher seston C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Short-term enrichment bioassays indicated a qualitative shift in the nature of phytoplankton nutrient limitation due to N deposition, as highdeposition lakes had an increased frequency of primary P limitation and a decreased frequency and magnitude of response to N and to combined N and P enrichment. Thus elevated atmospheric N deposition appears to have shifted nutrient supply from a relatively balanced but predominantly N-deficient regime to a more consistently P-limited regime in Colorado alpine lakes. This adds to accumulating evidence that sustained N deposition may have important effects on lake phytoplankton communities and plankton-based food webs by shifting the quantitative and qualitative nature of nutrient limitation. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Elser, J. J.; Kyle, M.; Steuer, L.; Nydick, K. R.; Baron, J. S.

2009-01-01

319

Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Castle, S. C.; Neff, J. C.

2009-01-01

320

Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.  

PubMed

We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper. PMID:22926881

Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; H鰃lund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

2012-09-01

321

Effects of whole-tree harvesting on nutrient supplies and nutrient cycles in a forest ecosystem: a literature review  

SciTech Connect

Intensive harvesting, whole-tree harvesting, and complete-tree utilization are being incorporated into management plans. Plants require sixteen or more nutrients. To determine impacts of intensive harvesting, research has begun to investigate nutrient losses associated with the removal of harvested material. Research efforts are focusing on quantifying direct nutrient loss from removal of additional biomass and identifying direct nutrient losses associated with whole-tree harvesting operations. An estimated 30-65% increase in biomass removal (from whole-tree harvesting operations as opposed to stem-only harvests) is accompanied by a 100-215% increase in nutrient removal. Whole-tree harvesting of hardwoods doubles the removal of nutrients from stem-only harvests. The significance of direct nutrient loss is not agreed upon. Some studies indicate that while stem-only harvests remove nutrients at rates replenishable from other sources, there is insufficient data to determine if whole-tree harvesing results in losses which exceed the system's natural replenishing capacity. Two projects in New England will contribute to understanding of nutrient loss. Ecosystem Effects of Whole-Tree Harvesting in New England: This study in spruce-fir stands in northern Maine, northern hardwood in New Hampshire, and central hardwoods in Connecticut is desiged to qualify nutrient loss from biomass removal and leaching; identify changes in the forest floor and deadwood following harvesting; evaluate changes in nitrogen availability; study nutrient capital, and develop a nutrient budget. Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: In addition to research in litter accumulation and decomposition and nitrogen cycling, the National Science Foundation is funding a study on the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the forest ecosystem. Both projects should be completed by 1987. (Refs. 27).

Lyman, M.W.

1982-01-01

322

Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model  

SciTech Connect

A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

1981-12-01

323

Nutrient Uptake Kinetics in Two Virginia Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been an increase in the occurrence and geographical range of blooms of the brown tide pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens in coastal areas along the east coast of the USA. Brown tide blooms occur when concentrations of inorganic nutrients are low or at the limit of analytical detection and these organisms have been shown to use organic nitrogen for growth. Indeed, it has been suggested that A. anophagefferens, along with a variety of other species that form harmful algal blooms, have a preference for organic nitrogen and because organic nitrogen compounds also have carbon, it is thought that many bloom species may supplement photosynthetic carbon fixation with uptake of organic carbon. In order to better understand the nutritional preferences of bloom organisms, we investigated uptake kinetics for inorganic and organic nutrients in two Virginia waterways where harmful algal blooms frequently occur; the Rappahannock River, a Chesapeake Bay tributary that experiences blooms of dinoflagellates, and Chincoteague Bay, a coastal bay where there are seasonal brown tide blooms. We used stable isotopes (15N and 13C) to measure uptake kinetics for NH4+, urea, two amino acids, a dipeptide and glucose. During the Chincoteague Bay study, there was a bloom of A. anophagefferens (> 1,000,000 cells/ml), however, no blooms were encountered during the Rappahannock Study. Results suggest that brown tide bloom populations had higher affinities and uptake capacities for NH4+ and dipeptides and lower affinities and uptake capacities for urea and the two amino acids. In addition, it appeared that the organic substrates were used primarily as N sources.

Henry, A.; Mulholland, M. R.; Bernhardt, P.; Watson, A. M.; Dias, R. F.

2002-12-01

324

A case study for estimating average annual fluxes of nutrients in lake Baiyangdian, North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient overloads are one of important environmental problems in protecting freshwater in watershed. In this study a simple strategy, based on annual nutrient budgets of water body, is presented to estimate nutrient fluxes to lake Baiyangdian. Anthropogenic nutrient fluxes (ANF) is calculated by focusing on nutrient removal fluxes by vegetations (NRFV), net loss fluxes (NLF) by physical and chemical reactions,

Wang Fei; Xuan Wang

2011-01-01

325

Biomass and nutrient distribution and their return of Casuarina equisetifolia inoculated with biofertilizers in farm land  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study the productivity, nutrient distribution and nutrient cycling of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst in farm forestry. Seedlings inoculated with different biofertilizers such as Azospirillum, Phosphobacterium, AM fungi and Frankia along with their combinations were planted in farmland. Growth, biomass, nutrient distribution, nutrient uptake and nutrient-return through litter were estimated 24 months after planting by harvesting the

K Rajendran; P Devaraj

2004-01-01

326

The effect of sucrose application on soil nutrient availability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a principal factor constraining the invasiveness of exotic weeds such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). The soil microbial community is generally C limited; thus, providing a labile C source can cause microbes to proliferate and immobilize soil nutrients, particularly...

327

Comparison of the mineral composition of twelve standard nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, a large number of standard nutrient solutions has been devised. To investigate if there is an essential difference between these standard solutions, the mineral composition of 12 standard nutrient solutions formulated between 1865 and 1994 are compared with each other. Half of these standard solutions contain ammonium (NH4 ) in a millimolar range. The effect of elemental

G. De Rijck; E. Schrevens

1998-01-01

328

Wheat strip effects on nutrient loads following variable manure application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Narrow grass hedges have been shown to significantly reduce nutrient loads in runoff. The effectiveness of narrow wheat strips in reducing nutrient loads was examined in this investigation. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the effects of a narrow wheat strip, varying manure applic...

329

PROFITABLE AND SUSTAINABLE SOIL TEST-BASED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil testing determines nutrient, lime, gypsum or S, leaching requirements for crops, and potential elemental toxicity to crops and\\/or their consumers. The majority of farmers do not use soil testing or use higher or lower than economic optimum nutrient rates. Shortcomings of the current soil testing methodology are inability to predict yields, large soil test spacial and temporal variability, inability

Parviz N. Soltanpour; Jorge A. Delgado

2002-01-01

330

Algal Biomass Response to Internal Nutrient Loading From Suspended Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in allochthonous nutrient loading to lakes from point and nonpoint sources are intended to improve lake water quality. Yet many lakes continue to experience algal blooms and lake anoxia after these sources are reduced or discontinued. Algal-available nutrients from autochthonous sources are likely to influence lake productivity in these systems. This research seeks to quantify changes in algal biomass

E. L. Ceballos; T. C. Rasmussen

2006-01-01

331

Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various

Goodman, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

332

Nutrient losses during drying and storage of dehydrated foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of nutrients during processing and storage of foods is an important quality aspect that must be considered by the processor. With respect to dehydration, problems exist in interpreting or predicting losses due to the time?temperature?moisture gradient existing during the process. During storage, moisture may also change. This review summarizes the kinetic data available on nutrient losses and shows

Theodore P. Labuza; Steven R. Tannenbaum

1972-01-01

333

Aggregation methods in food chains with nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the study of food chain models under batch and chemostat conditions where nutrient recycling is taken into account. The food chain is formed by a nutrient and two populations, prey and predator (producers and consumers). Species at both trophic levels digest their food source only partly. The unusable part of the food is ejected in

B. W. Kooi; J. C. Poggiale; P. Auger; S. A. L. M. Kooijman

2002-01-01

334

21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nutrient content claims. 101.69 Section 101.69 Food and Drugs...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Nutrient Content Claims 搂 101.69 Petitions for...subject to release to the public) in a written...

2013-04-01

335

Trophic Cascades, Nutrients, and Lake Productivity: Whole-Lake Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of zooplankton, pelagic primary producers, planktonic bacteria, and CO2 exchange with the atmosphere were measured in four lakes with contrasting food webs under a range of nutrient enrichments during a seven-year period. Prior to enrichment, food webs were manipulated to create contrasts between piscivore dominance and plank- tivore dominance. Nutrient enrichments of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus exhibited ratios of

Stephen R. Carpenter; Jonathan J. Cole; James R. Hodgson; James F. Kitchell; Michael L. Pace; Darren Bade; Kathryn L. Cottingham; Timothy E. Essington; Jeffrey N. Houser; Daniel E. Schindler

2001-01-01

336

EVALUATION OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANS USING AN INTEGRATED MODELING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural best management practices (BMPs) are implemented to abate nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Evaluation of these conservation practices requires an approach that can account for the complexities of natural systems. The overall goal of this research was to quantify changes in nutrients reaching water sources attributable to the nutrient management portion of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Environmental Quality

M. A. Thomas; B. A. Engel; M. Arabi; T. Zhai; R. Farnsworth; J. R. Frankenberger

337

Linking plants to rocks: ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize nutrients from minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant nutrients, with the exception of nitrogen, are ultimately derived from weathering of primary minerals. Traditional theories about the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in plant nutrition have emphasized quantitative effects on uptake and transport of dissolved nutrients. Qualitative effects of the symbiosis on the ability of plants to access organic nitrogen and phosphorus sources have also become increasingly apparent. Recent

Renske Landeweert; Ellis Hoffland; Roger D. Finlay; Thom W. Kuyper; Nico van Breemen

2001-01-01

338

Elemental bioavailability in nutrient solutions in relation to dissociation reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general in hydroponic plant nutritional research as well as in commercial hydroponic plant cropping, the actual nutritional composition is supposed to be exactly the same as the desired one. Furthermore, it is supposed that the nutrients are present in the nutrient solution as free ions. This way of thinking does not take into account the dissociation, complexation, and precipitation

G. De Rijck; E. Schrevens

1997-01-01

339

Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an extensive literature review that deals with the assessment of the effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire and fertilization. 123 refs.

Dale W. Johnson; John Turner; J. M. Kelly

1982-01-01

340

Food and nutrient changes: software designed to enhance data quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food and nutrient databases must be continually updated to reflect changes in the food supply and improvements in data values. The Food Databases Management System (FDMS) is a software application designed to manage the US Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies used for food consumption surveys. Staff of the Food Surveys Research Group use FDMS to

Ellen Anderson; Lois C. Steinfeldt; Jaspreet K. C. Ahuja

2004-01-01

341

Food Allergies in Children Affect Nutrient Intake and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To identify if specific food allergies, elimination diets, or other variables associated with food allergies have an impact on the growth and nutrient intake of children with food allergies.Design Measurements of height, weight, and body mass index were used to determine potential growth problems. Estimates of energy and nutrient intakes were based on 3-day diet records. A questionnaire was

LYNN CHRISTIE; R. JEAN HINE; JAMES G. PARKER; WESLEY BURKS

2002-01-01

342

Nutrient addition to enhance biological treatment of greywater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and respiration rates of a microbial population treating real and synthetic greywaters dosed with nutrient supplements. The nutrient composition of the real and synthetic greywaters was analysed and the dosing regime for nitrogen, phosphorus and a range of trace metals planned accordingly. The doses consisted of eight single additives (macronutrients and

Bruce Jefferson; Joanna E Burgess; Aude Pichon; Joanne Harkness; Simon J Judd

2001-01-01

343

NUTRIENT CONTENT OF THE FOOD SUPPLY, 1909 - 1999  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Secretary Shirley Watkins the publication the "Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply, 1909-94" was released. It was prepared by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion and presents historical data on the nutrient content of the U.S. food supply through 1994, w...

344

Development of a Multi-nutrient Data Quality Evaluation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) has redesigned the software of the USDA Nutrient Databank to provide a system for data acquisition, compilation, and dissemination, and as part of this system has developed a module to facilitate the evaluation of analytical data quality. USDA's first data evaluation procedures were developed as a manual system to assess

Joanne M. Holden; Seema A. Bhagwat; Kristine Y. Patterson

2002-01-01

345

Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are

R. F. Strayer

1994-01-01

346

Plant Nutrient Testing and Analysis in Forest and Conservation Nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying mineral nutrients at the proper rate and in the proper balance has a major effect on seedling growth rate but, more importantly, on seedling quality. In addition, mounting concerns about fertilizer pollution are increasing awareness of the benefits of precision fertiliza- tion. Because they reflect actual mineral nutrient uptake, plant tissue tests are the best way to monitor a

Thomas D. Landis; Diane L. Haase; R. Kasten Dumroese

347

Nutrient status of rhizosphere and phosphorus response of radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) exhibits a high efficiency in the utilization of sparingly?soluble phosphates. A greenhouse experiment was designed to investigate the growth response of radish to different phosphorus (P) sources and the nutrient status of the rhizosphere associated with radish growth and nutrient absorption. Radish plants were grown in pots with the roots confined in rhizobags, in such a

Jianlin Wang; Zhichao Luo; Richard H. Loeppert

1995-01-01

348

Modelling Release of Nutrients from Organic Resources Using APSIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Inthe context of integrated nutrient management, the performance of a crop model depends mainly on its ability to adequately describe the release of nutrients from diverse inputs and their uptake by the crop. The wide range of input materials found in tropical farming systems brings new challenges for modelling. In particular there are 憅uality factors that influence the decomposition

M. e. Probert; J. p. Dimes

349

Intensive measurements of nutrient dynamics in the River Swale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a nutrient stability study, pilot studies and three major 100-h monitoring campaigns measuring phosphorus (soluble reactive, total dissolved and total) and dissolved nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) concentrations in the R. Swale catchment in Yorkshire, UK are reported. The nutrient stability studies showed that although nitrite showed considerable stability during 24-h storage, both ammonium and phosphorus were

W. A House; M. S Warwick

1998-01-01

350

Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the

Thun, Tim Von

2013-01-01

351

Agricultural Practices Influence Dissolved Nutrients Leaching through Intact Soil Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

high water table was set in the Netherlands (Breeuwsma et al., 1995). Agricultural practices such as tillage, crop- Nitrogen and P leaching from agricultural land to ground water ping systems, and fertilizer applications influence soil poses a threat to water quality, but it may be possible to control nutrient concentrations and drainage rates, leading us dissolved nutrient leaching by choosing

You Jiao; William H. Hendershot; Joann K. Whalen

2004-01-01

352

Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

353

Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the

Thun, Tim Von

2013-01-01

354

Drugsnutrient interactions: a potential problem during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of drugnutrient interactions is not new, but it has only recently gained currency in medicine. Although the elderly are normally considered to be at particular risk, other groups may also be at risk: infants, adolescents, pregnant women, alcohol and tobacco users, etc.In infants and adolescents there are several factors that may influence the possible interactions: firstly, nutrient needs

E Alonso-Aperte; G Varela-Moreiras

2000-01-01

355

Effect of continuous nutrient enrichment on microalgae colonizing hard substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the effect of changing nutrient conditions on benthic microalgae on hard substrates, in-situ experiments with artificial substrates were conducted in Kiel Fjord, Western Baltic Sea. As an extension of previous investigations, we used artificial substrates without silicate and thus were able to supply nutrient media with different Si:N ratios to porous substrates, from where they trickled

Helmut Hillebrand; Ulrich Sommer

2000-01-01

356

Effects of major nutrient additions on metal uptake in phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influences of major nutrients (N, P, Si) on the accumulation of three trace metals [Cd, Se(IV), and Zn] in four species of marine phytoplankton (diatom, green alga, dinoflagellate, prasinophyte). Relative metal uptake was quantified by the kinetic measurements of metal concentration factor over a short exposure period. Our study demonstrated that nutrient addition significantly influenced the metal

Wen-Xiong Wang; Robert C. H Dei

2001-01-01

357

The role of nutrients in decomposition of a thecate dinoflagellate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of freeze-dried whole cells and empty thecae of the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense Nygaard originating from dense blooms in Lake Kinneret (Israel) was followed experimentally under controlled conditions in the lab. The two materials (whole cells; empty thecae) were suspended in replicate bottles containing nutrient-poor epilimnetic water from the lake. After 7 d, nutrients (N, P, and trace metals)

Tamar Zohary; Hans G黡e; Utsa Pollingher; Bina Kaplan; Riki Pinkas; Ora Hadas

2000-01-01

358

Nutrient values for Australian and overseas chicken meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to summarise analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat and compare analysed data for Australian chicken meat with overseas data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat was compared with publicly available English language databases from overseas countries. Where similar cuts were available, ratio plots were developed to determine similarities

Yasmine Probst

2009-01-01

359

Nutrient dynamics in Amazon shelf waters: results from AMASSEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hydrographic cruises were conducted on the Amazon shelf as part of the AMASSEDS field program. During each cruise, approximately 55 stations were occupied and nutrients, as well as other hydrographic parameters, were measured. The results of this time series sampling program indicate that the nutrient concentrations in the riverine end-member (silicate = 144 ?mol kg?1, phosphate = 0.7 ?mol

David J. Demaster; Robert H. Pope

1996-01-01

360

BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006. Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

361

Nutrient mitigation capacity in Mississippi Delta, USA drainage ditches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication and hypoxia within aquatic systems are a serious international concern. Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate nutrient loads transported to the Gulf of Mexico and other high-profile aquatic systems. The current study examined the nutrient mitigation capacity of a vegetated (V) and non-vegetated (NV) agricultural drainage ditch of similar size and landform in the Mississippi Delta.

M. T. Moore; R. Kr鰃er; M. A. Locke; R. F. Cullum; R. W. Steinriede Jr.; S. Testa III; R. E. Lizotte Jr.; C. T. Bryant; C. M. Cooper

2010-01-01

362

Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of biochar to highly weathered tropical soils has been shown to enhance soil quality and decrease leaching of nutrients. Little, however, is known about the effects of biochar applications on temperate region soils. Our objective was to quantify the impact of biochar on leaching of plant nutrients following application of swine manure to a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Repacked

David Laird; Pierce Fleming; Baiqun Wang; Robert Horton; Douglas Karlen

2010-01-01

363

Contribution of agroforestry trees to nutrient requirements of intercropped plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major tenet of agroforestry, that trees maintain soil fertility, is based primarily on observations of higher crop yields near trees or where trees were previously grown. Recently objective analyses and controlled experiments have addressed this topic. This paper examines the issues of tree prunings containing sufficient nutrients to meet crop demands, the timing of nutrient transfer from decomposition to

C. A. Palm

1995-01-01

364

The Mauna Loa environmental matrix: foliar and soil nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in soils, available soil nutrients, and foliar nutrients in the native dominant Metrosideros polymorpha were determined across a wide elevational range on 9 lava flows on Mauna Loa, Hawai'i. The flows included a young (2800 y) 後 (rough surface texture) and pahoehoe (smooth) flow on the wet east and dry northwest side

Peter M. Vitousek; Gregory Aplet; Douglas Turner; John J. Lockwood

1992-01-01

365

Soil nutrient depletion by agricultural production in Southern Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of soil mining by agricultural production in Southern Mali is assessed by calculating nutrient balances: differences between the amount of plant nutrients exported from the cultivated fields, and those added to the fields. Export processes include extraction by crops, losses due to leaching, to erosion, and to volatilization and denitrification. Inputs include applications of fertilizer and manure, restitution

Floris van der Pol; Boubacar Traore

1993-01-01

366

Phytotoxicity studies with Lactuca sativa in soil and nutrient solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of 76 priority pollutants to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was determined in soil and in nutrient solution. In the first case a static and in the latter a semistatic exposure was established. Volatile and easily degradable compounds had high EC50 values in soil. In nutrient solution, however, several of these compounds were rather toxic. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs)

E. M. Hulzebos; E. M. Dirven-van Breemen; W. A. van Dis; H. A. Herbold; J. A. Hoekstra; R. Baerselman; C. A. M van Gestel; D. M. M. Adema; L. Henzen

1993-01-01

367

Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton production in Alaskan Arctic foothill lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 54 enrichment bioassays to assess nutrient limitation (N, P) of 14C uptake by natural phytoplankton assemblages in 39 lakes and ponds in the Arctic Foothills region of Alaska. Our purpose was to categorize phytoplankton nutrient status in this under-represented region of North America and to improve our ability to predict the response of primary production to anticipated anthropogenically

M. A. Levine; S. C. Whalen

2001-01-01

368

Nutrient and temperature interactions in bioremediation of cryic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperatures and lack of available nutrients often limit the rate of microbial petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated cryic soils. Proper management of both these parameters may increase microbial respiration in such soils. Interactions between nutrient level and temperature could impact management decisions for both factors, but these interactions have not previously been adequately described. Petroleum-contaminated soils from two Alaskan

James Walworth; Joan Braddock; Craig Woolard

2001-01-01

369

Food and Nutrient Contribution of Breakfast to the Total Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the role of breakfast in the diets of Americans including contribution to daily food and nutrient intake.The nutritional role of breakfast in American diets was examined by computing mean food and nutrient intakes from breakfast and the total diet, from food intake records from the USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The study

S. A. Bowman

1997-01-01

370

Medication-Nutrient Interactions and Individuals with Special Healthcare Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many children and adults with special healthcare needs receive one or more medications on a regular basis. Parents and healthcare professionals who care for these individuals should be aware of each medication and potential interactions with foods/nutrients. Those who require long term or multiple medications are at highest risk for drug-nutrient

Brizee, Lori S.

2008-01-01

371

Stream Nutrient Uptake, Forest Succession, and Biogeochemical Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of forest succession predict a close relationship between net biomass increment and catchment nutrient retention. Retention, therefore, is expected to be greatest during aggrading phases of forest succession. In general, studies of this type have compared watershed retention efficiency by monitoring stream nutrient export at the base of the catchment. As such, streams are viewed only as transport systems.

H. Maurice Valett; Chelsea L. Crenshaw; Paul F. Wagner

2002-01-01

372

Shifts in plant nutrient use strategies under secondary forest succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Eastern China, we studied the soil chemistry and plant leaf nutrient concentration along a chronosequence of secondary forest succession. Soil total N, P and leaf N, P concentration of the most abundant plant species increased with forest succession. We further examined leaf lifespan, leaf nutrient characteristics and root杝hoot attributes of

En-Rong Yan; Xi-Hua Wang; Jian-Jun Huang

2006-01-01

373

Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how

Goodman, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

374

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food res- taurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. Objective: We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, \\

Sharon I O'Donnell; Sharon L Hoerr; Jason A Mendoza; Eugenia Tsuei Goh

375

The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of plants to respond appropriately to nutrient availability is of fundamental importance for their adaptation to the environment. Nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate, sulfate and iron act as signals that can be perceived. These signals trigger molecular mechanisms that modify cell division and cell differentiation processes within the root and have a profound impact on root system architecture.

Jos L髉ez-Bucio; Alfredo Cruz-Ram??rez; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2003-01-01

376

Linkages between nutrients and assemblages of macroinvertebrates and fish in wadeable streams: implication to nutrient criteria development.  

PubMed

We sampled 240 wadeable streams across Wisconsin for different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, and assemblages of macroinvertebrates and fish to (1) examine how macroinvertebrate and fish measures correlated with the nutrients; (2) quantify relationships between key biological measures and nutrient forms to identify potential threshold levels of nutrients to support nutrient criteria development; and (3) evaluate the importance of nutrients in influencing biological assemblages relative to other physicochemical factors at different spatial scales. Twenty-three of the 35 fish and 18 of the 26 macroinvertebrate measures significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with at least one nutrient measure. Percentages of carnivorous, intolerant, and omnivorous fishes, index of biotic integrity, and salmonid abundance were fish measures correlated with the most nutrient measures and had the highest correlation coefficients. Percentages of Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera individuals and taxa, Hilsenhoff biotic index, and mean tolerance value were macroinvertebrate measures that most strongly correlated with the most nutrient measures. Selected biological measures showed clear trends toward degradation as concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen increased, and some measures showed clear thresholds where biological measures changed drastically with small changes in nutrient concentrations. Our selected environmental factors explained 54% of the variation in the fish assemblages. Of this explained variance, 46% was attributed to catchment and instream habitat, 15% to nutrients, 3% to other water quality measures, and 36% to the interactions among all the environmental variables. Selected environmental factors explained 53% of the variation in macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of this explained variance, 42% was attributed to catchment and instream habitat, 22% to nutrients, 5% to other water quality measures, and 32% to the interactions among all the environmental variables. PMID:17122998

Wang, Lizhu; Robertson, Dale M; Garrison, Paul J

2006-11-22

377

Linkages Between Nutrients and Assemblages of Macroinvertebrates and Fish in Wadeable Streams: Implication to Nutrient Criteria Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sampled 240 wadeable streams across Wisconsin for different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, and assemblages of macroinvertebrates and fish to (1) examine how macroinvertebrate and fish measures correlated with the nutrients; (2) quantify relationships between key biological measures and nutrient forms to identify potential threshold levels of nutrients to support nutrient criteria development; and (3) evaluate the importance of nutrients in influencing biological assemblages relative to other physicochemical factors at different spatial scales. Twenty-three of the 35 fish and 18 of the 26 macroinvertebrate measures significantly correlated ( P < 0.05) with at least one nutrient measure. Percentages of carnivorous, intolerant, and omnivorous fishes, index of biotic integrity, and salmonid abundance were fish measures correlated with the most nutrient measures and had the highest correlation coefficients. Percentages of Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera individuals and taxa, Hilsenhoff biotic index, and mean tolerance value were macroinvertebrate measures that most strongly correlated with the most nutrient measures. Selected biological measures showed clear trends toward degradation as concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen increased, and some measures showed clear thresholds where biological measures changed drastically with small changes in nutrient concentrations. Our selected environmental factors explained 54% of the variation in the fish assemblages. Of this explained variance, 46% was attributed to catchment and instream habitat, 15% to nutrients, 3% to other water quality measures, and 36% to the interactions among all the environmental variables. Selected environmental factors explained 53% of the variation in macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of this explained variance, 42% was attributed to catchment and instream habitat, 22% to nutrients, 5% to other water quality measures, and 32% to the interactions among all the environmental variables.

Wang, Lizhu; Robertson, Dale M.; Garrison, Paul J.

2007-02-01

378

The influence of hypercapnia and macrofauna on sediment nutrient flux - will ocean acidification affect nutrient exchange?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the concomitant increased uptake of this by the oceans is resulting in hypercapnia-related reduction of ocean pH. Research focussed on the direct effects of these physicochemical changes on marine invertebrates has begun to improve our understanding of impacts at the level of individual physiologies. However, CO2-related impairment of organisms' contribution to ecological or ecosystem processes has barely been addressed. The burrowing ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis, which has a physiology that makes it susceptible to reduced pH, plays a key role in sediment nutrient cycling by mixing and irrigating the sediment, a process known as bioturbation. Here we investigate the role of A. filiformis in modifying nutrient flux rates across the sediment-water boundary and the impact of CO2-related acidification on this process. A 40 day exposure study was conducted under predicted pH scenarios from the years 2100 (pH 7.7) and 2300 (pH 7.3), plus an additional treatment of pH 6.8. This study demonstrated strong relationships between A. filiformis density and cycling of some nutrients; A. filiformis activity increases the sediment uptake of phosphate and the release of nitrite and nitrate. No relationship between A. filiformis density and the flux of ammonium or silicate were observed. Results also indicated that, within the timescale of this experiment, effects at the individual bioturbator level appear not to translate into reduced ecosystem influence. Rather the effect of hypercapnia and lowered pH on bacteria and microphytobenthos may have been of greater significance in understanding the changes to nutrient fluxes seen here. However, long term survival of key bioturbating species is far from assured and changes in both bioturbation and microbial processes could alter key biogeochemical processes in future, more acidic oceans.

Wood, H. L.; Widdicombe, S.; Spicer, J. I.

2009-02-01

379

Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries and embayment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient concentrations among the Chinese rivers and bays vary 10-75 fold depending on nutrient elements. The silicic acid levels in South China rivers are higher than those from North China rivers and the yields of dissolved silicate increased from the north to the south of China, indicating the effect of climate on weathering. The nutrient levels in Chinese rivers are higher than those from the large and less-disturbed world rivers such as Amazon and Zaire, but comparable to the values for European and North American polluted and eutrophic rivers like the Loire and Po. This may be ascribed to both of extensive leaching and influences from agricultural and domestic activities over the drainage basins of Chinese rivers. DIN:PO3-4 ratios in most of Chinese rivers and bays are higher (up to 2800) than the other rivers in the world. The atomic ratios of DIN to PO43- in the major Chinese rivers and embayment decrease in exponential trend with increase in the atomic ratios of PO43- to Si(OH)4, indicating that primary production in coastal environments changes with the nutrients transport when the urbanization develops to a certain extent, and the potential limited nutrient elements can be changed from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation, which can modify aquatic food webs and then the ocean ecosystem. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed. The output shows that the estuaries and embayment behave as a sink or source of nutrients. For the major Chinese estuaries, both residual and mixing flow transport nutrients off the estuaries, and nutrient transport fluxes in summer is 3-4 fold that in winter except comparable for NH4+. These fluxes are 1.0-1.7 fold that estimated by timing riverine nutrient concentrations and freshwater discharge. For the major Chinese embayment, nutrient elements are transported to China Seas except PO43- and Si(OH)4 in Sanggou Bay and Jiaozhou Bay. Seasonally, nutrients transport fluxes off the bays in the summer are 2.2-7.0 fold that in the winter. In the embayment, the exchange flow dominated the water budgets, resulting in average system salinity approaching the China seas salinity where river discharge is limited. The major Chinese estuaries and embayment transport 1.0-3.1% of nitrogen, 0.2-0.5% of phosphorus and 3% of silicon necessary for phytoplankton growth for the China Seas. This demonstrates regenerated nutrients in water column and sediments and nutrients transport fluxes between the China Seas and open ocean play an important role for phytoplankton growth. Atmospheric deposition may be another important source of nutrients for the China Seas.

Liu, S. M.; Hong, G.-H.; Ye, X. W.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, X. L.

2009-01-01

380

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

381

Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, S鴕en; Clissold, Fiona J; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

2012-01-11

382

Effects of nutrient enrichment on macroalgal coralligenous assemblages.  

PubMed

Effects of eutrophication on marine ecosystems have been widely studied, even if both the effects on deep subtidal rocky assemblages and response of different successional stages to nutrients impact are still not clear. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment on Mediterranean macroalgal assemblages associated with coralligenous habitat. A manipulative field experiment was carried out by supplying both mature and early successional stages of assemblages with nutrients. A total of 62 macroalgal species were identified. Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that the structure of both mature and early successional macroalgal assemblages of coralligenous significantly varied between areas treated with nutrients and not treated areas. Moreover, differences were stronger when macroalgal assemblages were in the early successional stage than in the mature one. Results highlighted the role played by nutrients in determining the structure of macroalgal coralligenous assemblages, furthermore suggesting possible synergetic effects with other kinds of disturbances. PMID:21620421

Piazzi, Luigi; Gennaro, Paola; Balata, David

2011-05-26

383

The influence of the forest canopy on nutrient cycling.  

PubMed

Rates of key soil processes involved in recycling of nutrients in forests are governed by temperature and moisture conditions and by the chemical and physical nature of the litter. The forest canopy influences all of these factors and thus has a large influence on nutrient cycling. The increased availability of nutrients in soil in clearcuts illustrates how the canopy retains nutrients (especially N) on site, both by storing nutrients in foliage and through the steady input of available C in litter. The idea that faster decomposition is responsible for the flush of nitrate in clearcuts has not been supported by experimental evidence. Soil N availability increases in canopy gaps as small as 0.1 ha, so natural disturbances or partial harvesting practices that increase the complexity of the canopy by creating gaps will similarly increase the spatial variability in soil N cycling and availability within the forest. Canopy characteristics affect the amount and composition of leaf litter produced, which largely determines the amount of nutrients to be recycled and the resulting nutrient availability. Although effects of tree species on soil nutrient availability were thought to be brought about largely through differences in the decomposition rate of their foliar litter, recent studies indicate that the effect of tree species can be better predicted from the mass and nutrient content of litter produced, hence total nutrient return, than from litter decay rate. The greater canopy complexity in mixed species forests creates similar heterogeneity in nutritional characteristics of the forest floor. Site differences in slope position, parent material and soil texture lead to variation in species composition and productivity of forests, and thus in the nature and amount of litter produced. Through this positive feedback, the canopy accentuates inherent differences in site fertility. PMID:12414379

Prescott, Cindy E

2002-11-01

384

Influence of toxic concentrations of micro-nutrient elements in the nutrient medium on vitamin content of turnips and tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the iron concentration in the nutrient medium was increased to 147 ppm, no significant effects on the growth of either turnips or tomatoes were evident. As the concentration of copper, manganese, boron, zinc, or molybdenum was increased in the nutrient medium, the growth of both turnips and tomatoes was significantly retarded. Toxicity symptoms developed, and as the supply of

C. B. Lyon; Kenneth C. Beeson

1948-01-01

385

Changes in the nutrient composition of Tetraselmis suecica cultured semicontinuously with different nutrient concentrations and renewal rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica was cultured semicontinuously with two nutrient concentrations: 2 and 4 mmol N l?1 and five rates of daily renewal of the culture media in the range 1050%, in order to study the changes in the nutrient composition of the cells produced under such conditions. An increase in the renewal rate produced an increase in protein

Ana Otero; Jaime F醔regas

1997-01-01

386

Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,

Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

2009-01-01

387

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED BEEF FEEDLOT MANURE APPLICATION ON SOIL NUTRIENTS, CORN SILAGE YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A field study was initiated in 1992 to investigate the long-term impacts of beef feedlot manure application (composted and uncomposted) on nutrient accumulation and movement in soil, corn silage yield and nutrient uptake. Two application strategies were compared梡roviding the annual crop nitrogen (N...

388

Benthic community responses to nutrient enrichment and predator exclusion: Influence of background nutrient concentrations and interactive effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential community effects of nutrient enhancement are a topic of theoretical interest and increasing management concern in coastal marine systems. While increased nutrient levels may lead to increased microalgal production and biomass, studies have provided variable evidence regarding the existence of upward cascade effects on macrofauna. In benthic marine communities, limitation by predation or factors preventing recruitment response may contribute

Martin H. Posey; Troy D. Alphin; Lawrence Cahoon

2006-01-01

389

SUSPENDED AND BENTHIC SEDIMENT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON: NUTRIENT PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of nutrient loading and subsequent nutrient processing are fundamental for determining biogeochemical processes in rivers and estuaries. In Oregon coastal watersheds, nutrient transport is strongly seasonal with up to 94% of the riverine dissolved nitrate and silic...

390

Return of salmon-derived nutrients from the riparian zone to the ...  

Treesearch

Description: Spawning salmon deliver nutrients (salmon-derived nutrients, SDN) ... can be incorporated into terrestrial and aquatic food webs, potentially increasing ... salmon, salmon-derived nutrients, riparian zone, dissolved organic matter,...

391

21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 ...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims 搂 101.67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a)...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 ...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims 搂 101.67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a)...

2009-04-01

393

Utilization of the Water Soluble Fraction of Wheat Straw as a Plant Nutrient Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight...

C. L. Mackowiak J. L. Garland

1990-01-01

394

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations...A producer may manage crop nutrients and soil fertility to maintain or improve...by applying: (1) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the...

2009-01-01

395

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations...A producer may manage crop nutrients and soil fertility to maintain or improve...by applying: (1) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the...

2010-01-01

396

Coping with uncertainty: Nutrient deficiencies motivate insect migration at a cost to immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Migration is often associated with movement away from areas with depleted nutrients or other resources, and yet migration itself is energetically demanding. Migrating Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) lack nutrients, and supplementation of deficient nutrients slows migrator...

397

Nutrient management effects on sweetpotato genotypes under controlled environment.  

PubMed

Sweetpotato is one of several crops recommended by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for bioregenerative life support studies. One of the objectives of the Tuskegee University NASA Center is to optimize growth conditions for adaptability of sweetpotatoes for closed bioregenerative systems. The role of nutrient solution management as it impacts yield has been one of the major thrusts in these studies. Nutrient solution management protocol currently used consists of a modified half Hoagland solution that is changed at 14-day intervals. Reservoirs are refilled with deionized water if the volume of the nutrient solution was reduced to 8 liters or less before the time of solution change. There is the need to recycle and replenish nutrient solution during crop growth, rather than discard at 14 day intervals as previously done, in order to reduce waste. Experiments were conducted in an environmental growth room to examine the effects of container size on the growth of several sweetpotato genotypes grown under a nutrient replenishment protocol. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15cm length and were planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Nutrient replenishment protocol consisted of daily water replenishment to a constant volume of 30.4 liters in the small containers and 273.6 liters in the large container. Nutrients were replenished as needed when the EC of the nutrient solution fell below 1200 mhos/cm. The experimental design used was a split-plot with the main plot being container size and genotypes as the subplot. Nine sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated. Results showed no effect of nutrient solution container size on storage root yield, foliage fresh and dry mass, leaf area or vine length. However, plants grown using the large nutrient solution container accumulated more storage root dry mass than those with the small containers. Although plants grown with the smaller containers showed greater water uptake, plant nutrient uptake was lower than with the larger container. All genotypes evaluated showed variation in their responses to all parameters measured. PMID:11541588

David, P P; Bonsi, C K; Trotman, A A; Douglas, D Z

1996-12-01

398

Nutrient distribution in the Bosphorus and surrounding areas.  

PubMed

As part of a five years monitoring project "Water Quality Monitoring of the Strait of Istanbul", February-December 1999 nutrient dynamics of the Black Sea-the Sea of Marmara transect are studied to evaluate the effect of discharges given by deep disposals. Through a one-year study, upper layer nutrient concentrations were generally under the effect of northwestern-shelf Black Sea originated waters. This effect was strictly observed in July, when the upper layer flow was the thickest. On the other hand, partly in November but especially in December the northwestern-shelf Black Sea originated water flow was a minimum resulting in similar concentrations in both layers. Nutrient fluctuations also affected the chlorophyll a and POC concentrations as parameters of productivity. The nutrient concentrations decreased with the effect of spring bloom and highest chlorophyll a values were detected in November at Strait stations that did not match to the Sea of Marmara values. This fact represents the time-scale difference between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. On the contrary, high nutrient concentrations in the lower layer (especially inorganic phosphate), and therefore low N:P ratios reflect the effect of deep discharge. Vertical mixing caused by meteorological conditions of the shallow station (M3) under the effect of surface discharges resulted in homogenous distribution of nutrients. Nutrient concentrations of the stations affected by deep discharge showed that the two-layer stratification of the system did not permit the discharge mix to the upper layer. PMID:12420966

Oku?, E; Asian-Yilma, A; Y黭sek, A; Ta?, S; T黤ek鏸, V

2002-01-01

399

Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants  

PubMed Central

For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats.

Puijalon, Sara

2012-01-01

400

The gastrointestinal tract as a nutrient-balancing organ  

PubMed Central

Failure to provision tissues with an appropriate balance of nutrients engenders fitness costs. Maintaining nutrient balance can be achieved by adjusting the selection and consumption of foods, but this may not be possible when the nutritional environment is limiting. Under such circumstances, rebalancing of an imbalanced nutrient intake requires post-ingestive mechanisms. The first stage at which such post-ingestive rebalancing might occur is within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), by differential release of digestive enzymes梤eleasing less of those enzymes for nutrients present in excess while maintaining or boosting levels of enzymes for nutrients in deficit. Here, we use an insect herbivore, the locust, to show for the first time that such compensatory responses occur within the GIT. Furthermore, we show that differential release of proteases and carbohydrases in response to nutritional state translate into differential extraction of macronutrients from host plants. The prevailing view is that physiological and structural plasticity in the GIT serves to maximize the rate of nutrient gain in relation to costs of maintaining the GIT; our findings show that GIT plasticity is integral to the maintenance of nutrient balance.

Clissold, Fiona J.; Tedder, Benjamin J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Simpson, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

401

Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

*Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes < 2326?) had N : P resorption ratios of < 1, and plants growing on highly weathered tropical soils maintained the lowest N : P resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2012-01-01

402

Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers.  

PubMed

The paradigm of the first 1000 days of life, the period from conception to the second birthday, has been advanced as a critical window of opportunity to save a life and a child's future. Infancy and toddler life, through the first 24 months after birth, is a unique period during which human milk is recommended as either the exclusive source of nutrition (6 months) or a variable component thereof. After the maternal delivery of milk is accounted for, the remainder of the energy and nutrients needs come from complementary foods. There is an intrinsic gap left by the maternal milk supply in volume and micronutrient content in relation to expanding infant and toddler needs. The nutrient density approach provides us with a mathematical framework to manage the closing of the nutrient gap. The intrinsic nutrient content of the unprocessed foods appropriate for young children is limited. The most problematic nutrients are calcium, iron and zinc. Some manner to enhance the nutrient density of the complementary foods is an incontestable necessity. The nutrient density consideration, which identifies for us the nature of the problem, offers a tool for the titrating of the fortification to an adequate--but safe--addition. PMID:23443831

Solomons, N W; Vossenaar, M

2013-02-27

403

Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities.  

PubMed

Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature. PMID:22842011

Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

2012-07-26

404

Energy and nutrient intakes in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy. PMID:2705801

Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J

1989-03-01

405

Energy and nutrient intakes in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy.

Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J

1989-01-01

406

Sources of nutrients in students' diets.  

PubMed

This paper describes foods consumed and nutrients derived from specific foods by participants and non-participants in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). Data are from 24-h dietary intake interviews with 3350 children in grades 1-12, collected as part of the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study. The meal-pattern requirements of the NSLP and SBP strongly influence what participants eat. NSLP participants are more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk, meats, grain mixtures, and vegetables, leading to higher intakes of fat and sodium, but also of calcium and vitamin A, and are less likely to consume cakes and cookies, soft drinks, and fruitades, which do not count toward program requirements. SBP participants are more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk and fruit juice, leading to higher intakes of calcium and magnesium, and are three times more likely to eat meat, leading to higher intakes of fat and sodium. Nonparticipants in the SBP obtain similar amounts of vitamins and minerals at breakfast but less food energy. PMID:7832170

Gordon, A R; McKinney, P

1995-01-01

407

Nutrient support of the healing wound.  

PubMed

Wound healing is a series of complex physicochemical interactions that require various micronutrients at every step. In the critically ill or severely injured patient, wound healing is impaired by the protein-catabolic, hypermetabolic response to stress. The hypothalamus responds to cytokine stimulation by increasing the thermoregulatory set-point and by augmenting elaboration of stress hormones (catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon). In turn, the stress hormones induce thermogenic futile substrate cycling, lipolysis, and proteolysis. Increased glucose production results at the expense of skeletal muscle degradation, producing amino acid substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nutritional support of the hypermetabolic state is an essential part of ensuring efficient wound healing in these patients. Protein catabolism cannot be reversed by increased amino acid availability alone, due partly to a defect in amino acid transport. This defect can be reversed by anabolic agents, such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Growth hormone treatment dramatically improves wound healing in severely burned children. Supplementation with protein and vitamins, specifically arginine and vitamins A, B, and C, provides optimum nutrient support of the healing wound. PMID:7922445

Meyer, N A; Muller, M J; Herndon, D N

1994-05-01

408

Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50?years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar l-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron杝ulfur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

Stahl, Martin; Butcher, James; Stintzi, Alain

2012-01-01

409

Choline: an essential nutrient for public health.  

PubMed

Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. There is significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common genetic polymorphisms. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis, and, possibly, neurological disorders. Choline is found in a wide variety of foods. Eggs and meats are rich sources of choline in the North American diet, providing up to 430 milligrams per 100 grams. Mean choline intakes for older children, men, women, and pregnant women are far below the adequate intake level established by the IOM. Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less-than-optimal intakes among the population, dietary guidance should be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods. PMID:19906248

Zeisel, Steven H; da Costa, Kerry-Ann

2009-11-01

410

Genetic and environmental influences on nutrient intake.  

PubMed

The relationship between genetic and the environment represents a pathway to better understand individual variations in nutrition intake and food preferences. However, the present literature is weakened somewhat by methodological flaws (e.g., overreliance on self-report questionnaires), discrepancies in statistical approaches, and inconsistent findings. Little research on this topic to date has included examination of micronutrient intake. The purpose of this study is to improve the existing literature on genetic and environmental influences on energy and nutrient intake by addressing these gaps. Twin pairs (N=358; age 11-13爕ears) provided 3-day food intake diaries, which were assessed for intake of total energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Structural equation modeling revealed that genetic influences accounted for a significant portion of the total variance in total energy (48%), macronutrients (35-45%), minerals (45%), and vitamins (21%). Consistent with previous studies, the shared environment appeared to contribute little to nutritional intake. Findings on vitamin and mineral intake are novel and are particularly beneficial for further research on the contribution of micronutrients to individual physical health status. Better understanding of the linkage between genes, environment, and nutritional intake and deficiencies can clarify behavioral and physical outcomes, potentially informing risk reduction, primary prevention, and intervention strategies. PMID:23055091

Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura

2012-10-02

411

Nutrient removal under whole-tree utilization for fuel chips  

SciTech Connect

In studies in stands of mixed pine/broadleaved species in Georgia, USA, harvests for fuel chips were made in summer and autumn at two intensities that removed woody stems to 4-inch or 1-inch d.b.h. Nutrient contents were determined in litter, soil and chips prepared from the harvested material. Whole tree harvesting removed 5, 36, 24 and 71% respectively of N, P, K and Ca. More nutrients were removed by harvesting in summer, but no differences in nutrient removal occurred between the two intensities. 6 references.

McMinn, J.W.; Nutter, W.L.

1983-01-01

412

Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Data Laboratory presents the National Nutrient Database, which has an easy-to-search interface that quickly retrieves nutritional data for every food item that contains a specific keyword. For instance, searching for "soybean" calls up a long list of food items for which soybean is an ingredient: various margarines, salad dressings, and oils; raw soybeans; steamed soybeans; roasted soybeans; and so on. The complete nutrition report for each item can then be viewed after selecting a unit of measurement (e.g., per 100 grams). The database may also be search by single nutrients, such as iron or folic acid.

2002-01-01

413

The Vacuum-Operated Nutrient Delivery System: hydroponics for microgravity.  

PubMed

A nutrient delivery system that may have applicability for growing plants in microgravity is described. The Vacuum-Operated Nutrient Delivery System (VONDS) draws nutrient solution across roots that are under a partial vacuum at approximately 91 kPa. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake 274) plants grown on the VONDS had consistently greater leaf area and higher root, stem, leaf, and pod dry weights than plants grown under nonvacuum control conditions. This study demonstrates the potential applicability of the VONDS for growing plants in microgravity for space biology experimentation and/or crop production. PMID:11537607

Brown, C S; Cox, W M; Dreschel, T W; Chetirkin, P V

1992-11-01

414

External nutrient sources, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production in Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

External nutrient loadings, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production were examined for three major subsystems of the Chesapeake Bay Estuary-the upper Mainstem, the Patuxent Estuary, and the Potomac Estuary-during 1985-1989. The atomic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (TN:TP) of total loads were 51, 29 and 35, respectively. Most of these loads entered at the head of the estuaries from riverine sources and major wastewater treatment plants. Seven-16% of the nitrogen load entered the head of each estuary as particulate matter in contrast to 48-69% for phosphorus. The difference seems to favor a greater loss of phosphorus than nitrogen through sedimentation and burial. A major storm event in the Potomac watershed greatly increased the particulate fraction of nitrogen and phosphorus and lowered the TN:TP in the river-borne loads and accounted for 11% of the nitrogen and 31% of the phosphorus delivered to the estuary by the Potomac River during the entire 60- month period examined here. Within the Mainstem estuary, salinity dilution plots revealed strong net sources of ammonium and phosphate in the oligohaline to upper mesohaline region. indicating considerable internal recycling of nutrients to surface waters. A net sink of nitrate was indicated during summer. Phytoplankton biomass in the mesohaline Mainstem reached a peak in spring and was relatively constant throughout the other seasons. In the Patuxent and Potomac, the TN:TP ratios of external loads are 2-4 times higher than those observed over the previous two decades. These changes are attributed to point-source phosphorus controls and the likelihood that nitrogen-rich nonpoint source inputs, including contributions from the atmosphere, have increased. These higher N:P ratios now suggest a greater overall potential for phosphorus-limitation rather than nitrogen-limitation of phytoplankton in the areas studied. 66 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Magnien, R.E.; Summers, R.M. (Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore (United States)); Sellner, K.G. (Benedict Estuarine Research Lab., MD (United States))

1992-12-01

415

Response of algal metrics to nutrients and physical factors and identification of nutrient thresholds in agricultural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

Black, R. W.; Moran, P. W.; Frankforter, J. D.

2011-01-01

416

Response of algal metrics to nutrients and physical factors and identification of nutrient thresholds in agricultural streams.  

PubMed

Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. PMID:20577796

Black, Robert W; Moran, Patrick W; Frankforter, Jill D

2010-06-25

417

Growth and nutrient accumulation of Phragmites australis in relation to water level variation and nutrient loadings in a shallow lake.  

PubMed

Shallow lake eutrophication is a global environmental issue. This study investigated the effects of water level variation and nutrient loadings on the growth and nutrient accumulation of Phragmites australis (reed) by field samplings in Baiyangdian Lake, the largest shallow lake of northern China. The field samplings were conducted in two sites of different nutrient loadings during the whole growth period of reeds, and three types of zones with different water depths were chosen for each site, including the terrestrial zone with water level below the ground, the ecotone zone with the water level varying from belowground to aboveground, and the submerged zone with water level above the ground. The result showed that reed growth was more limited by water level variation than nutrient loadings. The average stem lengths and diameters in terrestrial zones were about 26.3%-27.5% and 7.2%-12.0% higher than those in submerged zones, respectively. Similarly, the terrestrial status increased the aboveground biomass of reeds by 36.6%-51.8% compared with the submerged status. Both the nutrient concentrations and storages in the aboveground reeds were mainly influenced by the nutrient loadings in surface water and sediment rather than the water level variation of the reed growth environment, and the nutrient storages reached their maxima in late August or early September. It was observed that the maximum nitrogen storage occurred in the terrestrial zone with higher nutrient loadings, with the value of 74.5 g/m2. This study suggested that water level variation and nutrient loadings should be considered when using reeds to control and remediate eutrophication of shallow lakes. PMID:23586295

Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xinghui; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-01-01

418

Mineral Nutrient Requirements of Chlorella Sorkiniana in Continuous Pure Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mineral nutrient requirements of Chlorella sorokiniana under suitable sterile conditions were studied in a photothermostat and in two continuous culture units at constant densities of 2 microliters/ml. and 20 microliters/ml. Minimum, optimum, and maximum ...

E. H. Clyde

1967-01-01

419

Quality Control and Processing of Historical Oceanographic Nutrient Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a description of the procedures used by the Ocean Climate Laboratory (OCL) in the quality control of the historical oceanographic nutrient data archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). These procedures involve: (1) range ch...

M. E. Conkright T. P. Boyer S. Levitus

1994-01-01

420

Impact of Prescribed Fire on Understory and Forest Floor Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of low-intensity prescribed fires on slash pine/saw-palmetto/gallberry understory and forest floor nutrients was estimated from measurements before and after burning. Highly significant correlations existed between weight loss of these fuel com...

W. A. Hough

1981-01-01

421

Dynamics of Microorganism Populations in Recirculating Nutrient Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, ...

R. F. Strayer

1994-01-01

422

[Spatial variability of farmland soil nutrients at Taihang piedmont].  

PubMed

By the method of geostatistics, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil nutrients in 30,490 hm2 crop field in Luancheng region and in 15 hm2 experimental field in Luancheng Ecological Agriculture Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the variation of soil nutrient contents differed obviously, and the semivariograms could be simulated by Gaussian and spherical models with some nugget variances. The limit distance of spatial correlation was 4.2-15.6 km and 112-223 m in Luancheng region and in experimental field, respectively, and the spatial variability of soil organic matter, N, P and K was of semivariance structure. It revealed that there existed a spatial correlation in soil nutrient contents under relatively large-block scale, which made it possible to develop regionalized soil nutrient precision management. PMID:15707311

Zhang, Yuming; Mao, Renzhao; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhu, Anning

2004-11-01

423

Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

424

LAKE ERIE NUTRIENT CONTROL: EFFECTIVENESS REGARDING ASSESSMENT IN EASTERN BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-year synoptic monitoring program was conducted on 26 stations from 1973-75. Data generated included major nutrients, temperature structure and oxygen depletion as well as phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic macroinvertebrate dynamics....

425

Prehistoric agricultural depletion of soil nutrients in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

We investigated the fate of soil nutrients after centuries of indigenous dryland agriculture in Hawai慽 using a coupled geochemical and archaeological approach. Beginning ?500 years ago, farmers began growing dryland taro and sweet potato on the leeward slopes of East Maui. Their digging sticks pierced a subsurface layer of cinders, enhancing crop access to the soil water stored below the intact cinders. Cultivation also catalyzed nutrient losses, directly by facilitating leaching of mobile nutrients after disturbing a stratigraphic barrier to vertical water movement, and indirectly by increasing mineral weathering and subsequent uptake and harvest. As a result, centuries of cultivation lowered volumetric total calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content by 49%, 28%, 75%, 37%, and 32%, respectively. In the absence of written records, we used the difference in soil phosphorus to estimate that prehistoric yields were sufficient to meet local demand over very long time frames, but the associated acceleration of nutrient losses could have compromised subsequent yields.

Hartshorn, A. S.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Kirch, P. V.

2006-01-01

426

Water Pollution by Nutrients-Sources, Effects and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bulletin includes the papers presented at a conference on 'Nutrient Pollution - Sources, Effects and Control' held in Minneapolis, Minnesota on January 8, 1969. The conference was planned as the Annual Meeting of the Minnesota Chapter, Soil Conservati...

1969-01-01

427

The Use of Wetlands as Nutrient Removal Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data derived from three wetland study sites in the Chesapeake Bay show that regularly flooded tidal marshes should not be considered as sinks for available forms of the nutrients--nitrogen or phosphorus. Although transformation of the incoming or applied ...

M. E. Bender D. L. Correll

1974-01-01

428

Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species ...  

Treesearch

Nutrient relations of four tree species occurring in both planting mixtures were ... This demonstrate forms of plastic adjustment in all three non-N2-fixing species ... nitrate immobilization and tighter P recycling compared with the diverse mixture.

429

Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: challenges and research opportunities.  

PubMed

This literature review focuses on the prevalence of nitrogen and phosphorus in urban environments and the complex relationships between land use and water quality. Extensive research in urban watersheds has broadened our knowledge about point and non-point pollutant sources, but the fate of nutrients is not completely understood. For example, it is not known how long-term nutrient cycling processes in turfgrass landscapes influence nitrogen retention rates or the relative atmospheric contribution to urban nitrogen exports. The effect of prolonged reclaimed water irrigation is also unknown. Stable isotopes have been used to trace pollutants, but distinguishing sources (e.g., fertilizers, wastewater, etc.) can be difficult. Identifying pollutant sources may aid our understanding of harmful algal blooms because the extent of the relationship between urban nutrient sources and algal blooms is unclear. Further research on the delivery and fate of nutrients within urban watersheds is needed to address manageable water quality impacts. PMID:23202644

Carey, Richard O; Hochmuth, George J; Martinez, Christopher J; Boyer, Treavor H; Dukes, Michael D; Toor, Gurpal S; Cisar, John L

2012-11-29

430

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth Revised Edition, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predictin...

1994-01-01

431

Nutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations among US workers  

PubMed Central

Objective Assess nutrient intake according to dietary guidelines among US worker groups. Methods Participants of 19992004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed two 24-hour recall dietary interviews to assess daily intake of protein, carbohydrate, fat, cholesterol, calcium, sodium, and fiber. Employed participants (n=8,987) were classified as: (1) white collar, (2) service worker, (3) farmer, and (4) blue collar. Results Nutrient intake varied by occupational group, particularly for fiber, sodium, calories, and percentage of calories from protein, saturated fat, and carbohydrate. Adherence to recommendations was noted for saturated fat and cholesterol, but workers were poorly adherent to recommendations for all other nutrients, particularly fiber. Conclusions Workers display differences in nutrient intake across occupational groups with poor eating behaviors evident across all groups. Fiber is particularly poorly consumed, with less than 5% of all US workers meeting the recommendations.

Kachan, Diana; Lewis, John E.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.

2011-01-01

432

Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Aggression in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in aggression produced by diets and drug-nutrient combinations were assessed. Experiments were conducted on the effects of tyrosine and tryptophan supplemented diets on aggressive behavior, locomotor activity, response to stress, brain monoamine a...

J. B. Thurmond

1981-01-01

433

Controlled environments alter nutrient content of soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about compositional changes in plants grown in controlled environments is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Information now is available for some CELSS candidate crops, but detailed information has been lacking for soybeans. To determine the effect of environment on macronutrient and mineral composition of soybeans, plants were grown both in the field and in a controlled environment where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at seed maturity, separated into discrete parts, and oven dried prior to chemical analysis. Plant material was analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nonprotein N (NPN), nitrate, minerals, amino acid composition, and total dietary fiber. The effect of environment on composition varied by cultivar and plant part. Chamber-grown plants generally exhibited the following characteristics compared with field-grown plants: 1) increased total N and protein N for all plant parts, 2) increased nitrate in leaves and stems but not in seeds, 3) increased lipids in seeds, and 4) decreased Ca:P ratio for stems, pods, and leaves. These trends are consistent with data for other CELSS crops. Total N, protein N, and amino acid contents for 350 ppm CO_2 and 1000 ppm CO_2 were similar for seeds, but protein N and amino acid contents for leaves were higher at 350 ppm CO_2 than at 1000 ppm CO_2. Total dietary fiber content of soybean leaves was higher with 350 ppm CO_2 than with 1000 ppm CO_2. Such data will help in selecting of crop species, cultivars, and growing conditions to ensure safe, nutritious diets for CELSS.

Jurgonski, L. J.; Smart, D. J.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

434

Stability of nizatidine in total nutrient admixtures.  

PubMed

The stability of nizatidine in total nutrient admixtures (TNAs) and the effect of the drug on the stability of lipid emulsions in the TNAs were studied. Duplicate 1476-mL amino acid-dextrose base solutions were prepared; nizatidine 300 mg was added to one. TNAs were prepared by adding to 75-mL samples of the base solutions Intralipid (KabiVitrum) or Liposyn II (Abbott) and sterile water as needed to achieve final lipid concentrations of 3% and 5%. Triplicate 100-mL samples for each lipid product and concentration were prepared; fat-free samples containing nizatidine were also studied. The theoretical final nizatidine concentration was 150 micrograms/mL. Samples were stored at 22 degrees C for 48 hours. Initially and at 12, 24, and 48 hours, the samples were visually inspected, tested for pH and particle-size distribution, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography for nizatidine concentration. No color change, precipitation, creaming, or oiling out was noted. For the 12 TNAs containing nizatidine, mean solution pH during the study was 5.88; stability of the lipid products requires pH values greater than or equal to 5.5. Particle-size distribution did not differ appreciably between the nizatidine-containing and drug-free TNAs. Nizatidine concentrations remained greater than 90% of the initial concentration. Nizatidine at a theoretical concentration of 150 micrograms/mL was stable for 48 hours at 22 degrees C in TNA solutions containing 3% and 5% Intralipid or Liposyn II and did not appear to affect lipid emulsion stability. PMID:1679293

Hatton, J; Holstad, S G; Rosenbloom, A D; Westrich, T; Hirsch, J

1991-07-01

435

Groundwater - the underestimated component in lake nutrient balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is one of the most important threats to lakes in temperate climatic zones. It is necessary to determine the relevance of different nutrient sources to conduct effective management measures, to understand in-lake processes and to model future scenarios. A prerequisite for nutrient balances are water balances. Surface inflows from streams, rivers and ditches can be precisely quantified and based on local weather data precipitation and evaporation can be calculated. Quantifications of groundwater infiltration and exfiltration are more difficult. Often they are determined as residual in the water balance equation or estimated based on groundwater flow models. For nutrient balances some additional input paths have to be taken into account, for example, dry deposition, waterfowl, swimmer and anglers. Furthermore, concentration fluctuations of the different inflows have to be considered. The determination of nutrient imports via the groundwater paths is quite complex and often disregarded in nutrient balances or based on dubious assumptions. Nevertheless, groundwater might be an important nutrient source in several lakes. There are three major reasons for neglecting the groundwater path: (1) The groundwater-lake interface is difficult to access, especially in deeper lakes. (2) The size of the interface gives much space for spatial heterogeneity and requires an enormous amount of measurements for reliable determinations. (3) The lake sediment is a reactive interface, i. e., there might be some processing of the nutrients at the immediate groundwater-lake interface. In the present study we suggest a combined approach of localization of major water infiltration zones with distributed temperature sensing, quantification of water infiltration at some locations based on temperature gradients at the groundwater-lake interface and determination of nutrient concentrations with seepage meters at the same locations.

Lewandowski, Joerg; Nuetzmann, Gunnar

2010-05-01

436

Nutrient and Related Food Composition of Exported Australian Lamb Cuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient and physical composition data for nine cuts of exported Australian lamb trimmed to 1\\/8-in external fat were obtained to provide the information for nutritional labeling and for 50 items for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Vacuum-packaged primals from eight carcasses were fabricated into matching cuts for raw and cooked analyses from left and right carcass sides.

I. M. Hoke; D. R. Buege; W. Ellefson; E. Maly

1999-01-01

437

Inferring the Nutrient Content of Food With Prior Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given measurements on the nutrient content of the U.S. food supply and a coherent reduced form empirical model of the demand for foods, we can analyze the effect of agricultural farm and food policy on nutrition. Using unpublished documents from the HNIS, estimates of the percentages of seventeen nutrients supplied by twenty-one foods were compiled for the period 1952-1983. The

Jeffrey T. LaFrance

1999-01-01

438

Low-cost diets: more energy, fewer nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-dense diets offer a low-cost dietary option to the consumer. However, they are more likely to be nutrient-poor. In this study, based on the French national food consumption survey, the diet costs were estimated using retail food prices in France. Adult participants were stratified by quartiles of energy cost (in [euro ]\\/10 MJ). Dietary energy density, energy and nutrient intakes

E Andrieu; N Darmon; A Drewnowski

2006-01-01

439

Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species.

Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

2007-01-01

440

Plant genotype mediates the effects of nutrients on aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil nutrients, and factors which influence their concentrations and bioavailability, form a basic component of bottom杣p\\u000a control of ecosystem processes, including plant杊erbivore interactions. Increased nutrient levels are linked, through plant\\u000a defence theory, with increased levels of herbivore susceptibility. The focal point of many ecological experiments examining\\u000a this link is at the species level, where the response of single species is

J. K. Rowntree; A. McVennon; R. F. Preziosi

2010-01-01

441

Nutrient compensatory foraging in a free-living social insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric framework model predicts that animal foraging decisions are influenced by their dietary history, with animals\\u000a targeting a combination of essential nutrients through compensatory foraging. We provide experimental confirmation of nutrient-specific\\u000a compensatory foraging in a natural, free-living population of social insects by supplementing their diet with sources of protein-\\u000a or carbohydrate-rich food. Colonies of the ant Iridomyrmex suchieri were

Keri L. Christensen; Anthony P. Gallacher; Lizzie Martin; Desmond Tong; Mark A. Elgar

2010-01-01

442

Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quantify the required reduction of nutrient input.<\\/TT>To investigate the effects of nutrient loading on the receiving water,

R. Portielje

1994-01-01

443

Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of

Claude E. Boyd

1970-01-01

444

Modeling in Nutrient Sensing for Agricultural and Environmental Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes applications of modeling in nutrient prediction, such as nitrogen (N) for citrus production and phosphorus\\u000a (P) for agricultural and environmental purposes. Heavy reliance on agricultural chemicals has raised many environmental and\\u000a economic concerns. Some of the environmental concerns include the presence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater and eutrophication\\u000a in lakes due to excessive nutrients. To prevent groundwater

Won Suk Lee; Ismail Bogrekci; Min Min

445

Nutrient Transport into the White Sea with River Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaged data from long-term observations of concentrations of mineral-nutrient fractions along with fragmentary data and indirect estimates of organic-component concentrations in the tributaries of the sea (the Niva, the Onega, the Northern Dvina, the Mezen, and the Kem rivers) are analyzed. Monthly variations in the concentrations of the major nutrients in the river water flowing into the sea are characterized,

A. V. Leonov; O. V. Chicherina

2004-01-01

446

Biochemical Markers and Nutrient Constraints Diagnosis in Citrus: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral deficiencies are well-established causal factor(s) for sub-optimum production in citrus. Identifying nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf\\/soil analysis is often misleading, especially with reference to remediating the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The task becomes further confounded by other co-factors under the conditions favoring the occurrence of multi-nutrient deficiency. Important biochemical markers for

A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

2006-01-01

447

Upper Mississippi Basin Loading Database (Sediment and Nutrients): Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) provides this updated database on sediments and nutrients of the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Included in the database are maps (Shape) showing the locations of monitoring stations; figures displaying rates of Nitrogen/ Phosphorus loadings and yields; and sediment and nutrient data by sub-area (ascii, .xls, Lotus). In addition, background information is provided on the monitoring sites.

448

Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact  

PubMed Central

The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI) index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28) and soy drink (0.25). Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54) than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

Smedman, Annika; Lindmark-Mansson, Helena; Drewnowski, Adam; Edman, Anna-Karin Modin

2010-01-01

449

Exercise training and nutrient intake in elderly women.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between moderate exercise training (five 30- to 40-minute sessions per week for 12 weeks at 60% of heart rate reserve) and changes in nutrient intake in a group of 30 sedentary elderly women aged 67 to 85 years. Subjects were placed randomly into two groups (those who walked and those who did calisthenics) and were followed for 12 weeks. Measurements were done at three times (baseline, 5 weeks, and 12 weeks). Dietary intake was based on 7-day food records. The 12-week walking program resulted in a significant (12.6%) improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) but no change in body weight or skinfold thicknesses compared with the calisthenics program. Despite the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, no significant group x time interaction effects were observed for most of the nutrient intake variables tested. To test the effects of high levels of physical activity on nutrient intake, cross-sectional comparisons were made at baseline between highly conditioned and sedentary elderly women. The highly conditioned elderly women had higher energy and nutrient intakes, especially when expressed on a weight-adjusted basis. However, no differences in measures of dietary quality were found. Dietitians should not expect spontaneous improvement in either the quantity or quality of nutrient intake by elderly women who adopt a moderate exercise program. Although nutrient intake was greater in highly conditioned elderly women, their level of fitness and physical activity may be beyond the reach of many elderly women. PMID:8509590

Butterworth, D E; Nieman, D C; Perkins, R; Warren, B J; Dotson, R G

1993-06-01

450

Food microstructure affects the bioavailability of several nutrients.  

PubMed

There is an increased interest in the role that some nutrients may play in preventing or ameliorating the effect of major diseases (for example, some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, among others). In this respect, the bioavailability or the proportion of an ingested nutrient that is made available (that is, delivered to the bloodstream) for its intended mode of action is more relevant than the total amount present in the original food. Disruption of the natural matrix or the microstructure created during processing may influence the release, transformation, and subsequent absorption of some nutrients in the digestive tract. Alternatively, extracts of bioactive molecules (for example, nutraceuticals) and beneficial microorganisms may be protected during their transit in the digestive system to the absorption sites by encapsulation in designed matrices. This review summarizes relevant in vivo and in vitro methods used to assess the bioavailability of some nutrients (mostly phytochemicals), types of microstructural changes imparted by processing and during food ingestion that are relevant in matrix-nutrient interactions, and their effect on the bioavailability of selected nutrients. PMID:17995848

Parada, J; Aguilera, J M

2007-03-01

451

Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these 憆educed embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch.

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjo, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

2010-01-01

452

Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.  

PubMed

1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered. PMID:15222410

Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

2004-04-01

453

Characterization of Pseudomonas putida Genes Responsive to Nutrient Limitation  

SciTech Connect

The low bioavailability of nutrients and oxygen in the soil environment has hampered successful expression of biodegradation/biocontrol genes that are driven by promoters highly active during routine laboratory conditions of high nutrient- and oxygen-availability. Hence, in the present study, expression of the gus-tagged genes in 12 Tn5-gus mutants of the soil microbe Pseudomonas putida PNL-MK25 was examined under various conditions chosen to mimic the soil environment: low carbon, phosphate, nitrate, or oxygen, and in the rhizosphere. Based on their expression profiles, three nutrient-responsive mutant (NRM) strains, NRM5, NRM7, and NRM17, were selected for identification of the tagged genes. In the mutant strain NRM5, expression of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) gene was increased between 4.9- to 26.4-fold under various low nutrient conditions. In NRM7, expression of the novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-like (nql) gene was consistently amongst the highest and was synergistically upregulated by low nutrient and anoxic conditions. The cyoD gene in NRM17, which encodes the fourth subunit of the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase complex, had decreased expression in low nutrient conditions but its absolute expression levels was still amongst the highest. Additionally, it was independent of oxygen availability, in contrast to that in E. coli.

Syn, Chris K.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kingsley, Mark T.; Swarup, Sanjay

2004-06-01

454

Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few non-scientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

Barbara E. Goodman (Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2010-06-01

455

Nutrient Enhanced Coastal Ocean Productivity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Understanding the Effects of Nutrients on a Coastal Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continental shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River is a highly productive system, often referred to as the fertile fisheries crescent. This productivity is attributed to the effects of the river, especially nutrient delivery. In the later decades of ...

W. J. Wiseman M. J. Dagg N. N. Radalais T. E. Whiteledge

1999-01-01

456

Implications of premature needle abscission to the elemental nutrient status and nutrient retranslocation patterns of ozone injured Jeffrey pine  

SciTech Connect

The foliar nutrient relations of ozone stressed Jeffrey pine growing in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was compared in trees retaining different numbers of needle cohorts. A 20% reduction in foliar nitrogen occurred in the oldest needles of both sensitive trees (retaining two years of needles) and resistant trees (retaining five years of needles) which coincided with the flush of new needles in late June. Nitrogen content of recently expanded needles on sensitive trees was 15% lower than needles of similar age on resistant trees immediately after becoming fully expanded, but was not significantly different two months after expansion. Resistant trees retranslocated higher fractions of all phloem-mobile nutrients measured (N, K, P and Mg) although the differences were small (between 3 and 9%). The smaller foliar pool of nutrients resulting from premature abscission may result in ozone sensitive trees relying more heavily on soil supplies for both short and long term nutrient requirements.

Patterson, M.T.; Rundel, P.W. (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-06-01

457

Hydrology, Nutrient Concentrations, and Nutrient Yields in Nearshore Areas of Four Lakes in Northern Wisconsin, 1999-2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of shoreline development on water quality and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin were investigated from October 1999 through September 2001. The study measured surface runoff and ground-water flows from pair...

D. J. Graczyk R. J. Hunt S. R. Greb C. A. Buchwalk J. T. Krohelski

2003-01-01

458

Response to fertilization by various plant growth forms in an Alaskan tundra: nutrient accumulation and growth  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization responses of six tundra species belonging to three plant growth forms were compared to test the hypothesis that species of the same plant growth form are more similar to one another than to other growth forms in their response to a controlled perturbation. The controlled perturbation was a complete factorial NPK fertilization experiment in tussock tundra at Eagle Creek, Alaska, USA. We compared deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and functionally deciduous graminoids in terms of mineral and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations, and annual production per stem or tiller.

Shaver, G.R. (San Diego State Univ., CA); Chapin, F.S. III

1980-06-01

459

Nutrient status of wastewater in a fertilizer-factory-waste discharge equalization basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of wastewaters from a fertilizer factory, producing NH3, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) fertilizer blends, were monitored in stages for 18 months to correspond with the various stages of production of the different fertilizer minerals.Analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the various wastewater categories gave the following results: temperature, 28򈁝25癈; pH, 5򈁣48; conductivity, 2򉣸9000 ?mhos\\/cm; turbidity, 2򊞻70

J. A. Ekundayo

1995-01-01

460

Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a 揾ealthier option stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations.

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Leon; Seidell, Jacob C.

2011-01-01

461

Effects of nutrient and paper mill biosolids amendments on the growth and nutrient status of hardwood forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and soil and vegetation nutrient concentrations were measured in pole-sized northern hardwood and aspen forests to quantify the potential for various nutrient amendments to increase tree growth, as well as potential deleterious effects on vegetation. Four blocks were installed in each forest type containing the following treatments: control, N+Ca+Mg+K+P+S (complete), wood-fired boiler ash (ash), N+wood-fired

Drew C Feldkirchner; Chuankuan Wang; Stith T Gower; Eric L Kruger; Jim Ferris

2003-01-01

462

Water savings, nutrient leaching, and fruit yield in a young avocado orchard as affected by irrigation and nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was designed to determine the effect of fertilizer rate and irrigation scheduling on water use, nutrient leaching,\\u000a and fruit yield of young avocado trees (Persea americana Mill. cv. Simmonds). Seven nutrient and irrigation management practices were evaluated: (1) irrigation based on crop evapotranspiration\\u000a (ET) with 50% fertilizer at a standard rate (FSR); (2) ET irrigation with FSR (typical

Nicholas KiggunduKati; Kati W. Migliaccio; Bruce Schaffer; Yuncong Li; Jonathan H. Crane

463

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a 揾ealthier option stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 1930) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the 揳ctual intakes (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse.

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

464

Examining Farmland Applications of Composted Biosolid Wastes Depending on Nutrient Balance in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study emphasizes nutrient balance of soils in the farmland application of composted biosolid wastes. The loading rates of plant nutrients following the compost application to farmland in Japan were estimated and compared with the nutrient uptake of agricultural plants. Results show that the current compost application in Japan can meet the requirements of agricultural plants for plant nutrient Ca,

Yu-Yu Liu; Tsuyoshi Imai; Masao Ukita; Masahiko Sekine; Takaya Higuchi

2004-01-01

465

NUTRIENT FLOWS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: ECOLOGICAL AND POLICY ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of environmental and ecological impacts of nutrient flows within and between countries by reviewing and presenting data on nutrient balances and global nutrient movements. The results for nutrient depletion in agricultural soils during 1996-1999 show that in most countries in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean rates of depletion are so high that current

Eric T. Craswell; Ulrike Grote; Julio Henao; Paul L. G. Vlek

2004-01-01

466

The Ekman transfer of nutrients and maintenance of new production over the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of new production requires a supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone to offset the loss through biological export. The dynamical supply of nutrients is usually discussed in terms of the vertical transfer from nutrient-rich, deep waters. However, the horizontal transfer is important in regions of downwelling over subtropical gyres, where nutrients may be transported across the intergyre

Richard G. Williams; Michael J. Follows

1998-01-01

467

Temporal Asynchrony in Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Plant Production in a Semiarid Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central goal of ecosystem ecology is to understand how the cycling of nutrients and the growth of organisms are linked. Ecologists have repeatedly observed that nutrient mineralization and plant production are closely coupled in time in many terrestrial ecosystems. Typically, mineralization rates of limiting nutrients, particularly of nitrogen, during the growing season determine nutrient availability while pools of mineral

David J. Augustine; Samuel J. McNaughton

2004-01-01

468

Role of nutrient cycling and herbivory in regulating periphyton communities in laboratory streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the authors examined the role of nutrient cycling and herbivory in regulating stream periphyton communities. Population, community, and ecosystem-level properties were studied in laboratory stream channels that had nutrient inputs reduced compared to channels where ambient nutrient levels were maintained. They reduced nutrient inputs in four of eight channels by recirculating 90% of the flow, whereas the

P. J. Mulholland; A. D. Steinman; A. V. Palumbo; J. W. Elwood; D. B. Kirschtel

1992-01-01

469

Biomass and nutrient removal by willow clones in experimental bioenergy plantations in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of short-rotation intensive cultural (SRIC) willow systems as a source of bioenergy and bioproducts is growing in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Important data for sustainable management such as nutrient removal and nutrient use efficiency in willow bioenergy plantations is lacking. This study reports wood biomass production, annual removal of nutrients, and nutrient use efficiency in experimental

Hector G. Adegbidi; Timothy A. Volk; Edwin H. White; Lawrence P. Abrahamson; Russell D. Briggs; Donald H. Bickelhaupt

2001-01-01

470

STREAM NUTRIENT LIMITATION AND SEDIMENT-INTERACTIONS IN THE EUCHA-SPAVINAW BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-quality concerns at lakes and reservoirs often force watershed managers to focus on nutrient sources within the catchment, particularly nutrients applied to the landscape and direct input of nutrients from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When nutrients from these sources enter stream sys...

471

A study on the nutrient foramina of adult humerii.  

PubMed

Background: It is not uncommon to see the non union of the fractures in the long bones. Among the various reasons for the nonunion of the fractured bones, the nutrient artery plays an important role. Objectives: This study was aimed at analyzing the nutrient foramina in dry adult humerii ,with regards to the number, size and the location of the nutrient foramen with respect to the surfaces and the zones and its distance from the mid point of the humerus. Materials: This was an analytical study. All the humerii from various medical colleges of the Vinayaka Missions University in Salem were included in the study. Those which were damaged and those which had pathological abnormalities were excluded. The following parameters were noted; namely, the length of the humerus, the number and the size of the nutrient foramen and the location of the nutrient foramen with respect to the surfaces and the zones of the humerus and its distance from the mid-point of the humerus were analyzed. The length of the humerus and the mid point of the humerus were measured by using the osteometric board, whereas the size of the nutrient foramen was measured by using various size of hypodermic needles. When more than one foramen was found, the larger one was taken as the dominant foramen and its size was measured. All the data were noted and the statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean, the range and the standard deviation. Results: Totally, 258 adult dry humerii were studied. The mean length of the humerii was 27.96 cm, with a SD of 2.18. The mean size of the nutrient foramen was 0.828 mm, with a SD of 0.26. The mean distance of th dominant nutrient foramen from the mid point of the humerus was 2.31 cm, with a SD of 1.25 cm. In majority of the humerii (86.43%), the nutrient foramen was located in the middle 1/3(rd) of the bone and in 13.57% of the bones, it was located in the lower 1/3(rd) of the bone. The location of the nutrient foramen in the anteromedial surface was 89.92%, that in the posterior surface was 8.53% and that in the anterolateral surface was 1.55%. PMID:23905083

Chandrasekaran, Shanta; Shanthi, K C

2013-05-11

472

Light, nutrients, and herbivore growth in oligotrophic streams.  

PubMed

The light : nutrient hypothesis posits that herbivore growth is increasingly constrained by low food quality as the ratio of light to nutrients increases in aquatic ecosystems. We tested predictions of this hypothesis by examining the effects of large seasonal cycles in light and nutrients on the mineral content of periphyton and the growth rate of a dominant herbivore (the snail Elimia clavaeformis) in two oligotrophic streams. Streambed irradiances in White Oak Creek and Walker Branch (eastern Tennessee, USA) varied dramatically on a seasonal basis due to leaf phenology in the surrounding deciduous forests and seasonal changes in sun angle. Concentrations of dissolved nutrients varied inversely with light, causing light : nitrate and light : phosphate to range almost 100-fold over the course of any individual year. Periphyton nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were much lower than the concentrations of these elements in snails, and they bottomed out in early spring when streambed irradiances were highest. Snail growth, however, peaked in early spring when light:nutrient ratios were highest and periphyton nutrient concentrations were lowest, Growth was linearly related to primary production (accounting for up to 85% of growth variance in individual years), which in turn was driven by seasonal variation in light. Conceptual models of herbivore growth indicate that growth should initially increase as increasing light levels stimulate primary production, but then level off, and then decrease as the negative effects of decreasing algal nutrient content override the positive effects of increased food production. Our results showed no evidence of an inflection point where increasing ratios of light to nutrients negatively affected growth. Snail growth in these intensively grazed streams is probably unaffected by periphyton nutrient content because exploitative competition for food reduces growth rates to levels where the demand for nitrogen and phosphorus is small enough to be satisfied by even low levels of these nutrients in periphyton. Competition for limited food resources in habitats where herbivore densities are uncontrolled by predation or other mortality factors should strongly influence the potential for herbivores to be limited by mineral deficits in their food. PMID:20392016

Hill, Walter R; Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J

2010-02-01

473

Sources of nutrients impacting surface waters in Florida: a review.  

PubMed

The promulgation of numeric nutrient criteria for evaluating impairment of waterbodies in Florida is underway. Adherence to the water quality standards needed to meet these criteria will potentially require substantial allocations of public and private resources in order to better control nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) releases from contributing sources. Major sources of nutrients include atmospheric deposition (195-380 mg-N/m(2)/yr, 6 to 16 mg-P/m(2)/yr), reclaimed water irrigation (0.13-29 mg-N/L, 0.02 to 6 mg-P/L), septic systems (3.3 10(3)-6.68 10(3) g-N/person/yr, 0.49 10(3)-0.85 10(3) g-P/person/yr) and fertilizer applications (8 10(6)-24 10(6) mg-N/m(2)/yr). Estimated nitrogen loadings to the Florida environment, as calculated from the above rates are as follows: 5.9 10(9)-9.4 10(9) g-N/yr from atmospheric deposition, 1.2 10(8)-2.6 10(10) g-N/yr from reclaimed water, 2.4 10(10)-4.9 10(10) g-N/year from septic systems, and 1.4 10(11) g-N/yr from fertilizer application. Similarly, source specific phosphorus loading calculations are also presented in this paper. A fraction of those nutrient inputs may reach receiving waterbodies depending upon site specific regulation on nutrient control, nutrient management practices, and environmental attenuation. In Florida, the interconnectivity of hydrologic pathways due to the karst landscape and high volumes of rainfall add to the complexity of tracking nutrient loads back to their sources. In addition to source specific nutrient loadings, this review discusses the merits of source specific markers such as elemental isotopes (boron, nitrogen, oxygen, strontium, uranium and carbon) and trace organic compounds (sucralose, gadolinium anomaly, carbamazepine, and galaxolide) in relating nutrient loads back to sources of origin. Although this review is focused in Florida, the development of source specific markers as a tool for tracing nutrient loadings back to sources of origin is applicable and of value to all other geographical locations. PMID:22699026

Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Pinzon, Jimena; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

2012-06-12

474

Intra-annual nutrient flux in Pinus taeda.  

PubMed

Intra-annual nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) flux was quantified for Pinus taeda L. at a nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy site in Scotland County, NC, USA where a 2??2 factorial of irrigation and nutrition was applied in four replications in a 10-year-old stand with 1200 stems ha(-1). Treatments were applied with the goal of providing optimum nutrition (no nutritional deficiencies) and water availability. Component (foliage, branch, stem and root) nutrient content was estimated monthly for 2 years using nutrient concentration and phenology assessments combined with destructive harvests. Positive flux values indicated nutrient accumulation in the trees while negative values indicated nutrient loss from the trees. Fertilization significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium flux 140%, on average, over non-fertilized. Irrigation significantly increased calcium flux 28% while there was no significant irrigation effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium. Maximum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were 0.36 and 1.05 for nitrogen, 0.042 and 0.095 for phosphorus, 0.13 and 0.51 for potassium, 0.27 and 0.42 for calcium, and 0.04 and 0.12 for magnesium, respectively. Maximum flux was coincident with ephemeral tissue (foliage and fine root) development and likely would be higher in stands with more foliage than those observed in this study (projected leaf area indices were 1.5 and 3.0 for the non-fertilized and fertilized stands). Minimum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were -0.18 and -0.42 for nitrogen, -0.029 and -0.070 for phosphorus, -0.05 and -0.18 for potassium, -0.04 and -0.05 for calcium, and -0.02 and -0.03 for magnesium, respectively. Minimum fluxes were typically observed in the dormant season and were linked to foliage senescence and branch death. Foliage and branch component nutrient contents were out of phase for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium, indicating nutrient retranslocation and storage in branches prior to foliage development and after foliage senescence. In contrast to current operational fertilizer programs which often target winter application these data suggest the best application times would be during foliage development. PMID:22989738

Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Stape, Jose L; Fox, Thomas R; Rubilar, Rafael A; Price, James W

2012-09-17

475

TOR complex 2 (TORC2) in Dictyostelium suppresses phagocytic nutrient capture independently of TORC1-mediated nutrient sensing  

PubMed Central

The TOR protein kinase functions in two distinct complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and 2 (TORC2). TORC1 is required for growth in response to growth factors, nutrients and the cellular energy state; TORC2 regulates AKT signaling, which can modulate cytoskeletal polarization. In its ecological niche, Dictyostelium engulf bacteria and yeast for nutrient capture. Despite the essential role of TORC1 in control of cellular growth, we show that nutrient particle capture (phagocytosis) in Dictyostelium is independent of TORC1-mediated nutrient sensing and growth regulation. However, loss of Dictyostelium TORC2 components Rictor/Pia, SIN1/RIP3 and Lst8 promotes nutrient particle uptake; inactivation of TORC2 leads to increased efficiency and speed of phagocytosis. In contrast to phagocytosis, we show that macropinocytosis, an AKT-dependent process for cellular uptake of fluid phase nutrients, is not regulated by either of the TOR complexes. The integrated and balanced regulation of TORC1 and TORC2 might be crucial in Dictyostelium to coordinate growth and energy needs with other essential TOR-regulated processes.

Rosel, Daniel; Khurana, Taruna; Majithia, Amit; Huang, Xiuli; Bhandari, Ramanath; Kimmel, Alan R.

2012-01-01

476

Nutrient transport through a Vegetative Filter Strip with subsurface drainage.  

PubMed

The transport of nutrients and soil sediments in runoff has been recognized as a noteworthy environmental issue. Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as one of the best management practices (BMPs) for retaining nutrients and sediments from surface runoff, thus preventing the pollutants from reaching receiving waters. However, the effectiveness of a VFS when combined with a subsurface drainage system has not been investigated previously. This study was undertaken to monitor the retention and transport of nutrients within a VFS that had a subsurface drainage system installed at a depth of 1.2 m below the soil surface. Nutrient concentrations of NO(3)-N (Nitrate Nitrogen), PO(-)(4) (Orthophosphorus), and TP (Total Phosphorus) were measured in surface water samples (entering and leaving the VFS), and subsurface outflow. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for plant available Phosphorus (Bray P1) and NO(3)-N concentrations. Results showed that PO(-)(4), NO(3)-N, and TP concentrations decreased in surface flow through the VFS. Many surface outflow water samples from the VFS showed concentration reductions of as much as 75% for PO(-)(4) and 70% for TP. For subsurface outflow water samples through the drainage system, concentrations of PO(-)(4) and TP decreased but NO(3)-N concentrations increased in comparison to concentrations in surface inflow samples. Soil samples that were collected from various depths in the VFS showed a minimal buildup of nutrients in the top soil profile but indicated a gradual buildup of nutrients at the depth of the subsurface drain. Results demonstrate that although a VFS can be very effective in reducing runoff and nutrients from surface flow, the presence of a subsurface drain underneath the VFS may not be environmentally beneficial. Such a combination may increase NO(3)-N transport from the VFS, thus invalidating the purpose of the BMP. PMID:19171414

Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar; Patel, Mita Kanu

2009-01-25

477

Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in hubei, china.  

PubMed

Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers. PMID:24086647

Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Run-Hua; Chen, Fang

2013-09-27

478

Soil Nutrient Assessment for Urban Ecosystems in Hubei, China  

PubMed Central

Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142425 m a.s.l], hilly [66112 m a.s.l], and plain [2630 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Zhang, Run-hua; Chen, Fang

2013-01-01

479

Managing Nutrients to Prevent Pollution: Conference Summary and Recommendations for Action. Nutrient Management Regional Conference. Held in Solomons, Maryland on March 13-14, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference was designed to encourage dialogue between planners, program managers, and the agricultural community on technical and policy issues surrounding nutrient management. It created an opportunity to learn about the latest nutrient research, con...

1996-01-01

480

Nutrients and Other Abiotic Factors Affecting Bacterial Communities in an Ohio River (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus additions from anthropogenic sources can alter the nutrient pool of aquatic systems, both through\\u000a increased nutrient concentrations and changes in stoichiometry. Because bacteria are important in nutrient cycling and aquatic\\u000a food webs, information about how nutrients affect bacterial communities enhances our understanding of how changes in nutrient\\u000a concentrations and stoichiometry potentially affect aquatic ecosystems as a whole.

Melissa A. Rubin; Laura G. Leff

2007-01-01

481

Applications of nutrient profiling: potential role in diet-related chronic disease prevention and the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:A number of different nutrient-profiling models have been proposed and several applications of nutrient profiling have been identified. This paper outlines the potential role of nutrient-profiling applications in the prevention of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD), and considers the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system, which could be modified for purpose, to underpin the multiple potential applications in a particular country.Methods:The

G Sacks; M Rayner; L Stockley; P Scarborough; W Snowdon; B Swinburn

2011-01-01

482

Influence of plant nutrient concentration on growth rate: Use of a nutrient interruption technique to determine critical concentrations of N, P and K in young plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the way in which growth rate varies with plant nutrient concentration using a simple\\u000a nutrient interruption technique incorporating only 2 treatments. The method involves measuring the changes in growth and nutrient\\u000a composition of otherwise well-nourished plants after the supply of one particular nutrient has been withheld. Critical concentrations\\u000a are estimated from the relationship between

I. G. Burns

1992-01-01

483

Nutrients and defoliation increase soil carbon inputs in grassland.  

PubMed

Given the regulatory impact of resources and consumers on plant production, decomposition, and soil carbon sequestration, anthropogenic changes to nutrient inputs and grazing have likely transformed how grasslands process atmospheric CO2. The direction and magnitude of these changes, however, remain unclear in this system, whose soils contain -20% of the world's carbon pool. Nutrients stimulate production but can also increase tissue palatability and decomposition. Grazing variously affects tissue quality and quantity, decreasing, standing biomass, but potentially increasing leaf nutrient concentrations, root production, or investment in tissue defenses that slow litter decay. Here, we quantified individual and interactive impacts of nutrient addition and simulated grazing (mowing) on above- and belowground production, tissue quality, and soil carbon inputs in a western North American grassland with globally distributed agronomic species. Given that nutrients and grazing are often connected with increased root production and higher foliar tissue quality, we hypothesized that these treatments would combine to reduce inputs of recalcitrant-rich litter critical for C storage. This hypothesis was unsupported. Nutrients and defoliation combined to significantly increase belowground production but did not affect root tissue quality. There were no significant interactions between nutrients and defoliation for any measured response. Three years of nutrient addition increased root and shoot biomass by 37% and 23%, respectively, and had no impact on decomposition, resulting in a -15% increase in soil organic matter and soil carbon. Defoliation triggered a significant burst of short-lived lignin-rich roots, presumably a compensatory response to foliar loss, which increased root litter inputs by 33%. The majority of root and shoot responses were positively correlated, with aboveground biomass a reasonable proxy for whole plant responses. The exceptions were decomposition, with roots six times more decay resistant, and grazing impacts on tissue chemistry, with shoots undergoing significant alterations, while roots were unaffected. Because neither treatment affected concentrations of decay-resistant compounds in roots, the implied net effect is higher soil C inputs with potentially longer residency times. Areas managed with nutrients and moderate grazing in our study system could thus accumulate significantly more soil C than unmanaged areas, with a greater capacity to serve as sinks for atmospheric CO2. PMID:23600245

Ziter, Carly; MacDougall, Andrew S

2013-01-01

484

Hypothalamic integration of nutrient status and reproduction in the sheep.  

PubMed

Nutrient availability is a determinant of reproductive success. It is well known that inadequate nutrition results in reproductive failure due to a number of factors including delay of puberty or anoestrous in post-pubertal animals. The lack of nutrients is detected primarily by changes in circulating nutrient molecules and hormones and communicated directly or indirectly to the hypothalamus and brain stem for integration. The general effect is that low nutrition leads to increased appetite stimulation and reduced reproductive performance. When nutrition is adequate, the reverse is true. Both aspects will be the focus of this review. One result of the lack of nutrients is a reduction in luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and pulse frequency. Nutrient signals, such as glucose availability, hormonal signals, such as insulin and leptin, and neuroendocrine signals, such as neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone, have been clearly demonstrated to interact to produce changes in LH and reproductive success. Other signals, such as fatty acids, ghrelin, agouti-related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, kisspeptin, neurokinin, dynorphin and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone may also play a role in integrating nutrition and reproduction. This review will focus on the major features of the reciprocal control of appetite and reproduction in sheep. PMID:23962214

Daniel, Ja; Foradori, Cd; Whitlock, Bk; Sartin, Jl

2013-09-01

485

Parallel Exploitation of Diverse Host Nutrients Enhances Salmonella Virulence  

PubMed Central

Pathogen access to host nutrients in infected tissues is fundamental for pathogen growth and virulence, disease progression, and infection control. However, our understanding of this crucial process is still rather limited because of experimental and conceptual challenges. Here, we used proteomics, microbial genetics, competitive infections, and computational approaches to obtain a comprehensive overview of Salmonella nutrition and growth in a mouse typhoid fever model. The data revealed that Salmonella accessed an unexpectedly diverse set of at least 31 different host nutrients in infected tissues but the individual nutrients were available in only scarce amounts. Salmonella adapted to this situation by expressing versatile catabolic pathways to simultaneously exploit multiple host nutrients. A genome-scale computational model of Salmonella in vivo metabolism based on these data was fully consistent with independent large-scale experimental data on Salmonella enzyme quantities, and correctly predicted 92% of 738 reported experimental mutant virulence phenotypes, suggesting that our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of host nutrient supply, Salmonella metabolism, and Salmonella growth during infection. Comparison of metabolic networks of other pathogens suggested that complex host/pathogen nutritional interfaces are a common feature underlying many infectious diseases.

Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A.; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Maze, Alain; Bumann, Dirk

2013-01-01

486

Parallel exploitation of diverse host nutrients enhances Salmonella virulence.  

PubMed

Pathogen access to host nutrients in infected tissues is fundamental for pathogen growth and virulence, disease progression, and infection control. However, our understanding of this crucial process is still rather limited because of experimental and conceptual challenges. Here, we used proteomics, microbial genetics, competitive infections, and computational approaches to obtain a comprehensive overview of Salmonella nutrition and growth in a mouse typhoid fever model. The data revealed that Salmonella accessed an unexpectedly diverse set of at least 31 different host nutrients in infected tissues but the individual nutrients were available in only scarce amounts. Salmonella adapted to this situation by expressing versatile catabolic pathways to simultaneously exploit multiple host nutrients. A genome-scale computational model of Salmonella in vivo metabolism based on these data was fully consistent with independent large-scale experimental data on Salmonella enzyme quantities, and correctly predicted 92% of 738 reported experimental mutant virulence phenotypes, suggesting that our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of host nutrient supply, Salmonella metabolism, and Salmonella growth during infection. Comparison of metabolic networks of other pathogens suggested that complex host/pathogen nutritional interfaces are a common feature underlying many infectious diseases. PMID:23633950

Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Maz, Alain; Bumann, Dirk

2013-04-25

487

[Nutrients in atmospheric wet deposition in the East China Sea].  

PubMed

92 rainwater samples were collected at Shengsi Archipelago from January 2008 to December 2009. The pH and the concentrations of nutrients (NH4(+), NO3(-) + NO2(-), PO4(3-), SiO3(2-)) were analyzed using spectrophotometry to understand the impacts of the atmospheric wet deposition on the ecosystem of the East China Sea. The results showed that the pH of 85% samples were less than 5.0, and had significant effect on the environment. There were significant differences among monthly average concentrations of nutrients and rainfall and seasonal average wet deposition of nutrients in investigation periods. The annual average wet deposition flux was 52.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for DIN, 0.08 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for PO4(3-), 2.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for SiO3(2-). The average molar ratios of NO3(-)/NH4(+) is 0.73, N: P ratio is 684: 1, indicating that nutrients composition in rainwater was different from seawater of the East China Sea Shelf (10-150). The wet deposition may change the nutrients structure, pH and lead to change the phytoplankton production in the surface seawater of the East China Sea, even lead to the red tide. PMID:22165245

Zhu, Yu-Mei; Liu, Su-Mei

2011-09-01

488

Solution culture method for studying nutrient uptake and stress  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the uptake of two (or more) different mineral nutrients at very low concentrations, a solution culture system with new capabilities was developed. It