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1

Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield. PMID:16023343

Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir

2006-05-01

2

Effects of nutrient supply (NPK) on spring wheat response to elevated atmosperic CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop growth and dry matter allocation may change if nutrient supply becomes insufficient for maximal growth. Increased atmospheric CO2 may also cause changes in minimum nutrient concentration in plant tissue and hence in the nutrient use efficiency or yield-nutrient uptake ratios of crops. To study these effects for spring wheat, pot experiments have

J. Wolf

1996-01-01

3

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CITROS CULTIVADAS EM VASO EM RESPOSTA À ADUBAÇÃO NPK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis) development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia ) in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1\\/5) 53 factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g

Campos Bernardi; Quirino Augusto de Camargo Carmello; Sérgio Alves

4

Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

2006-04-01

5

Engineering Properties of NPK Fertilizer Modified Soil  

E-print Network

NPK fertilizer is applied to the soil to modify its properties to give greater crop yield. These soil properties include: unit weight, void ratio, water content, and plasticity, tensile strength, compressibility, permeability and compact ability. Thus it becomes imperative to examine the engineering properties of NPK 20-10-5 fertilizer modified soils. Analysis of test results showed that the liquid limit, shrinkage limit, coefficient of permeability, and void ratio are decreased by the addition of fertilizer. It reduces the shear strength parameters of a soil. Therefore, NPK 20-10-5 fertilizer decreases the bearing capacity of soil and thereby increasing its erodibility

Ezeokonkwo J. C

6

Use of polysulfone in controlled-release NPK fertilizer formulations.  

PubMed

Encapsulation of fertilizers in polymeric coatings is a method used to reduce fertilizer losses and to minimize environmental pollution. Polysulfone was used for a coating preparation for soluble NPK granular fertilizer in controlled-release fertilizer formulations. The coatings were formed by the phase inversion technique (wet method). The influence of the polymer concentration in the film-forming solution on the physical properties of the coatings was examined. The coating structure controls the diffusion of the elements from the interior of the fertilizer granule. It was experimentally confirmed that the use of polysulfone as a coating for a soluble fertilizer decreases the release rate of components. Moreover, the release rate of nutrients from coated granules decreases with the decrease of the coating porosity. In the case of coating with 38.5% porosity, prepared from 13.5% polymer solution after 5 h of test, 100% of NH(4)(+) was released, whereas only 19.0% of NH(4)(+) was released after 5 h for the coating with 11% porosity. In addition, coating of fertilizers leads to improvement of handling properties, and the crushing strength of all coated fertilizers was an average 40% higher than that for uncoated NPK fertilizer. PMID:12137488

Tomaszewska, Maria; Jarosiewicz, Anna

2002-07-31

7

Effect of EM on Soil Properties and Nutrient Cycling in a Citrus Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on soil and on natural cycling of nutrients, a field investigation was conducted with citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. A Typic Hapludox soil predominates as a deep, well-drained, clay soil with high hydrogen and aluminum contents and low base saturation, The organic matter content of the soil is moderate,

D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; M. J. A. Jorge; M. C. S. Nogueira

8

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

9

Nutrient uptake and yield of tomato under various methods of fertilizer application and levels of fertigation in arid lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rising concern about current irrigation and fertilizer NPK management, the present study was conducted to evaluate the\\u000a effect of sources and methods of fertilizer application on nutrient distribution, uptake, recovery and fruit yield of tomato\\u000a grown in a sandy soil. Equal amounts of NPK were applied in solid form or through fertigation at levels of 0%, 50%, 75% and

M. A. Badr; S. D. Abou Hussein; W. A. El-Tohamy; N. Gruda

2010-01-01

10

Effect of Fertilization on Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Oilseed Rape Under Varying Boron Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both pot experiment and solution culture were conducted with two contrasting oilseed rape cultivars to investigate the effects of NPK fertilization with varied boron (B) status on plant growth, nutrient uptake, root activity (as TTC reducing capacity by fresh roots) and root cell plasmalemma H-ATPase activity. The tolerant and sensitive cultivars used were ZY 821 and WY 324, respectively. The

Yunsheng Lou; Yongchao Liang; Yuai Yang; R. W. Bell

2003-01-01

11

Nutrient and Virtual Water Flows in Traded Agricultural Commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization and increasing population pressure on food demand and land and water resources have stimulated interest in nutrient\\u000a and virtual water flows at the international level. West Asia\\/North Africa (WANA), Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa\\u000a are net importers not only of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) but also of virtual water in agricultural commodities.\\u000a Nevertheless, the widely recognized declines in

Ulrike Grote; Eric T. Craswell; Paul L. G. Vlek

12

Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.  

PubMed

Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

2014-10-01

13

CULTIVO DA MICROALGA Spirulina platensis EM FONTES ALTERNA TIVAS DE NUTRIENTES Culture of microalga Spirulina platensis in alternative sources of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 e 0,045 g.L -1 .dia -1 . A máxima concentração de biomassa (2,83 g.L -1 ) e produtividade (0,098 g.L -1 .dia -1 ) foram obtidas em MEL 0,50 g.L -1 . Os resultados demonstram que o potencial brasileiro de produção de melaço pode ser explorado também para obtenção de altas concentrações de biomassa no cultivo da microalga Spirulina

Michele da Rosa Andrade; Jorge Alberto; Vieira Costa

14

Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

2012-11-15

15

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

16

Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Primary Production and Biomass of Sediment Microalgae in a Subtropical Seagrass Bed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eutrophication of coastal waters often leads to excessive growth of microalgal epiphytes attached to seagrass leaves; however, the effect of increased nutrient levels on sediment microalgae has not been studied within seagrass communities. A slow-release NPK Osmocote fertilizer was added to sedimen...

17

Biomass production and NPK retention in macrophytes from wetlands of the Tingitan Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was undertaken on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steudel, Typha angustifolia L., Sparganium erectum L., Juncus acutus L., J. maritimus Lam., Scirpus litoralis Schrader, S. maritimus L., Lemna gibba L. and L. minor L. communities, in order to evaluate and compare their biomass production and NPK retention rates in unpolluted and polluted wetlands of northwest Morocco. This

Abdeslam Ennabili; Mohammed Ater; Michel Radoux

1998-01-01

18

Growth and nutrient relations of a grass-legume mixture on sodic coal-mine spoil as affected by some amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and growth chamber investigations were conducted to study the effects of fertilizers, gypsum, HâSOâ, and leonardite (oxidized lignite) on the growth and nutrient relations of a mixed crop of thickspike wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) on a calcareous sodic coal-mine spoil. Application of NPK increased the dry matter yield of the

N. M. Safaya; M. K. Wali

1979-01-01

19

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.  

PubMed

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

2014-04-01

20

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat  

PubMed Central

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S.; Dawabah, Ahmed A.M.

2013-01-01

21

Response of a root hemiparasite to elevated CO 2 depends on host type and soil nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although elevated CO2 may affect various forms of ecological interactions, the effect of elevated CO2 on interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts has received little attention. We examined the effect of elevated\\u000a CO2 (590??l?l?1) at two nutrient (NPK) levels on the interactions of the facultative root hemiparasite Rhinanthus alectorolophus with two of its hosts, the grass Lolium perenne and

Diethart Matthies; Philipp Egli

1999-01-01

22

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

23

Biomass production and nutrient accumulation in short-rotation grey alder ( Alnus incana (L.) Moench) plantation on abandoned agricultural land  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the area of abandoned agricultural land in Estonia formed 223,000ha which is partly perspective for afforestation with grey alder, the most rapidly growing indigenous tree species. The production and nutrient (NPK) accumulation of a grey alder short-rotation plantation on former agricultural land was investigated. The production of above-ground biomass was estimated during 5 years after the establishment of

Veiko Uri; Hardi Tullus; Krista Lõhmus

2002-01-01

24

Differential sensitivity of spinach and amaranthus to enhanced UV-B at varying soil nutrient levels: association with gas exchange, UV-B-absorbing compounds and membrane damage.  

PubMed

The metabolic reasons associated with differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to enhanced UV-B under varying soil nutrient levels are not well understood. In the present study, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var All Green), a C3 and amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L. var Pusa Badi Chaulai), a C4 plant were subjected to enhanced UV-B (280-315 nm; 7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) over ambient under varying soil nutrient levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), 1.5× recommended NPK, 1.5× recommended N and 1.5× recommended K. Enhanced UV-B negatively affected both the species at all nutrient levels, but the reductions varied with nutrient concentration and combinations. Reductions in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were significantly more in spinach compared with amaranthus. The reduction in photosynthetic rate was maximum at 1.5× recommended K and minimum in 1.5× NPK amended plants. The oxidative damage to membranes measured in terms of malondialdehyde content was significantly higher in spinach compared with amaranthus. Enhanced UV-B reduced SOD activity in both the plants except in amaranthus at 1.5× recommended K. POX activity increased under enhanced UV-B at all nutrient levels in amaranthus, but only at 1.5× K in spinach. Amaranthus had significantly higher UV-B-absorbing compounds than spinach even under UV-B stress. Lowest reductions in yield and total biomass under enhanced UV-B compared with ambient were observed in amaranthus grown at 1.5× recommended NPK. Enhanced UV-B did not significantly change the nitrogen use efficiency in amaranthus at all NPK levels, but reduced in spinach except at 1.5× K. These findings suggest that the differential sensitivity of the test species under enhanced UV-B at varying nutrient levels is due to varying antioxidative and UV-B screening capacity, and their ability to utilize nutrients. Amaranthus tolerated enhanced UV-B stress more than spinach at all nutrient levels and 1.5× recommended NPK lowered the sensitivity maximally to enhanced UV-B with respect to photosynthesis, biomass and yield. PCA score has also confirmed the lower sensitivity of amaranthus compared with spinach with respect to the measured physiological and biochemical parameters. PMID:23686471

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2013-07-01

25

SFRSF: Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.

26

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

2010-02-09

27

Effects of leguminous plant residues and NPK fertilizer application on the performance of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘c.v.’ ewuru) in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cultivating and incorporating residues of previous tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and soybean (Glycine max) with application of NPK fertilizer on yam performance were evaluated at the teaching and research farm, LAUTECH, Nigeria. There were nine treatments: incorporation of legume residues (5 t DM ha), application of recommended fertilizer rate for yam (90–50–75 kg NPK ha) in the zone or

Gani Oladejo Kolawole

2012-01-01

28

Forbidden Lines in ns2npk Ground Configurations and nsnp Excited Configurations of Beryllium through Molybdenum Atoms and Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed and predicted wavelengths of magnetic dipole lines arising within ground configurations of the type ns2npk(n=2 and 3, k=1 to 5) are compiled. For n=2 the compilation includes the elements B through Kr, and for k=5 it extends to Mo. For n=3 Al through Mo are included. In addition the 2s2p excited configuration of the Be i isoelectronic sequence for

Victor Kaufman; Jack Sugar

1986-01-01

29

Foliar sprays of NPK fertilizers induce systemic protection against Puccinia sorghi and Exserohilum turcicum and growth response in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

One spray of 0.1 M aqueous solutions of NPK fertilizers on the upper sides of maize leaves 1, 2, and 3, 2–4 h prior to inoculation, induced systemic resistance (ISR) against northern leaf blight (NLB) caused byExserohilum turcicum andPuccinia sorghi which were developed on leaves 4, 5, 6, and 7. ISR was expressed as a reduction in the number and

Reuven Reuveni I; Moshe Reuveni; Vladimir Agapov

1996-01-01

30

Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.  

PubMed

Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration, our findings provide important insights that can help guide management plans that aim to preserve savanna biodiversity. PMID:24667837

Barbosa, Eduardo R M; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T; van Langevelde, Frank

2014-01-01

31

Short-Term Effect of Nutrient Availability and Rainfall Distribution on Biomass Production and Leaf Nutrient Content of Savanna Tree Species  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings’ above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration, our findings provide important insights that can help guide management plans that aim to preserve savanna biodiversity. PMID:24667837

Barbosa, Eduardo R. M.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H. T.; van Langevelde, Frank

2014-01-01

32

The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to feed the hundred larvae, each breeding site contains. Treating these breeding sites with deltamethrin reversed the situation as it decreased the competition for food resources and allowed the surviving larvae to share the small amount of food enabling them to pursue their development until adults. If the introduction of NPK in untreated sites has not improved the nutritive qualities of the water, in the treated sites it multiplied the number of emerging adults by 2.5. In the waters containing 5 g/l of plant matter, the larvae did not undergo feeding competition and the impact of insecticide followed of a more traditional selection scheme that expressed itself by a lower number of emerging adults. In these environments treated or nontreated where plant matter is abundant, adding NPK brings food supplement to the larvae therefore increases the survival rate of An. gambiae. To conclude, whether in habitats with little or much plant matter, NPK presence in water results in larger adults with generally, more soluble proteins. PMID:22550627

Darriet, F.; Rossignol, M.; Chandre, F.

2012-01-01

33

Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.  

PubMed

A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

2008-02-01

34

Combined application of NPK on yield quality of sugarcane applied through SSDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of combined application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium\\u000a (K) on growth, yield quality and nutrient balance of sugarcane with subsurface drip irrigation by using the sugarcane variety\\u000a ROC89\\/1626 and adopting “3414” project design. It was observed that the appropriate rate of N, P2O5 and K2O increased the plant height, cane

Lin Xu; Hai-Rong Huang; Li-Tao Yang; Yang-Rui Li

2010-01-01

35

NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

36

EFICIENCIA DE USO DE N-P-K EN UNA ASOCIACIÓN DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) Y QUINCHONCHO (Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh) CON O SIN FERTILIZACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application,

Ana Isabel Quiroz; Douglas Marín

2007-01-01

37

Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

38

Effect of Effective Microorganism Application on Crop Growth, Yield, and Nutrition in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Different Soil Amendment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in heat-sterilized soil to evaluate the effect of effective microorganism (EM) application on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. NIAB Mung 98 in different soil amendment systems. Pot soil was amended with farmyard manure (FYM), Trifolium alexanrinum L. crop residues (TCR), and half (½NPK) and recommended dose (NPK) of chemical

Arshad Javaid; Rukhsana Bajwa

2011-01-01

39

Nutrient efficiency along nutrient availability gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of nutrient use efficiency as a central concept in ecosystem ecology has recently been subject to challenge\\u000a based upon arguments over autocorrelation of data, interpretation of graphical approaches, and appropriate statistical analyses.\\u000a Much of the confusion on the measurement and interpretation of nutrient use efficiency results from the lack of a sound theoretical\\u000a basis with which to examine

John Pastor; Scott D. Bridgham

1999-01-01

40

Effects of Charcoal as Slow Release Nutrient Carrier on N-P-K Dynamics and Soil Microbial Population: Pot Experiments with Ferralsol Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giardina et al. (2000) reported that 300 million people annually practice shifting agriculture, affecting 400 million hectares\\u000a of the planet's 1,500 million ha of arable land. The sustainability of shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn continues to\\u000a be a topic of discussion. Kleinman et al. (1995) characterized sound slash-and-burn agriculture as an ecologically sustainable\\u000a agroecosystem because crop yields can be maintained without

C Steiner; M Garcia; W Zech

41

Movement of pesticides and nutrients into tile drainage water. Final report, 22 September 1985-22 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

Concern about contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals has increased in the last five years. The objectives of this study were to determine field-scale pesticide and nutrient losses to tile drains over a 3-year period on a low-organic-matter, poorly structured silt loam soil under typical agricultural management practices. A tile-drainage spacing study was instrumented to measure water outflow rates and to continuously collect tile outflow samples on a flow-proportional basis. Two replicates of 3 tile spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) were included in the study. Water samples were analyzed for all applied pesticides (atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos) as well as major nutrients (N,P,K) and sediment.

Van Scoyoc, G.E.; Kladivko, E.J.

1989-01-01

42

Plant biomass and nutrient flux in a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes previously reported and new data. Data on biomass and nutrient content in different components of the mangrove trees are presented and estimates of the flux of these are attempted. As a first step to determining the quantitative relationship between the export of material and the areal extent of mangroves, the biomass and nutrients contained in the mangrove trees and the release of these to the ecosystem annually were determined for the 40 800-ha Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve—a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia. The total standing biomass of the Matang Mangrove Forest is estimated to be 8·26 milion tonnes (of dry matter). Biomass released annually from the mangrove trees in the Matang system is 1 015 980 tonnes. Of these, 559 500 tonnes or 55% is in the form of dead trees, 396 840 tonnes (39%) is in the form of small litter and 59 640 (6%) in the slash left behind after thinning and harvesting. The amounts of macro-nutrients (N,P,K, Ca, Mg and Na) released annually are 12 210, 11 870 and 2690 tonnes through litter, dead trees and slash respectively. The fate of these materials is discussed. Using the figure of 50% export, the export of biomass and nutrients from the Matang Mangroves through leaf litter alone is estimated as 158 300 and 5100 tonnes annually or 3·9 and 0·1 tonne ha -1 year -1 respectively.

Gong, Wooi-Khoon; Ong, Jin-Eong

1990-11-01

43

Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi.  

PubMed

The application of anaerobically digested biosolids as a nutrient source for pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangeh.) K. Koch, cultivar Western, was evaluated. Conventional NPK fertilizers (CF) and biosolids included a treatment with the rhizospheric fungi Pisolithus tinctorius+Scleroderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. After an average of three years, the tree trunks with biosolid treatment grew 9.5% more than with CF; the length of the bearing shoots was 18.1 and 18.3cm and the production of nuts/tree was 9.26 and 8.75kg for pecans with CF and with biosolids, respectively. Western foliar nutrient concentration and nut quality were statistically equal in trees with CF and with biosolids. Soil inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi improved shoot growth by 19.4% when CF was applied, but did not when biosolids were used. Nutrient status and yield did not increase with mycorrhizal fungi. The addition of Trichoderma sp. did not favor any of the variables evaluated with both nutrient sources. Biosolids are efficient fertilizer at promoting the growth, production and nut quality of pecan trees. PMID:18993060

Tarango Rivero, S H; Nevárez Moorillón, V G; Orrantia Borunda, E

2009-03-01

44

Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida, lucerne and maize presented similar performance for both digestate and the NPK fertilizer applications, which were greater than the control, showing a positive fertilizing effect of the digestate for plant biomass production. Considering the biomass production obtained with the digestate application for sida, lucerne and maize, the results give support for further field experiments which aim to evaluate the fertilizing and conditioning effect of digestates.

Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

2014-05-01

45

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older ...

46

Using a Segmented Model to Describe In situ Nutrient Disappearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gunter, S.A. and Galyean, M.L. 2000. Using a segmented model to describe in situ nutrient disappearance. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 1–14.The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive results and characteristics of exponential (EM) and segmented, models (SM) describing ruminal in situ nutrient disappearance data. Using masticate samples collected from esophageally cannulated steers grazing midgrass prairie rangeland

Stacey A. Gunter; Michael L. Galyean

2000-01-01

47

Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2005-09-01

48

Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

49

Nutrient Management What's New?  

E-print Network

- USDA NRCS cost share program NR 243 ­ WPDES permit federal CAFO regs June 2007 NR 151 - Water quality livestock to maintain cover near water · Control erosion to meet tolerable soil loss (T) · Apply nutrients and rill soil erosion rates ­ Gives a record keeping system for past and present applications ­ Calculates

Balser, Teri C.

50

SPARROW REGIONAL NUTRIENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...

51

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

52

Collecting Water Nutrient Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

53

Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).  

PubMed

The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

2013-04-15

54

Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.

55

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

of governmental and industrial organizations, including the Department for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High for Dairy Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire

Bequette, Brian J.

56

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions-Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 5 Nutrition Department, and 6 Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA; 7 Food Science and Nutrition Department, California

Hammock, Bruce D.

57

Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).  

PubMed

The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

2007-08-01

58

Bone nutrients for vegetarians.  

PubMed

The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

Mangels, Ann Reed

2014-06-01

59

Changes in nutrient dynamics throughout water transfers in a Tropical Forest and Pasture of Rondonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clearing of tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon for cattle pasture since the 70s is a globally important land use change that has consequences for soil biogeochemical cycles. Generally, five to ten years after deforestation, pastures become degraded due to inadequate management practices. Development of strategies for restoration of low productivity pastures constitutes the main goal for Rondônia state. We analyzed the concentrations of the main nutrient of the biogeochemical cycles in three representative land uses at Fazenda Nova Vida, in central Rondônia (10o30'S, 62o30'W). The treatments were: (1) native forest; (2) pasture dominated by the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha but containing some weeds, under non- intensive management and; (3) a section of the same pasture that was subjected to tilling, replanting and fertilization (NPK + micronutrients) to eliminate weeds and improve grass productivity. Water samples from rain, throughfall, overland flow, tension lysimeter and zero-tension lysimeter (1.0 m soil depth), were collected during the rainy seasons from January to May of 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of C (DOC and DIC), inorganic-N (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl- were measured in all treatments. Rain water was dominated by the nutrients (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) and DOC. Forest throughfall was enriched in most of the elements. Concentrations of elements in the overland flow showed higher variations in the pasture and in the plowed pasture, however samples were not collected in forest. Soil solution waters (tension lysimeter) and lysimeter waters (zero-tension lysimeter) too had higher variations for elements concentrations in all treatments. Forest clearing for pasture and pasture submitted to tillage practices profoundly influence soil properties and, consequently, the nutrient availability in soil profiles. The soil solution composition may be indicative of altered patterns of nutrient availability in this land use change.

Piccolo, M. D.; Neill, C.; Krusche, A.; Laclau, J. P.; Cerri, C. C.

2006-12-01

60

Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.  

PubMed

A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17 weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

2014-06-15

61

Is nitrogen transfer among plants enhanced by contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies?  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) transfer among plants has been found where at least one plant can fix N2 . In nutrient-poor soils, where plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies (without N2 fixation) co-occur, it is unclear if N transfer exists and what promotes it. A novel multi-species microcosm pot experiment was conducted to quantify N transfer between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), ectomycorrhizal (EM), dual AM/EM, and non-mycorrhizal cluster-rooted plants in nutrient-poor soils with mycorrhizal mesh barriers. We foliar-fed plants with a K(15) NO3 solution to quantify one-way N transfer from 'donor' to 'receiver' plants. We also quantified mycorrhizal colonization and root intermingling. Transfer of N between plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies occurred at both low and high soil nutrient levels with or without root intermingling. The magnitude of N transfer was relatively high (representing 4% of donor plant N) given the lack of N2 fixation. Receiver plants forming ectomycorrhizas or cluster roots were more enriched compared with AM-only plants. We demonstrate N transfer between plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies, and a preferential enrichment of cluster-rooted and EM plants compared with AM plants. Nutrient exchanges among plants are potentially important in promoting plant coexistence in nutrient-poor soils. PMID:24811370

Teste, François P; Veneklaas, Erik J; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

2015-01-01

62

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system—an empirical approach to uphold food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.

Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.

2015-01-01

63

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system-an empirical approach to uphold food security.  

PubMed

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems. PMID:24817490

Subash, N; Gangwar, B; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A K

2015-01-01

64

Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways  

PubMed Central

PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

2015-01-01

65

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may exert strong impacts on the species composition of primary producers

Michael J. Vanni

66

Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction  

E-print Network

to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent methods. Project Description This project will evaluate whether the new drying and nutrients extraction process. . Prototype innovative drying and nutrients extraction system Photo credit: Grimmway Enterprises

67

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

v.09.2013 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program Certification must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http://panutrientmgmt.cas.psu.edu/). Click

Guiltinan, Mark

68

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

69

Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, tree diversity and root nutrient relations in a mixed Central European forest.  

PubMed

Knowledge is limited about whether root nutrient concentrations are affected by mixtures of tree species and interspecific root competition. The goal of this field study was to investigate root nutrient element concentrations in relation to root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) diversity in six different mixtures of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lime (Tilia sp.) in an old-growth, undisturbed forest ecosystem. Root biomass and nutrient concentrations per tree taxon as well as the abundance and identity of all EM fungi were determined in soil cores of a volume of 1 L (r=40 mm, depth=200 mm). Stand-level nutrient concentrations in overall root biomass and H' (Shannon-Wiener diversity) were obtained by pooling the data per stand. At stand level, Shannon H' for roots and aboveground tree species abundance were correlated. H' for roots and EM fungi were not correlated because of the contribution of ash roots that form only arbuscular mycorrhizal but no EM associations. Nutrient element concentrations in roots showed taxon-related differences and increased in the following order: beech???lime?EM diversity, was correlated with decreasing P concentrations in beech roots pointing to interspecific tree competition. Nitrogen (N) concentrations of beech roots were unaltered in relation to root and EM diversity. Opposing behavior was observed for lime and ash: the N concentrations in lime roots increased, whereas those in ash roots decreased with increasing EM diversity in a given soil volume. This suggests that EM diversity facilitates N acquisition of lime roots at the expense of non-EM ash. PMID:21636693

Lang, Christa; Polle, Andrea

2011-05-01

70

Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called “water cultures” had a simple composition and consisted of salts like KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, KHPO4, MgSO4, and

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt

2007-01-01

71

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions  

E-print Network

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions in greenhouse horticulture David) Abstract ­ Recirculating nutrient systems offer a good method to control nutrient leaching from greenhouses of recirculating nutrient systems by the greenhouse industry. This review discusses and compares five broadly

Boyer, Edmond

72

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important,in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may,exert strong impacts on the species composition,of primary producers via effects on

Michael J. Vanni

2002-01-01

73

Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-05-01

74

Effect of NPK on growth and nitrogen fixation of Sesbania rostrata as a green manure for lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem-nodulating tropical legume Sesbania rostrata is a promising green manure species for low input rice-farming systems in lowland areas. However, its success as biofertilizer depends on its biomass production and N2 fixation. Nutrient imbalances and soils low in available nutrients can considerably affect biofertilizer production. Use of mineral N, P, and K fertilizers in growing S. rostrata as biofertilizer

M. Becker; K. H. Diekmann; J. K. Ladha; S. K. Datta; J. C. G. Ottow

1991-01-01

75

PAS kinase: Integrating nutrient sensing with nutrient partitioning  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggests that PAS kinase acts as a signal integrator to adjust metabolic behavior in response to nutrient conditions. Specifically, PAS kinase controls the partitioning of nutrient resources between the myriad of possible fates. In this capacity, PAS kinase elicits a pro-growth program, which includes both signaling and metabolic control, both in yeast and in mammals. We propose that, like other kinases possessing these properties—AMPK and TOR, PAS kinase might be target for therapy of diabetes, obesity and cancer. PMID:22245833

Cardon, Caleb M.; Rutter, Jared

2012-01-01

76

Programming placental nutrient transport capacity  

PubMed Central

Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

2006-01-01

77

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

78

Effects of biochar and clay amendment on nutrient sorption of an Arenosol in semi-arid NE-Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil nutrient-poor Arenosol with a low capacity to retain water and nutrients is the predominant soil type. Our aim is to provide a long-term melioration of the soils with locally available and inexpensive materials. We hypothesize an increase in nutrient sorption by the addition of biochar and clay. We conducted adsorption experiments according to OECD 106 batch equilibrium method in order to test this hypothesis. Sandy Arenosol, locally produced pyrolized biochar made of Prosopis juliflora, and a clayey Vertisol with a clay content of 69.8 %, all from our project area in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil, were used. The percentage of biochar and Vertisol added were 0 % (pure Arenosol), 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 100 % (pure biochar respectively Vertisol). Samples were shaken for 24 hours in a 1:5 solid-solution ratio in six different concentrations of Ammonium-N, Nitrate-N (0 - 25 mg L-1 each), Phosphorus (0 - 19.8 mg L-1) and Potassium (0 - 50 mg L-1). These concentrations were chosen to represent a common range of nutrients in a prevalent quaternary fertilization scheme of N:P:K of 1:0.4:1, with half NH4-N and NO3-N each. Then, where possible, sorption isotherms according to Langmuir were derived. Addition of biochar and Vertisol only showed marginal effects on Ammonium sorption. We detected a high loss of Ammonium with pure biochar, we assume loss of gaseous NH3. High rates of biochar addition caused Nitrate retention. Biochar increased P sorption with a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 27.35 mg kg-1 for the 5 % amendment, although some P was leached out (up to 1.58 mg kg-1 for the 10 % addition). Phosphate sorption on Vertisol was even higher with a qmax for the 5 % addition of 60.77 mg kg-1. Potassium did not sorb to biochar, but was strongly leached out (84.19 mg kg-1 out of the 5 % addition). For Vertisol we observed a strong Potassium sorption that is linear within the concentration range we tested. A possible enhancement of nutrient retention of an Arenosol by adding biochar was detected for Phosphorus and marginal for Ammonium. For Vertisol we determined a potential to retain Potassium, Phosphorus and, to a minor degree, Ammonium. For Nitrate biochar seems to have a potential to reduce losses. We suggest a mixture of Vertisol and biochar to combine the nutrient retaining effects of both materials.

Beusch, Christine; Kaupenjohann, Martin

2014-05-01

79

DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

80

Regulating nutrient allocation in plants  

DOEpatents

The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

2014-12-09

81

Nutrients for the aging eye  

PubMed Central

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

2013-01-01

82

N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These results agree with those reported by Jarvis (1993) and Cadish et al (1994). However, 40% of the excretions occurred in the shade buildings and milking parlours ant thus these nutrients did not recycle in the system. An important internal recycling mechanism, especially for nitrogen and potassium, is their remobilization by the rejected pasture to re-use them for the regrowth activity. This is of particular interest in CT-115 Bank, since stems of CT-115 plants left after grazing remobilize an important amount of these nutrients, guarantee a favourable pasture regrowth (Martinez 1996). The return of all the excretion to the grassland is recommended as well as increasing the area of legumes to attain a satisfactory balance of N, P and K in the system. Further studies must consider maintenance fertilization, nutrient losses due to leaching and denitrification, as well as variation of the stable OM in the soil and the influence of hydro physical properties in the recycling process. The "Recycling" software was effective to determine the balance of nutrients in the dairy farm. Cadish, G., Schunke, R.N & Giller, K.E. 1994. Nitrogen cycling in a pure grass pasture and a grass-legume mixture on a red latosol in Brazil. Tropical Grasslands 28:43. Crespo G. y Rodríguez, I. 2006. Contribución al conocimiento del reciclaje de los nutrientes en el sistema suelo-pasto-animal. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Editorial EDICA, La Habana, Cuba, 94 pp. Hirata, M., Sugimoto, Y.G & Ueno, M.1991. Use of a mathematical model to evaluate the effects of dung from grazing animals on pasture production. J. Japan Grassld. Sci. 37:303.

Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

2009-04-01

83

lake nutrients terc.ucdavis.edu 8  

E-print Network

,contributingapproximately25 percentoftheinflow.Heretheriver's contribution(load)ofdissolvedinor- ganicnitrogen(nitrate+ammonium,theriver'sloadofsolublereac- tivephosphorusandtotalphosphorus areshown.Dissolvedinorganicnitro- gen(nitrate+ammonium,abbreviated DIN nitrate concentration yearly since 1980 L ake nutRIents Nutrients,whichpromotealgal growth

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

84

Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52

Scott H. Ensign; Martin W. Doyle

2006-01-01

85

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

86

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

87

Nutrient Management Behavior on Wisconsin Dairy Farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management plans for livestock operations should account for rates and timing of manure application to cropland, as well as how manure is integrated with other nutrient sources. Little is known, however, about actual farmer nutrient management practices and what changes may be needed for fa...

88

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

89

Influence of bio-fertilizers on the biomass yield and nutrient content in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. grown in Indian subtropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghata, Bangalore, India to study the effect of bio-fertilizers on the biomass yield and NPK content in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). The results show the yield and NPK content in stevia plant has been found to be increased initially and thereafter, the amount of the same decreased with the

Kuntal Das; Raman Dang; Nazim Sekeroglu

90

NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries Nutrient Management Module No. 9  

E-print Network

as a diagnostic tool? Plant analysis consists of testing nutrient concentrations in specific plant parts during 2009 CCA 1.5 NM CEU Nutrient Management Module No. 9 Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency in-depth information about plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Objectives

Lawrence, Rick L.

91

Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings.  

PubMed

To investigate the interactive effects of soil temperature (T(soil)) and nutrient availability on the response of photosynthesis to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to ambient (360 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (720 micromol mol(-1)) [CO(2)], three T(soil) (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three nutrient regimes (4/1.8/3.3, 80/35/66 and 160/70/132 mg l(-1) N/P/K) for 3 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated [CO(2)] increased net photosynthetic rate (A(n)), instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE), internal to ambient carbon dioxide concentration ratio (C(i)/C(a)), triose phosphate utilization (TPU) and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (J(c)), and it decreased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (DeltaF/F(m)'), the fraction of total linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation (J(o)/J(T)) and leaf N concentration. The low T(soil) suppressed A(n), transpiration rate (E), TPU, DeltaF/F(m)' and J(c), but it increased J(o)/J(T). The low nutrient treatment reduced A(n), IWUE, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, TPU, DeltaF/F(m)', J(c) and leaf N concentration, but increased C(i)/C(a). There were two-factor interactions for C(i)/C(a), TPU and leaf N concentration, and a significant effect of CO(2) x T(soil) x nutrient regime on A(n), IWUE and J(c). The stimulations of A(n) and IWUE by elevated [CO(2)] were limited to seedlings grown under the intermediate and high nutrient regimes at the intermediate and high T(soil). For J(c), the [CO(2)] effect was significant only at intermediate T(soil) + high nutrient availability. No significant [CO(2)] effects were observed under the low T(soil) at any nutrient level. Our results support this study's hypothesis that low T(soil) would reduce the positive effect of high nutrient supply on the response of A(n) to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:20007132

Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai; Li, Junlin

2010-02-01

92

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

93

Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

1996-01-01

94

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

PubMed Central

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

2013-01-01

95

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

96

Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius  

SciTech Connect

The growth, nutrient absorption, and internal moisture status of selected woody species in coal mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius was studied. Nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded with a mixture of herbaceous ground cover species. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After three years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus was superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after two years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species.

Walker, R.F.

1982-01-01

97

Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.  

PubMed

Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. PMID:24746891

Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

98

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.

99

Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

Evans, R. D.

1994-11-01

100

Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.

2013-12-01

101

Nutrient content of whole cottonseed.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if the nutrient and gossypol contents and in vitro digestibility of 3 types of genetically modified whole cottonseed differed from traditional whole cottonseed. Samples of seed from traditional (no genetic modifications) and genetically modified varieties of cotton grown in 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. Genetic modifications included the insertion of genes to protect cotton from insect pests (Bt), and damage from glyphosate herbicides (RR), and from both (Bt/RR). Year effects were significant for in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility, gossypol, DM, crude protein (CP), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and ash. Higher rainfall resulted in higher CP, fat, and ash and lower NDF and gossypol. There were no differences among seed types for ground or whole seed digestibility, DM, CP, fat, NDF, ADF, ash, lignin, net energy for lactation, amino acids, total fatty acids, or seed index. Overall, the nutrient content and digestibility of varieties of genetically modified seed were similar to that of varieties of traditional whole cottonseed. PMID:15778316

Bertrand, J A; Sudduth, T Q; Condon, A; Jenkins, T C; Calhoun, M C

2005-04-01

102

Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.  

PubMed

Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

2008-01-01

103

NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

1987-01-01

104

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling  

E-print Network

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling Sophia Jang1 the internal reserves are exhausted. Ketchum [19] was among the first to document such a biological phenonemon

Baglama, James

105

Louisiana's Nutrient ManagementLouisiana's Nutrient Management Educational/Research ProgramsEducational/Research Programs  

E-print Network

. Reducing Fecal Nutrient Content Through Diet Manipulation 2. Constructed Wetlands for Row Crop Runoff 3 by Agents 5. Mass Media #12;Regulatory History Agriculture is basically free from nutrient related

106

Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the

Ivan Valiela; Joseph E. Costa

1988-01-01

107

Comparison of nutrient density and nutrient-to-cost between cooked and canned beans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of nutrient rich foods such as beans and peas is recommended because these foods provide key nutrients and relatively little energy. Many consumers are unfamiliar with dried beans or do not have the time to prepare them. The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient density and nutri...

108

Mechanistic simulation models of nutrient uptake: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic models of nutrient uptake consider diffusion and mass flow acting simultaneously to supply nutrients to the sorbing root surface. Plant parameters that determine nutrient uptake include those describing changes in root geometry and size due to root growth and others describing kinetics of the nutrient uptake process. Mechanistic models generally assume that nutrient uptake occurs evenly along the roots

Zdenko Rengel; Glen Osmond

1993-01-01

109

Procedures for Estimating Nutrient Values for Food Composition Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used to assess the nutrient content of diets, recipes, or commercial food products, a nutrient database should provide a complete nutrient profile for each food in the database. Chemical analyses for a wide range of nutrients in the many foods included in a database are not always practical. Therefore, some nutrient values must be estimated. Common methods for estimating

Sally F. Schakel; I. Marilyn Buzzard; Susan E. Gebhardt

1997-01-01

110

Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of

Ann C. Wilkie; Walter W. Mulbry

2002-01-01

111

Nutrient Management: Water Quality/Use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management programs must have a positive impact on water quality. The challenge for producers is to understand the nutrient balance in the soil and to reduce the risk of surface runoff of manure. The challenge for science is to increase our understanding of the value of manure in the soil a...

112

Nutrient dynamics in ship harbour, Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensive study of the water column distributions of the dissolved nutrients silicate, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia and of dissolved oxygen in Ship Harbour, Nova Scotia in 1991 and 1992, has revealed details of, and some of the mechanisms responsible for, nutrient distributions in temperate inlets. Ship Harbour is ?10km by ?1 km wide and has a deeper (?25 m) inner

Peter M. Strain

2002-01-01

113

NUTRIENT-UPTAKE MODEL IN MARSH ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mechanistic models of nutrient dynamics in natural wetlands were developed and applied in a study of Kissimmee River (Florida) flood-plain marshes. The models describe hydrodynamics and transport diffusion in wetland basins and the ecological processes of nutrient uptake, convers...

114

SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

Hedgepeth, David J.

1995-01-01

115

Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

2013-09-01

116

Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

1991-01-01

117

WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH PLANTS IN NUTRIENT FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...

118

NUTRIENT BIOAVAILABILITY IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt affected soils limit crop yields around the world. Knowledge of how nutrient availability is affected in plants growing on salt affected soils is important in adopting appropriate management practices to satisfy plants’ nutritional requirements and improve yields to meet food demands of increasing world populations. In the salt affected environment plants required to absorb essential nutrients from a dilute

N. K. Fageria; H. R. Gheyi; A. Moreira

2011-01-01

119

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility by Clain Jones, Soil Chemist" as well as offer the potential for credits for CCAs in Nutrient Management (within the "Plant Nutrition, the reader should: 1. Know the 17 elements essential for plant nutrition 2. Know the macronutrients

Lawrence, Rick L.

120

Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

121

Inorganic nutrient limitation of oceanic bacterioplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of algal origin limits bacterial growth in pelagic systems, there arc relatively few empirical studies documenting this effect. Depending on site and season, both organic and inorganic nutrients can limit the growth of freshwater bacteria. By contrast, inorganic nutrients have only recently been implicated as potentially growth-limiting for marine bacteria.

Richard B. Rivkin; M. Robin Anderson

1997-01-01

122

A Nutrient Sensor Mechanism Controls Drosophila Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms modulate their growth according to nutrient availability. Although individual cells in a multicellular animal may respond directly to nutrient levels, growth of the entire organism needs to be coordinated. Here, we provide evidence that in Drosophila, coordination of organismal growth originates from the fat body, an insect organ that retains endocrine and storage functions of the vertebrate liver. In

Julien Colombani; Sophie Raisin; Sophie Pantalacci; Thomas Radimerski; Jacques Montagne; Pierre Léopold

2003-01-01

123

Agronomy Facts 38-D A Nutrient Management  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 38-D A Nutrient Management Approach for Pennsylvania: Exploring Performance Criteria expectations for envi- ronmental protection in many of the same ways. Previous fact sheets in the series A Nutrient Management Approach for Pennsylvania (Penn State Agronomy Facts 38-A, B, and C) emphasize the need

Kaye, Jason P.

124

Nutrient movement in soils and its relation to ecosystem nutrient retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. We make use of a first principle model of nutrient diffusion and uptake at the root/micorrhizal surface to address how these soil processes shape levels of nutrient concentration in soil water and the magnitude of ecosystem nutrient export. We combine our analytical framework with available data on root properties and parameters for solute movements. Our results show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nutrients. Our predicted levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations are at the upper end of observed levels in soil water and headwater streams. Further efficient reduction of nutrient levels can be achieved through micorrhizal symbiosis, in particular if exudates reduce the buffering of ammonium, phosphate and other nutrients that tend to sorb to soil surfaces. As we scale our results from the environment of a single root to the entire active soil, we find that plant uptake capacity decreases as the intensity of soil water percolation increases, thereby weakening nutrient retention.

Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.

2012-12-01

125

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

126

GENERALIZED NUTRIENT TAXES CAN INCREASE CONSUMER WELFARE.  

PubMed

Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25241653

Bishai, David

2014-09-19

127

Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake  

PubMed Central

The metabolic machinery of marine microbes can be remarkably plastic, allowing organisms to persist under extreme nutrient limitation. With some exceptions, most theoretical approaches to nutrient uptake in phytoplankton are largely dominated by the classic Michaelis–Menten (MM) uptake functional form, whose constant parameters cannot account for the observed plasticity in the uptake apparatus. Following seminal ideas by earlier researchers, we propose a simple cell-level model based on a dynamic view of the uptake process whereby the cell can regulate the synthesis of uptake proteins in response to changes in both internal and external nutrient concentrations. In our flexible approach, the maximum uptake rate and nutrient affinity increase monotonically as the external nutrient concentration decreases. For low to medium nutrient availability, our model predicts uptake and growth rates larger than the classic MM counterparts, while matching the classic MM results for large nutrient concentrations. These results have important consequences for global coupled models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, which lack this regulatory mechanism and are thus likely to underestimate phytoplankton abundances and growth rates in oligotrophic regions of the ocean. PMID:22143781

Bonachela, Juan A.; Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon A.

2011-01-01

128

Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.

Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

1946-01-01

129

Phytoplanktonic nutrient utilisation and nutrient signature in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation in Southern Ocean provinces of silicate excess at nitrate exhaustion and of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion was already introduced by Kamykowski and Zentara (Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1985. Nitrate and silicic acid in the world ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26, 47-59; and Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1989. Circumpolar plant nutrient covariation in the Southern Ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 58, 101-111) and our investigations of the silicate to nitrate uptake ratios confirm the earlier distinction. Oligotrophic antarctic waters mainly exhibit proportionally higher silicate removal what induces a potential for nitrate excess. The nitrogen uptake regime of such areas is characterised by low absolute as well as specific nitrate uptake rates throughout. Maximal values did not exceed 0.15 ?M d -1 and 0.005 h -1, respectively. Corresponding f-ratios ranged from 0.39 to 0.86. This scenario contrasts strikingly to the more fertile ice edge areas. They showed a drastic but short vernal increase in nitrate uptake. Absolute uptake rates reached a maximum value of 2.18 ?M d -1 whereas the maximal specific uptake rate was 0.063 h -1. In addition to an optimal physical environment for bloom development, accumulation of ammonium stimulated nitrate uptake in a direct or indirect way. Since ammonium build-up in surface waters traces enhanced remineralisation, release of other essential compounds during degradation of organic matter might have been the main trigger. This peak nitrate utilisation during early spring led to the observed potential for silicate excess. With increasing seasonal maturity the nitrate uptake became inhibited by the presence of enhanced ammonium availability (up to 8% of the inorganic nitrogen pool), however, and after a short period of intensive nitrate consumption the uptake rates drop to very low levels, which are comparable to the ones observed in the area of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion.

Goeyens, L.; Semeneh, M.; Baumann, M. E. M.; Elskens, M.; Shopova, D.; Dehairs, F.

1998-11-01

130

Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Martin, Katherine C; C Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

131

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

132

NRMRL'S NUTRIENT-RELATED RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic loadings of nutrients into our Nation's atmosphere, aquatic, and terrestrial ecosystems have increased dramatically within the past few decades. Environmental impairments associated with this over fertilization include aquatic habitat loss due to low dissolved oxyge...

133

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

134

The stoichiometry of particulate nutrients in Lake Tanganyika – implications for nutrient limitation of phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential nutrient limitation of phytoplankton by means of seston nutrient stoichiometry and nutrient enrichment bioassays in the epilimnion of Lake Tanganyika. In most cases, the particulate carbon to phosphorus (C:P) ratio was high and indicated moderate P deficiency, while the respective C:N ratio mainly suggested moderate N deficiency. The N:P ratios of seston indicated rather balanced N

Marko Järvinen; Kalevi Salonen; Jouko Sarvala; Kristiina Vuorio; Anne Virtanen

1999-01-01

135

Effect of humic substances in nutrient film technique on nutrient uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to find out how humic substances affected nutrient uptake of plants. The test plants, oregano, thyme, and basil, were grown in nutrient film technique at two pH levels (4.5 and 6.5), in two substrates (peat and perlite), and at three levels of humic substance that was a peat extract (control, low, and high concentration). Nutrient uptake

C. de Kreij; H. Ba?ar

1995-01-01

136

Nutrient Management in Conservation Tillage Systems  

E-print Network

to find mois- ture and nutrients. Soil pH often is stratified in conservation tillage systems because soil moisture, stratification of nutrients and soil pH, and changes in the rooting pattern of crops by the familiar measurement of "soil pH" in soil tests. A pH measure- ment of 7 is neutral, pH less than 7 is acid

Kaye, Jason P.

137

Nutrient-Responsive Plant microRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Being sessile, plants have to cope with many adverse environmental changes, including changing nutrient availability. Adequate\\u000a availability of mineral macronutrients (e.g., N, P, K, S) and micronutrients (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn) in the soil and their acquisition\\u000a are vitally important for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Too little or too much of the nutrients negatively\\u000a affects these traits and hence

Wolf-Rüdiger Scheible; Bikram Datt Pant; Magdalena Musialak-Lange; Przemyslaw Nuc

138

Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river\\/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and\\/or

Jing Zhang

1996-01-01

139

Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

2011-12-01

140

Nutrient shielding in clusters of cells.  

PubMed

Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ? of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ? that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ? can vary over many orders of magnitude among different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ? decreases with increasing ?, increasing cell volume fraction ?, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ?(?). The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ?. PMID:23848711

Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Koschwanez, John H; Nelson, David R

2013-06-01

141

A Comparison of Nutrient Density Scores for 100% Fruit Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient- dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition profes- sionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents

G. C. Rampersaud

2007-01-01

142

Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal-mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius  

SciTech Connect

In this study, nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After 3 years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus were superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after 2 years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species. Sweet birch and European alder were grown under high, intermediate, and low fertility regimes in sand culture containing a mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius for 5 months and then transplanted to coal mine spoil containing an identical Pisolithus inoculum. Control seedlings of each species were similarly grown except that no inoculum was incorporated into the potting media. The nutrient treatments initiated in the sand culture were continued throughout the study. Examinations of the roots of the sweet birch seedlings revealed that high fertility significantly reduced the development of Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae, but Pisolithus formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on the roots of sweet birch grown under the intermediate and low fertility regimes and these seedlings were significantly larger than comparable control seedlings.

Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

1982-09-01

143

Automated management of nutrient solutions based on target electrical conductivity, ph, and nutrient concentration ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm to automatically formulate the composition and prepare nutrient solutions for soilless cultures based on desired characteristics given as target values is proposed. To formulate the complete ionic composition of a nutrient solution, standard recommendations referring to the following solution characteristics should be available: (i) electrical conductivity (EC), (ii) pH, (iii) concentration ratios of macronutrients (meq basis), and (iv)

Dimitrios Savvas; Konstantinos Adamidis

1999-01-01

144

Modeling the Response of Nutrient Concentrations and Primary Productivity in Lake Michigan to Nutrient Loading Scenarios  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality model, LM3 Eutro, will be used to estimate the response of nutrient concentrations and primary productivity in Lake Michigan to nutrient loading scenarios. This work is part of a larger effort, the Future Midwestern landscapes study, that will estimate the produc...

145

Major Palm Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms and Fertilizer Applications 1. Deficient Nutrient  

E-print Network

;1. Magnesium (Mg) 2. Canary Island Date 3. Old Moderate/Severe: i) In feather palms, broad chlorotic (yellowMajor Palm Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms and Fertilizer Applications 1. Deficient Nutrient 2. Palms. Queen, coconut, foxtail, royal, pygmy date 3. New Mild: i) Sharply bent (hooked leaf) leaflet tips ii

Jawitz, James W.

146

Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Technical Service Providers  

E-print Network

.D. Curry, UF G. Hendricks, USDAG. Hendricks, USDA--NRCSNRCS S.P. Boetger, USDAS.P. Boetger, USDA described in the USDAelements described in the USDA--NRCS Comprehensive NutrientNRCS Comprehensive Nutrient 11 ­­ 6" courses offered by the USDA Natural6" courses offered by the USDA Natural Resources

147

Nutrient budgeting as an approach for improving nutrient management on Australian dairy farms.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy farming in Australia continues to intensify. Increased stocking rates have resulted in increased milk production per ha, but have also required greater inputs of purchased feed and fertiliser. The imbalance between nutrient inputs, primarily as feed and fertiliser, and nutrient outputs, in mil...

148

ADEQUACY OF NUTRIENT INTAKES AMONG GUATEMALANS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess adequacy of nutrient intakes of Guatemalans from the study on Cross-Cultural Research on Nutrition of Older Subjects (CRONOS), we applied three sets of nutrients recommendations: the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), the Food and Agriculture Organization and Wor...

149

Are nutrient databases and nutrient analysis systems ready for the International implications of nutrigenomics?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective is to discuss the implications internationally of the increased focus on nutrigenomics as the underlying basis for individualized health promotion and chronic disease prevention and the challenges presented to existing nutrient database and nutrient analysis systems by these trends. De...

150

Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

Wurtman, R. J.

1987-01-01

151

Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.  

PubMed

We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

2014-04-01

152

Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance is a major metabolic feature of obesity and is a key factor in the etiology of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms by which brief nutrient excess and obesity lead to insulin resistance and propose that these mechanisms of action are different but interrelated. We discuss how pathways that “sense” nutrients within skeletal muscle are readily able to regulate insulin action. We then discuss how obesity leads to insulin resistance via a complex interplay among systemic fatty acid excess, microhypoxia in adipose tissue, ER stress, and inflammation. In particular, we focus on the hypothesis that the macrophage is an important cell type in the propagation of inflammation and induction of insulin resistance in obesity. Overall, we provide our integrative perspective regarding how nutrients and obesity interact to regulate insulin sensitivity. PMID:18769626

Schenk, Simon; Saberi, Maziyar; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

2008-01-01

153

Nutrient profiling schemes: overview and comparative analysis.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is a discipline aimed at classifying foods based on their nutritional composition. So far, several profiling schemes have been proposed for varied purposes world-wide. Primary aim to inventory the main profiling schemes that have been developed so far (both applied and not) and to summarise their main aspects. Secondary aim to critically review a selection of them, to test their "performance" and to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. Scientific and popular search engines were used for identifying profiling schemes. Schemes were described concisely by providing details on four main "Building Blocks" or factors: (1) Food category declination: category-wise or "across the board"; (2) Reference amount: 100 g, 100 kcal; serving; (3) Cut-off use: thresholds or scores; (4) Nutrients Selection: balance between positive and negative nutrients and number of them. The "performance" analysis was done by testing how the selected schemes classify a sample of food. Profiling schemes display considerable variation based on the underlying approach, format and content. Moreover, the rationale of the schemes largely varies and seems to be inspired by either nutrient recommendations or regulations figures. When tested for "performance", the five selected schemes classify in the same way foods having either a very "positive" or a very "negative" nutrient profile, whereas they give inconsistent results for food products with intermediate characteristics. Strengths and weaknesses analysis shows the difficulty of finding schemes combining qualities such as simplicity, scientific relevance, ability to cope with changes in nutrient recommendations. Current proposed profiling schemes exhibit a wide range of differences both in terms of approaches and "performance". Nutrition scientists have now the challenge to develop the "ideal scheme" that, in our view, will have to be strict enough to ensure consumer protection but also flexible enough to encourage food industry innovation and to promote a "healthy" competitive market. PMID:18084733

Garsetti, Marcella; de Vries, Jan; Smith, Maurice; Amosse, Amélie; Rolf-Pedersen, Nathalie

2007-12-01

154

Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to form Ca phosphate, an insoluble compound of phosphate that is generally not available to plants, especially roots. Mixing soil with humin produced from composted SW before application of fertilizers (T5 and T6) significantly increased maize dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency. Additionally, this practice does not only improve N, P, and K use efficiency, but it also helps to reduce the use of N-, P-, and K-based fertilizers by 50%. PMID:20623087

Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

2010-01-01

155

Nutrient Content of South African Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient content of South African chicken, of three genotypes (308 Ross, Cobb, 788 Ross), two treatments (fresh and frozen (spin chilled)), raw and\\/or cooked (dry and moist) and different portions (white and dark meat, skin and separable fat) was determined. Frozen compared to fresh chicken skin had a higher mineral and vitamin A, but lower vitamin E content. Medium-chain

S. M. van Heerden; H. C. Schönfeldt; M. F. Smith; D. M. Jansen van Rensburg

2002-01-01

156

Nutrient Limitation in Coastal Phytoplankton Communities Introduction  

E-print Network

for cell growth and division but occur in minor concentrations are referred to as micronutrients (nutrient stock solutions will be provided): Control no addition N 0.5 ml nitrate solution P 0.5 ml phosphate solution NP 0.5 ml nitrate + 0.5 ml phosphate Close all flasks with aluminum foil to prevent

Jochem, Frank J.

157

Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants

J. P. Bassin

2012-01-01

158

Nutrient Estimation Using Subsurface Sensing Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report investigates the use of precision management techniques for measuring soil conductivity on feedlot surfaces to estimate nutrient value for crop production. An electromagnetic induction soil conductivity meter was used to collect apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) from feedlot p...

159

Nutrient Management Module No. 10 Fertilizers and  

E-print Network

is to explain terminology, physical and chemical properties, and soil reactions associated with commonNutrient Management Module No. 10 Commercial Fertilizers and Soil Amendments by Ann McCauley, Soil Scientist; Clain Jones, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist; and Jeff Jacobsen, College of Agriculture Dean

Lawrence, Rick L.

160

Nutrient regulation of insulin secretion and action.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ?-cell function is of critical importance in the regulation of fuel homoeostasis, and metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus (DM). The ?-cell is an intricately designed cell type that couples metabolism of dietary sources of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids to insulin secretory mechanisms, such that insulin release occurs at appropriate times to ensure efficient nutrient uptake and storage by target tissues. However, chronic exposure to high nutrient concentrations results in altered metabolism that impacts negatively on insulin exocytosis, insulin action and may ultimately lead to development of DM. Reduced action of insulin in target tissues is associated with impairment of insulin signalling and contributes to insulin resistance (IR), a condition often associated with obesity and a major risk factor for DM. The altered metabolism of nutrients by insulin-sensitive target tissues (muscle, adipose tissue and liver) can result in high circulating levels of glucose and various lipids, which further impact on pancreatic ?-cell function, IR and progression of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we have considered the role played by the major nutrient groups, carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, in mediating ?-cell insulin secretion, while also exploring the interplay between amino acids and insulin action in muscle. We also focus on the effects of altered lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver resulting from activation of inflammatory processes commonly observed in DM pathophysiology. The aim of this review is to describe commonalities and differences in metabolism related to insulin secretion and action, pertinent to the development of DM. PMID:24667247

Newsholme, Philip; Cruzat, Vinicius; Arfuso, Frank; Keane, Kevin

2014-06-01

161

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-print Network

. The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen is further complicated by the different forms in which nitrogen can occurLab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen processes. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, on the other hand, are highly dynamic because they may

Jochem, Frank J.

162

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling,  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations by ClainManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries 4449-3 Dec. 2001 #12;2 Module 3 · Nitrogen Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations Background, it is important to first understand the various transformations that N undergoes within the soil. Nitrogen Cycling

Lawrence, Rick L.

163

Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of

D. Sarkhot; T. A. Ghezzehei; A. A. Berhe

2009-01-01

164

NUTRIENT RESPONSE IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Aquatic Stressor Framework and associated Nutrient Implementation Plan define scientific and regulatory needs, and lay-out research goals too for a cross divisional program to investigate stressor-response relati...

165

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study critically evaluates the potential value of animal manure as feedstuffs for livestock and poultry using information in the published literature. The paper provides an assessment of the nutrient and economic value of manures as a function of their composition when compa...

166

TOR Signaling Pathway for Nutrient-Regulated  

E-print Network

TOR Signaling Pathway for Nutrient-Regulated Transcription Factors Kyung Dae Ko #12;Outline TOR Summary Future work #12;What is TOR? The Target protein Of Rapamycin Ser/thr protein kinase Two distinct protein complexes TORC1 and TORC2 #12;Domain Organization in TOR Kinase : phosphorylates serine

Albert, Réka

167

Ecoforestry Fall, 2001 13 Salmon nutrients,  

E-print Network

displays and recent investigations by research- ers in Washington, British Columbia and Alaska indicate and the remnants were scavenged by eagles, marten and flocks of crows, ravens and gulls. A diversity of insects the British Columbia coast wher- ever bears and salmon are common and these nutrients represent a significant

Reimchen, Thomas E.

168

Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

169

Nutrient Management Module No. 7 Micronutrients  

E-print Network

Micronutrients are essential to plant growth, yet are required in much smaller amounts than macronutrients micronutrient for plant growth was outlined in Nutrient Management Module 2. Micronutrients are usually with strong acids) are generally orders of magnitude higher than plant available metals (Table 1). Most

Lawrence, Rick L.

170

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling,  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations about phosphorus. Objectives 1.Understand the various soil forms of phosphorus 2.Recognize how soil and climate properties affect phosphorus cycling in soil 3.Recognize how cropping systems affect phosphorus

Lawrence, Rick L.

171

DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

172

Characterization of Nutrient Assimilation from Extraembryonic Intracapsular \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of gastropod snails undergo development from a zygote to a juvenile while enclosed within an egg capsule. Egg capsules are embedded within a discrete gelatinous mass that is deposited onto a substratum. Within each capsule, an embryo is bathed in a nutrient-rich intracapsular fluid. This fluid serves as the primary source of nourishment and is essential for the

Tisoncik Jennifer

2003-01-01

173

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

174

Chromium as an Essential Nutrient for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium is an essential nutrient required for sugar and fat metabolism. Normal dietary intake of Cr for humans is suboptimal. The estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake for Cr is 50 to 200 ?g. However, most diets contain less than 60% of the minimum suggested intake of 50 ?g. Insufficient dietary intake of Cr leads to signs and symptoms

Richard A Anderson

1997-01-01

175

HOW CHANGES IN NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS  

E-print Network

Vegetation In Concentrated Flow Channels Manure Shall Not Be Spread In Concentrated Flow Channels Frozen/Snow To Prevent Expensive And Time-consuming Near Blue River #12;Soil Erosion Effects On Environmental Quality And Productivity Loss Of OM, Clay, And Nutrients Reduces Productivity Damage To Plants Formation Of Rills

Balser, Teri C.

176

MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1992 to 1994, the University of Idaho conducted a research project on the water quality- limited section of the MIddle Snake River from Twin Falls downstream to Upper Salmon Falls Dam in an effort to determine the relationship between the nutrients and sediments entering thi...

177

Can Nutrients in Water Cause Harm?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this water pollution activity, learners create pond water cultures and investigate the effects of adding chemicals or natural nutrients. Learners investigate, on a small scale, the changes that occur when fertilizers are added to pond water cultures over the course of a few days. This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith H.

2010-01-01

178

Can nutrient loads predict marine water quality?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Chemical Society article explores whether phosphorous or nitrogen plays a larger role in creating the algal blooms of the Mississippi River dead zone. It documents results of a study that finds that the algae-nutrient interaction is complex, but that the system is more phosphorous limited upstream and becomes more nitrogen limited farther downstream.

Pelley, Janet; Society, American C.

179

Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration capacity and productivity of soil and many researchers have now focused on utilizing this phenomenon to create fertile, carbon-rich soils, called Terra Preta Nova. Although the highly adsorptive nature of biochar is well characterized, the potential for using biochar in environmental cleanup efforts is relatively unexplored. Dairy waste is a source of significant water pollution because it introduces excess nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates into the soil and water system. Since many soils have limited capacity to retain nitrate and phosphate, especially for long periods of time, the utility of dairy waste manure to enhance soil fertility and nutrient availability to plants is limited. Here, we present results from a project that we started to determine the potential of biochar to recover the excess nutrients from dairy flushed manure. In this initial study, a commercially available biochar amendment was ground and used in a batch sorption experiment with the dairy flushed manure from a local dairy in Merced, California. Four manure dilutions viz. 10, 25, 50 and 100%, and three shaking times, viz. 1, 12 and 24 hours were used for this study. We then calculated the amount of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate adsorbed by the biochar using differences in nutrient concentrations before and after the sorption experiment. Biochar showed significant capacity of adsorbing these nutrients, suggesting a potential for controlling the dairy pollution. The resulting enriched biochar can potentially act as a slow release fertilizer and enhance soil productivity as well as increasing the long-term carbon sequestration potential of soils. We are currently initiating further research to determine the desorption potenial of the biochar sorbed nutrients in soil.

Sarkhot, D.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

2009-12-01

180

Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

1999-01-01

181

Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.  

PubMed

Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm. PMID:15974265

Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

2005-05-01

182

Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow  

SciTech Connect

The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%).

Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1990-06-01

183

Global nutrients data synthesis based on Reference Material of Nutrients of Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic distributions of nitrate, phosphate and silicate and inventories of them in the world's ocean are basic issues of geochemical study of nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon cycles as well as tracer use of nutrients for deep ocean circulation. WOA09 and WGHC were global hydrographic datasets created by objective analysis and offset correction/objective analysis, respectively. However synthesis using mathematics methods and experience could get apparent global comparability but does not have a firm foundation, therefore accuracy is unknown for nutrients data in WOA05/09 and WGHC. Recently hydrographic dataset such as CARINA and PACIFICA were also created by synthesis. We did global synthesis work based on Reference Material of Nutrients in Seawater (RMNS) for WOCE/CLIVAR cruises datasets, WGHC datasets and some new hydrographic cruises which cover the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Among 69982 profiles in 5174 cruises, we could put correction factors of nutrients concentration for 14491 profiles in 268 cruises for nitrate, 18378 profiles in 412 cruises for phosphate and 15825 profiles in 268 cruises for silicate. Global Nutrients Dataset 2010, GND10, is newly created as 0.5 deg. × 0.5 deg. and 50 m interval of 138 levels gridded dataset based on corrected nutrients profiles described above. One feature of GND10 is that nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in deep waters in WOA dataset showed a peak at 14.6 while nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in GND10 showed a peak at 14.3 and kurtosis of frequency distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio is larger in GND10 dataset rather than that in WOA dataset. A reason of larger kurtosis of distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio might be that comparability of nitrate and phosphate concentration data was improved. Newly created GND10 can provide more realistic distribution of nutrients in the world ocean because comparability of nutrients concentration in GND10 is improved based on RMNS. The GND10 would be useful to study changes in the distribution of concentrations of nutrients in the world ocean and also useful as new initial conditions for modelers who studies global changes. Carbonate system data and oxygen data will be merged with factor corrected nutrients data to study coupling of carbonate system and nutrients cycles, too.

Aoyama, Michio; Murata, Akihiko; Nishino, Shigeto

2013-04-01

184

Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.  

PubMed

Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein percentages in ration formulation models. PMID:24035027

Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

2013-11-01

185

Version 2.1 January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet  

E-print Network

balance sheet must be developed using soil test results for the next manure application. #12;Version 2Version 2.1 ­ January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet Prepared For Operator's Name Operator's Address _________________________________ County of Origin _____________________________________ Nutrient Balance Worksheet Appendices

Kaye, Jason P.

186

NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN RELATION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY OF RIVERINE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Variation in water depth and soil properties associated with geomorphic structures can affect riverine wetland nutrient dynamics by altering biogeochemical processes. We examined the seasonal influence of soils and geomorphology on nutrient forms and concentrations in riverine we...

187

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program Technical Manual January 2013 Appendix 7 Stormwater. Specific fields include: HF1, HF4, HF7, HF9 and HFP1." #12;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program

Guiltinan, Mark

188

ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

189

Alternate bearing influences annual nutrient consumption and the total nutrient content of mature pistachio trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of alternate bearing on nutrient utilization and total tree nutrient content was investigated in mature pistachio\\u000a (Pistacia vera L. cv Kerman trees). Removal of N, P and Zn in fruit and abscised leaves of cropping (‘on’) trees averaged 5, 6, and 2 times,\\u000a respectively, the removal in abscised leaflets of the non-fruiting, ‘off’ year trees. One hundred and

Patrick H. Brown; Steven A. Weinbaum; Geno A. Picchioni

1995-01-01

190

Degrading uplands in the rainforest region of Madagascar: Fallow biomass, nutrient stocks, and soil nutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility restoration depends on natural fallows in the slash-and-burn system of eastern Madagascar. In the Beforona-Vohidrazana\\u000a study zone, none of the fallow species are able to withstand the slashing, burning and cropping frequencies of 3–5 years.\\u000a Eventually soils are abandoned for agriculture. Along the degradation sequence, this study quantifies fallow biomass, nutrient\\u000a stocks and soil nutrient availability of four dominant

Erika Styger; Erick C. M. Fernandes; Harivelo M. Rakotondramasy; Eric Rajaobelinirina

2009-01-01

191

Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system.  

PubMed

The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively. PMID:25176308

Wang, Yi; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Pei, Li-Ying; Ke, Li; Peng, Dang-Cong; Xia, Si-Qing

2014-01-01

192

Modeling the Water and Nutrient Freshwater Aquaculture in Thailand  

E-print Network

Modeling the Water and Nutrient Flows of Freshwater Aquaculture in Thailand A Material Flow Annex 66 #12;Modeling the nutrient flows of freshwater aquaculture in Thailand I. Wittmer 1 1 Abstract aquaculture was identified to be one of the pollution sources. This study looks at nutrient loads coming from

Richner, Heinz

193

The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for

U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Møller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; S. Salvini; L. Serra-Majem; G. Skeie; W. van Staveren; I. Unwin; S. Westenbrink; N. Slimani; E. Ribol

2002-01-01

194

The USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: update 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was designed in 1997 to develop robust and nationally representative estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's National Nutrient Databank. The underlying aims defining the process behind the NFNAP are: (1)

P. R. Pehrsson; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden

2003-01-01

195

USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Food Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) is designed to develop robust estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Databank. The program objectives are: (1) evaluation of existing data; (2) identification of Key Foods and

P. R. Pehrsson; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden; C. R. Perry; D. G. Beckler

2000-01-01

196

Maternal nutrient metabolism and requirements in pregnancy and lactation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes how the additional nutrient requirements of the mother and her fetus during pregnancy are met by a combination of physiological events that affect maternal nutrient utilization and fetal nutrient transfer, and increased dietary intakes. The physiological changes complicate the...

197

Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on aquatic…

Brothers, Chris; And Others

198

Dissolved organic matter and nutrients in two Eastern Mediterranean rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of both inorganic and organic riverine nutrient fluxes in regulating the autotrophy vs eterotrophy in coastal seas is well recognized. Eastern Mediterranean rivers have been studied for the most part, for their inorganic nutrient fluxes, whereas little information is available for their organic nutrient content. This study presents new data on dissolved organic matter composition for two permanent

Elli Pitta; Christina Zeri; Maria Tzortziou; Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis; Vassiliki Paraskevopoulou; Emanouil Dassenakis

2010-01-01

199

Nutrient uptake and benthic regeneration in Danube Delta Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the nutrient uptake capacity of three lakes (Uzlina, Matita and Rosu) within the Danube Delta during high water level in June and low water level in September 1999. Special emphasis was placed on nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface and on the self-purification capacity of the lakes in the Danube Delta. In order to estimate the nutrient uptake

Jana Friedrich; Christian Dinkel; Erwin Grieder; Silviu Radan; Dan Secrieru; Sandra Steingruber; Bernhard Wehrli

2003-01-01

200

Nutrient Cycling in a Natural Stand of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied nutrient cycling within a natural monospecific stand of Typha angustifolia along the shoreline of Lake Teganuma, a shallow eutrophic lake northeast of Tokyo. Seasonal patterns of biomass and nutrient concentrations in the above- and belowground plant parts were observed over a period of two years, and nutrients released from the dead plants into the water environment were estimated

Pratima Sharma; Takashi Asaeda; Jagath Manatunge; Takeshi Fujino

2006-01-01

201

Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

2013-01-01

202

Nutrient Input into the Caspian Sea with River Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term observational data are used to compare and analyze time and space variations in the concentrations of nutrients in the water of major rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea and assess the nutrients runoff into the sea. Annual variations in the normal monthly values of river runoff and nutrient compound concentrations and input into the sea are considered (18 compounds

A. V. Leonov; N. A. Nazarov

2001-01-01

203

Artificial Soil With Build-In Plant Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrients contained in sandlike material. Artificial soil provides nutrients to plants during several growing seasons without need to add fertilizer or nutrient solution. When watered, artificial soil slowly releases all materials a plant needs to grow. Developed as medium for growing crops in space. Also used to grow plants on Earth under controlled conditions or even to augment natural soil.

Ming, Douglas W.; Allen, Earl; Henninger, Donald; Golden, D. C.

1995-01-01

204

Land Cover - Nutrient Export Relationships in Space and Time  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between watershed land-cover composition and nutrient export has been well established through several meta-analyses. The meta-analyses reveal that nutrient loads from watersheds dominated by natural vegetation tend to be lower than nutrient loads from watershed...

205

CH4 emissions from two floodplain fens of differing nutrient status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain fens emit large amounts of CH4 in comparison with ombrotrophic bogs. Little is known about the effect of fluvial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on CH4 dynamics in fens, although N and P affect carbon (C) dynamics indirectly in other environments by controlling plant growth and root exudate release, as well as by altering microbial biomass and decomposition rates. This study aimed to compare CH4 emissions from two floodplain fen sites which differ in nutrient status, Sutton Fen (52°45'N 001°30'E) and Strumpshaw Fen (52°36'N 001°27'E), in the Norfolk Broadland of England. Sutton and Strumpshaw Fen are under conservation management and both sites have water levels that vary within a few decimetres above and below the surface. The sites are dominated by reed (Phragmites australis). Areas within the fens where the reed was cut in 2009 were chosen for this study. Average plant height and mean aboveground biomass were significantly greater at Strumpshaw (107.2 ± 7.8 cm and 1578 ± 169 g m-2, respectively) than Sutton (56.5 ± 5.1 cm and 435 ± 42 g m-2) as were mean foliar N and P contents (21.8 ± 1.5 g kg-1 and 2.0 ± 0.2 g kg-1 at Strumpshaw, versus 16.3 ± 1.5 g kg-1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 g kg-1 at Sutton). Foliar NPK ratios showed Strumpshaw to be N limited, whereas Sutton was both N and P limited, depending on microsite. Surface peat N and P contents were also greater at Strumpshaw (28.3 ± 0.35 g kg-1 and 0.78 ± 0.02 g kg-1, respectively) than Sutton (18.32 ± 0.87 g kg-1 and 0.43 ± 0.1 g kg-1). These results indicate clear differences in nutrient status between the two sites despite their geographical proximity and other similarities. CH4 emissions were monitored monthly between 19th June 2012 and 2nd September 2013 using tall static chambers and glass funnel-traps, the latter for ebullition. Steady fluxes did not follow a clear seasonal pattern; however, emission was greatest in the summer months. Strumpshaw had a greater range in efflux (0.25 to 134.2 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) than Sutton (0.17 to 29.82 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Ebullition was generally greater at Sutton throughout the study period, with rates ranging from 0 to 62.09 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 and 0 to 19.30 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for Sutton and Strumpshaw, respectively. Fluxes were generally within the range of values reported in the literature for ebullition (0 to 466 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) and steady fluxes (0 to 76.83 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Results show the importance of floodplain fens for CH4 emission, and more research needs to be undertaken to fully understand the factors controlling CH4 fluxes from these systems.

Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

2014-05-01

206

Nutrient minimisation in the pulp and paper industry: an overview.  

PubMed

This paper reviews nutrient issues within the pulp and paper industry summarising: nitrogen and phosphorus cycles within treatment systems; sources of nutrients within pulping and papermaking processes; minimising nutrient discharge; new approaches to nutrient minimisation; and the impact of nutrients in the environment. Pulp and paper industry wastewaters generally contain insufficient nitrogen and phosphorus to satisfy bacterial growth requirements. Nutrient limitation has been linked to operational problems such as sludge bulking and poor solids separation. Nutrients have been added in conventional wastewater treatment processes to ensure optimum treatment performance. Minimising the discharge of total nitrogen and phosphorus from a nutrient limited wastewater requires both optimised nutrient supplementation and effective removal of suspended solids from the treated wastewater. In an efficiently operated wastewater treatment system, the majority of the discharged nutrients are contained within the biomass. Effective solids separation then becomes the controlling step, and optimisation of secondary clarification is crucial. Conventional practice is being challenged by the regulatory requirement to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus discharge. Two recent developments in pulp and paper wastewater treatment technologies can produce discharges low in nitrogen and phosphorus whilst operating under conventionally nutrient limited conditions: i) the nutrient limited BAS process (Biofilm-Activated Sludge) which combines biofilm and activated sludge technologies under nutrient limited conditions and ii) an activated sludge process based on the use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Aerated stabilisation basins often operate without nutrient addition, relying on settled biomass in the benthal zone feeding back soluble nutrients, or the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Thus effective nutrient minimisation strategies require a more detailed understanding of nutrient cycling and utilisation. Where it is not possible to meet discharge constraints with biological treatment alone, a tertiary treatment step may be required. In setting nutrient control guidelines, consideration should be given to the nutrient limitations of the receiving environment, including other cumulative nutrient impacts on that environment. Whether an ecosystem is N or P limited should be integrated with wastewater treatment considerations in the further design and development of treatment technology and regulatory guidelines. End-of-pipe legislation alone cannot predict environmental effects related to nutrients and must be supplemented by an effects-based approach. PMID:15461405

Slade, A H; Ellis, R J; vanden Heuvel, M; Stuthridge, T R

2004-01-01

207

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2014 Supplement 3 Nutrient Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act (NMA) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) programs to meet be downloaded from the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http

Guiltinan, Mark

208

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 18 Nutrient Management Resource List ­ Page 1 Supplement 18 Nutrient Management Resource List The Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Program Website. The program website (http

Guiltinan, Mark

209

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 3 Nutrient Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Act (NMA) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) programs to meet be downloaded from the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http

Guiltinan, Mark

210

Nutrient Management Specialist or Broker Signature The following appendices need to accompany the Nutrient Balance Worksheets if applicable  

E-print Network

Nutrient balances for P2O5 and K2O are based Soil Test Recommendations. Fields 4 ­ 8 have a 150' manure the Nutrient Balance Worksheets if applicable: · Maps of fields where manure is to applied including manure application setbacks. Nutrient Balance Sheets Prepared for 717-299-5691 273 Centerville Road, Lancaster, PA

Guiltinan, Mark

211

Growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency in tropical tree species planted in degraded areas in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of initial tree seedling establishment is related to the capture and use of primary resources such as light and nutrients. The selection of tree species with a greater potential to assimilate carbon and capacity to efficiently utilize nutrients and light would facilitate the revegetation of degraded areas, primarily where irradiance is high and soil nutrient availability low. We

Ulysses Moreira dos Santos Jr.; José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves; Ted R. Feldpausch

2006-01-01

212

Simultaneous high-biomass protein production and nutrient removal using Spirulina maxima in sea water supplemented with anaerobic effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum protein accumulation (71%, w\\/w) and nutrient removal by a mutant strain of Spirulina maxima growing on sea water supplemented with anaerobically treated pig slurry was achieved at 30°C with constant illumination (60 to 70 µEm-2s-1), using a flow rate of 14.5 cm s-1 (20 rev. min-1 of a paddle wheel). Total phosphates were decreased by 99% and all ammonia-N

E. J. Olguín; B. Hernández; A. Araus; R. Camacho; R. González; M. E. Ramírez; S. Galicia; G. Mercado

1994-01-01

213

Nutrient detection by incretin hormone secreting cells  

PubMed Central

The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted after a meal. Like other enteroendocrine hormones they help to orchestrate the bodies' response to the availability of newly absorbable nutrients and are noteworthy as they stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, underlying what is known as the incretin effect. GLP-1-mimetics are now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and advantages over older insulinotropic therapies include weight loss. An alternative treatment regime might be the recruitment of endogenous GLP-1, however, very little is known about the physiological control of enteroendocrine responses. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms to detect nutrient arrival in the gut that have been implicated within the incretin secreting cells. PMID:22182802

Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

2012-01-01

214

Nutrient Sensing and the Circadian Clock  

PubMed Central

The circadian system synchronizes behavioral and physiologic processes with daily changes in the external light-dark cycle, optimizing energetic cycles with the rising and setting of the sun. Molecular clocks are organized hierarchically, with neural clocks orchestrating the daily switch between periods of feeding and fasting, and peripheral clocks generating 24hr oscillations of energy storage and utilization. Recent studies indicate that clocks respond to nutrient signals, and that high-fat diet influences the period of locomotor activity under free-running conditions, a core property of the clock. A major goal is to identify the molecular basis for the reciprocal relationship between metabolic and circadian pathways. Here, we highlight the role of peptidergic hormones and macromolecules as nutrient signals integrating circadian and metabolic systems. PMID:22424658

Peek, Clara B.; Ramsey, Kathryn M.; Marcheva, Biliana; Bass, Joseph

2012-01-01

215

Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).  

PubMed

The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123

Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

2007-03-01

216

Chasing Nutrients with an Arctic Sedge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has put the Arctic into a state of flux. Understanding the effects an altered climate will have on vegetation and nutrient cycling requires more knowledge of the key plant and soil functions of major arctic ecosystems. One of these ecosystems, moist acidic tussock tundra, is dominated by a single plant species, the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. This plant has unusual underground biomass: long, fast-growing, non-branching, non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast to many other plants in nutrient-limiting environments, this sedge is highly successful without maximizing its root surface area to volume ratio. The benefits of this growth strategy to the plants and its effects on the accompanying soil-microbe-plant relationships are not fully understood. One possibility is that the roots may help the plant take advantage of nutrients released into the active layer of soil as it thaws in the spring. The roots may also stimulate microbial activity, increasing nutrient turnover and availability. A study was undertaken to explore the nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) dynamics in these plants, as well as the microbial populations associated with active E. vaginatum roots. Intact tussock microcosms (plant and accompanying soil) were removed from the tundra and cultivated in transparent boxes. Half the plants were kept in light to encourage photosynthesis (and thus greater plant activity), while the other half was kept in the dark to inhibit it. Using a 15N isotopic tracer injected at the extremity of root penetration into the soil, the N uptake capacity of E. vaginatum roots at depth was explored. This uptake capacity is compared to measures of plant activity, microbial activity, and soil solution chemistry in order to paint a clearer picture of the role of E. vaginatum in the soil ecosystem.

Iverson, S. L.; Schimel, J.

2013-12-01

217

Seasonal sediment and nutrient transport patterns.  

PubMed

It is essential to understand sediment and nutrient sources and their spatial and temporal patterns to design effective mitigation strategies. However, long-term data sets to determine sediment and nutrient loadings are scarce and expensive to collect. The goal of this study was to determine seasonal patterns of suspended sediment (SS), total N (TN), and total P (TP) concentrations and loadings for three USGS gauge sites located at the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed (FCREW) located in southwestern Oklahoma. Measured instantaneous discharge, SS, TN, and TP concentration data were used to develop lognormal water quality-discharge relationships. The water quality-discharge relationships were used to generate estimated seasonal concentrations and loads based on hourly or 30-min interval discharge. The estimated concentrations and loads were used to determine seasonal patterns for SS, TN, and TP relative to the respective state water quality criteria. Decreasing and increasing monotonic trends were observed for the seasonal time series loads for all three sites, but they were insignificant based on the Spearman test (? = 0.05). The largest loads were estimated during the wet springs and summers. The study SS, TN, and TP target concentrations were exceeded in one season or another. The study results showed that the priority locations to implement the TN and TP conservation practices were the Lake Creek and Willow Creek subwatersheds during the winter and spring seasons. Common practices to mitigate nutrients and suspended sediments include nutrient management, no-till, conversion of cultivated land to pasture, riparian buffers, and animal exclusion. PMID:25603081

Moriasi, D N; Guzman, J A; Steiner, J L; Starks, P J; Garbrecht, J D

2014-07-01

218

Parasitic plants—impacts on nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst it is widely accepted that different plant species influence ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, we are still\\u000a far from understanding and predicting the effects of changes in vegetation composition on biogeochemical cycles. Ameloot E,\\u000a Verlinden G, Boeckx P, Verheyen K, Hermy M. Impact of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus angustifolius and Rhinanthus minor on nitrogen availability in grassland (this issue) examine,

Helen M. Quested

2008-01-01

219

Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

220

Appropriate nutrient supplementation in celiac disease.  

PubMed

Reduced levels of iron, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and magnesium are common in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients probably due to loss of brush border proteins and enzymes needed for the absorption of these nutrients. In the majority of patients, removal of gluten from the diet leads to histological recovery and normalization of iron, vitamin, and mineral levels. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common extra-intestinal sign of CD and usually resolves with adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, deficiencies of both folate and vitamin B12 may persist in some patients on a gluten-free diet, thus requiring vitamin supplementation to improve subjective health status. Similarly, exclusion of gluten from the diet does not always normalize bone mineral density; in these cases, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium is recommended. Resolution of mucosal inflammation may not be sufficient to abrogate magnesium deficiency. Since gluten-free cereal products have a lower magnesium content as compared with gluten-containing counterparts, a magnesium-enriched diet should be encouraged in CD patients. In this article we discuss the frequency and clinical relevance of nutrient deficiency in CD and whether and when nutrient supplementation is needed. PMID:24195595

Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Stasi, Elisa; Romeo, Samanta; Monteleone, Giovanni

2013-12-01

221

Bile acids are nutrient signaling hormones.  

PubMed

Bile salts play crucial roles in allowing the gastrointestinal system to digest, transport and metabolize nutrients. They function as nutrient signaling hormones by activating specific nuclear receptors (FXR, PXR, Vitamin D) and G-protein coupled receptors [TGR5, sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2), muscarinic receptors]. Bile acids and insulin appear to collaborate in regulating the metabolism of nutrients in the liver. They both activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Bile acid induction of the FXR-? target gene, small heterodimer partner (SHP), is highly dependent on the activation PKC?, a branch of the insulin signaling pathway. SHP is an important regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver. One might hypothesize that chronic low grade inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance, may inhibit bile acid signaling and disrupt lipid metabolism. The disruption of these signaling pathways may increase the risk of fatty liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Finally, conjugated bile acids appear to promote cholangiocarcinoma growth via the activation of S1PR2. PMID:24819989

Zhou, Huiping; Hylemon, Phillip B

2014-08-01

222

Noninvasive detection of plant nutrient stress using fiber optic spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper, we described the use of fiber optic spectrophotometry as a non-destructive and sensitive method to detect early symptoms of plant nutrient deficiency. We report further developments of our work on Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey) showing reproducibility of our data collected at a different seasonal period. Plants at the mid-log growth phase were subjected to nutrient stress by transferring them to nitrate- and calcium- deficient nutrient solution in a standing aerated hydroponic system. After tracking changes in leaf reflectance by FOSpectr for nine days, the plants were returned to complete nutrient solution and their recovery was monitored for a further nine days. The responses of nutrient stressed plants were compared with those grown under complete nutrient solution over the 18-day trial period. We also compared the sensitivity of FOSpectr detection against plant growth measurements vis-a-vis average leaf number and leaf width and show that the former method gave an indication of nutrient stress much earlier than the latter. In addition, this work indicated that while normal and nutrient-stressed plants could not be distinguished within the first 7 days by tracking plant growth indicators, stressed plants did show a clear decline in average leaf number and leaf width in later stages of growth even after the plants were returned to complete nutrient solution. The results further reinforce the need for early detection of nutrient stress, as late remedial action could not reverse the loss in plant growth in later stages of plant development.

Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.; Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.

2001-05-01

223

Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

1998-07-01

224

Optimizing Nutrient Uptake in Biological Transport Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological systems employ complex networks of vascular tubes to facilitate transport of solute nutrients, examples include the vascular system of plants (phloem), some fungi, and the slime-mold Physarum. It is believed that such networks are optimized through evolution for carrying out their designated task. We propose a set of hydrodynamic governing equations for solute transport in a complex network, and obtain the optimal network architecture for various classes of optimizing functionals. We finally discuss the topological properties and statistical mechanics of the resulting complex networks, and examine correspondence of the obtained networks to those found in actual biological systems.

Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

2013-03-01

225

Water logging may inhibit plant growth primarily by nutrient deficiency rather than nutrient toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our experiments was to investigate whether nutrient deficiency or toxicity is the cause for growth inhi - bition of wheat and barley in waterlogged soils. Experiments using two soils (top and subsoil) differing largely in various characteristics revealed a growth inhibition of wheat and barley in the case of subsoil due to water logging, without Fe or

D. Steffens; B. W. Hütsch; T. Eschholz; T. Lošák; S. Schubert; Justus Liebig

2005-01-01

226

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a

J. D. McKeehen; C. A. Mitchell; R. M. Wheeler; B. Bugbee; S. S. Nielsen

1996-01-01

227

Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse.  

PubMed

Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (?max ) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax ) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption. PMID:24551144

Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

2014-01-01

228

Effects of light on sediment nutrient flux and water column nutrient stoichiometry in a shallow lake.  

PubMed

The effects of light and temperature on nutrient cycling (silica (Si), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) between sediments and water in a shallow eutrophic lake (Loch Leven, Scotland), and consequent effects on water column nutrient stoichiometry, were assessed using a series of intact sediment core incubation experiments. Estimates of actual seasonal dark and light P-fluxes were assessed using 24-h incubations. Sediment-P uptake was observed in spring (7 degrees C) and release in autumn (12 degrees C) and summer (17 degrees C), with the highest release rates ( approximately 17 mgPO4-Pm(-2) sediment surface area d(-1)) occurring in summer. In a longer (21-day) experiment in which the effects of light (light (n=6) and dark (n=6)) and temperature (five 4-day cycles to represent: 7 degrees C-->13 degrees C-->23 degrees C-->13 degrees C-->7 degrees C) on water column nutrient concentrations were assessed, PO(4-)-P, total P (TP), SiO2 and total silica (TSi) concentrations in the water column were all significantly higher under dark conditions (ANOVA, alpha=0.05). NH4-N (ammonium N) water column concentrations were observed to be higher under dark conditions at low temperatures and higher under light conditions following a high-temperature (23 degrees C) treatment. No significant light effects were observed for water column total N (TN) concentration. Flux estimates for all nutrients measured are given. In terms of water column nutrient stoichiometry, TN:TP ratio was significantly higher under light conditions, TSi:TN was significantly lower under light conditions, and TSi:TP did not vary significantly between the dark and light treatments. The main processes acting to regulate diffusive nutrient release appeared to be photosynthetic elevation of bottom water pH and dissolved oxygen concentration (both significantly higher under light conditions) and direct microalgal sequestration. Thus, a feedback mechanism exists in recovering shallow lakes where benthic microalgae can affect the stoichiometry (to favour P/Si limitation) of the plankton, and also of the main source of nutrients back to the sediments via the disproportionate regulation of sediment P, Si and N release. PMID:17923145

Spears, Bryan M; Carvalho, Laurence; Perkins, Rupert; Paterson, David M

2008-02-01

229

The Diverse Nutrient Strategies of Harmful Algae: Focus on Osmotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic forms of nutrients originate from various sources, natural and anthropogenic. Organic nutrients are, in turn, used\\u000a by many HAB species that have multiple acquisition mechanisms. The strategies for nutrient and carbon acquisition by HABs\\u000a are thus far more complex than were thought a decade or two ago. With the application of the host of methods now available\\u000a to characterize

P. M. Glibert; C. Legrand

230

Organic matter stability and nutrient availability in Taupo Pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils derived from rhyolitic Taupo pumice when under permanent pasture accumulate organically bound nutrients in the top soil to a high degree. The available nutrient supply is thereby reduced.Respirometry studies show that this accumulation is not due to a reduced microbial activity resulting from a deficiency of a major or minor nutrient element.Raising the pH increases the microbial activity of

R. H. Jackman

1960-01-01

231

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

232

Nutrient supply and intervertebral disc metabolism.  

PubMed

The metabolic environment of disc cells is governed by the avascular nature of the tissue. Because cellular energy metabolism occurs mainly through glycolysis, the disc cells require glucose for survival and produce lactic acid at high rates. Oxygen is also necessary for cellular activity, although not for survival; its pathway of utilization is unclear. Because the tissues are avascular, disc cells depend on the blood supply at the margins of the discs for their nutrients. The nucleus and inner anulus of the disc are supplied by capillaries that arise in the vertebral bodies, penetrate the subchondral bone, and terminate at the bone-disc junction. Small molecules such as glucose and oxygen then reach the cells by diffusion under gradients established by the balance between the rate of transport through the tissue to the cells and the rate of cellular demand. Metabolites such as lactic acid are removed by the reverse pathway. The concentrations of nutrients farthest from the source of supply can thus be low; oxygen concentrations as low as 1% have been measured in the discs of healthy animals. Although gradients cannot be measured easily in humans, they can be calculated. Measured concentrations in surgical patients are in agreement with calculated values. PMID:16595440

Grunhagen, Thijs; Wilde, Geoffrey; Soukane, Dahbia Mokhbi; Shirazi-Adl, Saeed A; Urban, Jill P G

2006-04-01

233

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIETARY NUTRIENT INTAKE IN ESRD  

PubMed Central

Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) including those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study interrelationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research. PMID:20557492

Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Shinaberger, Christian S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2010-01-01

234

Nutrient Enrichment Drives Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known “dead zones” proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007].

Boesch, Donald F.; Boynton, Walter R.; Crowder, Larry B.; Diaz, Robert J.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mee, Laurence D.; Nixon, Scott W.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Rosenberg, Rutger; Sanders, James G.; Scavia, Donald; Turner, R. Eugene

2009-04-01

235

High fertigation frequency: the effects on uptake of nutrients, water and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present research was to explore the effects of combined irrigation and fertilization (fertigation) frequency on growth, yield and uptake of water and nutritional elements by plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. Iceberg) was used as the model plant. Two experiments were conducted in a screen-house: compound fertilizer at a constant N:P:K ratio at different concentrations was

A. Silber; G. Xu; I. Levkovitch; S. Soriano; A. Bilu; R. Wallach

2003-01-01

236

The Plant Ionome Revisited by the Nutrient Balance Concept  

PubMed Central

Tissue analysis is commonly used in ecology and agronomy to portray plant nutrient signatures. Nutrient concentration data, or ionomes, belong to the compositional data class, i.e., multivariate data that are proportions of some whole, hence carrying important numerical properties. Statistics computed across raw or ordinary log-transformed nutrient data are intrinsically biased, hence possibly leading to wrong inferences. Our objective was to present a sound and robust approach based on a novel nutrient balance concept to classify plant ionomes. We analyzed leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg of two wild and six domesticated fruit species from Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand sampled during reproductive stages. Nutrient concentrations were (1) analyzed without transformation, (2) ordinary log-transformed as commonly but incorrectly applied in practice, (3) additive log-ratio (alr) transformed as surrogate to stoichiometric rules, and (4) converted to isometric log-ratios (ilr) arranged as sound nutrient balance variables. Raw concentration and ordinary log transformation both led to biased multivariate analysis due to redundancy between interacting nutrients. The alr- and ilr-transformed data provided unbiased discriminant analyses of plant ionomes, where wild and domesticated species formed distinct groups and the ionomes of species and cultivars were differentiated without numerical bias. The ilr nutrient balance concept is preferable to alr, because the ilr technique projects the most important interactions between nutrients into a convenient Euclidean space. This novel numerical approach allows rectifying historical biases and supervising phenotypic plasticity in plant nutrition studies. PMID:23526060

Parent, Serge-Étienne; Parent, Léon Etienne; Egozcue, Juan José; Rozane, Danilo-Eduardo; Hernandes, Amanda; Lapointe, Line; Hébert-Gentile, Valérie; Naess, Kristine; Marchand, Sébastien; Lafond, Jean; Mattos, Dirceu; Barlow, Philip; Natale, William

2013-01-01

237

Lateral diffusion of nutrients by mammalian herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

2013-01-01

238

Dynamics of inorganic nutrient species in the Bohai seawaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of a Sino-German Joint Research Program, two cruises of "R/V Dong Fang Hong 2" were carried out in September-October 1998 and April-May 1999, respectively, to understand the dynamics of nutrients in the Bohai. Nutrient species (NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, PO 43- and SiO 32-) are determined colorimetrically on board for five anchor and 30 grid stations. In situ incubation experiments are performed to determine planktonic nutrient uptake and benthic exchange flux. Nutrient concentrations display short-term variability and seasonal change in the Bohai, with higher levels in shallow coastal waters than in the Central Bohai. The influence of riverine discharge on nutrient levels can be seen from salinity isopleths, nutrient distribution and species ratios. Near-bottom (nb) waters have similar nutrient concentrations as to the surface waters in the Central Bohai, whereas stratification takes place in the Bohai Strait and North Yellow Sea. In situ incubation experiments provide evidence that the uptake ratio (i.e. N, P) by phytoplankton is proportional to the ratios among nutrient species in ambient waters. Based on the data of this study and previously publications, a preliminary estimate of nutrient budgets via riverine input and atmospheric deposition is established. The results indicate that atmospheric deposition gains importance over rivers in delivering nutrients into the Bohai and sustain the new production, following recent decrease in riverine inflow caused by drought periods in North China and damming practices. A historical review of nutrient data indicates that concentrations of nitrogen increase and phosphorus and silica decrease in the Central Bohai over last 40 years. This potentially has an important influence on the health of ecosystem in Bohai (e.g. food web and community structure), though further study is needed to examine the scenario in more detail.

Zhang, J.; Yu, Z. G.; Raabe, T.; Liu, S. M.; Starke, A.; Zou, L.; Gao, H. W.; Brockmann, U.

2004-02-01

239

Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model  

SciTech Connect

A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

1981-12-01

240

Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health  

PubMed Central

Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. There is a significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common genetic polymorphisms. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis and possibly neurological disorders. Choline is found in a wide variety of foods. Egg yolks are the most concentrated source of choline in the American diet, providing 680 milligrams per 100 grams. Mean choline intakes for older children, men, women and pregnant women are far below the Adequate Intake established by the IOM. Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less than optimal intakes among the population, dietary guidance should be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods. PMID:19906248

da Costa, Kerry-Ann

2009-01-01

241

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

242

Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various…

Goodman, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

243

Aggregation methods in food chains with nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the study of food chain models under batch and chemostat conditions where nutrient recycling is taken into account. The food chain is formed by a nutrient and two populations, prey and predator (producers and consumers). Species at both trophic levels digest their food source only partly. The unusable part of the food is ejected in

B. W. Kooi; J. C. Poggiale; P. Auger; S. A. L. M. Kooijman

2002-01-01

244

CHELATOR EDTA IN NUTRIENT SOLUTION DECREASES GROWTH OF WHEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelators have routinely been used to supply iron (Fe) in the nutrient solutions for growing plants. However, potential toxicity of these chelators to plants has not been assessed hitherto. In this study, wheat was grown in the presence or absence of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the nutrient solution (with Fe supplied to plants as a foliar spray of Fe citrate).

Z. Rengel

2002-01-01

245

Comparison of the mineral composition of twelve standard nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, a large number of standard nutrient solutions has been devised. To investigate if there is an essential difference between these standard solutions, the mineral composition of 12 standard nutrient solutions formulated between 1865 and 1994 are compared with each other. Half of these standard solutions contain ammonium (NH4 ) in a millimolar range. The effect of elemental

G. De Rijck; E. Schrevens

1998-01-01

246

November 2006 Issue #2 2006 TILLAGE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT STRATIFICATION  

E-print Network

. Because P, K, and to some extent soil pH are immobile in soils nutrient and pH stratification will develop that long-term no-till fields should also be sampled at the 0- to 2- inch depth for soil pH. Tillage ____________________________________________________________________________________ TILLAGE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT STRATIFICATION AND SOIL TEST RECOMMENDATIONS Dick Wolkowski 1/ Soil testing

Balser, Teri C.

247

THE REVISED USDA NUTRIENT DATA SET FOR FRESH PORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient composition data for fresh pork products in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) have not been updated since 1991. Since that time, changes in animal husbandry practices and industry procedures have led to the availability of leaner cuts. In order to provide up-to...

248

Development of Sampling Strategies for Foods to Determine Nutrient Values  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National nutrient databases rely, in part, on the generation of original analytical data to estimate nutrient values for commonly consumed foods. The generation of representative analytical values for nutritional components requires the development of a sampling plan which includes both the demograp...

249

Can ectomycorrhizal weathering activity respond to host nutrient demands?  

E-print Network

Review Can ectomycorrhizal weathering activity respond to host nutrient demands? Nicholas P weathering Nutrient demand a b s t r a c t Ectomycorrhizal fungi may make a significant contribution to mineral weathering in temperate and boreal forests. It is important to know how this weathering activity

Bruns, Tom

250

Aquaculture pond fertilization impacts of nutrient input on production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ponds are a primary production system to a wide variety of freshwater fish species. Each species have specific and unique nutrient needs and successful pond fertilization is critical to a successful aquaculture enterprise. Aquaculture Pond Fertilization: Impacts of Nutrient Input on Production pro...

251

Biotechnology of nutrient uptake and assimilation in plants.  

PubMed

Plants require a complex balance of mineral nutrients to reproduce successfully. Because the availability of many of these nutrients in the soil is compromised by several factors, such as soil pH, cation presence, and microbial activity, crop plants depend directly on nutrients applied as fertilizers to achieve high yields. However, the excessive use of fertilizers is a major environmental concern due to nutrient leaching that causes water eutrophication and promotes toxic algae blooms. This situation generates the urgent need for crop plants with increased nutrient use efficiency and better-designed fertilization schemes. The plant biology revolution triggered by the development of efficient gene transfer systems for plant cells together with the more recent development of next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing and other omics platforms have advanced considerably our understanding on the molecular basis of plant nutrition and how plants respond to nutritional stress. To date, genes encoding sensors, transcription factors, transporters, and metabolic enzymes have been identified as potential candidates to improve nutrient use efficiency. In addition, the study of other genetic resources, such as bacteria and fungi, allows the identification of alternative mechanisms of nutrient assimilation, which are potentially applicable in plants. Although significant progress in this respect has been achieved by conventional breeding, in this review we focus on the biotechnological approaches reported to date aimed at boosting the use of the three most limiting nutrients in the majority of arable lands: nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. PMID:24166442

López-Arredondo, Damar L; Leyva-González, Marco A; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2013-01-01

252

Nutrient Composition in Ground Pork using Regression Techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New data on nutrient composition of ground pork products available in the US retail market were needed to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and to support nutritional intake studies of the population. A collaborative study was conducted to determine the mathemati...

253

The Importance of Marine Nutrient Subsidies in Mountainous Riparian Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to blockage of fish passage in the Columbia River Basin migration of anadromous fish from the Pacific Ocean would have brought with it large stores of marine derived nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) to central Idaho, USA. In a region dominated by nutrient poor soils and complex topography, anadromous fish may have been a primary nutrient input to riparian

T. Wheeler; K. Kavanagh; A. J. Noble Stuen

2010-01-01

254

Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

255

Phytoplankton nutrient limitation and food quality for Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nutrient limitation on the quality of Scenedesmus acutus as food for Daphnia obtusa is examined. The nature and degree of nutrient limitation greatly influences the rate at which Daphnia converts Scenedesmus biomass into herbivore biomass. From high to low quality, Scenedesmus food is ranked moderately N limited, severely N limited, and severely P limited. Even a very

ROBERT W. STERNER; DOUGLAS D. HAGEMEIER; WILLIAM L. SMITH; ROBERT F. SMITH

1993-01-01

256

Nutrient regulation of human intestinal sugar transporter (SGLT1) expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The activity of most intestinal nutrient transporters is adaptively regulated by the type and amounts of nutrients entering the intestinal lumen. The concentration and activity of the intestinal Na+\\/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) are regulated by dietary sugars in most animal species. The activity and abundance of SGLT1 in biopsy specimens removed from human jejunal regions exposed to, and having limited

J Dyer; K B Hosie; S P Shirazi-Beechey

1997-01-01

257

Nutrient-to-Ccdorie Ratios in Applied Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the desirability of expressing the nutrient require ments of man and animals relative to their associated energy intake, and proposes a format for expressing a dietary standard for humans. Caloric needs are known to vary with size, activity, and productive performance. There is agreement that most of the nutrients quantitatively considered in diet or ration formulation should

E. W. CRAMPTON

2010-01-01

258

CELL SIGNALING & DEVELOPMENT Target of Rapamycin (TOR) in Nutrient Signaling  

E-print Network

YEASTBOOK CELL SIGNALING & DEVELOPMENT Target of Rapamycin (TOR) in Nutrient Signaling and Growth, Switzerland, and Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland ABSTRACT TOR (Target. In fundamental biology, TOR is a nutrient-sensitive, central controller of cell growth and aging. In clinical

Halazonetis, Thanos

259

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems  

E-print Network

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems of the Sierra de Gata mountains - The present work fits into a general study on nutrient cycling in four Quercus pyrenaica oak forests and one from that of the oak forests. It is also possible to differentiate three groups of bioelements: 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

SOUTHEASTERN PLAINS IN-STREAM NUTRIENT AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE (SPINBR)  

EPA Science Inventory

States and EPA lack a tool to characterize and measure biological response to nutrients in flowing waters. This study is designed to describe, examine and characterize the relationship between biological response and aquatic nutrients as a potential causal variable along a gradi...

261

Nutrition Fact Sheet A Positive Approach: Choose Nutrient-Rich  

E-print Network

Nutrition Fact Sheet A Positive Approach: Choose Nutrient-Rich Foods for the Most Nutrition What to eat or what not to eat? That's the question many of us struggle with every day. For decades nutrition and meet personal nutrition needs over a lifetime. Choosing nutrient-rich foods first is a positive

Burke, Peter

262

Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

263

Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

Thun, Tim Von

2013-01-01

264

BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006. Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

265

Original article Organic matter distribution and nutrient fluxes  

E-print Network

­ The aboveground biomass, litterfall and its accumulation, litter weight loss due to decomposition and nutrient and decreased in the following order: leaves > branches > trunk. The elements most concentrated in the leaves. The leaves are the main vector of the potential return of all nutrients to the holorganic horizon, followed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

CLOSYS: Closed System for Water and Nutrient Management in Horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU project CLOSYS aimed at developing a CLOsed SYStem for water and nutrients in horticulture. The main objective was to control water and nutrients accurately such that pollution is minimized and crop quality enhanced. The closed system as developed in this project consists of crop growth models and substrate models, a new substrate, an expert system, a real time

L. F. M. Marcelis; J. A. Dieleman; T. Boulard; A. Garate; C. Kittas; C. Buschmann; E. Brajeul; G. Wieringa; Groot de F; Loon van A; L. Kocsanyi

2006-01-01

267

Drugs–nutrient interactions: a potential problem during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of drug–nutrient interactions is not new, but it has only recently gained currency in medicine. Although the elderly are normally considered to be at particular risk, other groups may also be at risk: infants, adolescents, pregnant women, alcohol and tobacco users, etc.In infants and adolescents there are several factors that may influence the possible interactions: firstly, nutrient needs

E Alonso-Aperte; G Varela-Moreiras

2000-01-01

268

Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

269

Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton production in Alaskan Arctic foothill lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 54 enrichment bioassays to assess nutrient limitation (N, P) of 14C uptake by natural phytoplankton assemblages in 39 lakes and ponds in the Arctic Foothills region of Alaska. Our purpose was to categorize phytoplankton nutrient status in this under-represented region of North America and to improve our ability to predict the response of primary production to anticipated anthropogenically

M. A. Levine; S. C. Whalen

2001-01-01

270

Nutrient-limited microbial growth kinetics: overview and recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional concepts of nutrient uptake and growth kinetics as linked by cell yield are presented. Phenomena affecting the kinetics are examined along with a discussion of those which lead to ambiguity. Concepts of flux control are presented to help understand the distribution of material along metabolic pathways. Specific affinity is described to relate nutrient accumulation rates to transporter density. It

D. K. Button

1993-01-01

271

Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an extensive literature review that deals with the assessment of the effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire and fertilization. 123 refs.

Dale W. Johnson; John Turner; J. M. Kelly

1982-01-01

272

PROFITABLE AND SUSTAINABLE SOIL TEST-BASED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil testing determines nutrient, lime, gypsum or S, leaching requirements for crops, and potential elemental toxicity to crops and\\/or their consumers. The majority of farmers do not use soil testing or use higher or lower than economic optimum nutrient rates. Shortcomings of the current soil testing methodology are inability to predict yields, large soil test spacial and temporal variability, inability

Parviz N. Soltanpour; Jorge A. Delgado

2002-01-01

273

Reference Condition Approach for Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

274

Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health.

Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M.; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2013-12-01

275

Noninvasive detection of plant nutrient stress using fiber optic spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we described the use of fiber optic spectrophotometry as a non-destructive and sensitive method to detect early symptoms of plant nutrient deficiency. We report further developments of our work on Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey) showing reproducibility of our data collected at a different seasonal period. Plants at the mid-log growth phase were subjected to nutrient

Jun-Wei Chen; Anand K. Asundi; Oi Wah Liew; William S. Boey

2001-01-01

276

The nutrient cycle through snow and ice, a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the merging of the nutrient cycle with the water cycle in the seasonal alpine snow cover, emphasizing physical processes at the snowpack and snow grain scale. Nutrients are incorporated into snowflakes growing in the atmosphere, they are part of the dry deposition from the atmosphere to the snowpack and they reach the snow as plant litter. The

Michael Kuhn

2001-01-01

277

The effect of sucrose application on soil nutrient availability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a principal factor constraining the invasiveness of exotic weeds such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). The soil microbial community is generally C limited; thus, providing a labile C source can cause microbes to proliferate and immobilize soil nutrients, particularly...

278

Porous tube plant nutrient delivery system development: A device for nutrient delivery in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery Systems or PTPNDS (U.S. Patent #4,926,585) has been under development for the past six years with the goal of providing a means for culturing plants in microgravity, specifically providing water and nutrients to the roots. Direct applications of the PTPNDS include plant space biology investigations on the Space Shuttle and plant research for life support in the Space Station Freedom. In the past, we investigated various configurations, the suitability of different porous materials, and the effects of pressure and pore size on plant growth. Current work is focused on characterizing the physical operation of the system, examining the effects of solution aeration, and developing prototype configurations for the Plant Growth Unit (PGU), the flight system for the Shuttle mid-deck. Future developments will involve testing on KC-135 parabolic flights, the design of flight hardware and testing aboard the Space Shuttle.

Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.

1994-01-01

279

The influence of hypercapnia and macrofauna on sediment nutrient flux - will ocean acidification affect nutrient exchange?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the concomitant increased uptake of this by the oceans is resulting in hypercapnia-related reduction of ocean pH. Research focussed on the direct effects of these physicochemical changes on marine invertebrates has begun to improve our understanding of impacts at the level of individual physiologies. However, CO2-related impairment of organisms' contribution to ecological or ecosystem processes has barely been addressed. The burrowing ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis, which has a physiology that makes it susceptible to reduced pH, plays a key role in sediment nutrient cycling by mixing and irrigating the sediment, a process known as bioturbation. Here we investigate the role of A. filiformis in modifying nutrient flux rates across the sediment-water boundary and the impact of CO2-related acidification on this process. A 40 day exposure study was conducted under predicted pH scenarios from the years 2100 (pH 7.7) and 2300 (pH 7.3), plus an additional treatment of pH 6.8. This study demonstrated strong relationships between A. filiformis density and cycling of some nutrients; A. filiformis activity increases the sediment uptake of phosphate and the release of nitrite and nitrate. No relationship between A. filiformis density and the flux of ammonium or silicate were observed. Results also indicated that, within the timescale of this experiment, effects at the individual bioturbator level appear not to translate into reduced ecosystem influence. Rather the effect of hypercapnia and lowered pH on bacteria and microphytobenthos may have been of greater significance in understanding the changes to nutrient fluxes seen here. However, long term survival of key bioturbating species is far from assured and changes in both bioturbation and microbial processes could alter key biogeochemical processes in future, more acidic oceans.

Wood, H. L.; Widdicombe, S.; Spicer, J. I.

2009-02-01

280

Response of hydroponically grown gerbera to nutrient solution recycling and different nutrient cation ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of recycling the drainage solution by adding nutrients to replenish it at three different K:(K+Ca+Mg) ratios (0.40, 0.48, 0.56, equivalent basis) on yield, flower quality and nutritional status of soilless-grown gerbera were investigated. The recycling treatments were compared also to a control with free drainage and a standard K:(K+Ca+Mg) equivalent ratio of 0.40 in the irrigation solution. The

Dimitrios Savvas; George Gizas

2002-01-01

281

The Coupling of Solution Chemistry to Plant Nutrient Demand in an on Demand Nutrient Delivery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the proposal will be to determine the suitability of the DASI instrument in providing a signal that can be recognized and be utilized as an indicator of plant stress. The method to be utilized for evaluating stress is the presentation of an every increasing level of nutrient deficiency and salinity stress (addition of salt (NACl) or increasing concentration of balanced nutrient) while simultaneously recording spectral reflectance using the DASI instrument and monitoring the traditional processes of gas exchange and nutrient uptake parameters. In this manner, we will be able to directly compare the DASI measurements with known stresses as determined by the traditional gas exchange and nutrient uptake measures of stress. We anticipate that the DASI will provide a sensitive identifier of plant stress; recording signals of the resulting changes in plant metabolism in real time, far before any visible effects of stress could be observed. Thus, there is a potential for very early management intervention to correct a stress condition before damage could develop. The present response time for the observation of visual symptoms of plant stress is considerable and only provides an indication that a stress is present after it has been present for an extended period of time. Thus, the impact of a plant-based life support function will have already been significant. An additional benefit of this research to regenerative life support will be the characterization of a potential recovery scenario from various degrees of stress. The experimental approach to be employed includes the removal of the stress at various points in the stress gradient and the characterization of plant performance and reflectance spectra during recovery from various degrees of stress. Spectral reflectance imaging techniques have been developed and used to measure the biochemical composition of plants and relate these characteristics to the fluxes of biochemical elements within the ecosystem.

Savage, Wayne

1998-01-01

282

Nutrient Mgt. in KentuckyNutrient Mgt. in Kentucky Bill ThomBill Thom  

E-print Network

Applies to nutrients from all sources Soil test for pH, P, K, Ca, Mg & ZnSoil test for pH, P, K, Ca, Mg & Zn Mehlich for KY as basisfor KY as basis Soil testing frequency rec. by UKSoil testing frequency rec. by UK Annual. #12;Elements of Kentucky P IndexElements of Kentucky P Index Soil Group (1) P soil test (3)Soil Group

283

Drug-nutrient interactions: a case and clinical guide.  

PubMed

Advances in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics require new competencies related to pharmaceutical prescribing. First, both physicians and pharmacists need to recognize the potential negative impact of nutrients and dietary supplements on the absorption, metabolism, and utilization of prescription drugs. Second, physicians, even more than pharmacists, need to recognize the potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the absorption, metabolism, and utilization of nutrients. This article discusses common drug-nutrient interactions and presents a case that illustrates how unrecognized nutrient disruption may negatively affect a patient's health and potentially result in unnecessary prescribing of medications. In presenting the case, we also provide a conceptual framework for assessing and treating this patient and a summary of current knowledge regarding drug-nutrient interactions. PMID:23256289

Plotnikoff, Gregory A

2011-10-01

284

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

285

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato.  

PubMed

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS. PMID:11538817

McKeehen, J D; Mitchell, C A; Wheeler, R M; Bugbee, B; Nielsen, S S

1996-01-01

286

Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

1996-01-01

287

Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.  

PubMed

Nutrient availability and temperature play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review is needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits - growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content - that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and nutrients will be critical for developing realistic predictions about ecological responses to multiple, simultaneous drivers of global change, including climate warming and elevated nutrient supply. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25400273

Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

2014-11-15

288

Reference Materials for Determination of the Nutrient Composition of Foods: Results from USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of nutrient data for food samples. A number of available food CRMs of differing matrix composition have assigned concentrations for various nutrients, along with associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) for those valu...

289

Effect of variety and processing on nutrients and certain anti-nutrients in field peas ( Pisum sativum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of variety and processing (soaking, cooking and dehulling) on nutrients and anti-nutrients in field peas (Pisum sativum) was investigated. Analysis of variance showed that variety had a significant effect on crude protein, starch, ash, soluble dietary fibre (SDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), total dietary fibre (TDF), trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), minerals, phytic acid, sucrose and oligosaccharides. Soaking and

Ning Wang; David W. Hatcher; Eugene J. Gawalko

2008-01-01

290

Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

2009-01-01

291

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 18 Program Resource List The Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Education Program provides a wide array. There are two comprehensive sources of these resources. · Pennsylvania's Nutrient Management Program Website

Guiltinan, Mark

292

Nutrient vectors and riparian nutrient processing in African semiarid savanna ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This review article describes vectors for nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to riparian zones in semiarid African savannas, the processing of nutrients in the riparian zone and the effect of disturbance on these processes. Semiarid savannas exhibit sharp seasonality, complex hillslope hydrology and high spatial heterogeneity, all of which ultimately impact nutrient fluxes between riparian, upland and aquatic environments. Our review shows that strong environmental drivers such as fire and herbivory enhance nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment transport to lower slope positions by shaping vegetative patterns. These vectors differ significantly from other arid and semiarid ecosystems, and from mesic ecosystems where the impact of fire and herbivory are less pronounced and less predictable. Also unique is the presence of sodic soils in certain hillslopes, which substantially alters hydrological flowpaths and may act as a trap where nitrogen is immobilized while sediment and phosphorus transport is enhanced. Nutrients and sediments are also deposited in the riparian zone during seasonal, intermittent floods while, during the dry season, subsurface movement of water from the stream into riparian soils and vegetation further enrich riparian zones with nutrients. As is found in mesic ecosystems, nutrients are immobilized in semiarid riparian corridors through microbial and plant uptake, whereas dissimilatory processes such as denitrification may be important where labile nitrogen and carbon are in adequate supply and physical conditions are suitablea??such as in seeps, wallows created by animals, ephemeral wetlands and stream edges. Interaction between temporal hydrologic connectivity and spatial heterogeneity are disrupted by disturbances such as large floods and extended droughts, which may convert certain riparian patches from sinks to sources for nitrogen and phosphorus. In the face of increasing anthropogenic pressure, the scientific challenges are to provide a basic understanding of riparian biogeochemistry in semiarid African savannas to adequately address the temporal and spatial impact of disturbances, and to apply this knowledge to better regional land and water management. An integrated, multidisciplinary approach applied in protected as well as human-disturbed ecosystems in southern Africa is essential for underpinning a strong environmental basis for sustainable human-related expansion.

Jacobs, Shayne M.; Bechtold, J.S.; Biggs, H.C.; Grimm, N. B.; McClain, M.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Perakis, Steven S.; Pinay, G.; Scholes, M.C.

2007-01-01

293

The gastrointestinal tract as a nutrient-balancing organ  

PubMed Central

Failure to provision tissues with an appropriate balance of nutrients engenders fitness costs. Maintaining nutrient balance can be achieved by adjusting the selection and consumption of foods, but this may not be possible when the nutritional environment is limiting. Under such circumstances, rebalancing of an imbalanced nutrient intake requires post-ingestive mechanisms. The first stage at which such post-ingestive rebalancing might occur is within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), by differential release of digestive enzymes—releasing less of those enzymes for nutrients present in excess while maintaining or boosting levels of enzymes for nutrients in deficit. Here, we use an insect herbivore, the locust, to show for the first time that such compensatory responses occur within the GIT. Furthermore, we show that differential release of proteases and carbohydrases in response to nutritional state translate into differential extraction of macronutrients from host plants. The prevailing view is that physiological and structural plasticity in the GIT serves to maximize the rate of nutrient gain in relation to costs of maintaining the GIT; our findings show that GIT plasticity is integral to the maintenance of nutrient balance. PMID:20129973

Clissold, Fiona J.; Tedder, Benjamin J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Simpson, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

294

Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

*Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes < 23°26?) had N : P resorption ratios of < 1, and plants growing on highly weathered tropical soils maintained the lowest N : P resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2012-01-01

295

The micro and macro of nutrients across biological scales.  

PubMed

During the past decade, we have gained new insights into the profound effects that essential micronutrients and macronutrients have on biological processes ranging from cellular function, to whole-organism performance, to dynamics in ecological communities, as well as to the structure and function of ecosystems. For example, disparities between intake and organismal requirements for specific nutrients are known to strongly affect animal physiological performance and impose trade-offs in the allocations of resources. However, recent findings have demonstrated that life-history allocation trade-offs and even microevolutionary dynamics may often be a result of molecular-level constraints on nutrient and metabolic processing, in which limiting reactants are routed among competing biochemical pathways. In addition, recent work has shown that complex ecological interactions between organismal physiological states such as exposure to environmental stressors and infectious pathogens can alter organismal requirements for, and, processing of, nutrients, and even alter subsequent nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Furthermore, new research is showing that such interactions, coupled with evolutionary and biogeographical constraints on the biosynthesis and availability of essential nutrients and micronutrients play an important, but still under-studied role in the structuring and functioning of ecosystems. The purpose of this introduction to the symposium "The Micro and Macro of Nutrient Effects in Animal Physiology and Ecology" is to briefly review and highlight recent research that has dramatically advanced our understanding of how nutrients in their varied forms profoundly affect and shape ecological and evolutionary processes. PMID:24935988

Warne, Robin W

2014-11-01

296

Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants  

PubMed Central

For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

Puijalon, Sara

2012-01-01

297

Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

1993-01-01

298

Sources of nutrients in students' diets.  

PubMed

This paper describes foods consumed and nutrients derived from specific foods by participants and non-participants in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). Data are from 24-h dietary intake interviews with 3350 children in grades 1-12, collected as part of the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study. The meal-pattern requirements of the NSLP and SBP strongly influence what participants eat. NSLP participants are more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk, meats, grain mixtures, and vegetables, leading to higher intakes of fat and sodium, but also of calcium and vitamin A, and are less likely to consume cakes and cookies, soft drinks, and fruitades, which do not count toward program requirements. SBP participants are more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk and fruit juice, leading to higher intakes of calcium and magnesium, and are three times more likely to eat meat, leading to higher intakes of fat and sodium. Nonparticipants in the SBP obtain similar amounts of vitamins and minerals at breakfast but less food energy. PMID:7832170

Gordon, A R; McKinney, P

1995-01-01

299

Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

1990-01-01

300

Response of algal metrics to nutrients and physical factors and identification of nutrient thresholds in agricultural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

Black, R.W.; Moran, P.W.; Frankforter, J.D.

2011-01-01

301

External nutrient sources, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production in Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

External nutrient loadings, internal nutrient pools, and phytoplankton production were examined for three major subsystems of the Chesapeake Bay Estuary-the upper Mainstem, the Patuxent Estuary, and the Potomac Estuary-during 1985-1989. The atomic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (TN:TP) of total loads were 51, 29 and 35, respectively. Most of these loads entered at the head of the estuaries from riverine sources and major wastewater treatment plants. Seven-16% of the nitrogen load entered the head of each estuary as particulate matter in contrast to 48-69% for phosphorus. The difference seems to favor a greater loss of phosphorus than nitrogen through sedimentation and burial. A major storm event in the Potomac watershed greatly increased the particulate fraction of nitrogen and phosphorus and lowered the TN:TP in the river-borne loads and accounted for 11% of the nitrogen and 31% of the phosphorus delivered to the estuary by the Potomac River during the entire 60- month period examined here. Within the Mainstem estuary, salinity dilution plots revealed strong net sources of ammonium and phosphate in the oligohaline to upper mesohaline region. indicating considerable internal recycling of nutrients to surface waters. A net sink of nitrate was indicated during summer. Phytoplankton biomass in the mesohaline Mainstem reached a peak in spring and was relatively constant throughout the other seasons. In the Patuxent and Potomac, the TN:TP ratios of external loads are 2-4 times higher than those observed over the previous two decades. These changes are attributed to point-source phosphorus controls and the likelihood that nitrogen-rich nonpoint source inputs, including contributions from the atmosphere, have increased. These higher N:P ratios now suggest a greater overall potential for phosphorus-limitation rather than nitrogen-limitation of phytoplankton in the areas studied. 66 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Magnien, R.E.; Summers, R.M. (Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore (United States)); Sellner, K.G. (Benedict Estuarine Research Lab., MD (United States))

1992-12-01

302

Nutrient Retention by Benthic Macrofaunal Biomass of Danish Estuaries: Importance of Nutrient Load and Residence Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of macrobenthic faunal abundance and biomass to nutrient load, and factors that may modify this response are examined by means of inter-estuary comparisons of 14 shallow Danish estuaries. Data for this analysis are the physicochemical and biological variables monitored by local authorities mainly during the period 1989-95. A clear positive effect of nutrient load is demonstrated on benthic biomass, over a wide range of total N-load as the model substance from 2-200 g m -2year -1. The relationship was curvilinear with a levelling off or even depression of biomass at high total N-load (above c. 35 g m -2year -1). A mixed chemostat model using total load and hydraulic residence time for estuaries was applied to estimate the load that could be realized into primary production, and consequently enter into benthic production. Two measures, the load corrected for winter export (the realized N-load) and the nutrient pool available for the spring bloom (SBNP) were calculated. The benthic metabolic demand inferred from biomass, assuming an annual P:B ratio of 1 (P, secondary production; B, benthic biomass), was approximately of the same magnitude as both total N-load and realized N-load. A positive correlation was still found between benthic biomass/production and the realized N-load, but the linearity of the regression between them was not improved compared to the corresponding relationship with total load. The best linearly proportional relationship was obtained with the spring bloom N-pool (SBNP) calculated from the chemostat model. Stoichiometry suggested, however, that the spring bloom is of little importance for supporting benthic standing stock in these well flushed estuaries. To explain the strong statistical relationship, despite poor causality, with SBNP, it is suggested that the algorithm behind SBNP reflects the ability of the estuary to retain nutrients in the water mass in the productive period, both as free molecules and included into biological particles. These findings strongly indicate that benthic standing stock system-wide is food limited and indicate the importance of interaction between loading and estuary residence time (flushing) for the outcome of eutrophication. The findings are in agreement with reports that high estuary flushing rate may modify effects of eutrophication, and they deviate from previous studies in shallow coastal areas reporting either no effect, or negative effects, of eutrophication on benthic biomass.

Josefson, A. B.; Rasmussen, B.

2000-02-01

303

Chapter 7. Nutrient Testing, Analysis, and Douglas Beegle  

E-print Network

...................................................................................................... 171 Soil pH and lime requirementChapter 7. Nutrient Testing, Analysis, and Assessment Douglas Beegle Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Penn State University Table of Contents Soil testing

Kaye, Jason P.

304

Prehistoric agricultural depletion of soil nutrients in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

We investigated the fate of soil nutrients after centuries of indigenous dryland agriculture in Hawai‘i using a coupled geochemical and archaeological approach. Beginning ?500 years ago, farmers began growing dryland taro and sweet potato on the leeward slopes of East Maui. Their digging sticks pierced a subsurface layer of cinders, enhancing crop access to the soil water stored below the intact cinders. Cultivation also catalyzed nutrient losses, directly by facilitating leaching of mobile nutrients after disturbing a stratigraphic barrier to vertical water movement, and indirectly by increasing mineral weathering and subsequent uptake and harvest. As a result, centuries of cultivation lowered volumetric total calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content by 49%, 28%, 75%, 37%, and 32%, respectively. In the absence of written records, we used the difference in soil phosphorus to estimate that prehistoric yields were sufficient to meet local demand over very long time frames, but the associated acceleration of nutrient losses could have compromised subsequent yields. PMID:16832047

Hartshorn, A. S.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Kirch, P. V.

2006-01-01

305

Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the global thermohaline circulation, the subarctic Pacific is the richest nutrient repository in the world oceans. Trends towards lower oxygen and higher nutrients in waters below the surface layer (the pycnocline) have been observed in recent decades. We assess these trends using data from four programs and suggest the enrichment of pycnocline nitrate (200 Gmol y-1) is essential in keeping supply to the surface ocean constant, despite increasing upper ocean stratification. A nitrate budget helps identify possible vertical processes that could account for nutrient redistribution. We hypothesize that warming and oxygen loss in the deeper pycnocline, arising from ice loss in the Okhotsk Sea, have initiated a largely vertical redistribution of nutrients due to compression of vertical migrator habitat and/or changes in dissolution of sinking particulates. Coupled climate-ecosystem models will need to incorporate these processes to more fully understand projected changes in the subarctic Pacific.

Whitney, Frank A.; Bograd, Steven J.; Ono, Tsuneo

2013-05-01

306

COMPOST INFORMATION SHEET MSU SOIL & PLANT NUTRIENT LABORATORY  

E-print Network

COMPOST INFORMATION SHEET MSU SOIL & PLANT NUTRIENT LABORATORY 1066 BOGUE ST. ROOM A81 EAST LANSING _______________________________________________________________________ SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION:___________________________ COUNTY: ________________ COMPOST TYPE: LEAF COMPOST MSW COMPOST MANURE COMPOST OTHER: (specify) ____________________________________________________ TEST

Isaacs, Rufus

307

Could Nutrients in Fish Shield Fetus from Mercury's Harms?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Nutrients in Fish Shield Fetus From Mercury's Harms? No developmental problems ... mercury exposure, pregnant women who eat lots of fish may not harm their unborn children, a new ...

308

Report: Comprehensive nutrients analysis of rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to estimate the concentration of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Sb and Mn), macronutrients (Na, Ca and K) and essential life nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid) along with ash, fiber and moisture contents. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of micronutrients while flame photometry for macronutrients. For proximate analysis (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, fibers and moisture), Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods (AOAC) were used and titration method for ascorbic acid determination. It is evident from the results that the crude extract and its fractions accumulate significant concentrations of both micro and macro nutrients. The significant quantities of essential life nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid along with ash, fiber and moisture contents were also found in extracts. It is concluded that the extracts of rhizomes accumulated significant quantities of life indispensible nutrients and validated the ethnobotanical uses of the plant as tonic and energizer. PMID:23010008

Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Faridullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Hassan, Sohail; Shah, Waheed Ali

2012-10-01

309

QUANTIFYING ASSAY VARIATION IN NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF FEEDSTUFFS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analytical results from different laboratories have greater variation than those from a single laboratory, and this variation differs by nutrient. Objectives of this presentation are to describe methods for quantifying the analytical reproducibility among and repeatability within laboratories, estim...

310

Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras  

E-print Network

Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...

Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)

2006-01-01

311

NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF ALGAE AT LAKE EUCHA, OKLAHOMA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Eucha has come into sharp legal, political, and environmental focus because of a settlement agreement between the municipal drinking water supply (plaintiffs) and several poultry integrators and one municipal wastewater treatment plant (defendants). We determined the limiting nutrient (nitroge...

312

9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g., not a beverage or dessert). Such representations may be...309, shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2012-01-01

313

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g. , not a beverage or a dessert). Such representations may be...409 shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2010-01-01

314

9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g., not a beverage or dessert). Such representations may be...309, shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2010-01-01

315

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g. , not a beverage or a dessert). Such representations may be...409 shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2013-01-01

316

9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g., not a beverage or dessert). Such representations may be...309, shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2014-01-01

317

9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g., not a beverage or dessert). Such representations may be...309, shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2011-01-01

318

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g. , not a beverage or a dessert). Such representations may be...409 shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2014-01-01

319

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g. , not a beverage or a dessert). Such representations may be...409 shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2011-01-01

320

9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g., not a beverage or dessert). Such representations may be...309, shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2013-01-01

321

9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will not be sauces (except for foods in the four food groups in paragraph (m...e.g. , not a beverage or a dessert). Such representations may be...409 shall be provided for any food for which a nutrient content...

2012-01-01

322

Molecular Targets For Nutrients In Prostate Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Science Research Group RFA CA-04-004: Molecular Targets For Nutrients In Prostate Cancer Prevention Principal Investigator and Organization Title of Project Bray, TammyOregon State University Diet, Endocrine-Immune Interactions & Prostate

323

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

PubMed

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light. PMID:24670649

Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

2014-04-24

324

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

325

Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes  

E-print Network

Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes Gary G. Meadows # Springer the mechanisms under- lying antimetastatic activity of some phytochemicals are being delineated, the impact of diet, dietary components, and various phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes is underexplored

Collins, Gary S.

326

Root sprouting in Rumex acetosella under different nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Rumex acetosella, a root sprouting plant, was studied in a pot experiment. Each plant of R. acetosella consisted of two ramets which were interconnected by a root about 9 cm long. One of the ramets was placed in a compartment with nutrient-rich soil, the other with nutrient-poor soil. The root connection between the ramets either remained intact or was

Leoš Klimeš; Jitka Klimešová

1999-01-01

327

Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quantify the required reduction of nutrient input.<\\/TT>To investigate the effects of nutrient loading on the receiving water,

R. Portielje

1994-01-01

328

Inventory of nutrient compounds in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient species were analyzed from samples collected in the Yellow Sea in May 1998, including NO3?, NO2?, NH4+, PO43?, SiO32?, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), particulate phosphorus, etc. The exchange fluxes of nutrients across the sediment\\/water interface were determined by incubation of sediment on board the ship. The concentrations of N, P and Si compounds

S. M Liu; J Zhang; S. Z Chen; H. T Chen; G. H Hong; H Wei; Q. M Wu

2003-01-01

329

TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN THE NUTRIENT CHEMISTRY OF THE CARIACO BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient data have been collected monthly at the CARIACO time series site in the Cariaco Basin since 1995, providing a unique\\u000a picture of the cycling of NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO2 in this permanently anoxic system underlying a major coastal upwelling zone. Our data indicate that nutrients for phytoplankton\\u000a growth are primarily supplied by upwelling of subsurface water on

Mary I. Scranton; Michelle McIntyre; Yrene Astor; Gordon T. Taylor; Frank Müller-Karger; Kent Fanning

2004-01-01

330

Swedish nutrient reduction policies: an evaluation of cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since more than 30 years, the Swedish government as well as other governments in the drainage basin strives toward a reduction\\u000a in nutrient loads to Baltic Sea coastal waters in order to combat eutrophication of the sea. In spite of this, the cost-effectiveness\\u000a of actual environmental policy for meeting Baltic Sea nutrient targets has not been evaluated by national or international

Katarina Elofsson

331

Upper Mississippi Basin Loading Database (Sediment and Nutrients): Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) provides this updated database on sediments and nutrients of the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Included in the database are maps (Shape) showing the locations of monitoring stations; figures displaying rates of Nitrogen/ Phosphorus loadings and yields; and sediment and nutrient data by sub-area (ascii, .xls, Lotus). In addition, background information is provided on the monitoring sites.

332

Nutrient limitation and plant species composition in temperate salt marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a factorial design in two ungrazed Wadden-Sea salt marshes at\\u000a low and high elevations showed that nitrogen was the limiting nutrient. No effects of nutrient addition were detected in the\\u000a 1st year, probably due to a considerable rainfall deficit during the growing season. In the 2nd year, which was more humid,\\u000a only

K. Kiehl; P. Esselink; J. P. Bakker

1997-01-01

333

Phloem small RNAs, nutrient stress responses, and systemic mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over long-distance via xylem and phloem. Recently, specific

Anja Buhtz; Janin Pieritz; Franziska Springer; Julia Kehr

2010-01-01

334

Controlled environments alter nutrient content of soybeans.  

PubMed

Information about compositional changes in plants grown in controlled environments is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet for a Controlled Ecomological Life-Support System (CELSS). Information now is available for some CELSS candidate crops, but detailed information has been lacking for soybeans. To determine the effect of environment on macronutrient and mineral composition of soybeans, plants were grown both in the field and in a controlled environment where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at seed maturity, separated into discrete parts, and oven dried prior to chemical analysis. Plant material was analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nonprotein N (NPN), nitrate, minerals, amino acid composition, and total dietary fiber. The effect of environment on composition varied by cultivar and plant part. Chamber-grown plants generally exhibited the following characteristics compared with field-grown plants: 1) increased total N and protein N for all plant parts, 2) increased nitrate in leaves and stems but not in seeds, 3) increased lipids in seeds, and 4) decreased Ca:P ratio for stems, pods, and leaves. These trends are consistent with data for other CELSS crops. Total N, protein N, and amino acid contents for 350 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppm CO2 were similar for seeds, but protein N and amino acid contents for leaves were higher at 350 ppm CO2 than at 1000 ppm CO2. Total dietary fiber content of soybean leaves was higher with 350 ppm CO2 than with 1000 ppm CO2. Such data will help in selecting of crop species, cultivars, and growing conditions to ensure safe, nutritious diets for CELSS. PMID:11542579

Jurgonski, L J; Smart, D J; Bugbee, B; Nielsen, S S

1997-01-01

335

Controlled environments alter nutrient content of soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about compositional changes in plants grown in controlled environments is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Information now is available for some CELSS candidate crops, but detailed information has been lacking for soybeans. To determine the effect of environment on macronutrient and mineral composition of soybeans, plants were grown both in the field and in a controlled environment where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at seed maturity, separated into discrete parts, and oven dried prior to chemical analysis. Plant material was analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nonprotein N (NPN), nitrate, minerals, amino acid composition, and total dietary fiber. The effect of environment on composition varied by cultivar and plant part. Chamber-grown plants generally exhibited the following characteristics compared with field-grown plants: 1) increased total N and protein N for all plant parts, 2) increased nitrate in leaves and stems but not in seeds, 3) increased lipids in seeds, and 4) decreased Ca:P ratio for stems, pods, and leaves. These trends are consistent with data for other CELSS crops. Total N, protein N, and amino acid contents for 350 ppm CO_2 and 1000 ppm CO_2 were similar for seeds, but protein N and amino acid contents for leaves were higher at 350 ppm CO_2 than at 1000 ppm CO_2. Total dietary fiber content of soybean leaves was higher with 350 ppm CO_2 than with 1000 ppm CO_2. Such data will help in selecting of crop species, cultivars, and growing conditions to ensure safe, nutritious diets for CELSS.

Jurgonski, L. J.; Smart, D. J.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

336

Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. PMID:24281033

Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

2010-01-01

337

Changes in phytoplankton communities along nutrient gradients in Lake Taihu: evidence for nutrient reduction strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An annual investigation on phytoplankton communities was conducted to reveal the effects of nutrients on phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Taihu, East China. A total of 78 phytoplankton taxa were identified. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the northern part of the lake than in the southern part. Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta alternated dominance in the northern area, where algal blooms often appear, and co-dominated in the southern area. In the northern part, the proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta varied significantly in total biovolume, both along the phosphorus (P) gradient, and between total nitrogen levels (?3 mg/L and >3 mg/L TN). The proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta had no significant variations in total biovolume along P and N (nitrogen) gradients in the southern part. Correlation analysis and CCA results revealed that P was the key factor regulating phytoplankton community structure. Nitrogen was also important for the phytoplankton distribution pattern. It was concluded that nutrient structure was heterogeneous in space and shaped the distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lake. Both exogenous P and internally sourced P release needs to be considered. N reduction should be considered simultaneously with P control to efficiently reduce eutrophication and algal blooms.

Ai, Ying; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

2014-11-01

338

Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions  

PubMed Central

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

2013-01-01

339

Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact  

PubMed Central

The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI) index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28) and soy drink (0.25). Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54) than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account. PMID:20806074

Smedman, Annika; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Drewnowski, Adam; Edman, Anna-Karin Modin

2010-01-01

340

Oxygen consumption rates of bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E; Berelson, William M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Finkel, Steven E

2013-08-01

341

Review of nutrient actions on age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin, ?-carotene), vitamins (vitamin A, E, C, D, B), mineral supplements (zinc, copper, selenium), dietary fatty acids [monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA both omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA), saturated fatty acids and cholesterol], and dietary carbohydrates. The literature revealed that many of these antioxidants and nutrients exert a protective role by functioning synergistically. Specifically, the use of dietary supplements with targeted actions can provide minimal benefits on the onset or progression of AMD; however, this does not appear to be particularly beneficial in healthy people. Furthermore, some supplements or nutrients have demonstrated discordant effects on AMD in some studies. Since intake of dietary supplements, as well as exposure to damaging environmental factors, is largely dependent on population habits (including dietary practices) and geographical localization, an overall healthy diet appears to be the best strategy in reducing the risk of developing AMD. As of now, the precise mechanism of action of certain nutrients in AMD prevention remains unclear. Thus, future studies are required to examine the effects that nutrients have on AMD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing the risk of AMD or preventing its progression. PMID:24461310

Zampatti, Stefania; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano

2014-02-01

342

Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.  

PubMed

1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered. PMID:15222410

Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

2004-04-01

343

Long-term nutrient enrichment decouples predator and prey production  

PubMed Central

Increased nutrient mobilization by human activities represents one of the greatest threats to global ecosystems, but its effects on ecosystem productivity can differ depending on food web structure. When this structure facilitates efficient energy transfers to higher trophic levels, evidence from previous large-scale enrichments suggests that nutrients can stimulate the production of multiple trophic levels. Here we report results from a 5-year continuous nutrient enrichment of a forested stream that increased primary consumer production, but not predator production. Because of strong positive correlations between predator and prey production (evidence of highly efficient trophic transfers) under reference conditions, we originally predicted that nutrient enrichment would stimulate energy flow to higher trophic levels. However, enrichment decoupled this strong positive correlation and produced a nonlinear relationship between predator and prey production. By increasing the dominance of large-bodied predator-resistant prey, nutrient enrichment truncated energy flow to predators and reduced food web efficiency. This unexpected decline in food web efficiency indicates that nutrient enrichment, a ubiquitous threat to aquatic ecosystems, may have unforeseen and unpredictable effects on ecosystem structure and productivity. PMID:20018677

Davis, John M.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Eggert, Susan L.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Wallace, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

344

Modelling the kinetics of non-limiting nutrients in microalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many models of microalgal growth focus on steady state carbon budgets. This approach can be very useful if one's primary purpose is to predict growth on the basis of a limited set of measurements. However, it is less likely to be successful if one purports to understand the regulation of growth in response to variations in, for instance, the nutrient concentrations in the environment. For such a purpose, models based on variable internal stores are more suited. In this paper, I present a variable internal stores model of microalgal growth, focusing on the kinetics of the limiting as well as the non-limiting nutrient. Data from chemostat steady states are well described by the model. The model provides an underpinning for the well established Droop equation for growth on a limiting nutrient. the model also shows that ther is no meaningful basis for the Droop equation for non-limiting nutrients. It is likely that the approach followed in this paper can also be applied to the kinetics of carbon. With respect to the model presented in this paper, the main difference between carbon and other nutrients is the photosynthetically driven uptake of CO 2. Once taken up, the kinetics of carbon may be similar to that of other nutrients.

Zonneveld, C.

1996-10-01

345

Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

2010-01-01

346

Methods of Imputation used in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To present the predominate methods of imputing used to estimate nutrient values for foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR20). Materials and Methods: The USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory developed standard methods for imputing nutrient values for foods wh...

347

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS AND RIVER FLOW IN A NORTHWESTERN USA WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

Dissolved nutrient concentrations were measured in the Yaquina River, Oregon from 1998 through 2001 to determine nutrient loading from the watershed as part of a larger agency program for evaluating nutrient sources. The effects of storms on dissolved nutrient transport were inv...

348

Effects of Herbivore Damage and Nutrient Level on Induction of Iridoid Glycosides in Plantago lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage by larvae of the buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) resulted in removal of 15–25% of Plantago lanceolata leaf area. Plants grown under high nutrients were larger than those grown under low nutrients. Twenty-eight days after herbivory, plants grown under high nutrients were still larger than those grown under low nutrients, and plants exposed to herbivores were significantly smaller than those

Karolyn Darrow; M. Deane Bowers

1999-01-01

349

Paradoxical nutritional deficiency in overweight and obesity: the importance of nutrient density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. • The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score — the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score — which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake

Tania P Markovic; Sharon J Natoli

2009-01-01

350

Testing nutrient profile models in relation to energy density and energy cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nutrient profiling of foods is defined as the science of classifying foods based on their nutrient content. Food rankings generated by nutrient profile models need to be tested against objective reality as opposed to public opinion.Objective: To test the performance of selected nutrient profile models in relation to the foods' energy density (kcal g?1) and energy cost (Dollar per

A Drewnowski; M Maillot; N Darmon

2009-01-01

351

NUTRIENT FLOWS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: ECOLOGICAL AND POLICY ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of environmental and ecological impacts of nutrient flows within and between countries by reviewing and presenting data on nutrient balances and global nutrient movements. The results for nutrient depletion in agricultural soils during 1996-1999 show that in most countries in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean rates of depletion are so high that current

Eric T. Craswell; Ulrike Grote; Julio Henao; Paul L. G. Vlek

2004-01-01

352

Adaptive management and the USDA-NRCS Nutrient Management (590) conservation practice standard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the USDA-NRCS Nutrient Management (590) conservation practice standard is to budget and supply nutrients for plant production, to properly utilize organic amendments as plant nutrient sources, to minimize pollution from application of nutrients, and to maintain or improve the conditio...

353

Biomass and nutrient removal by willow clones in experimental bioenergy plantations in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of short-rotation intensive cultural (SRIC) willow systems as a source of bioenergy and bioproducts is growing in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Important data for sustainable management such as nutrient removal and nutrient use efficiency in willow bioenergy plantations is lacking. This study reports wood biomass production, annual removal of nutrients, and nutrient use efficiency in experimental

Hector G. Adegbidi; Timothy A. Volk; Edwin H. White; Lawrence P. Abrahamson; Russell D. Briggs; Donald H. Bickelhaupt

2001-01-01

354

What Are Nutrient-Dense Fish Feeds and Their Importance in Aquaculture?1  

E-print Network

to the total amount of nutrients contained in the diet. Commonly, a nutrient- dense diet refers to being rich energy content of the diet. A simple, nutrient-dense diet can be rich in vitamins and minerals and have and omega-3 fatty acids, but low in sodium and total fats. In animal nutrition there are six nutrients

Watson, Craig A.

355

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

356

Response to fertilization by various plant growth forms in an Alaskan tundra: nutrient accumulation and growth  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization responses of six tundra species belonging to three plant growth forms were compared to test the hypothesis that species of the same plant growth form are more similar to one another than to other growth forms in their response to a controlled perturbation. The controlled perturbation was a complete factorial NPK fertilization experiment in tussock tundra at Eagle Creek, Alaska, USA. We compared deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and functionally deciduous graminoids in terms of mineral and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations, and annual production per stem or tiller.

Shaver, G.R. (San Diego State Univ., CA); Chapin, F.S. III

1980-06-01

357

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENT LOADING, NUTRIENT RETENTION AND NET ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM IN THREE TIDAL RIVER ESTUARIES DIFFERING PREDOMINATELY BY THEIR WATERSHED LAND USE TYPES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract and oral presentation for the Estuarine Research Federation Conference. Estuarine retention of watershed nutrient loads, system-wide nutrient biogeochemical fluxes, and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) were determined in three estuaries exhibiting differing magnitud...

358

Arbuscular mycorrhiza in relation to management history, soil nutrients and plant species diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thelow nutrient status of semi-natural grasslands, pastures and meadows,reflects a continuity of nutrient reduction by grazing and hay-making. Ithas been hypothesized that the nutrient depletion itself may reduce competitionbetween individuals, and that mycorrhiza smooths out differences in nutrientuptake and competitive ability, so that competition for nutrients is evenfurther reduced. This interaction between site history, nutrient status andmycorrhiza could thus be

Åsa Eriksson

2001-01-01

359

Nutrients and Other Abiotic Factors Affecting Bacterial Communities in an Ohio River (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus additions from anthropogenic sources can alter the nutrient pool of aquatic systems, both through\\u000a increased nutrient concentrations and changes in stoichiometry. Because bacteria are important in nutrient cycling and aquatic\\u000a food webs, information about how nutrients affect bacterial communities enhances our understanding of how changes in nutrient\\u000a concentrations and stoichiometry potentially affect aquatic ecosystems as a whole.

Melissa A. Rubin; Laura G. Leff

2007-01-01

360

Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.  

PubMed

Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

2014-02-01

361

Sleep Symptoms Associated with Intake of Specific Dietary Nutrients  

PubMed Central

Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

2013-01-01

362

The relative importance of light and nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth: a simple index of coastal ecosystem sensitivity to nutrient enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone is now a well-established fact. However, there is still uncertainty about the mechanisms through which nutrient enrichment can disrupt biological communities and ecosystem processes in the coastal zone. For example, while some estuaries exhibit classic symptoms of acute eutrophication, including enhanced production of algal biomass, other nutrient-rich estuaries maintain low algal biomass and

James E. Cloern

1999-01-01

363

Nutrients and defoliation increase soil carbon inputs in grassland.  

PubMed

Given the regulatory impact of resources and consumers on plant production, decomposition, and soil carbon sequestration, anthropogenic changes to nutrient inputs and grazing have likely transformed how grasslands process atmospheric CO2. The direction and magnitude of these changes, however, remain unclear in this system, whose soils contain -20% of the world's carbon pool. Nutrients stimulate production but can also increase tissue palatability and decomposition. Grazing variously affects tissue quality and quantity, decreasing, standing biomass, but potentially increasing leaf nutrient concentrations, root production, or investment in tissue defenses that slow litter decay. Here, we quantified individual and interactive impacts of nutrient addition and simulated grazing (mowing) on above- and belowground production, tissue quality, and soil carbon inputs in a western North American grassland with globally distributed agronomic species. Given that nutrients and grazing are often connected with increased root production and higher foliar tissue quality, we hypothesized that these treatments would combine to reduce inputs of recalcitrant-rich litter critical for C storage. This hypothesis was unsupported. Nutrients and defoliation combined to significantly increase belowground production but did not affect root tissue quality. There were no significant interactions between nutrients and defoliation for any measured response. Three years of nutrient addition increased root and shoot biomass by 37% and 23%, respectively, and had no impact on decomposition, resulting in a -15% increase in soil organic matter and soil carbon. Defoliation triggered a significant burst of short-lived lignin-rich roots, presumably a compensatory response to foliar loss, which increased root litter inputs by 33%. The majority of root and shoot responses were positively correlated, with aboveground biomass a reasonable proxy for whole plant responses. The exceptions were decomposition, with roots six times more decay resistant, and grazing impacts on tissue chemistry, with shoots undergoing significant alterations, while roots were unaffected. Because neither treatment affected concentrations of decay-resistant compounds in roots, the implied net effect is higher soil C inputs with potentially longer residency times. Areas managed with nutrients and moderate grazing in our study system could thus accumulate significantly more soil C than unmanaged areas, with a greater capacity to serve as sinks for atmospheric CO2. PMID:23600245

Ziter, Carly; MacDougall, Andrew S

2013-01-01

364

Critical source times for nutrient loss in agricultural catchment streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying periods of the year when there is a high risk of incidental nutrient loss from farms via runoff to streams underpins current nutrient management legislation in Europe. This research explored high-temporal resolution nutrient transfer patterns relative to the time that manure and fertiliser are prohibited from being spread (the mandatory spreading 'closed' period) in five Irish agricultural catchments. Catchment nutrient losses during the 12 week closed periods in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 were compared with losses during the remainder of the year, and with losses in the two week 'shoulder' periods immediately before and after the closed period. The closed period losses were assumed to be residual from soil nutrient stores and the 'shoulder' periods were considered to also include incidental losses. Nutrient loss was measured at sub-hourly frequency as total phosphorus (P) and total oxidised nitrogen (mostly nitrate-N) fluxes in streamflow. The streamflow fluxes showed that the proportion of the annual nitrate-N loss occurring during the closed periods (33-61%) was high compared with the remainder of the year. Six to ten times more nitrate-N loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These two week 'shoulder' period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 2.5 kg nitrate-N/ha and 9% of total annual nitrate-N loss in streamflow. On average, 40-53% of the annual P loss occurred during the closed periods but in a runoff-prone catchment in a year with a wet summer, the closed period was the less risky period. Similar to nitrate-N, two to twenty times more P loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These shoulder period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 0.027 kg/ha and 4.2% of total annual P loss in streamflow. The proportion of the shoulder period loss that could be attributed to recently spread nutrients was not known but can be informed by farm practice and nutrient flow pathways analysis. Losses after the closed period, especially P, could include a significant contribution from eroded soil, which would not be prevented by extending the spreading closed period. Policy proposals to extend the mandatory closed period should consider the long term potential for nutrient runoff and plant growth conditions during the 'shoulder' periods, infrastructure costs of further storage requirements, production costs of restricting critical farm operations during the shoulders and unintended environmental costs such as shifting farm activities towards periods when water bodies are more susceptible to eutrophication.

Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger; Murphy, Paul; Jordan, Phil

2014-05-01

365

Nutrient Overland Flow and Nitrous Oxide Losses from Residential Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential lawn maintenance practices (mowing, fertilizer, irrigation, reseeding, and aeration) result in aesthetically appealing landscapes, but is capable of causing nutrient losses via overland flow or gaseous losses to the atmosphere (e.g. nitrous oxide - N2O). The overall study objective was to determine the effect of lawn maintenance on nutrient losses from residential landscapes. The specific objectives were: modify a passive sampling system to determine nutrient loads due to overland flow from lawns; evaluate differences in overland flow frequency, volumes, and nutrient losses during rainfall events (? 25.4 mm); and compare N2O losses following rainfall events. Three distinct lawn schemes were studied: a high maintenance fescue (Festuca arundinacea) lawn (HMFL), a low maintenance fescue lawn (LMFL), and a mixed forested residential landscape (FRL). The modified passive sampling system allowed 100% recovery of overland flow and demonstrated that differences in maintenance influenced the overland flow frequency, volumes, and nutrient losses. The LMFL had the greatest overland flow volumes and nutrient unit area loads; although N and P concentrations in overland flow exceeded USEPA recommendations from all three lawns. Nutrient losses (g ha-1 yr-1) from all three residential landscapes were 1000 times less than fertilizer (kg ha-1 yr-1) and throughfall (kg ha-1 yr-1) inputs, partially due to the presence of well-structured soils (low bulk densities and high infiltration rates). Irrigation practices between the HMFL and LMFL explained the differences in overland flow volumes and nutrient loads, especially during the first half of the study when drought conditions existed at the study site (Cary, North Carolina). The lack of irrigation in the LMFL resulted in early dormancy and a minimal thatch layer and lower plant density, which caused higher volumes of overland flow. Trends in the N2O losses from the HMFL and LMFL were associated with timing of fertilizer applications, presence or absence of irrigation, and seasonal growth patterns of the fescue. For the RFL, the presence of a decomposing litter layer limited N2O production. Well-maintained residential lawns, receiving recommended fertilizer N applications and frequent irrigation, reduce nutrient losses via overland flow but may provide optimum conditions for greater N2O fluxes.

Osmond, D.; Spence, P.; Heitman, J.; Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.; water quality, nitrogen emissions, residential landscapes

2011-12-01

366

Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha  

PubMed Central

Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

2014-01-01

367

[Nutrients in atmospheric wet deposition in the East China Sea].  

PubMed

92 rainwater samples were collected at Shengsi Archipelago from January 2008 to December 2009. The pH and the concentrations of nutrients (NH4(+), NO3(-) + NO2(-), PO4(3-), SiO3(2-)) were analyzed using spectrophotometry to understand the impacts of the atmospheric wet deposition on the ecosystem of the East China Sea. The results showed that the pH of 85% samples were less than 5.0, and had significant effect on the environment. There were significant differences among monthly average concentrations of nutrients and rainfall and seasonal average wet deposition of nutrients in investigation periods. The annual average wet deposition flux was 52.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for DIN, 0.08 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for PO4(3-), 2.05 mmol x (m2 x a) (-1) for SiO3(2-). The average molar ratios of NO3(-)/NH4(+) is 0.73, N: P ratio is 684: 1, indicating that nutrients composition in rainwater was different from seawater of the East China Sea Shelf (10-150). The wet deposition may change the nutrients structure, pH and lead to change the phytoplankton production in the surface seawater of the East China Sea, even lead to the red tide. PMID:22165245

Zhu, Yu-Mei; Liu, Su-Mei

2011-09-01

368

Solution culture method for studying nutrient uptake and stress  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the uptake of two (or more) different mineral nutrients at very low concentrations, a solution culture system with new capabilities was developed. It allows tight control of nutrient concentrations of very low levels, accurate uptake rate measurements, and frequent non-destructive measurements of plant mass and dimensions. The hydroponic system includes (1) a water-deionizing system, (2) an automated mixing system that can provide up to 3000 liters/day of the base solution containing the non-varied nutrients; (3) seven separate reciprocating syringe pumps, each of which mixes base solution and concentrates of the two varied nutrients and supplies an entire set of plants for one nutritional treatment; (4) growth pots, consisting of 2-liter plastic beakers divided internally into three separate compartments, each provided with a separate nutrient inflow, drain, and aerator/mixer. This once-through (non-recirculating) flow system is constructed entirely of plastics and lesser amounts of other materials in order to minimize chemical contamination. Numerous other advantages are discussed. 3 references, 1 table.

Kay, L.E.; Gutschick, V.P.

1984-01-01

369

Quantifying the nutrient flux within a lowland karstic catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient contamination of surface and groundwaters is an issue of growing importance as the risks associated with agricultural runoff escalate due to increasing demands on global food production. In this study, the nutrient flux occurring within the surface and groundwaters of a lowland karst catchment in western Ireland was investigated with the aid of alkalinity sampling and a hydrological model. Water samples were collected and tested from a variety of rivers, lakes (or turloughs), boreholes and springs at monthly intervals over a three year period. Alkalinity sampling was used to elucidate the contrasting hydrological functioning between different turloughs. Such disparate hydrological functioning was further investigated with the aid of a hydrological model which allowed for an estimate of allogenic and autogenic derived nutrient loading into the karst system. The model also allowed for an investigation of mixing within the turloughs, comparing observed behaviours with the hypothetical conservative behaviour allowed for by the model. Results indicated that at the system outlet to the sea, autogenic recharge had added approximately 35% to the total flow and approximately 85% to the total N-load. Within some turloughs, nutrient loads were found to reduce over the flooded period, even though the turloughs hydrological functioning (and the hydrological model) suggested this should not occur. As such, it was determined that nutrient loss processes were occurring within the system. Denitrification was deemed to be the main process reducing nitrogen concentrations within the turloughs whereas phosphorus loss is thought to occur mostly within the diffuse/epikarst zone.

McCormack, T.; Naughton, O.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

2015-01-01

370

Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment  

PubMed Central

Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

2011-01-01

371

Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for microorganisms in the sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

1999-07-13

372

Nutrients removal and recovery in bioelectrochemical systems: a review.  

PubMed

Nutrient removal and recovery has received less attention during the development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for energy efficient wastewater treatment, but it is a critical issue for sustainable wastewater treatment. Both nitrogen and phosphorus can be removed and/or recovered in a BES through involving biological processes such as nitrification and bioelectrochemical denitrification, the NH4(+)/NH3 couple affected by the electrolyte pH, or precipitating phosphorus compounds in the high-pH zone adjacent a cathode electrode. This paper has reviewed the nutrients removal and recovery in various BES including microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, discussed the influence factors and potential problems, and identified the key challenges for nitrogen and phosphorus removal/recovery in a BES. It expects to give an informative overview of the current development, and to encourage more thinking and investigation towards further development of efficient processes for nutrient removal and recovery in a BES. PMID:24388692

Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

2014-02-01

373

Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. PMID:25128844

Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-10-01

374

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides is the first report in a series of non-technical publications from the US Geological Survey. Based on findings of the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment Program), this first report "presents insights on nutrients and pesticides in water and on pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue." Subsequent reports will cover other water-quality topics including arsenic, radon, other trace elements, and industrial chemicals, as well as chemical and physical effects on aquatic communities. Targeting resource managers, regulators, and policy makers, the report (.pdf format) provides a general overview of findings on nutrients and pesticides, in addition to technical discussions of "the sources, distributions, and potential effects of these chemicals."

375

Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir, China, and potential nutrient reduction strategies.  

PubMed

The Miyun Reservoir is Beijing's main drinking water source. Increased nutrient levels in the reservoir have resulted in an increased risk of harmful algal blooms. One hundred ten water samples were collected at a range of spatial scales in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir and were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N), ammonium (NH4 (+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and the potassium permanganate index (CODMn). Empirical equations were developed from relationships between nutrient concentrations and the main controls on nutrient, and were used to identify parts of the catchment that should be targeted with nutrient load reduction measures. Cropland was the main source of sediment for the streams, and much of the phosphorus was associated with sediment. The annual mean TP concentrations were closely correlated with both the annual mean suspended sediment concentrations and the ratio of the cropland area to the total basin area. There was a linear relationship between the annual mean TN concentration and the population density in the basins. Soil conservation may play an important role in reducing TP concentrations in the upper reaches of the Chao and Bai Rivers. It may be useful to (1) construct natural riparian buffers and vegetated buffers along croplands close to the watercourses, (2) implement management strategies to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications, and (3) construct additional wetlands to reduce nutrient loads in the study area. PMID:25673273

Jiao, Jian; Du, Pengfei; Lang, Cong

2015-03-01

376

Shedding light onto nutrient responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants: nutrient interactions may lead to unpredicted outcomes of the symbiosis.  

PubMed

The role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition is uncertain. We propose that this be clarified by using more integrative experimental designs, with the use of a gradient of N supply and the quantification of an extensive array of plant nutrient contents. Using such an experimental design, we investigated AM effects on plant N nutrition, whether the mycorrhizal N response (MNR) determines the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR), and how MNR influences plants' C economy. Oryza sativa plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mossae. AM effects were studied along a gradient of N supplies. Biomass, photosynthesis, nutrient and starch contents, mycorrhizal colonization and OsPT11 gene expression were measured. C investment in fungal growth was estimated. Results showed that, in rice, MGR was dependent on AM nutrient uptake effects, namely on the synergy between N and Zn, and not on C expenditure. The supply of C to the fungus was dependent on the plant's nutrient demand, indicated by high shoot C/N or low %N. We conclude that one of the real reasons for the negative MGR of rice, Zn deficiency of AMF plants, would have remained hidden without an experimental design allowing the observation of plants' response to AM along gradients of nutrient concentrations. Adopting more integrative and comprehensive experimental approaches in mycorrhizal studies seems therefore essential if we are to achieve a true understanding of AM function, namely of the mechanisms of C/N exchange regulation in AM. PMID:24656333

Corrêa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria

2014-05-01

377

Efficiency of nutrient acquisition by fine roots and mycorrhizae  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to assess claims about the adaptive advantages of root foraging strategies without a conceptual model specific enough to allow quantitative prediction and testing. Application of a solute uptake model in combination with a calculation of carbon costs provides a means of assessing the efficiency of carbon expenditures in procuring nutrients from soil. We analyzed the optimal values of root properties, such as longevity, diameter, and mycorrhizal association, that maximized the efficiency of carbon exchange for nutrient uptake in different environments. Optimal longevity was found to decrease with increased soil fertility if the kinetics of nutrient uptake were assumed to decline with increased root longevity. Optimal diameter was found to be smaller than observed in roots, suggesting that other constraints on root structure or function limit their minimum diameter. Mycorrhizal hyphae were found to be more efficient than roots regardless of soil fertility. The steady-state approach to calculating carbon costs and nutrient gain enabled combinations of root and soil properties to be very simply evaluated. However, this approach ignored spatial heterogeneity and temporal variation in root and soil properties, such as aging of roots and patchiness of soil fertility. Furthermore, finding the values of root parameters that maximize root E may not predict the optimal root deployment for the plant, which depends on the relative value of carbon and nutrients in the whole plant. Estimation of the rate of exchange of carbon and nutrients in roots is a necessary step toward an economic analysis of allocation strategies; it also reveals areas of ignorance and helps to identify future research needs.

Yanai, R.D.; Fahey, T.J.; Miller, S.L.

1995-07-01

378

Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by eutrophication. This study describes effects of N and P enrichment on litter decomposition rate and mineralisation/immobilisation patterns. By making use of reciprocal litter transplantation experiments among fertiliser treatments, it was tested if nutrient addition primarily acts on the primary producers (i.e. changes in litter quantity and quality) or on the microbial decomposers (i.e. changes in nutrient limitation for decomposition). Measurements were done in two mangrove forests where primary production was either limited by N or by P, which had been subject to at least 5years of experimental N and P fertilisation. Results of this study indicated that decomposers were always N-limited regardless of the limitation of the primary producers. This leads to a differential nutrient limitation between decomposers and primary producers in sites where mangrove production was P-limited. In these sites, fertilisation with P caused litter quality to change, resulting in a higher decomposition rate. This study shows that direct effects of fertilisation on decomposition through an effect on decomposer nutrient availability might be non-significant, while the indirect effects through modifying litter quality might be quite substantial in mangroves. Our results show no indication that eutrophication increases decomposition without stimulating primary production. Therefore we do not expect a decline in carbon sequestration as a result of eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25497680

Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

2015-03-01

379

Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers  

PubMed Central

The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable soma hypothesis. PMID:21558244

Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

380

Evidence for sensitivity of dune wetlands to groundwater nutrients.  

PubMed

Dune slacks are seasonal wetlands, high in biodiversity, which experience considerable within-year and between-year variations in water-table. They are subject to many pressures including climate change, land use change and eutrophication. Despite their biological importance and the threats facing them, the hydrological and nutrient parameters that influence their soil properties and biodiversity are poorly understood and there have been no empirical studies to date testing for biological effects in dune systems resulting from groundwater nutrients at low concentrations. In this study we examined the impact of groundwater nutrients on water chemistry, soil chemistry and vegetation composition of dune slacks at three distance classes (0-150 m, 150-300 m, 300-450 m) away from known (off-site) nutrient sources at Aberffraw dunes in North Wales, whilst accounting for differences in water-table regime. Groundwater nitrate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and soil nitrate and nitrite all had significantly higher concentrations closest to the nutrient source. Multivariate analysis showed that although plant species composition within this site was primarily controlled by water table depth and water table fluctuation, nitrogen from groundwater also influenced species composition, independently of water table and soil development. A model containing all hydrological parameters explained 17% of the total species variance; an additional 7% was explained following the addition of NO3 to this model. Areas exposed to elevated, but still relatively low, groundwater nutrient concentrations (mean 0.204 mg/L+/-0.091 of DIN) had greater abundance of nitrophilous species and fewer basipholous species than in areas with lower concentrations. This shows that clear biological impact occurs below previously suggested DIN thresholds of 0.20-0.40 (mg/L). PMID:24846404

Rhymes, Jennifer; Wallace, Hilary; Fenner, Nathalie; Jones, Laurence

2014-08-15

381

Predator-Driven Nutrient Recycling in California Stream Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N) and total dissolved phosphorus (P) for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P) by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7) than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0), or the two species combined (7.5). Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation. PMID:23520520

Munshaw, Robin G.; Palen, Wendy J.; Courcelles, Danielle M.; Finlay, Jacques C.

2013-01-01

382

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) and systems biology. Results Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates. PMID:24693353

Kohl, James Vaughn

2013-01-01

383

Dust or Crust?: Surface Soil Nutrients in the Kalahari  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kalahari covers 2.5 million km2 of southern Africa and consists of 95% fine sand-sized, aeolian-deposited sediment. Soils are predominantly deep, structureless and lacking in N, P and organic matter. Plant available nutrients are concentrated in the top centimetre and thus vulnerable to degradation and transportation by wind erosion. The fertility of Kalahari soils is important for nutritious grass production as livestock grazing remains the predominant livelihood throughout the region. The aim of the research was to investigate the interrelationships between dust, biological crusts, vegetation and disturbance across the Kalahari. Crust, vegetation and surface nutrient characteristics were determined at five locations of different land uses. The spatial and temporal variability of rainfall results in an incomplete vegetation cover and spatially heterogeneous soil nutrients. Our studies show that nutrient heterogeneity is controlled by various factors operating at different scales and is important for ecosystem functioning and degradation vulnerability. At a landscape scale, variability is minimal due to limited topography and a relatively uniform Kalahari Sand cover. At a smaller scale, spatial heterogeneity of soil N and P is also low (11 to 28%) compared to shrublands in the SW United States. Wind erosion is not the principal cause of nutrient heterogeneity because the amount of dust movement and associated nutrient fluxes are low. This is because of an extensive vegetation cover that reduces erodibility and coarse grain sizes, aggregation and biological crusts which reduce surface erosivity. Enrichment occurs under bush canopies due to organic inputs from the vegetation as well as fixation by biological soil crusts that develop preferentially in protected sub-canopy niches. Biological soil crusts are widespread and are able to persist in landscapes where there is a high level of disturbance. However, crust composition is largely restricted to simple Microcoleus spp. Crustal succession is limited by both breakage of crusts and burial by wind blown sediment. In a typical communal grazing area, 48% of the surface was unconsolidated, 44% was crusted and 8% buried crusts compared to up to 95% crust cover in National Parks. Bush sub-canopies are sites of preferential crust development and thus nutrient enrichment, but are also subjected to periodic burial by wind blown dust and plant litter. The overall impact on surface nutrients will depend upon the bush species composition, canopy structure and degree of disturbance.

Thomas, A. D.; Dougill, A. J.

2003-12-01

384

Defining Powerhouse Fruits and Vegetables: A Nutrient Density Approach  

PubMed Central

National nutrition guidelines emphasize consumption of powerhouse fruits and vegetables (PFV), foods most strongly associated with reduced chronic disease risk; yet efforts to define PFV are lacking. This study developed and validated a classification scheme defining PFV as foods providing, on average, 10% or more daily value per 100 kcal of 17 qualifying nutrients. Of 47 foods studied, 41 satisfied the powerhouse criterion and were more nutrient-dense than were non-PFV, providing preliminary evidence of the validity of the classification scheme. The proposed classification scheme is offered as a tool for nutrition education and dietary guidance. PMID:24901795

2014-01-01

385

Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root hairs project from the surface of the root to aid nutrient and water uptake and to anchor the plant in the soil. Their formation involves the precise control of cell fate and localized cell growth. We are now beginning to unravel the complexities of the molecular interactions that underlie this developmental regulation. In addition, after years of speculation, nutrient transport by root hairs has been demonstrated clearly at the physiological and molecular level, with evidence for root hairs being intense sites of H(+)-ATPase activity and involved in the uptake of Ca(2+), K(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cl(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-).

Gilroy, S.; Jones, D. L.

2000-01-01

386

Mathematical modelling of plant water and nutrient uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation I will describe a model of plant water and nutrient uptake and how to translate this model and experimental data from the single root scale to the root branching structure scale. The model starts at the single root scale and describes the water and nutrient movement in the soil using Richards' equation (water uptake) and diffusion-convection equation (nutrient uptake). The water and nutrient uptake in the single root scale model is represented by boundary conditions. In the case of nutrient uptake this has the form of a non-linear Michaelis-Menten uptake law and in the case of water this is given by a soil-xylem pressure difference boundary condition. The flow of water in the xylem is modeled as Poiseuille flow. We solve the single root scale models using the analytic approximate technique of asymptotic expansions similar to Oseen expansions known from fluid dynamics. We will then discuss how to use the analytic expression to estimate the water and nutrient uptake by growing root branching systems. We model the growth of the root system using a dynamic population model to describe the branching and elongation of roots in the branching system. This root branching population model results in a hyperbolic equation similar to age dependent population models and it can be solved fully analytically using the method of characteristics. Thus we have a fully analytic description of the root branching system evolution. We use this branching model to estimate the nutrient uptake in a scenario when the competition between subbranches is small, i.e., as it is in the case of phosphate, potassium and arsenic. We compare our approximate analytic model to a full 3d simulation of the root system phosphate uptake and find that the analytic model almost perfectly reproduces the 3d numerical model. In addition the analytic model can be included in larger field/catchment/climate scale models something which is not practically possible with the numerical simulations due to their high computational burden. As a further development of the analytic model we extend it to take into account more details about the root morphology, such as the branching angle between roots, to calculate the evolution of the soil moisture and nutrient concentration profiles due to surface fertilisation and rainfall events. Using this model we are able to determine the relationship between the rainfall events and fertiliser movement into the soil profile. We find that there is a critical rate of rainfall below which the fertilizer (or pollutant) movement into the deeper layers of the soil is impeded due to the development of a slowly varying fluid saturation profile.

Roose, Tiina

2010-05-01

387

Managing Crop Nutrients Through Soil, Manure and Effluent Testing  

E-print Network

Benef_its of Manure and Ef_f_luent Livestock manures are often rich in plant nutrients. Studies have shown that up to 75 percent of the nitrogen (N), 60 percent of the phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) and 80 percent of the potas- sium (K 2 0) fed to dairy... cattle are excreted in manure. Poultry litters and swine manures may have even higher values for phosphorus and potassium. These elements are essential plant nutrients required by all plants for normal growth and pro- duction. In addition, litter...

McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony; Feagley, Sam E.

1998-12-10

388

Benthic nutrient fluxes in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer and autumn 1988, benthic fluxes of nutrients and oxygen were measured in the Bay of Cadiz. The study was carried\\u000a out using benthic chambers and in addition by determining gradients of nutrient concentration in interstitial water. Fluxes\\u000a ranged between 13.5–24.3, 3.4–7.8, 6.1–28.4 and (? 99.4)?(? 188.5) mmol m? 2 d?1 for NH4\\u000a + , o-P, SiO2 and O2

A. Gómez-Parra; J. M. Forja

1993-01-01

389

Nutrient resources for crop production in the tropics  

PubMed Central

For the foreseeable future a majority of the population, and almost all the mal- and under-nourished, will continue to be found in the tropics and subtropics. Food security in these parts of the world will have to be met largely from local resources. The productivity of the land is to a large extent determined by the fertlity of the soil, which in turn is mostly determined by its organic matter content and stored nutrients. Soil organic matter is readily lost when organic matter inputs are reduced upon cultivation and more so upon intensification. The concomitant loss of topsoil and possible exposure of subsoil acidity may cause further soil degradation.
Plant nutrients to replenish what is yearly taken from the soil to meet the demands for food and fibre amount to 230 million tonnes (Mt). Current fertilizer consumption stands at about 130 Mt of N, P2O5,and K2O, supplemented by an estimated 90 Mt of N from biological nitrogen fixation worldwide. Although 80 per cent of the population lives in the developing world, only half the world's fertilizer is consumed there. Yet, as much as 50% of the increase in agricultural productivity in the developing world is due to the adoption of fertilizers. World population growth will cause a doubling in these nutrients requirements for the developing world by 2020, which, in the likely case of inadequate production, will need to be met from soil reserves. Because expansion of the cultivable land area is reaching its limits, the reliance on nutrient inputs and their efficient use is bound to grow.
With current urban expansion, nutrients in harvested products are increasingly lost from the rural environment as a whole. Estimates of soil nutrient depletion rates for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are alarmingly high. The situation may be more favourable in Latin America and Asia where fertilizer inputs are tenfold those of SSA. Closing the nutrient cycle at a community level in rural areas may be tedious; on an inter-regional level it is associated with considerable costs of collection, detoxification and transportation to the farms. Yet, at the rate at which some of the non-renewable resources such as phosphorus and potassium are being exploited, recycling of these nutrients will soon be required.

Vlek, P. L. G.; Kühne, R. F.; Denich, M.

1997-01-01

390

Synergistic effects of biofertilizer with organic and chemical N sources in improving soil nutrient status and increasing growth and yield of wheat grown under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofertilizers have been identified as value-added soil amendments for improving efficiency of applied fertilizers and increasing soil fertility and crop productivity in sustainable farming system. This study explored the effect of biofertilizer (a mixture of Pseudomonas, Azospirrillium and Agrobacterium strains) supplemented with organic and mineral N fertilizers on soil properties, yield, and NPK uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown

M. K. Abbasi; M. Yousra

2012-01-01

391

Fitness of resprouters versus seeders in relation to nutrient availability in two Plantago species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two contrasting strategies of plants from disturbed areas are reported to depend on nutrient availability. Resprouters, investing into storage and capable of vegetative regeneration after disturbance, are predicted to be enhanced in nutrient poor environments. This contrasts to seeders, which invest preferentially into seed production and regenerating only from seeds, and are thought to prevail in nutrient rich environments. To test such predicted dichotomy, we set up an experiment with two facultative resprouters with contrasting nutrient demands and assessed the fitness of individuals regenerated from seeds and root fragments in differently productive environments. We hypothesized that 1) plants with higher nutrient demands have a higher fitness as seeders irrespectable of nutrient availability and/or 2) both species will have a higher fitness as resprouters under lower nutrient availability and as seeders when nutrient availability is higher. Nutrient availability was also manipulated prior to and after disturbance to evaluate the impact of changing nutrient availability on the strategy of resprouting. The results of our pot experiment with Plantago lanceolata and Plantago media supported the first but not the second hypothesis. Moreover, high nutrient availability prior to disturbance negatively affected resprouting success, but the growth and fitness of successfully regenerated individuals were enhanced under higher nutrient availability. We concluded that resprouting from roots after disturbance is affected by nutrient availability, but this effect considerably differs between individual life-history stages.

Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka

2009-07-01

392

Plasticity of the Arabidopsis Root System under Nutrient Deficiencies1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program. PMID:23852440

Gruber, Benjamin D.; Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2013-01-01

393

The Effect of the Food Stamp Program on Nutrient Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receipt of food stamps is often observed to be positively correlated with intake of nutrients. However, this observed fact could be the result of self-selection into the food stamp program by those individuals who are more interested in maintaining good nutrition. The authors observe that, controlling for participation in the food stamp program, nutrition is negatively affected by food stamp

J. S. Butler; Jennie E. Raymond

1996-01-01

394

Influence of rootstock on nutrient acquisition by pistachio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of rootstock selection on leaf nutrient concentrations in commercial pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. ‘Kerman') was studied. Five commercially important pistachio rootstocks were used. The pistachio rootstock Pistacia atlantica was clearly superior in enhancing leaf concentrations of the elements, boron (B), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) from a range of soil types. The influence of rootstock on

P. H. Brown; Qinglong Zhang; Louise Ferguson

1994-01-01

395

Nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater using a constructed wetlands system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient removal is essential for aquaculture wastewater treatment to protect receiving waters from eutrophication and for potential reuse of the treated water. A pilot-scale wastewater treatment system consisting of a free water surface (FWS) and a subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands arranged in series was operated for around 8 months. The study was conducted to examine system start-up phenomena and

Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee; Tze-Wen Wang

2002-01-01

396

Maintenance of iron and other micronutrients in hydroponic nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chelating agents DTPA, EDTA, EDDHA, HEDTA and others have been used as sources of iron in hydroponic nutrient solutions. Commercial hydroponics would be impossible without them. Although these have resulted in some success, micronutrient balance remains as an important problem in commercial hydroponic operations. Our results suggest that for a given plant species, it does matter which chelating agents

G. A. Wallace; A. Wallace

1984-01-01

397

Nutrient Management Module No. 8 Soil pH and  

E-print Network

4449-8 May 2009 Nutrient Management Module No. 8 Soil pH and Organic Matter by Ann McCauley, Soil a list of additional resources and contacts for those wanting more in-depth information about soil pH with the focus on soil pH and organic matter: soil reactions and soil amendments, and soil test reports

Lawrence, Rick L.

398

Nutrient limitation of bacterioplankton growth in Lake Dillon, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterioplankton biomass, production, and growth rate were measured over a 2-yr period in Lake Dillon, a mesotrophic Colorado reservoir. In addition, a multivariate statistical analysis and nutrient addition experiments were used to analyze the regulation of bacterioplankton growth in situ. Biomass ranged between 170 (winter) and 2,200 mg C m-* (summer); production ranged from 10 (winter) to 625 mg C

DONALD P. MORRIS; WILLIAM M. LEWIS

1992-01-01

399

[Research the biogeochemical processes of nutrients in Minjiang Estuary].  

PubMed

The variations in the concentration and distribution of nutrients and influencing factors in the Minjiang Estuary with a tidal cycle were investigated based on the data obtained during field observations in May 2007. The results showed the suspended sediment, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and silicate were opposite to the change of tidal, while the water level and salinity were consistent with tidal. The buffer mechanism of phosphate was controlled by suspended sand and water. The concentrations of silicate, phosphate and inorganic nitrogen were ranged 0.63-9.00 mg/L, 0.013-0.075 mg/L, 0.33-4.24 mg/L respectively. The contents of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in water mass increased remarkably comparing 1980s because of agriculture, industry and living. The research indicated that the nitrate and silicate were conservative, but phosphate was non-conservative in the biogeochemical processes of nutrients in Minjiang Estuary. The diluted water carried abundant inorganic nitrogen, silicate nutrients to Minjiang Estuary and thus phosphate was similar between diluted water and sea water. Based on the results of nutrient ratios, it was suggested that phosphate was a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in the Minjiang Estuary. PMID:21528557

Ye, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Ji, Wei-Dong; Li, Dong-Yi

2011-02-01

400

Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption  

E-print Network

Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill dans les feuilles de trois espèces ligneuses, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. et Clematis

Boyer, Edmond

401

Nutrient availability influences UV-B sensitivity of Plantago lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Plantago lanceolata were collected in a dune grassland ecosystem in the Netherlands. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 61 days under either low or high nutrient conditions and were exposed to four different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation. The highest UV-B exposure level simulated 30% reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer during summertime in the Netherlands.

Marcel Tosserams; Jaqueline Smet; Erwin Magendans; Jelte Rozema

2001-01-01

402

Modelling and simulation of nutrient dispersion from coated fertilizer granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of Controlled-Release Fertilizer (CRF) is essential in plants and crops to fulfill the need and requirement for the modern agriculture which now feeds 6 billion people. Therefore modeling and simulation of nutrient release from coated fertilizer has become the best method to study the behavior of some parameters toward water saturation in and nutrient release from the coated-fertilizer granule. This paper is the improvement development of modeling and computer simulation by Basu [1] which include some of the factors affecting the water saturation time and nutrient release time from a coated-fertilizer. The effect of granule radius, the diffusivity of water and nutrient, the temperature of surrounding, the contact areas and the characteristic of the coating are studied and the simulation was developed using MATLAB software. The studies and understanding of this project is very important and useful especially to determine the important parameters in the manufacturing process of the coated-fertilizer granule and also will be useful for the farmers/users in the selection of the best fertilizers for their crops.

Razali, Radzuan; Daud, Hanita; Nor, Shafiq Mohd.

2014-10-01

403

Nutrient removal from eutrophic lake water by wetland filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Apopka is a large (125 km2), shallow (mean depth 1.6 m) lake in Florida, USA. The lake was made hypereutrophic by phosphorus loading from floodplain farms and has high levels of nutrients, phytoplankton (Chl a 80 ?g l?1), and suspended matter. The restoration plan developed by the St. Johns River Water Management District encompasses the biomanipulation concept in which

M. F. Coveney; D. L. Stites; E. F. Lowe; L. E. Battoe; R. Conrow

2002-01-01

404

DIAGNOSTIC INDICATORS OF STREAM IMPAIRMENT AS A RESULT OF NUTRIENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The main goal of this project is to provide information needed by States to set nutrient criteria at a level appropriately protective of their water bodies' aquatic life uses. The information that would be generated by this study is critically needed in order for States to use it...

405

MACRO NUTRIENT Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

nutrients? . ..21 5 Dietary Self-Selection .21 6 Common Sense and Evolutionary Theory 21 7 Cafeteria The Wisdom of the Body characterized accurately the extraordinary efficacy of physiological systems. The results of Richter's empirical work led him to conclude that animals (and humans) could select foods

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

406

Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

1998-01-01

407

On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

408

Nutrients by the Numbers: Using Math to Explore Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students strengthen their percentage and fraction skills by comparing the nutritional values of similar food products. They individually calculate their own daily intake of various nutrients and compare their diets to recommended daily percentages. Discussion questions, additional activities, and suggestions for assessment are included with the lesson plan.

Clayton DeKorne

2002-10-03

409

EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZA ON THE NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi commonly infect plant roots, forming beneficial symbiotic relationships. The primary benefits of VAM plants are the enhanced acquisition and recycling of nutrients, particularly P, as well as soil moisture. This study compared the relationship between soil and leaf chemical elements of sugarcane variety N12 with low and high % mycorrhization (%myc). Seventy-one soil and leaf

S F JAMAL; P CADET; R S RUTHERFORD; C J STRAKER

410

Measuring Nitrification: A Laboratory Approach to Nutrient Cycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an approach to the study of nutrient cycling in the school laboratory. Discussed are obtaining, processing, and incubating samples; extraction of ions from soil; procedures for nitrate and ammonium analysis; data analysis; an example of results; and other aspects of the nitrogen cycle. (CW)

Hicks, David J.

1990-01-01

411

Cow diet and management impact nutrient losses from dairy farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the USA, regulations have been promulgated to minimize negative impacts of livestock farms on air and water quality. We conducted two integrated feed-manure management trials and a survey of dairy feed practices and to examine relationships between dairy diets, milk production, manure nutrient ex...

412

NUTRIENT SYNCHRONY: SOUND IN THEORY, ELUSIVE IN PRACTICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The concept of improving animal performance through synchronizing ruminal availability of nutrients has been with us for at least 3 decades. Though theoretically appealing, research and field results have not supported this approach to diet formulation. Why? Essential to successful ruminal synchrony...

413

Aquaponic Systems: Nutrient recycling from fish wastewater by vegetable production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the possibility to combine wastewater treatment in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with the production of crop plants biomass. In an aquaponic RAS established in Waedenswil, Zurich, the potential of three crop plants was assessed to recycle nutrients from fish wastewater. A special design of trickling filters was used to provide nitrification of fish wastewater: Light-expanded clay aggregate

Andreas Graber; Ranka Junge

2009-01-01

414

Early diagenesis and nutrient benthic fluxes in the Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagenesis processes and dissolved nutrient benthic fluxes of Northern and Central Adriatic Sea bottom sediments were investigate in order to know different sedimentary environmental settings. The study was carried out in 12 stations by means of an integrated analysis of pore water and solid phase composition. In each station one core, about one meter long, was collected. In the

F. Spagnoli; F. Frascari; M. Marcaccio; M. C. Bergamin

2003-01-01

415

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems of  

E-print Network

Original article Nutrient cycling in deciduous forest ecosystems of the Sierra de Gata mountains and compared with the returns found in four deciduous oak (Quercus pyrenaica Wild.) forests (1990-1993) located. This similarity is logical since the plots harbour the same deciduous species which are, however, subjected

Boyer, Edmond

416

THE PHOSPHORUS INDEX AND PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus management is becoming an increasingly important component of farm nutrient management. Attention has been focused on phosphorus as a result of the role it plays in water quality degradation, specifically accelerated eutrophication. Additionally, there has been a national revision of th...

417

RESPONSE OF AN ALASKAN WETLAND TO NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were performed to determine the effects of nutrient addition to an Alaskan freshwater wetland. Nitrogen (as urea), phosphorus (as a super triple phosphate fertilizer), and secondary sewage were added to a freshwater Sphagnum wetland. Changes in the end-of-season standing ...

418

ACROCHEMICAL AND NUTRIENT IMPACTS ON ESTUARIES AND OTHER AQUATIC SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper summarizes the Agrochemical and Nutrient Impacts on Estuaries Symposium held at the 220th American Chemical Society National Meeting. The focus of the symposium was to highlight on-going research efforts to understand estuarine function and pollutant fate in these important ecosystems. E...

419

Water, weed, and nutrient management practices in organic blackberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of organic management on plant and soil water and nutrient relations, plant growth, yield, and fruit quality in an organic trailing blackberry production system. Treatments include: cultivar ('Marion' and 'Black Diamond'); irrigation (post-harve...

420

Exploring the Sulfur Nutrient Cycle Using the Winogradsky Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Winogradsky column demonstrates how the metabolic diversity of prokaryotes transforms sulfur to different forms with varying redox states and hence, supplies nutrients and/or energy to the organism. The Winogardsky column is an excellent way to show that not all bacteria are pathogens and they have an important role in the geochemical cycling…

Rogan, Brian; Lemke, Michael; Levandowsky, Michael; Gorrell, Thomas

2005-01-01

421

Methods of measuring nutrient substrate utilization using stable isotopes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following cessation of the transplacental flow of nutrients, most healthy term newborn infants promptly initiate hepatic glucose production to meet their high glucose demands and maintain normoglycemia. Since the hepatic glycogen content is limited, the neonate becomes dependent on gluconeogenesis a...

422

Research and Industry Partnership in Nutrient Calculation Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research dietitians have unique computational needs not satisfied by currently available dietetic software. A nutrient calculation and food management software system called ProNutra was developed in partnership with researchers and industry from two National Centers for Research Resources (NCRR) at the National Institutes of Health Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants.Procedures involved in designing research diets were determined by interviewing

Rick Weiss

2001-01-01

423

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla

2008-01-01

424

Estimation of Nutrient Atmospheric Deposition to Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic nutrient sources (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) released into the Long Island Sound (LIS) causes excessive phytoplankton growth resulting in hypoxic conditions. Atmospheric deposition (both wet and dry deposition) has significant effect on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Two dry deposition monitoring sites were established along the north shore of LIS in February 1991. Wet and dry deposition samples were collected

Hsien-Lun Hu; Hsiu-Min Chen; Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis; David R. Miller; Xiusheng Yang

1998-01-01

425

Microbial activity and nutrient dynamics in earthworm casts (Lumbricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial respiration, microbial biomass and nutrient requirements of the microflora (C, N, P) were studied in the food substrate (soil taken from the upper 3 cm of the mineral soil of a beech wood on limestone), the burrow walls and the casts of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). The passage of the soil through the gut caused an increase in

S. Scheu

1987-01-01

426

Effect of nutrient enrichment on seagrass associated meiofauna in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Abundance, diversity and community structure of meiofauna, with special emphasis on epiphytic harpacticoid copepods, occurring in Tanzanian seagrass beds under various nutrient inputs was determined. All measured parameters for epiphytic meiofauna and diatoms (fucoxanthin) were negatively affected by nutrient input and this was detected even at the higher taxonomic levels of meiofauna, supporting the validity of higher taxon surrogacy in environmental impact studies. However, benthic meiofauna and other biofilm characteristics (chlorophyll a) did not show any difference between sites suggesting that nutrient enrichment had less impact on these variables. This indicates a differential impact of pollution on epiphytic vs. benthic communities. Consequently, different trophic levels will be impacted in various ways and hence the effects of pollution on the overall ecosystem functioning of seagrass beds are complex and not straightforward. Although the seagrass plants themselves don't show any major changes under different nutrient input, associated organisms that guarantee energy flow at basal levels of the food web in this ecosystem can be largely impacted. PMID:23072915

Daudi, Lillian Nduku; Lugomela, Charles; Uku, Jacqueline Nduku; De Troch, Marleen

2012-12-01

427

Empirical approach to predict leached nutrients from landfill site.  

PubMed

An empirical approach is made in this investigation to predict the leached concentrations of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the effluents from a landfill site. Water at certain predetermined inflow filling rate is applied to a specific ponding depth, at the top of an experimental column filled with landfill refuse soil at the top (upper layer) and normal local soil at the bottom (base layer). The water infiltrates into the upper layer soil, percolates through the pores in upper and base layers, and in the process leaches the nutrients from the soils that are collected at the bottom of the column. The experimentations were for different combinations of heights of upper and base layer soils, water ponding depth, and inflow filling rates. The nutrient concentrations in the outflow leachates are measured using flame photometer. The observations showed mixed responses of leaching and trapping of nutrients in the soil layers for the various combinations. The experimental observations also inferred that the nutrient leaching is more for cases involving higher ponding depths and higher inflow filling rates. Empirical relationships with respect to the geometrical parameters, to predict the leached concentrations of Na, Ca, and K, are developed from the experimental observations using nonlinear least squares regressive techniques. Exponential equations gave the best empirical fit among various nonlinear relations in the regression technique. The empirical models also predicted well for each subcategory of independent variables that are substantiated by high correlation coefficients. PMID:25410312

Barman, Pranab Jyoti; Kartha, Suresh A; Pradhan, Bulu

2014-11-21

428

Hydrologic controls on nutrient cycling in an unconfined coastal aquifer.  

PubMed

Groundwater is an important pathway for terrestrially derived nutrients to enter the coastal ocean. In coastal aquifers, groundwater transits the subterranean estuary, a region of sharp gradients in redox conditions and the availability of reactants. In one such system (Waquoit Bay, MA, USA), we observed more than a doubling of the groundwater-associated nitrogen flux to surface water during the summer compared to winter due primarily to a reduction in nitrogen attenuation within the subterranean estuary. Because marine groundwater intrusion has been shown to increase during the summer, we calculate a greater contribution of recycled nutrients from the coastal ocean to the subterranean estuary. We posit that the longer residence times within the subterranean estuary during the winter, which would result from reduced marine groundwater circulation, allow oxygen depletion of the groundwater, creating a favorable environment for important nutrient transformations such as nitrification, denitrification, and anammox. The timing of nutrient delivery to the coastal ocean has important implications for coastal marine ecology including the potential development of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25401958

Gonneea, Meagan Eagle; Charette, Matthew A

2014-12-16

429

Nutrient and food intakes differ among Latina subgroups during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To document nutrient and food group serving intakes from food sources among Latina subgroups living in the same geographical area. Design A cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food group serving intakes were assessed by means of a 24 h recall administered immediately after a prenatal survey. Setting Hartford, CT, USA. Subjects A total of 233 low-income pregnant Latinas. For analyses, Latinas were classified into two groups on the basis of self-reported ethnic identity: Puerto Ricans and non-Puerto Rican Latinas. Results Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely than non-Puerto Rican Latinas to be more acculturated and to consume foods (i.e. processed meat, cheese, soft drinks) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fat, SFA, MUFA, trans fatty acids) that have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases. By contrast, non-Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely to consume foods (i.e. fruits, dark green/yellow vegetables, tomatoes, non-starchy vegetables) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fibre, vegetable protein, folate, ?-carotene) that promote health when compared with Puerto Rican Latinas. Conclusions Findings suggest that acculturation may play a role in dietary intake. Clinicians and dietitians need to be aware of these differences to encourage healthy eating patterns among more acculturated pregnant Latina clients. PMID:21729472

Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

2011-01-01

430

ORIGINAL PAPER Mechanical damage to pollen aids nutrient acquisition  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Mechanical damage to pollen aids nutrient acquisition in Heliconius butterflies+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Neotropical Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen onto Heliconius butterflies resulted in sig- nificantly greater amounts of damaged Psiguria pollen after 200 min

Krenn, Harald W.

431

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows in sheep consuming pea seeds of pea protein were evalu- ated by in situ and in vivo measurements of rumen and intestine digestion the apparent digestion of OM in the rumen but increased it in the small intestine. Total tract OM digestibility

Boyer, Edmond

432

Manure Management to Improve Nutrient Use Efficiency and Environmental Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure from livestock operations can be a valuable source of N, P, K, and micronutrients for crop production, but careful management is important to maximize nutrient use efficiency and minimize N and P losses that can adversely impact the environment. Volatilization of NH3-N, the largest N loss pot...

433

ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We are evaluating the influence of nutrient loading on phytoplankton and periphyton in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes as part of an EPA study associated with the Great Lakes Environmental Indicator (GLEI) project. A primary goal is to assess the role of wetland morphology an...

434

EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL ON NUTRIENT CYCLING PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the risk of toxic chemicals to soil nutrient cycling processes involves an understanding of the potential for chemical effects on the diversity and the activity of the microbial communities and higher life forms in the natural system. ssessments of risk associated with ...

435

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka that sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) imported and exported from four major systems in Bristol Bay, Alaska servi à calculer les quantités d'azote et de phosphore que les saumons rouges (Oncorhynchus nerka

436

Do nutrients limit algal periphyton in blackwater coastal plain streams?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many streams draining the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain are listed as having impaired water quality because of low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Nutrient enrichment from nonpoint source pollution, and associated algal and bacterial growth (which create a biological oxygen demand), may be the cause...

437

Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. How arsenic is released from the sediment into the water remains poorly understood. Here, we show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite. We hypothesize that arsenic mobilization is a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The

Brian J. Mailloux; Ekaterina Alexandrova; Alison R. Keimowitz; Karen Wovkulich; Greg A. Freyer; Michael Herron; John F. Stolz; Timothy C. Kenna; Thomas Pichler; Matthew L. Polizzotto; Hailiang Dong; Michael Bishop; Peter S. K. Knappett

2009-01-01

438

Enhancing Sustainable Nutrient and Irrigation Management for Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aspects of nutrient and irrigation best management practices (BMP) in relation to sustainable agricultural production systems described in this paper are: (i) application of crop simulation model for decision support system; and (ii) real-time, automated measurement of soil-water content to aid in optimal irrigation scheduling aimed at minimizing leaching losses below the root zone. Water transport through the soil

A. K. Alva

2010-01-01

439

Olive fruit pulp and pit growth under differing nutrient supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objetive of this work was to study if the addition of nutrients to the irrigation water modified ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ olive pulp and pit growth. The experiment was carried out during the 2003 fruit-growth period in an irrigated orchard near Seville, southern Spain. Fruit samples were taken in July and September, at 12 and 21 weeks after full bloom

A. Morales-Sillero; H. Rapoport; J. E. Fernández; A. Troncoso

2008-01-01

440

OZONE ALTERS THE CONCENTRATIONS OF NUTRIENTS IN BEAN TISSUE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon af...

441

Radiation Preservation of Foods and Its Effect on Nutrients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion of (1) some possible applications of ionizing radiation to the treatment and preservation of food and (2) the effects of irradiation on nutrients such as proteins, fats, oils, carbohydrates and vitamins. The authors suggest that the irradiation process has great potential in food technology. Bibliography. (LC)

Josephson, Edward S.; Thomas, Miriam H.

1970-01-01

442

Nutrient intake is inadequate for US national synchronized skaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this descriptive study was to determine the energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes as well as the dietary supplement use of female 2002 US national elite synchronized skaters. One hundred twenty-two female synchronized skaters (mean age = 15.7 ± 2.4 years) from the 2002 US national synchronized skating teams participated in the study. Nutrient intakes were determined

Paula J. Ziegler; Satya S. Jonnalagadda

2006-01-01

443

Effects of nesting waterbirds on nutrient levels in Honduran mangroves  

E-print Network

Effects of nesting waterbirds on nutrient levels in Honduran mangroves Tyler McFadden Advisor: J Program #12;#12;Mangroves provide a number of ecosystem services: · Coastal storm protection · Fish day-1 Breeding season (120 days): 1116 Kg N ha-1 #12;Why does this matter? · Mangroves are often

444

Masting in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) depletes stored nutrients.  

PubMed

• In masting trees, synchronized, heavy reproductive events are thought to deplete stored resources and to impose a replenishment period before subsequent masting. However, direct evidence of resource depletion in wild, masting trees is very rare. Here, we examined the timing and magnitude (local vs individual-level) of stored nutrient depletion after a heavy mast event in Pinus albicaulis. • In 2005, the mast year, we compared seasonal changes in leaf and sapwood nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and leaf photosynthetic rates in cone-bearing branches, branches that never produced cones, and branches with experimentally removed cones. We also compared nutrient concentrations in cone branches and branches that had never had cones between 2005 and 2006, and measured tree ring width and new shoot growth during 2005. • During the mast year, N or P depletion occurred only in tissue fractions of reproductive branches, where photosynthetic rates were reduced. However, by the end of the following year, nutrients were depleted in all branches, indicating individual-level resource depletion. New shoot and radial growth were not affected by masting. • We provide direct evidence that mast events in wild trees deplete stored nutrients. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating reproductive costs over time and at the individual level. PMID:22889129

Sala, Anna; Hopping, Kelly; McIntire, Eliot J B; Delzon, Sylvain; Crone, Elizabeth E

2012-10-01

445

Fungicide and Nutrient Transport with Runoff from Creeping Bentgrass Turf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The detection of pesticides and excess nutrients in surface waters of urban watersheds has lead to increased environmental concern and suspect of contaminant contributions from residential, urban, and recreational sources. Highly managed biotic systems such as golf courses and commercial landscapes ...

446

Nutrient chemistry of the water column of Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Tanganyika shows pcrmancnt thermal stratification with deep-water temperatures that have been stable over the period of observation (since 1939). The lake is anoxic below - 150-m depth. In general the nutrients show Redficld behavior save in the deep waters of the northern basin where large excesses of phosphate and ammonia are prcscnt. Bacterial disproportionation of organic material probably plays

J. M. EDMOND; R. F. STALLARD; H. CRAIG; V. CRAIG; R. F. WEISS; G. W. COULTER

1993-01-01

447

Stream Restoration to Manage Nutrients in Degraded Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic land-use change can reduce water quality by impairing the ability of stream ecosystems to efficiently process nutrients such as nitrogen. Study results of two streams (Minebank Run and Big Spring Run) affected by urbanization, quarrying, agriculture, and impoundments in...

448

CERTIFIED TEXAS NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST CEU REPORTING FORM  

E-print Network

Specialists CEUs on a yearly basis. You are required to have 5 CEUs in nutrient management or related areas. Activities eligible for CEUs are: a. Courses / Professional Meetings: (3 CEU maximum) Short courses activity for each of the four categories per form. d. Date of the activity. e. CEUs: For each category

Mukhtar, Saqib

449

Nutrient Retention of Vitamins and Minerals in Cooked Whole Grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recipe calculations are used in many applications, such as food consumption surveys and food service, to estimate the nutrient content of multi-ingredient foods when analytical data are not available. When using uncooked foods as ingredients in recipes, retention factors are needed to account for l...

450

Population dynamics and nutrient fluxes in an aquatic microcosm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aquatic microcosm, consisting of three spatially separated yet mutually dependent trophic levels, was established in the laboratory and monitored for 310 days. A three-fold research approach evaluates the experimental potential of this large, multicompartmental microecosystem. Realistic biological and chemical features and nutrient fluxes parallel identifiable patterns observed in natural aquatic ecosystems as well as in published laboratory observations. Two

Catherine A. Elstad

1986-01-01

451

Permeability of Fabric Ground Covers to Organically-Derived Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground covers can reduce fruit production costs. However, because they differ in porosity, they can pose an obstacle for in-season fertilization. An incubation experiment was established using soil columns with two different covers amended with solid organic fertilizers to determine movement of nutrients into the soil. One cover was porous while the other was tightly woven. The porous cover was

L. M. Zibilske

2010-01-01

452

Urban Runoff and Nutrients Loading Control from Sustainable BMPs (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change alters hydrodynamic and nutrient dynamic in both large and small geographic scales. These changes in our freshwater system directly affect drinking water, food production, business, and all aspects of our life. Along with climate change is increasing urbanization which alters natural landscape. Urban runoff has been identified as one of many potential drivers of the decline of pelagic

Q. Xiao

2009-01-01

453

GERANIUM NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, PARTITIONING, AND BIOENERGETIC COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) is considered to be one of the top-selling floriculture plants, and is highly responsive to increased macro- and micronutrient bioavailability. In spite of its economic importance, there are few nutrient disorder symptoms reported for this species. The lack of nu...

454

Effect of potassium on moringa plants growth in nutriente solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work was carried out to evaluate the effects of K + rates on the initial growth as well as on the partition and accumulation of this element in roots, stems and leaves of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) plants. A pot (0.5 dm 3) experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions using river sand as substrate irrigated with nutrient solution

Lucia Helena; Ricardo Almeida Viégas; Ana Carolina; Feitosa de Vasconcelos; Hugo Vieira

455

Effective Nutrient Sources for Plant Growth on Bauxite Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a field experiment to evaluate alternatives to poultry manure, the normal fertilizer used for growing dust control crops and native vegetation on bauxite residue sand. We compared plant growth, nutrient uptake and residue properties after applications of poultry manure, compost, composted poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer. The compost used was prepared from green waste treated with piggery waste.

Judy Eastham; Tim Morald; Patricia Aylmore

2006-01-01

456

Mass culture of spirulina using low-cost nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two species of Spirulina were cultivated in outdoor ponds using low-cost substitutes for some of the recommended nutrients. In particular, bone-meal and biogas effluent were found to be very effective for the growth of these species.

C. V. Seshadri; Sebastian Thomas

1979-01-01

457

The New Nutrient Management What It Means for You  

E-print Network

Description Upon Squeezing 30%30%% Crop Residue Cover Wet soil rate gal./ac. Wet soil rate gal vegetative buffers 2. Maintain 30% crop cover on the soil surface after application 3. Incorporate nutrients Restrictions When frozen or snow covered soil prevents effective incorporation · No N & P commercial fertilizer

Balser, Teri C.

458

Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity  

E-print Network

Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity Forest losses of species impact the functioning of ecosystems, human-caused losses of biodiversity are rarely in biodiversity, species compo- sition, and ecosystem functioning. It remains unknown whether such shifts

Minnesota, University of

459

UPSTREAM-TO-DOWNSTREAM CHANGES IN NUTRIENT EXPORT RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the early operating principles of landscape ecology was the importance of studying the movement of energy, nutrients, and biota in the horizontal or x,y plane (Risser et al. 1984). The new focus on horizontal movement was in part based on the recognition that many ecol...

460

FUTURE AQUATIC NUTRIENT LIMITATIONS. (R827785E02)  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in aquatic systems is moving towards a higher incidence of P and Si limitation as a result of increased nitrogen loading, a N:P fertilizer use of 26:1 (molar basis), population growth, and relatively stable silicate loading. This res...

461

USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE, RELEASE 19  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19 contains data for 7,291 food items for up to 140 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR18, issued in August 2005. Data in SR19 supersede values in the printed Handbooks a...

462

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20 contains data for 7,517 food items for up to 140 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR19, issued in August 2006. Data in SR20 supersede values in printed USDA handbooks ...

463

USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE, RELEASE NO. 18  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 contains data for 7,147 food items for up to 136 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR17, issued in August 2004. Data in SR18 supersede values in the printed Handbooks a...

464

Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient and energy retention in young racing. No difference in body weight was observed between groups. Despite feed restriction, intake was higher for enzyme-sup- plemented diet. When related to feed intake, excreta were lower by 11% for enzyme-supplemented diet. Enzyme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Chlorophyll a: Nitrogen was the limiting nutrient, with significantly higher  

E-print Network

to assess nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. The addition of nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO3 -) or phosphorus as orthophosphate (PO4 3-) has been shown to dramatically change the amount of biofilm that can of the agar was the only surface exposed to light and stream water. Cups were fastened to L-shaped aluminum

Hall, Sharon J.

466

Identifying the Source of Nutrient Contamination in a Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations within watercourses are often associated with the input of sewage or the runoff of fertilizers. Due to population increases, there has been a dramatic rise in the amount of fertilizer applied to land, as well as in the further development of sewage treatment plants (STPs), both of which can lead to significant discharges with associated eutrophication risks in

D. Wayland; D. P. Megson; S. M. Mudge; J. D. Icely; A. Newton

2008-01-01

467

Phycoremediation: key issues for cost-effective nutrient removal processes.  

PubMed

Phycoremediation applied to the removal of nutrients from animal wastewater and other high organic content wastewater is a field with a great potential and demand considering that surface and underground water bodies in several regions of the world are suffering of eutrophication. However, the development of more efficient nutrient removal algal systems requires further research in key areas. Algae growth rate controls directly and indirectly the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency. Thus, maximum algae productivity is required for effective nutrient removal and must be considered as a key area of research. Likewise, low harvesting costs are also required for a cost-effective nutrient removal system. The use of filamentous microalgae with a high autoflocculation capacity and the use of immobilized cells have been investigated in this respect. Another key area of research is the use of algae strains with special attributes such as tolerance to extreme temperature, chemical composition with predominance of high added value products, a quick sedimentation behavior, or a capacity for growing mixotrophically. Finally, to combine most of the achievements from key areas and to design integrated recycling systems (IRS) should be an ultimate and rewarding goal. PMID:14623045

Olguín, Eugenia J

2003-12-01

468

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun Research

Hammock, Bruce D.

469

Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem (Andropogon geradii Vitman), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass [ Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.). Generally, the optimum rate of fertilization for biomass yield by the grasses was 140 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen inputs also had pronounced but grass-specific effects on biomass and nutrient partitioning, and on carbon storage. For big bluestem and switchgrass, 140 kg N ha -1. maximized root biomass, favored allocation of nutrients to roots over shoots, and led to net increases in carbon storage over the study duration. In contrast, for indiangrass and eastern gamagrass, root biomass and root nutrient allocation were generally adversely affected by N fertilization and carbon storage increased only with 0 or 65 kg N ha-1. For all grasses, 220 kg N ha -1 tended to shift allocation of nutrients to shoots over roots and resulted in no net increase in carbon storage. Optimal nitrogen management strategies for perennial, warm-season grass energy crops should take into consideration the effects of N on biomass yield as well as factors such as nutrient and carbon balance that will also impact economic feasibility and environmental sustainability.

Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

470

Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

1999-08-01

471

Sponge-Microbe Associations Survive High Nutrients and Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) (97% sequence similarity) levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures. PMID:23284943

Simister, Rachel; Taylor, Michael W.; Tsai, Peter; Webster, Nicole

2012-01-01

472

Regulating farm nutrient runoff : Maryland's experience with the Water Quality Improvement Act  

E-print Network

Federal and state programs designed to address nonpoint agricultural nutrient pollution rely almost exclusively on voluntary programs and financial incentives to encourage farmers to adopt nutrient management plans and ...

Herbst, Annemarie H

2005-01-01

473

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS AND RIVER FLOW IN A NORTHWESTERN USA WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

Dissolved nutrient concentrations were measured in the Yaquina River, Oregon from 1998 through 2001 to determine the watershed loading to Yaquina estuary. The effects of storms on dissolved nutrient transport were investigated relative to stream discharge for three storm events,...

474

DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENTS AND HYDROLOGY IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal wetlands are hydrologically complex ecosystems situated at the interface of upland catchments and oligotrophic Lake Superior. Little is known about nutrient dynamics within coastal wetlands or their role in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to ...

475

NUTRIENT CONTAMINATION AS A RESULT OF POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES: A SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrients are common contaminants in Gulf of Mexico estuaries and when present in high concentrations, they can cause excessive algal growths and hypoxic conditions. The magnitude and biological significance of nutrient loading to estuarine waters receiving treated wastewaters is...

476

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TO IMPROVE NUTRIENT AND OXYGEN DELIVERY FOR IN SITU BIORECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The in situ delivery of nutrients and oxygen in soil is a serious problem in implementing in situ biodegradation. Current technology requires ideal site conditions to provide the remediating organisms with the nutrients and oxygen required for their metabolism, but...

477

Geomorphic stream restoration as an approach for reducing nutrients in degraded urban watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater pose human and ecological threats. Stream restoration may improve the nutrient removal capacity of streams, yet few studies have investigated the effectiveness of restoration as a nutrient BMP despite significant national effort...

478

NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

479

CONTROL OF SEDIMENTS, NUTRIENTS, AND ADSORBED BIOCIDES IN SURFACE IRRIGATION RETURN FLOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technology available for the control of sediments, nutrients, and adsorbed biocides in surface irrigation return flows has been reviewed and evaluated. Some of this technology could be applied immediately to reduce sediment and associated nutrient and biocide concentrations i...

480

MICROBIAL ENZYME ACTIVITY FOR CHARACTERIZING NUTRIENT LOADING TO GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy and material flows in aquatic ecosystems are mediated by microbial carbon and nutrient cycling. Extracellular enzymes produced by the microbial community aid in the degradation of organic matter and the resultant acquisition of limiting nutrients. Organic carbon sequestrat...

481

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Estimating usual total nutrient intake distributions from diet and supplements  

Cancer.gov

Identify key challenges and considerations in combining dietary and supplement intake data. Explain statistical approaches to estimating total nutrient intakes. Describe assumptions and caveats of current techniques of estimating total nutrient intakes.

482

Evaluation of rainfall and epic simulations for estimating probabilities of nutrient loss from dairies  

E-print Network

Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) for estimating water runoff and nutrient transport from individual fields and whole dairies in central Texas. A secondary objective was to write a routing program that would quantify runoff and nutrient transport between...

Jiang, Yue

1997-01-01

483

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 17 Manure;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 17 Manure Stacking

Guiltinan, Mark

484

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient Management Program/Technical Manual January 2013 Supplement 17 Manure of the slope unless a diversion is constructed of soil above the stack. #12;Pennsylvania Act 38/Nutrient

Guiltinan, Mark

485

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. Animal and...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances by...

2013-01-01

486

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. Animal and...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances by...

2010-01-01

487

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. Animal and...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances by...

2011-01-01

488

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. Animal and...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances by...

2014-01-01

489

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. Animal and...or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances by...

2012-01-01

490

EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADING ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN A NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSH  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal marshes represent an important transitional zone between uplands and estuaries. One important function of marshes is to assimilate nutrient inputs from uplands, thus providing a buffer for anthropogenic nutrient loads. We examined the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphoru...

491

Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

492

Effects of Nutrient Supply and Cooling on Growth, Flower Bud Differentiation, and Propagation of the Nobile Dendrobium Orchid  

E-print Network

with an earlier nutrient termination. No reversion of reproductive to vegetative buds arose due to either late nutrient termination or resumption of nutrients during cooling. Interactions between temperature and cooling duration were significant on time required...

Yen, Christine Yung-Ting

2009-05-15

493

Evaluation of wine vinasses as alternative nutrients in biotechnological processes Evaluación de vinazas vínicas como nutriente alternativo en procesos biotecnológicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinasses are acidic effluents with high organic content, including acids, carbohydrates, phenols and unsaturated compounds with high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Their discharge into public watercourses promotes a high and toxic contamination of the medium, resulting in significant environmental problems. However, the search for alternative, financially competitive nutrient sources to carry out biotechnological procedures is particularly interesting, considering that

José Manuel Salgado; Noelia Rodríguez; Belén Max; Belinda Pérez; Raquel Rodríguez; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Domínguez

2011-01-01

494

DIETS OF MAYAN ADULTS FROM GUATEMALA HIGHLANDS ARE OF HIGH NUTRIENT DENSITIES AS COMPARED TO NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using data from the Mayan Component of the Cross-Cultural Research on Nutrition of Older Subjects (CRONOS), carried out in Guatemala, we assessed nutrient intake of 316 Mayan adults (35% men). The main objective was to characterize dietary patterns in a population group with traditional and culture-...

495

Quality-control materials in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) develops and maintains the USDA National Nutrient Databank\\u000a System (NDBS). Data are released from the NDBS for scientific and public use through the USDA National Nutrient Database for\\u000a Standard Reference (SR) (http:\\/\\/www.ars.usda.gov\\/ba\\/bhnrc\\/ndl). In 1997 the NDL initiated the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) to update and expand its

Katherine M. Phillips; Krist