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Sample records for nutrition environment measures

  1. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  2. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  3. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  4. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  5. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…

  6. How to measure mood in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled. PMID:25472005

  7. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  8. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  10. Measuring the quality of nutritional care.

    PubMed

    Relph, Wendy-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Despite various campaigns and initiatives, and publication of numerous standards, malnutrition in healthcare settings often goes unrecognised and untreated. This negatively affects patients' experiences and outcomes, and has financial implications for the NHS. The British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition has launched a new online tool that helps trusts measure the quality of the nutritional care they provide. This article describes the tool and explains its structure, how organisations and nurses can access and use it, and the benefits of implementing this resource as a routine part of clinical care. PMID:26309011

  11. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  12. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  13. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  14. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. PMID:27170447

  15. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216

  16. Nutrition considerations in special environments for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Pyne, David B; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges. PMID:24937361

  17. Measuring the Natural Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2003-11-01

    This new edition has been brought completely up-to-date and expanded considerably. It has five new chapters covering visibility, clouds, lightning, atmospheric composition, and the upper atmosphere. The chapter on barometric pressure has been rewritten and expanded, while the chapter on oceans and polar regions has been split into two separate and expanded chapters. In addition, the final chapter--Forward Look--has been rewritten. This volume will be important reading for all professionals involved in pure environmental research or in the day-to-day management of the environment. First Edition Hb (2000): 0-521-57310-6

  18. [Nutritional genomics: an approach to the genome-environment interaction].

    PubMed

    Xacur-García, Fiona; Castillo-Quan, Jorge I; Hernández-Escalante, Víctor M; Laviada-Molina, Hugo

    2008-11-01

    Nutritional genomics forms part of the genomic sciences and addresses the interaction between genes and the human diet, its influence on metabolism and subsequent susceptibility to develop common diseases. It encompasses both nutrigenomics, which explores the effects of nutrients on the genome, proteome and metabolome; and nutrigenetics, that explores the effects of genetic variations on the diet/disease interaction. A number of mechanisms drive the gene/diet interaction: elements in the diet can act as links for transcription factor receptors and after intermediary concentrations, thereby modifying chromatin and impacting genetic regulation; affect signal pathways, regulating phosphorylation of tyrosine in receptors; decrease signaling through the inositol pathway; and act through epigenetic mechanisms, silencing DNA fragments by methylation of cytosine. The signals generated by polyunsaturated fatty acids are so powerful that they can even bypass insulin mediated lipogenesis, stimulated by carbohydrates. Some fatty acids modify the expression of genes that participate in fatty acid transport by lipoproteins. Nutritional genomics has myriad possible therapeutic and preventive applications: in patients with enzymatic deficiencies; in those with a genetic predisposition to complex diseases such as dyslipidemia, diabetes and cancer; in those that already suffer these diseases; in those with altered mood or memory; during the aging process; in pregnant women; and as a preventive measure in the healthy population. PMID:19301779

  19. The Role of the School Nutrition Environment for Promoting the Health of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…

  20. Nutrition support teams: role in the new health care environment.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, T P

    1994-12-01

    Many hospitals have strong political leaders who question the need for a nutrition support service. In addition, the pressures of economic and health care reform are forcing administrators to cut unnecessary and unproven, albeit beneficial, services. The challenge for nutrition support services is clear-cut: in order to survive, nutrition support teams must understand the changes in health care and must learn how to adapt to them. This article clarifies the issues and assists nutrition support teams in establishing a new direction. PMID:7476796

  1. Geographic Disparity in Funding for School Nutrition Environments: Evidence from Mississippi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yunhee; Carithers, Teresa; Leeke, Shannon; Chin, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the federal initiatives on equitable provision of school nutrition programs, geographic disparity in childhood obesity persists. It may be partly because built-in school nutrition environments rely on each school's efficient use of existing operational funds or its ability to obtain expanded financial support. This study…

  2. Making Schools the Model for Healthier Environments Toolkit: General School Nutrition Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…

  3. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    SciTech Connect

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-10-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy.

  4. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  5. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  6. Environment-Assisted Precision Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.; Maze, J. R.; Lukin, M. D.; Cappellaro, P.; Hodges, J. S.; Jiang, L.; Soerensen, A. S.

    2011-04-08

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond.

  7. Environment-assisted precision measurement.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Cappellaro, P; Maze, J R; Hodges, J S; Jiang, L; Sørensen, A S; Lukin, M D

    2011-04-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond. PMID:21561175

  8. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U. Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security. PMID:27376067

  9. Reliability of the hospital nutrition environment scan for cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops.

    PubMed

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-08-01

    According to ecological models, the physical environment plays a major role in determining individual health behaviors. As such, researchers have started targeting the consumer nutrition environment of large-scale foodservice operations when implementing obesity-prevention programs. In 2010, the American Hospital Association released a call-to-action encouraging health care facilities to join in this movement and improve their facilities' consumer nutrition environments. The Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops was developed in 2011, and the present study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of this instrument. Two trained raters visited 39 hospitals in southern California and completed the HNES. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Percent agreement between raters ranged from 74.4% to 100% and kappa statistics ranged from 0.458 to 1.0. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall nutrition composite scores was 0.961. Given these results, the HNES demonstrated acceptable reliability metrics and can now be disseminated to assess the current state of hospital consumer nutrition environments. PMID:23747171

  10. Environment, epigenetics and neurodegeneration: Focus on nutrition in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Lucarelli, Marco; Fuso, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Many different environmental factors (nutrients, pollutants, chemicals, physical activity, lifestyle, physical and mental stress) can modulate epigenetic markers in the developing and adult organism. Epigenetics, in turn, can cause and is associated with several neurodegenerative and aging-dependent human diseases. Alzheimer's disease certainly represents one of the most relevant neurodegenerative disorders due to its incidence and its huge socio-economic impact. Therefore, it is easy to understand why recent literature focuses on the epigenetic modifications associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. One of the most intriguing and, at the same time, worrying evidence is that even "mild" environmental factors (such as behavioral or physical stress) as well as the under-threshold exposure to pollutants and chemicals, can be effective. Finally, even mild nutrients disequilibria can result in long-lasting and functional alterations of many epigenetic markers, although they don't have an immediate acute effect. Therefore, we will probably have to re-define the current risk threshold for many factors, molecules and stresses. Among the many different environmental factors affecting the epigenome, nutrition represents one of the most investigated fields; the reasons are probably that each person interacts with nutrients and that, in turn, nutrients can modulate at molecular level the epigenetic biochemical pathways. The role that nutrition can exert in modulating epigenetic modifications in Alzheimer's disease will be discussed with particular emphasis on the role of B vitamins and DNA methylation. PMID:25456841

  11. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  12. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  13. Cold Environment Fogs And Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiusto, James E.; Lala, G. Garland

    1983-09-01

    For several years radiation fog field programs have been conducted at Albany, NY, with an emphasis on understanding the basic mechanisms leading to dense fog formation. This past year a cooperative effort ("Fog Project-1982") involved nine university, federal and private research laboratories, including NCAR staff and their remote system of 25 portable automated mesonet (PAM) weather stations. A number of comprehensive data sets (boundary layer meteorology and cloud physics variables) during the 14-16 hour nocturnal evolution of fog have been obtained. In particular, the extinction of light in the visible and infrared (10.6 pm wavelength), associated visibility, drop size distributions, liquid water content, and vertical tethered-balloon soundings provided new insights into the structure of fog. A CO2 laser transmissometer was developed that yielded direct information on fog density. During October of 1981 and 1982, a number of radiation fogs occurred that were super-cooled in their lowest 20-50 m. This posed certain troublesome to critical measurement problems with several instruments. Cold environment techniques were devised to overcome some of these instrumentation difficulties.

  14. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Smit, Ellen; Manore, Melinda M.; John, Deborah; Gunter, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = −1.38, p = 0.04) and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), fruit (B = 0.71, p = 0.01), and dairy (B = 0.31, p < 0.001) intakes. No significant associations were found between food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted. PMID:26610566

  15. Exploring the school nutrition policy environment in Canada using the ANGELO framework.

    PubMed

    Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Excess body weight has become a major public health issue. Given the link between poor nutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in youth, increasing attention is being paid to the school as an ideal setting for promoting nutritious eating practices. Informed by the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity) framework, we employ a documentary analysis to investigate the context of school nutrition in Canada, particularly the relationship between regional- and upper-level policies. In doing so, we examine policy documents and technical reports across three levels. We used mixed methods to analyze relevant English language policy documents and technical reports across Canada (n = 58), published between 1989 and 2011. Results reveal distinct differences across federal, provincial, and regional levels. The availability of nutritious food in schools and having nutrition education as part of the curriculum were key components of the physical environment across federal and provincial levels. Federal and provincial priorities are guided by a health promotion framework and adopting a partnership approach to policy implementation. Gaps in regional-level policy include incorporating nutrition education in the curriculum and making the link between nutrition and obesity. Policy implications are provided, in addition to future research opportunities to explore the connections between these environments at the local level. PMID:23986502

  16. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  17. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  18. Implementation of an ICT-Based Learning Environment in a Nutrition Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of school staff on a nutrition health project implemented via an ICT-based learning environment in a secondary school (7th to 9th grades). Design/methodology/approach: The study was a part of the wider European Network for Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools…

  19. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  20. IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

  1. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  2. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  3. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2) children. Conclusions

  4. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  5. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  6. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  7. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  8. Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments?

    PubMed

    Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that fetal nutrition triggers permanent adjustments in a wide range of systems and health outcomes is stimulating interest in the evolutionary significance of these responses. This review evaluates the postnatal adaptive significance of fetal developmental plasticity from the perspective of life history theory and evolutionary models of energy partitioning. Birthweight is positively related to multiple metabolically costly postnatal functions, suggesting that the fetus has the capacity to distribute the burden of energy insufficiency when faced with a nutritionally challenging environment. Lowering total requirements may reduce the risk of negative energy balance, which disproportionately impacts functions that are not essential for survival but that are crucial for reproductive success. The long-term benefit of these metabolic adjustments is contingent upon the fetus having access to a cue that is predictive of its future nutritional environment, a problem complicated in a long-lived species by short-term ecologic fluctuations like seasonality. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that the flow of nutrients reaching the fetus provides an integrated signal of nutrition as experienced by recent matrilineal ancestors, which effectively limits the responsiveness to short-term ecologic fluctuations during any given pregnancy. This capacity for fetal nutrition to minimize the growth response to transient ecologic fluctuations is defined here as intergenerational "phenotypic inertia," and is hypothesized to allow the fetus to cut through the "noise" of seasonal or other stochastic influences to read the "signal" of longer-term ecologic trends. As a mode of adaptation, phenotypic inertia may help the organism cope with ecologic trends too gradual to be tracked by conventional developmental plasticity, but too rapid to be tracked by natural selection. From an applied perspective, if a trait like fetal growth is designed to minimize the effects of short

  9. Simulating the sensitivity of cell nutritive environment to composition changes within the intervertebral disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. Ruiz; Malandrino, A.; van Rijsbergen, MM.; Lacroix, D.; Ito, K.; Noailly, J.

    2016-05-01

    Altered nutrition in the intervertebral disc affects cell viability and can generate catabolic cascades contributing to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Such degradation is expected to affect couplings between disc mechanics and nutrition, contributing to accelerate degenerative processes. However, the relation of ECM changes to major biophysical events within the loaded disc remains unclear. A L4-L5 disc finite element model including the nucleus (NP), annulus (AF) and endplates was used and coupled to a transport-cell viability model. Solute concentrations and cell viability were evaluated along the mid-sagittal plane path. A design of experiment (DOE) was performed. DOE parameters corresponded to AF and NP biochemical tissue measurements in discs with different degeneration grades. Cell viability was not affected by any parameter combinations defined. Nonetheless, the initial water content was the parameter that affected the most the solute contents, especially glucose. Calculations showed that altered NP composition could negatively affect AF cell nutrition. Results suggested that AF and NP tissue degeneration are not critical to nutrition-related cell viability at early-stage of disc degeneration. However, small ECM degenerative changes may alter significantly disc nutrition under mechanical loads. Coupling disc mechano-transport simulations and enzyme expression studies could allow identifying spatiotemporal sequences related to tissue catabolism.

  10. Continuous quantum measurement in spin environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, An Min

    2015-08-01

    We derive a stochastic master equation (SME) which describes the decoherence dynamics of a system in spin environments conditioned on the measurement record. Markovian and non-Markovian nature of environment can be revealed by a spectroscopy method based on weak continuous quantum measurement. On account of that correlated environments can lead to a non-local open system which exhibits strong non-Markovian effects although the local dynamics are Markovian, the spectroscopy method can be used to demonstrate that there is correlation between two environments.

  11. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  12. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  13. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  14. Development and Evaluation of the School Cafeteria Nutrition Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…

  15. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    PubMed

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909

  16. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  17. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. PMID:25680370

  18. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  19. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  20. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Melanie S.; Adams, Robert B.; Wessman, Carol A.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture’s role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture’s environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  1. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melanie S; Adams, Robert B; Wessman, Carol A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture's role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture's environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  2. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  3. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  4. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations. PMID:17547320

  5. Effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on adaptive capability of native ewes under semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Dias E Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Costa Torreão, Jacira Neves da; Torreão Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi; de Araújo, Marcos Jácome; Bezerra, Leílson Rocha; Kumar Dhanasekaran, Dinesh; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on two different native track breeds of ewes as reflected by their adaptive capability under semi-arid environment. The multiple stressor experiment was conducted in twenty-four ewes (12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova ewes). Both heat stress and pregnancy stress was common to all four groups. However, the animals were divided into further two groups within each breed on the basis of nutrition regimen. According the groupings were: Group 1 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 2 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy); groups Group 3 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 4 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy). All the animals in the experiment were pregnant. Heat stress was induced by exposing all animals to summer heat stress in outside environment while the nutritional regimen followed was at 0.5% and 1.5% level of body weight (BW) respectively in each breed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two breeds, two nutritional treatments and two pregnancy types, 10 repetitions for physiological parameters and six for blood parameters, with repeated measures over time. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature) were measured with the animals at rest in the morning and afternoon, 0600-0700 and 1300-1400h, respectively, every seven days. Blood samples were collected every 14d for determination of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine. We found interaction effect between breed and pregnancy type on respiratory rate and rectal temperature with greater values in Santa Inês ewes than Morada Nova ewes. However, there was no significant fixed effect of pregnancy type and supplementation level on physiological

  6. Nutritional considerations during prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment: recommendations for saturation divers.

    PubMed

    Deb, S K; Swinton, P A; Dolan, E

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment. Saturation diving has a high-energy demand, with an energy intake of between 44 and 52 kcal/kg body mass per day recommended, dependent on intensity and duration of underwater activity. The macronutrient composition of dietary intake is in accordance with the current Institute of Medicine guidelines at 45-65 % and 20-35 % of total energy intake for carbohydrate and fat intake, respectively. A minimum daily protein intake of 1.3 g/kg body mass is recommended to facilitate body composition maintenance. Macronutrient intake between individuals should, however, be dictated by personal preference to support the attainment of an energy balance. A varied diet high in fruit and vegetables is highly recommended for the provision of sufficient micronutrients to support physiological processes, such as vitamin B12 and folate intake to facilitate red blood cell production. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, are also recommended to reduce oxidised molecules, e.g. free radicals, whilst selenium and zinc intake may be beneficial to reinforce endogenous antioxidant reserves. In addition, tailored hydration and carbohydrate fueling strategies for underwater work are also advised. PMID:26744625

  7. Navigating a strange and complex environment: experiences of Sudanese refugee women using a new nutrition resource

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Henshaw, Christena Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees experience dietary changes as part of the daily challenges they face resettling in a new country. Sudanese women seek to care and feed their families, but face language barriers in the marketplace, limited access to familiar foods, and forced new food choices. This study aimed to understand the acceptability of a purse-sized nutrition resource, “The Market Guide”, which was developed to help recently immigrated Sudanese refugee women identify and purchase healthy foods and navigate grocery stores. Methods Eight women participated in a focus group, four of whom were also observed during accompanied grocery store visits. Individual interviews were conducted with four health care workers at the resettlement center to gather perceptions about the suitability of The Market Guide. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data from field notes and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory for preliminary open codes, followed by selective and theoretical coding. Results The Market Guide was of limited use to Sudanese women. Their response to this resource revealed the struggles of women acculturating during their first year in Calgary, Canada. We discovered the basic social process, “Navigating through a strange and complex environment: learning ways to feed your family.” Language, transportation, and an unfamiliar marketplace challenged women and prevented them from exercising their customary role of “knowing” which foods were “safe and good” for their families. The nutrition resource fell short of informing food choices and purchases, and we discovered that “learning to feed your family” is a relational process where trusted persons, family, and friends help navigate dietary acculturation. Conclusion Emergent theory based on the basic social process may help health care professionals consider relational learning when planning health promotion and nutrition activities with Sudanese families. PMID:24790470

  8. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance. PMID:26553491

  9. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  10. Measuring residual accelerations in the Spacelab environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1991-01-01

    A triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystal growth experiment carried out in Spacelab 3 flown onboard the Shuttle orbiter in 1985 is described. The TGS experiment was aimed at examining diffusion limited crystal growth by minimizing convection in the microgravity environment of the Spacelab. During the experiment tiny crystals were found floating free in the growth solution. Since the free crystals were in a viscous fluid, the 'noise' accelerations of the Shuttle were damped out. This made it possible to measure the constant gravitational acceleration by tracking the positions of these crystals. The velocities and accelerations obtained by these measurements are presented.

  11. Measuring Nutrition Literacy in Breast Cancer Patients: Development of a Novel Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Heather D; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Befort, Christie; Gajewski, Byron; Kennett, Amy R; Yu, Qing; Christifano, Danielle; Sullivan, Debra K

    2016-09-01

    No nutrition literacy instruments have been tested in breast cancer survivors, yet nutrition is a critical lifestyle factor for optimizing weight and improving quality of life in breast cancer survival. Our objectives were to adapt our Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for breast cancer populations and to pilot test its validity and reliability. We modified the instrument based on review by content experts in cancer and nutrition and cognitive interviews with 18 cancer survivors. The modified instrument (Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Breast Cancer, NLit-BCa) was pilot-tested with 17 high-risk women and 55 breast cancer survivors. We conducted the NLit-BCa on two separate occasions 4 weeks apart and assessed reliability by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing results of the NLit-BCa to a Healthy Eating Index score derived from two separate 24-h dietary recalls. Content validity of the NLit-BCa was acceptable (0.93). Entire reliability for three instrument domains was substantial (>0.80), while remaining domains demonstrated fair or moderate reliability. Significant relationships were found between five of the six domains of nutrition literacy and diet quality (P < 0.05). The NLit-BCa is content valid and demonstrates promising reliability and construct validity related to diet quality, through a larger sample size, and removal of non-discriminating items is needed to confirm these findings. Thus, the NLit-BCa demonstrates potential for comprehensively measuring nutrition literacy in breast cancer populations. PMID:25952941

  12. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd

    2004-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed. PMID:14976168

  13. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  14. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. PMID:22898166

  15. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  16. Home Environment, Nutritional Status, and Maternal Intelligence as Determinants of Intellectual Development in Rural Philippine Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships among home environment, nutritional status, maternal intelligence, and intellectual development were investigated for 177 5- and 6-year-old children in the Philippines using culture-relevant scales. Results support the generalizability to the Philippine cultural setting of relationships among these factors found in American settings.…

  17. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  18. Creating healthful home food environments: Results of a study with participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. We used a two-group randomized control trial: intervention versus usual EF...

  19. Nutritional Assessment During a 14-d Saturation Dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Fesperman, J. V.; Smith, M. D.; Rice, B. L.; Zwart, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.

  20. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 1. Thermal environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K. J.; Eddy, T. P.; Lee, D. E.; Swann, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Collins, K. J., Eddy, T. P., Lee, D. E., and Swann, P. G. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 237-245. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. I. Thermal environment. Investigations were made on board a modern, air-conditioned oil tanker (S.S. Esso Newcastle) en route to the Persian Gulf in July to August 1967 in order to study thermal conditions in the working environment, and the nutritional status of the crew, and to examine the interrelationship between climate and nutritional balance. In this introductory paper an account is given of the aims and design of the experiments together with details of the environmental survey. The voyage round Africa lasted one month, with high ambient temperatures of 37·7°C dry bulb, 30·8°C wet bulb (100/87°F) occurring only on the last few days into and out of the Persian Gulf. Mean accommodation temperature was maintained in the zone of comfort throughout, and at 23·9°C (75°F) Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) in the Gulf. On a previous voyage in a tanker without air-conditioning CETs up to 31·6°C (89°F) had been recorded in the accommodation in the same ambient conditions. With exposure to high solar radiation in the Gulf, the deck officer's cabins and bridge house in the upper superstructure became uncomfortably warm (CET exceeding 26·6°C (80°F)) and in these temperatures skilled performance is likely to deteriorate. The main thermal problems in the working environment were associated with the engine and boiler rooms which were consistently 11 to 17°C (20 to 30°F) higher than ambient temperature. For personnel on watch, the levels of heat stress were high but not intolerable if advantage was taken of the air blowers. Conditions under which emergency or repair tasks were carried out in very hot engine-room spaces were examined and often found to allow only a small margin of safety. Predicted average tolerance times were deduced from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) scale of

  1. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  2. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here. PMID:25969529

  3. Steady Diet of Confusion: Contradictory Nutrition Messages in the Public Information Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Rebekah H.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition researchers, clinicians, and communication scholars have assumed that contradictory health and nutrition messages exist in the news media, and that exposure to these messages negatively influences public understanding and health behavior. This dissertation does not take issue with these claims, but rather with the evidence base that…

  4. MSL-RAD Radiation Environment Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Boehm, Eckart; Boettcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Soenke; Cucinotta, Francis; Ehresmann, Bent; Guo, Jingnan; Koehler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    We present results from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) obtained during MSL's cruise to Mars and during the first 150 sols after Curiosity's successful landing. RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle environment, which consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), and the secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary GCRs in shielding. During cruise, RAD was asymmetrically shielded inside the spacecraft. On the surface, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere, and the radiation dose rate is seen to vary slightly as the column depth of the atmosphere varies on a diurnal cycle. RAD's cruise measurements are a unique data set that provide a reasonable simulation of what might be encountered by a human crew headed for Mars or for some other destination in deep space. RAD successfully operated for 220 days of the 253 day journey to Mars. RAD has also operated stably on the surface of Mars, returning the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet. The data from the surface are also highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. We will present results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (the quantity most directly related to human health risk) obtained with both cruise and surface data. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but five significant SEP events were seen during cruise and will be discussed.

  5. Enhancing nutritional environments through access to fruit and vegetables in schools and homes among children and youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is one of the top 10 global risk factors for mortality, and is related to increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many environmental, sociodemographic and personal factors affect FV consumption. The purpose of this review is to examine the effects of interventions delivered in the home, school and other nutritional environments designed to increase FV availability for five to 18-year olds. Methods The search included: 19 electronic bibliographic databases; grey literature databases; reference lists of key articles; targeted Internet searching of key organization websites; hand searching of key journals and conference proceedings; and consultation with experts for additional references. Articles were included if: in English, French and Spanish; from high-, middle-, and low-income countries; delivered to anyone who could bring about change in FV environment for 5 to 18 year olds; with randomized and non-randomized study designs that provided before-after comparisons, with or without a control group. Primary outcomes of interest were measures of FV availability. Results The search strategy retrieved nearly 23,000 citations and resulted in 23 unique studies. Interventions were primarily policy interventions at the regional or state level, a number of curriculum type interventions in schools and community groups and a garden intervention. The majority of studies were done in high-income countries. The diversity of interventions, populations, outcomes and outcome measurements precluded meta-analysis. The most promising strategies for improving the FV environment for children are through local school food service policies. Access to FV was successfully improved in four of the six studies that evaluated school-based policies, with the other two studies finding no effect. Broader state or federally mandated policies or educational programs for food service providers and decision makers had mixed or

  6. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  7. Improving the Nutritional Resource Environment for Healthy Living Through Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, David C; Diamant, Allison L; Lewis, LaVonna B; Yancey, Antronette K; Flynn, Gwendolyn; Nascimento, Lori Miller; McCarthy, William J; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Cousineau, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To build health promotion capacity among community residents through a community-based participatory model, and to apply this model to study the nutritional environment of an urban area to better understand the role of such resources in residents' efforts to live a healthy life. DESIGN A multiphase collaborative study that inventoried selected markets in targeted areas of high African-American concentration in comparison with markets in a contrasting wealthier area with fewer African Americans. SETTING A community study set in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS African-American community organizations and community residents in the target areas. INTERVENTIONS Two surveys of market inventories were conducted. The first was a single-sheet form profiling store conditions and the availability of a small selection of healthy foods. The second provided detailed information on whether the store offered fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, dried goods and other items necessary for residents to consume a nutritious diet. RESULTS The targeted areas were significantly less likely to have important items for living a healthier life. The variety and quality of fresh fruit and vegetable produce was significantly lower in the target areas. Such products as 1% milk, skim milk, low-fat and nonfat cheese, soy milk, tofu, whole grain pasta and breads, and low-fat meat and poultry items were sig-nificantly less available. CONCLUSIONS Healthy food products were significantly less available in the target areas. The authors conclude from these results that the health disparities experienced by African-American communities have origins that extend beyond the health delivery system and individual behaviors inasmuch as adherence to the healthy lifestyle associated with low chronic disease risk is more difficult in resource-poor neighborhoods than in resource-rich ones. PMID:12848840

  8. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  9. Veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment as measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) has been widely used to evaluate the learning environment within health sciences education, however, this tool has not been applied in veterinary medical education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the DREEM tool in a veterinary medical program and to determine veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment. Methods The DREEM is a survey tool which quantitatively measures students’ perceptions of their learning environment. The survey consists of 50 items, each scored 0–4 on a Likert Scale. The 50 items are subsequently analysed within five subscales related to students’ perceptions of learning, faculty (teachers), academic atmosphere, and self-perceptions (academic and social). An overall score is obtained by summing the mean score for each subscale, with an overall possible score of 200. All students in the program were asked to complete the DREEM. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the 50 items, the five subscale scores and the overall score. Cronbach’s alpha was determined for the five subscales and overall score to evaluate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Results 224 responses (53%) were received. The Cronbach’s alpha for the overall score was 0.93 and for the five subscales were; perceptions of learning 0.85, perceptions of faculty 0.79, perceptions of atmosphere 0.81, academic self-perceptions 0.68, and social self-perceptions 0.72. Construct validity was determined to be acceptable (p < 0.001) and all items contributed to the overall validity of the DREEM. The overall DREEM score was 128.9/200, which is a positive result based on the developers’ descriptors and comparable to other health science education programs. Four individual items of concern were identified by students. Conclusions In this setting the DREEM was a reliable and valid tool to measure

  10. A Community-Based Participatory Approach to Personalized, Computer-Generated Nutrition Feedback Reports: The Healthy Environments Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Srimathi; Schulz, Amy; Israel, Barbara; Ayra, Indira; Weir, Sheryl; Dvonch, Timothy J.; Rowe, Zachary; Miller, Patricia; Benjamin, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Background Computer tailoring and personalizing recommendations for dietary health-promoting behaviors are in accordance with community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, which emphasizes research that benefits the participants and community involved. Objective To describe the CBPR process utilized to computer-generate and disseminate personalized nutrition feedback reports (NFRs) for Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) study participants. METHODS The CBPR process included discussion and feedback from HEP partners on several draft personalized reports. The nutrition feedback process included defining the feedback objectives; prioritizing the nutrients; customizing the report design; reviewing and revising the NFR template and readability; producing and disseminating the report; and participant follow-up. Lessons Learned Application of CBPR principles in designing the NFR resulted in a reader-friendly product with useful recommendations to promote heart health. Conclusions A CBPR process can enhance computer tailoring of personalized NFRs to address racial and socioeconomic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:19337572

  11. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  12. Community-Generated Recommendations Regarding the Urban Nutrition and Tobacco Environments: A Photo-Elicitation Study in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth A.; Frasso, Rosemary; Dean, Lorraine T.; Johnson, Terry E.; Solomon, Sara; Bugos, Eva; Mallya, Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Overweight, obesity, and tobacco use are major preventable causes of disability, disease, and death. In 2010, 25% of Philadelphia adults smoked, and 66% were overweight or obese. To address these health threats, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health launched Get Healthy Philly, an initiative to improve the city’s nutrition, physical activity, and tobacco environments. The objective of this assessment was to identify residents’ perspectives on threats to health and opportunities for change in the local food and tobacco environments. Methods Participants (N = 48) took photographs to document their concerns regarding Philadelphia’s food and tobacco environments and participated in photo-elicitation interviews. We coded photographs and interview transcripts and identified key themes. Results Participants proposed interventions for nutrition 4 times more often than for tobacco. Participants spontaneously articulated the need for multilevel change consistent with the ecological model of health behavior, including changes to policies (food assistance program provisions to encourage healthful purchases), local and school environments (more healthful corner store inventories and school meals), and individual knowledge and behavior (healthier food purchases). Participants often required interviewer prompting to discuss tobacco, and they suggested interventions including changes in advertising (a local environmental concern) and cigarette taxes (a policy concern). Conclusion Participants were well versed in the relevance to health of nutrition and physical activity and the need for multilevel interventions. Their responses suggested community readiness for change. In contrast, participants’ more limited comments regarding tobacco suggested that prevention and control of tobacco use were perceived as less salient public health concerns. PMID:23764347

  13. Specimen mass measurement. [during space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Ord, J.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab specimen mass measurement device was operated throughout the altitude test in close simulation of the 56-day Skylab mission. It performed operational specimen measurements well until it was passed out of the chamber for replacement of the specimen hold-down and was autoclaved prior to return. Fecal measurements were typically made with less than one percent error.

  14. Measuring Collaborative Consultation Practices in Natural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Semonti; Salisbury, Christine L.; Thorkildsen, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Triadic Intervention and Evaluation Rating Scale" (TIERS), a 33-item instrument designed to evaluate patterns of parent, service provider, and child interactions during early intervention sessions conducted in natural environments. Twenty-eight parent-provider-child triads were videotaped in home and…

  15. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  16. Using Funds of Knowledge in an Ethnically Concentrated Classroom Environment to Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Abder, Pamela; Doria, John A.; Yang, Ji-Sup; De Jesus, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The concept of funds of knowledge, as applied to an ethnically popular fruit, is the focus of this module. Teachers can use this concept to create contextually meaningful experiments that can contribute to a culturally relevant and more fully developed educational unit focusing on the science of nutrition and reflecting content Standards A and C.…

  17. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, S. L.; Hall, W. J.; Steckler, A.; Schneider, M.; Thompson, D.; Mobley, C.; Pham, T.; El ghormli, L.

    2013-01-01

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals. PMID:24107856

  18. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Methods We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Results Significant improvements to total nutrition (P < .001) and physical activity scores (P < .001) were observed. Results indicate that centers significantly improved the physical activity environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P < .001). Significant improvements were found for the nutrition environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings. PMID:23701720

  19. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures. PMID:15226467

  20. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  1. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed. PMID:24038255

  2. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  3. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  4. Measurements of the radiation environment on the APEX satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Watson, C.J.; Peerless, C.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment was built to accompany the CRUX (Cosmic Ray Upset) experiment on the USAF APEX satellite, launched in August 1994. Results of measurements of the space radiation environment are presented here while a companion paper presents CRUX measurements of upsets correlated with proton flux.

  5. “Food is directed to the area”: African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Sandra C.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown racial disparities in neighborhood access to healthy food in the United States. We used a mixed methods approach employing geographic information systems, focus groups, and a survey to examine African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh. We found that African Americans perceive that supermarkets serving their community offer produce and meats of poorer quality than branches of the same supermarket serving White neighborhoods (p<0.001). Unofficial taxis or jitneys, on which many African Americans are reliant, provide access from only certain stores; people are therefore forced to patronize these stores even though they are perceived to be of poorer quality. Community-generated ideas to tackle the situation include ongoing monitoring of supermarkets serving the Black community. We conclude that stores should make every effort to be responsive to the perceptions and needs of their clients and provide an environment that enables healthy eating. PMID:21169050

  6. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Cassini magnetometer measurements in the Jovian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.

    2001-05-01

    M. K. Dougherty, and the Cassini magnetometer team The recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter had the spacecraft flying along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere, a region which has only been visited very briefly before during the Ulysses outbound pass. The unique Cassini flyby resulted in the spacecraft making numerous entries into the magnetosheath region as well as into the magnetosphere itself. Initial results from the magnetometer instrument will be described including information concerning the solar wind IMF, the large amount of mirror mode activity measured within the magnetosheath and incursions into the magnetosphere proper.

  8. Polarimetric measurements of precipitation over urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Filho, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents recent results of weather radar polarimetric measurements of clouds and rainfall system over Eastern S„o Paulo, Brazil, more specifically in the metropolitan area of S„o Paulo (MASP). Local direct circulation associated to its urban heat island and sea breeze inflow tends to generate very deep convection similar to the Amazon region in a matter of minutes. It is investigated the impact of pollutants on the cloud microphysics and induced effects on downdrafts, lighting, hail and others such as flash floods.

  9. Measuring the Environment through Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickle, J.; Schloss, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    A network of sites for citizen scientists to take a consistent time sequence of digital photographs of the landscape and an Internet site (http://picturepost.unh.edu/) that efficiently stores and distributes the digital images creates a low-cost and sustainable resource for scientific environmental monitoring and formal and informal science education. Digital photographs taken from the same location and positioned in the same direction and orientation allow scientists to monitor a variety of environmental parameters, including plant health, growth, and phenology; erosion and deposition; water levels; and cloud and canopy cover. The PicturePost platform is simply an octagon placed in the center of a flat surface and secured to a post anchored in the ground or onto a building. The edges of the octagon allow positioning of the camera so the complete landscape may be photographed in less than a minute. A NASA-funded project, Digital Earth Watch (aka Measuring Vegetation Health, (http://mvh.sr.unh.edu) provides educational activities and background materials that help people learn about plants as environmental “green canaries” and about the basics of cameras and digital images. The website also provides free software to analyze digital images. Although this project has been in development for four years, it is only beginning to find partners in which the data support multiple efforts. A large part of this integration is a result of recent NASA funding, which has allowed a new website to be developed to archive and display the images. The developing collaborations and the development of the new website at the same time enhanced both efforts. Because the website could include tools/features that appealed to the collaborating groups, all participants contributed ideas facing fewer restrictions. PicturePost made from recycled plastic lumber.

  10. Impact of dining room environment on nutritional intake of Alzheimer's residents: a case study.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J H; Hunt, A; Hackes, B; Pope, J F

    2001-01-01

    This case study, in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, was conducted to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The case study compared the noise, lighting, and nutritional intake of 16 Alzheimer's residents eating the same cycle menu in the extended-care (EC) dining room and the Alzheimer's unit (AU) dining room five weeks later. Noise was significantly lower in the EC (p < or = .02). Lighting was significantly higher in the EC (p < or = .001). Intake of calories and protein was slightly higher, with some days significantly higher, in the AU. Total five-day fluid intake at breakfast was significantly higher in the AU (p < or = .02). Although residents' total food and fluid intake was higher in the AU, the project identified a need to decrease noise and increase lighting in the AU. Lighting enhancement and noise reduction may further improve intake, which, in turn, may promote improved nutritional status. PMID:11603166

  11. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies.

  12. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2003-07-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies. PMID:12562674

  13. Measuring the Dimensions of Serendipity in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCay-Peet, Lori; Toms, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous information retrieval is the perhaps inevitable consequence of immersion in an information-rich environment. Just how well chance encounters are supported, however, within these environments varies and one of the challenges to the development of tools and systems to facilitate serendipity is measuring how well they…

  14. Measuring Language Learning Environments in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley J.; Hazari, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a new learning environment instrument which could be used by teaching practitioners and other educators to measure the language learning environment in the secondary science classroom. The science teacher is central in creating science classrooms conductive to the language needs of students and should be…

  15. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  16. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils׳ soft drink consumption were found. PMID:25190681

  17. The biofilm environment offers a possible condition for inducing the competency of DNA recipient cells through nutritional starvation.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Motomu; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Onishi, Kyoko; Taya, Masahito

    2007-09-01

    Transformation phenomena occurring under conditions mimicking the biofilm environment were investigated using Escherichia coli IM302 (as DNA recipient cells) and Providencia sp. WW2 (as surrounding cells in the biofilm model). In the case of planktonic IM302 cells kept at 25 degrees C, the transformation took place exclusively in the absence of organic nutrients (COD = 0), and was not substantially observed in the range of COD = 30-1500 mg O2/L. On the other hand, in the case of biofilm IM302 cells, the transformation occurred at relatively high levels under the examined conditions (temperature = 5 or 25 degrees C and COD = 0-1500 mg O2/L). These results indicated that the competency of biofilm IM302 cells was induced even in the presence of organic nutrients owing to nutritional starvation caused by WW2 cells. PMID:17927052

  18. Control of growth and adaptation to nutritional shifts for bacteria exposed to amino acid-limiting environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, Eduard M.; Hwa, Terence

    2007-03-01

    In order to grow at the highest rate sustainable by the environment, bacteria turn on different metabolic pathways and utilize a myriad of adaptive strategies. The macromolecular composition (RNA, DNA, protein) and overall cell size (mass) can be very different in different environments. Surprisingly however, these differences appear to depend only on the growth rate and not on the growth medium itself. As the nutritional environment changes in time, the cells quickly adapt their composition to the one corresponding to the new conditions. Here, we propose a phenomenological model of growth and adaptation control for the bacterial cell, based on a simplified formulation of the central dogma and a simplified implementation of the stringent response. The core model contains no free parameters and provides a simple intuitive understanding of cell growth control. The results generated by the model, physiological state of the cell as well as the characteristics of the transition between optimized states of growth, are in qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement (i.e. within a factor of 2) with the experimental observations.

  19. Measuring the Food Environment State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic disease. However, the measurement tools for assessing the environment and the employed study designs have limited our ability to gain important ground. The field has not yet fully considered the psychometric properties of the environmental measurement tools, or how to deal with the copious amounts of data generated from many environmental measures. The field is dominated by research using unsophisticated study designs and has frequently failed to see the role of social and individual factors and how they interrelate with the physical environment. This paper examines some of the measurement issues to be considered as public health practitioners and researchers attempt to understand the impact of the food environment on the health of communities and takes a broad look at where the science currently is with regard to how the food environment is measured, thoughts on what issues may benefit from more deliberate inspection, and directions for future work. PMID:19285204

  20. The impact of intestinal inflammation on the nutritional environment of the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Franziska; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a single cell barrier separating a sterile mucosal tissue from a large microbial community dominated by obligate anaerobic bacteria, which inhabit the gut lumen. To maintain mucosal integrity, any breach in the epithelial barrier needs to be met with an inflammatory host response designed to repel microbial intruders from the tissue, protect the mucosal surface and repair injuries to the epithelium. In addition, inflammation induces mechanisms of nutritional immunity, which limit the availability of metals in the intestinal lumen, thereby imposing new selective forces on microbial growth. However, the inflammatory host response also has important side effects. A by-product of producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species aimed at eradicating microbial intruders is the luminal generation of exogenous electron acceptors. The presence of these electron acceptors creates a new metabolic niche that is filled by facultative anaerobic bacteria. Here we review the changes in microbial nutrient utilization that accompany intestinal inflammation and the consequent changes in the composition of gut-associated microbial communities. PMID:24803011

  1. Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for molecular breeding*

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Lisbeth; Meyer, Anne S.; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the primary storage compound of phosphorus in seeds accounting for up to 80% of the total seed phosphorus and contributing as much as 1.5% to the seed dry weight. The negatively charged phosphate in PA strongly binds to metallic cations of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn making them insoluble and thus unavailable as nutritional factors. Phytate mainly accumulates in protein storage vacuoles as globoids, predominantly located in the aleurone layer (wheat, barley and rice) or in the embryo (maize). During germination, phytate is hydrolysed by endogenous phytase(s) and other phosphatases to release phosphate, inositol and micronutrients to support the emerging seedling. PA and its derivatives are also implicated in RNA export, DNA repair, signalling, endocytosis and cell vesicular trafficking. Our recent studies on purification of phytate globoids, their mineral composition and dephytinization by wheat phytase will be discussed. Biochemical data for purified and characterized phytases isolated from more than 23 plant species are presented, the dephosphorylation pathways of phytic acid by different classes of phytases are compared, and the application of phytase in food and feed is discussed. PMID:18357620

  2. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  3. A hydrogen gas-water equilibration method produces accurate and precise stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable hydrogen isotope methodology is used in nutrition studies to measure growth, breast milk intake, and energy requirement. Isotope ratio MS is the best instrumentation to measure the stable hydrogen isotope ratios in physiological fluids. Conventional methods to convert physiological fluids to ...

  4. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  5. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment.

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A; Gaponov, I; Kazennov, A

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90Sr detection are considered. PMID:15162871

  6. Measuring Self-Regulation in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    I provide a summary of the four invited articles in this special issue and compare and contrast different methods for measuring self-regulation in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). I present a taxonomy that distinguishes between offline and online measures and further distinguishes subcategories within each of these categories. I…

  7. Quantifying Error in Survey Measures of School and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01

    Developing indicators that reflect important aspects of school and classroom environments has become central in a nationwide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and effectiveness. Formulating teacher evaluation policy necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This…

  8. Estimation of measurement variance in the context of environment statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Pulakesh

    2015-02-01

    The object of environment statistics is for providing information on the environment, on its most important changes over time, across locations and identifying the main factors that influence them. Ultimately environment statistics would be required to produce higher quality statistical information. For this timely, reliable and comparable data are needed. Lack of proper and uniform definitions, unambiguous classifications pose serious problems to procure qualitative data. These cause measurement errors. We consider the problem of estimating measurement variance so that some measures may be adopted to improve upon the quality of data on environmental goods and services and on value statement in economic terms. The measurement technique considered here is that of employing personal interviewers and the sampling considered here is that of two-stage sampling.

  9. Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Wilson, Annabelle; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

  10. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Nair, P P

    2000-04-17

    As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that predispose them to malnutrition and its consequences. Eradication of nutritional deficiencies among women and children on a global scale are needed to ensure improved quality of life for the next generation of citizens. Primary deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid and trace elements such as zinc are compounded by pollutants caused by human activity. Environmental lead, arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals that enter the food chain can seriously deplete body stores of iron, vitamin C and other essential nutrients leading to decreased immune defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psycho-social faculties and other disabilities associated with malnutrition. Increased susceptibilities to communicable diseases, and those provoked by water or insect borne vectors are additional risks encountered by malnourished individuals. Migration of populations from rural to urban centers and the expansion of major metropolitan areas have had a significant and adverse impact on the quality of life of these citizens. In the next 20 years most of the growth in urban populations will be in Asia and Latin America. Urbanization and the resultant burden on limited national resources is a major contributory factor to malnutrition. There are many other lifestyle-associated disabilities such as use of tobacco (cancer) and alcoholism that require active intervention. Within the family unit, socioeconomic factors and the status of women (literacy, economic independence) are major determinants of the quality of life. In the coming century, the World will have to meet these challenges by careful planning and international cooperation. PMID:10813462

  11. Characterizing individual differences in animal responses to a nutritional challenge: Toward improved robustness measures.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Etienne, M P; Mary-Huard, T; Schmidely, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the variation between individuals in the response to and recovery from a nutritional challenge, the repeatability of responses between lactation stages, and the use of shape-clustering methods to classify similar individuals. Sixteen dairy goats were exposed to a 2-d nutritional challenge (underfeeding) at 2 different stages of lactation. Each challenge consisted of a 7-d control period with standard total mixed ration (TMR), 2d of straw-only feeding, and a 10-d recovery period on the TMR. All feeds were offered ad libitum, as was water. The first challenge was in late lactation on primiparous goats (mean days in milk=249), and the second challenge was carried out on the same goats early in the following lactation (mean days in milk=28). The main energetic response traits dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body weight, milk fat and protein contents, and plasma glucose, fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea, and insulin, were measured daily throughout. A clustering procedure linked to a piecewise mixed model was used to characterize different types of response. As expected, straw feeding caused a large decline in DMI and milk yield, and substantial increases in milk fat and milk protein composition, relative to the prechallenge period on the control TMR. For both DMI and milk yield, the slope of the response, and hence the size of the drop, was strongly related to the prechallenge values, indicating that these 2 measures were tightly constrained by the challenge. Regression slopes between lactation stages for responses to the same nutritional challenge were significant for DMI, milk protein content, plasma BHB and urea, and body weight, indicating that within-animal responses in late and early lactation were repeatable. The clustering procedure generally performed well, classifying both scaling differences and differences in shape. The extent of reranking of cluster designations between late lactation and the

  12. INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF NORMAL RABBITS WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACTION OF NEON LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Wade H.

    1928-01-01

    The influence of light environment on the growth and nutrition of normal rabbits was studied by comparing the weight curves of animals living under different environmental conditions for periods of 4 to 8 months and the effects of change from one environment to another. Prolonged exposure to neon light was compared with confinement in the dark and exposure to diffuse, filtered sunlight of varying intensity. The results of the experiments showed that growth and nutrition were greatly affected by the light environment in which the animals lived. The effects produced by a given environment varied with the color or breed of the animal and appeared to be out of proportion to the differences in the intensity of the light or the energy represented. PMID:19869470

  13. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment. PMID:24892726

  14. Environment-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012)

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Denise P.; Brownstein, John S.; Patel, Chirag J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999–2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999–2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007–2012. Finally, we estimated the overall association and performed a second meta-analysis using all survey years (1999–2012). For systolic blood pressure, self-reported alcohol consumption emerged as our top finding (a 0.04 increase in mmHg of systolic blood pressure for 1 standard deviation increase in self-reported alcohol), though the effect size is small. For diastolic blood pressure, urinary cesium was tentatively replicated; however, this factor demonstrated high heterogeneity between populations (I2 = 51%). The lack of associations across this wide of an analysis raises the call for a broader search for environmental factors in blood pressure. PMID:27457472

  15. Environment-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Denise P; Brownstein, John S; Patel, Chirag J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999-2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007-2012. Finally, we estimated the overall association and performed a second meta-analysis using all survey years (1999-2012). For systolic blood pressure, self-reported alcohol consumption emerged as our top finding (a 0.04 increase in mmHg of systolic blood pressure for 1 standard deviation increase in self-reported alcohol), though the effect size is small. For diastolic blood pressure, urinary cesium was tentatively replicated; however, this factor demonstrated high heterogeneity between populations (I(2) = 51%). The lack of associations across this wide of an analysis raises the call for a broader search for environmental factors in blood pressure. PMID:27457472

  16. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  17. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  18. A bivariate measurement error model for semicontinuous and continuous variables: application to nutritional epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Midthune, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Semicontinuous data in the form of a mixture of a large portion of zero values and continuously distributed positive values frequently arise in many areas of biostatistics. This study is motivated by the analysis of relationships between disease outcomes and intakes of episodically consumed dietary components. An important aspect of studies in nutritional epidemiology is that true diet is unobservable and commonly evaluated by food frequency questionnaires with substantial measurement error. Following the regression calibration approach for measurement error correction, unknown individual intakes in the risk model are replaced by their conditional expectations given mismeasured intakes and other model covariates. Those regression calibration predictors are estimated using short-term unbiased reference measurements in a calibration substudy. Since dietary intakes are often “energy-adjusted”, e.g., by using ratios of the intake of interest to total energy intake, the correct estimation of the regression calibration predictor for each energy-adjusted episodically consumed dietary component requires modeling short-term reference measurements of the component (a semicontinuous variable) and energy (a continuous variable) simultaneously in a bivariate model. In this paper, we develop such a bivariate model, together with its application to regression calibration. We illustrate the new methodology using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (Schatzkin et al., 2001, American Journal of Epidemiology 154, 1119–1125), and also evaluate its performance in a simulation study. PMID:26332011

  19. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from…

  20. [From the influence of genes to the influence of family and urban environment on the nutritional status, activity, and physical condition of european urban adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beghin, Laurent; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Deplanque, Dominique; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    HELENA was a cross-sectional study carried out from 2006 to 2007 in more than 3500 adolescents aged from 12.5 to 17.5 years old through 10 Europeans towns from 9 countries. Its objective was to assess adolescent nutritional status including: body composition, biological markers, physical activity and fitness. This study shown the high impact of socio-economic condition, life style and personal and collective environment, dietary pattern (including breastfeeding), some genetic mutations involved in adiposity and metabolism, physical activity level and fitness on adolescent nutritional status. PMID:27615183

  1. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  2. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  3. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  4. Preserving Differential Privacy for Similarity Measurement in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Advances in both sensor technologies and network infrastructures have encouraged the development of smart environments to enhance people's life and living styles. However, collecting and storing user's data in the smart environments pose severe privacy concerns because these data may contain sensitive information about the subject. Hence, privacy protection is now an emerging issue that we need to consider especially when data sharing is essential for analysis purpose. In this paper, we consider the case where two agents in the smart environment want to measure the similarity of their collected or stored data. We use similarity coefficient function (FSC) as the measurement metric for the comparison with differential privacy model. Unlike the existing solutions, our protocol can facilitate more than one request to compute FSC without modifying the protocol. Our solution ensures privacy protection for both the inputs and the computed FSC results. PMID:25221785

  5. Internal space charge measurement of materials in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griseri, V.; Fukunaga, K.; Maeno, T.; Payan, D.; Laurent, C.; Levy, L.

    2003-09-01

    The charging/discharging effect produced by space environment on space vehicles are known but not fully identified yet. Experiments performed in laboratory in vacuum chamber that simulates spatial environment and the most realistic charge condition occurring in space have been developed in the last past forty years. A very small Pulse Electro-Acoustic space charge detection unit (mini-PEA) that can be mounted in a vacuum chamber, to measure internal space charges of materials in-situ during the irradiation has been developed. Several materials used in spatial environment such as Teflon®, and Kapton ® films on addition to PMMA films have been studied. The comparison and the good agreement between measured and calculated depth of penetration for electrons of given energy depending on the material nature contribute in the validation of the detection system and encourage us for further studies and development.

  6. [Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women under Monitoring in Pre Distinct Prenatal Services: The Metropolitan Area and the Rural Environment].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Caroline San Severino; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in some nutritional aspects of pregnant women assisted at prenatal care services in a country town and in a metropolitan area. Methods Pregnant women received prenatal care in the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), metropolitan area, and Paula Cândido (PC), a country town. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) containing socioeconomic information and information about eating habits was applied. In addition,weight and height were measured on the occasion of the visits and the women were ask to give their prepregnancy weight for subsequent BMI calculation. Data were analyzed according to region and trimester of pregnancy using the SPSS software version 15.0, the t-test to compare averages and the chi-square test of independence, with the level of significance set at 5%. Results 240 pregnant women were included, 90 fromthe country town and 150 from themetropolitan area. Of these,most weremarried (BH = 56.6%; PC = 46.6%) and did not work outside the home (BH = 54.0%; PC = 84.4%). They predominantly had 3-4 meals/ day during the 1st and 2nd quarters (BH = 54.0 and 46%; PC = 66.7 and 63.3%, respectively) and had 5-6 meals/day during Q3 in BH (44%). There was significant weight gain only in the 1st quarter (BH: 58,0%; PC: 53.3%). Weight gain versus eating habits was significant for the variables "lunch or dinner away from home" for the 1st quarter in BH (p = 0.006), "How many times they consume milk" in the 1 st quarter in PC (p = 0.03), and "How many times they consume junk food" in the 3rd quarter in BH (p = 0.009). Conclusions Pregnant woman showed proper eating habits in both regions despite the prevalence of pregestational overweight in BH and a low level of education and income, especially in the country town, an indicator that may be unfavorable for the nutrition of pregnant women during this period. Studies of association between eating habits and newborn health will provide more information about nutrition during pregnancy. PMID

  7. Indirect Measures of Learning Transfer between Real and Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael; McMahon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a 3D simulation environment used to train mining personnel in emergency evacuation procedures, designated the Fires in Underground Mines Evacuation Simulator (FUMES). Owing to the operational constraints of the mining facility, methods for measuring learning transfer were…

  8. Measuring the Accuracy of Prediction in a Simulated Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailles, Stephanie; Batatia, Hadj

    1998-01-01

    Describes use of a computerized simulation to study prediction in a complex environment (i.e., bus traffic control). Nature of the task, presentation method, number of repetitions, and length of time taken for prediction were measured. Prediction was significantly affected by all factors except number of repetitions. No learning effect was…

  9. Measuring Performance of Virtual Learning Environment System in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, William; Higson, Helen E.; Dey, Prasanta K.; Xu, Xiaowei; Bahsoon, Rami

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the performance of commercial virtual learning environment (VLE) systems, which helps the decision makers to select the appropriate system for their institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper develops an integrated multiple criteria decision making approach, which combines the analytic…

  10. X-Ray Measurements Of Displacements In Hostile Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental method of noncontact extensometry of objects in hot or otherwise hostile environments based on focusing and scanning of x rays. Principal advantage: ability to make measurements through stratified and/or flowing gases, smoke, and flames, as well as through solid layers of x-ray-transparent materials.

  11. Measuring Self-Regulation in Online and Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy; Lan, William Y.; To, Yen M.; Paton, Valerie Osland; Lai, Shu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    In developing the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ) to address the need for an instrument measuring self-regulation in the online learning environment, this study provides evidence toward the reliability and validity of the instrument. Data were collected from two samples of students. The first sample of students took coursework…

  12. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  13. Filamentary Environment and Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Yookyung

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy clusters reside at the nodes of cosmic web and are fed matter along the filaments. This filamentary environment is important to understand the formation and the evolution of galaxy clusters, and is also inevitably included when we observe them. This latter effect generates projection effects on cluster observables. Reducing errors in measuring cluster masses is of interest since a cluster's mass is a crucial property for many areas of astrophysics and cosmology. We study the filamentary environment surrounding galaxy clusters and its effect on the cluster mass measurements by constructing a filament catalogue in a high-resolution N-body simulation. We consider the statistical properties of filaments around galaxy clusters. Not only filaments but also the majority of mass in halos and number of galaxies in the local environment of clusters tends to lie on planes which are mostly aligned with each other and with the cluster's major axis. We show that this local planar environment can be one source of projection effects that bias cluster mass measurements. Sources of mass measurement scatters are shared between different mass measurement methods, generating correlations in their respective scatters. This correlated scatter mitigates the complementary information of cluster mass measurements in multi-wavelength observations. We study the scatter by calculating correlations/covariances between them and performing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). As expected, the scatter from different techniques tends to be correlated. We find that the combination of scatters which dominates the variance of all the measurements is common for the majority of clusters. Its dominance tends to be enhanced when observing along the cluster's major axis. We also find shared trends among cluster mass scatter, intrinsic and environmental properties of clusters using PCA.

  14. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities of its reduction. Nutritional physiology effects].

    PubMed

    Huisman, J

    1991-04-15

    Antinutritional factors (ANFs) protect the seed against attacks of moulds, bacteria, insects and birds. The defensive effect of ANFs is apparently related to disturbances in digestive processes in insects and microorganisms. When animals consume seeds containing ANFs, the digestive processes and growth may be disturbed in a similar manner. In the present paper, the fact is discussed that all proteins passing undigested through the small intestine will be fermentatively digested in the large intestine. The final products of the protein digested in the large intestine are excreted in the faeces or urine. For investigations into the digestion of protein in pigs and the amounts of N excreted into the environment, it is of importance to measure the ileal digestibility of protein. Studies showed that ANFs such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins and tannins present in legume seeds reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. In the case of Phaseolus beans it was found that more protein passed through the terminal ileum than was ingested with the feed. With peas was shown that ANFs reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. The carbohydrates of peas did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein, although the ileal chyme was more loose. In the case of faba beans, negative correlation of tannins with ileal digestibility of protein was observed. Calculations showed that, when ANFs were removed from peas and faba beans a considerable reduction in excretion of N into the environment can be achieved. These calculations also showed important possibilities of reducing the secretion of N into the environment by elimination of ANFs. PMID:1882367

  15. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on the nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities for its reduction].

    PubMed

    van der Poel, A F

    1991-04-15

    The role of legume and oil seeds in animal nutrition could be more important if negative effects of so-called antinutritional factors (ANFs) could be adequately eliminated. Processing standards to attain an optimum nutritional value will then have to be based on the nutritional evaluation of legume and oil seeds. Priorities in studying the effects of processing these raw materials are to attain an optimum degree of nutritional value of protein rather than the reduction of ANFs. Obviously, reduction of proteinaceous ANFs can be accomplished by thermal methods of treatment. Residual activities of the ANFs alone, however, do not predict the quality of protein in vivo, in every case. Other factors (storage protein, carbohydrates) may also be important in addition to ANFs. This means that elimination of ANFs alone however, cannot always ensure a sufficient increase in digestibility as determined in experimental studies in animals. By correlating the results of technological experiments with those of trials in animals, optimum information may be gathered in attempting to attain an optimum nutritional value by technological methods of treatment. This will contribute to a more correct and accurate understanding of the effects of animal feed technology on the performance of animals and the consequences for the excretion of undigested nutrients in the environment. PMID:1882369

  16. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  17. Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed. PMID:22629181

  18. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  19. Optimizing quantum correlation dynamics by weak measurement in dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie; Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the protection of quantum correlations of two qubits in independent vacuum reservoirs by means of weak measurements. It is found that the weak measurement can reduce the amount of quantum correlation for one type of initial state at the beginning in a non-Markovian environment and meanwhile it can reduce the occurrence time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in the process of time evolution. In a Markovian environment, the quantum entanglements of the two kinds of initial states decay rapidly and the weak measurement can further weaken the quantum entanglement, therefore in this case the entanglement cannot be optimized in the evolution process. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and No.11147019).

  20. Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenberg, Brent; Smith, Doug; Speas, Kyle; Corliss, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, high speed data acquisition capability. To date, the instrumentation system has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and on subscale static fire test motors ranging in size from 5-inches to 24-inches in diameter. Ultimately, this system is intended to be installed on a full-scale Reusable Solid Rocket Motor. This paper explains the need for the data, the components and capabilities of the system, and the test results.

  1. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  2. Measuring Knowledge Acquisition in 3D Virtual Learning Environments.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eunice P dos Santos; Roque, Licínio G; Nunes, Fatima de Lourdes dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments can contribute to the effective learning of various subjects for people of all ages. Consequently, they assist in reducing the cost of maintaining physical structures of teaching, such as laboratories and classrooms. However, the measurement of how learners acquire knowledge in such environments is still incipient in the literature. This article presents a method to evaluate the knowledge acquisition in 3D virtual learning environments (3D VLEs) by using the learner's interactions in the VLE. Three experiments were conducted that demonstrate the viability of using this method and its computational implementation. The results suggest that it is possible to automatically assess learning in predetermined contexts and that some types of user interactions in 3D VLEs are correlated with the user's learning differential. PMID:26915117

  3. Exposure Measurements in Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Ministry of the Environment is conducting a large-scale birth cohort study called the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which involves 100000 mother-child pairs. Mothers are enrolled during pregnancy, and their children are followed up and studied until they reach the age of 13 years. The JECS started recruiting mothers in January 2011 and completed the registration of more than 103000 mothers in March 2014. The National Institute for Environmental Studies takes the lead in the study programming and implementation in cooperation with the National Centre for Child Health and Development and 15 Regional Centres that reach out to the study participants. In the study, the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development are investigated. The environment in this study is defined not only as air, soil, water, and indoor environments but also as various chemical substances, physical conditions, socioeconomic factors, psychological conditions, lifestyles and community situations. Mothers' and children's exposures to these environmental factors are measured through chemical analyses of biospecimens collected during pregnancy and after birth, questionnaires and computer modelling. The homes of the randomly selected participants (5000) are visited to measure the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen and sulphuric oxides and particulate matter. Vacuum dust samples are also collected for chemical analysis. All these data will be combined with the information collected by the dwelling unit observation to assess the exposure of children aged 1.5 and 3 years. PMID:27252056

  4. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  5. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  6. The impact of oedema on anthropometric measurements in nutritional surveys: a case study from Zaire

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Robert R.; Dikassa, Lusamba N.; Bertrand, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Six surveys for protein-energy malnutrition were carried out in sequence in Bas-Zaire beginning at the end of 1978 at the estimated height of the famine and continuing throughout the recovery period. Utilizing a stratified multi-stage sampling technique, over 1000 children aged 6 months to 6 years were measured anthropometrically and examined for the presence or absence of bilateral pedal oedema in each survey. The proportions of children who were less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height and who had oedema decreased, respectively, from 12.8% and 14.4% initially to 2.1% and 1.8% in the final survey. The proportion of oedematous children who were found to be not less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was high, varying from 71.7 ± 7.0% to 94.4 ± 10.6%. The importance of these findings for the interpretation of anthropometric data from nutritional surveys in developing countries is discussed. PMID:6609019

  7. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  8. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  9. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  10. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  11. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dodson, R. Ellis, C. Priniski, S. Raftopoulos, D. Stevens, M. Viola

    2009-02-04

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurementbased (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes.

  12. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  13. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  14. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  15. Radiation Environment Variations at Mars - Model Calculations and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar; Cucinotta, Francis

    Variations in the space radiation environment due to changes in the GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) from the past (#23) solar cycle to the current one (#24) has been intriguing in many ways, with an unprecedented long duration of the recent solar minimum condition and a very low peak activity of the current solar maximum. Model calculated radiation data and assessment of variations in the particle flux - protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions of the GCR environment is essential for understanding radiation risk and for any future intended long-duration human exploration missions. During the past solar cycle, we have had most active and higher solar maximum (2001-2003) condition. In the beginning of the current solar cycle (#24), we experienced a very long duration of solar minimum (2009-2011) condition with a lower peak activity (2013-2014). At Mars, radiation measurements in orbit were obtained (onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft) during the past (#23) solar maximum condition. Radiation measurements on the surface of Mars are being currently measured (onboard the Mars Science Laboratory, 2012 - Curiosity) during the current (#24) solar peak activity (August 2012 - present). We present our model calculated radiation environment at Mars during solar maxima for solar cycles #23 and #24. We compare our earlier model calculations (Cucinotta et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S35-S39, 2002; Saganti et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S119-S124, 2002; and Saganti et al., Space Science Reviews, 110, 143-156, 2004) with the most recent radiation measurements on the surface of Mars (2012 - present).

  16. Measurement of Radiation Pressure in an Ambient Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Light has momentum and thus exerts ``radiation pressure'' when it is reflected or absorbed due to the conservation of momentum. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are suitable for measurement and utilization of radiation pressure due to their high sensitivities. However, other light-induced mechanical deformations such as photothermal effects often obscure accurate measurements of radiation pressure in these systems. In this work, we investigate the radiation pressure and photothermal force on an uncoated silicon nitride microcantilever under illumination by a 660 nm laser in an ambient environment. To magnify the mechanical effects, the cantilever is driven optically from dc across its resonance frequency, and the amplitude and phase of its oscillation are acquired by an optical beam deflection method and a lockin amplifier. We show that radiation pressure and photothermal effects can be distinguished through the cantilever's frequency response. Furthermore, in a radiation pressure dominant regime, our measurement of the radiation force agrees quantitatively with the theoretical calculation.

  17. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, Scott T; French, Simone A; Gerlach, Anne F; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment). All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average < 1 food stores or restaurants within sight of each garage. Few vending machine food and beverage items met criteria for healthful choices (15% of the vending machine foods; 26% of the vending machine beverages). The garage environment was perceived to be not supportive of healthy food choices, physical activity and weight management; 52% reported that it was hard to get fruits and vegetables in the garages, and 62% agreed that it was hard to be physically active in the garages. Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment. PMID:17498308

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology of Objectively Measured Walking Among US Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine population-based prevalence of walking in the United States among pregnant women. Objectively measured walking data on 197 pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were analyzed. In general, pregnant women showed a level of walking below the recommendation; most walking was at low-intensity levels. These findings suggest that walking, particularly at higher intensity than usual, should be promoted among pregnant women. PMID:26652217

  19. Correlations between LDEX Measurements and the Lunar Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey; Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Halekas, Jasper

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector capable of measuring the mass of sub-micron sized dust grains above the lunar surface. LDEX can also search for the putative population of grains with radii on the order of ~ 0.1 μm lofted over the terminator regions by measuring the collective current of dust grains that are below the detection threshold for single impacts. This current, intended to measure the collective impact plasma from multiple small grain impacts, has also shown considerable correlations with plasma measurements from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. Through LADEE's many orbits, LDEX sees time periods with very low variability, having almost no activity as well as periods with very high variability. Since this type of high activity is also observed in anti-ram pointing measurements, much of this current cannot be explained by collections of small dust grain impacts. Given this, comparisons to ARTEMIS data provide a promising way to explain such measurements. This presentation will focus on the correlations between LDEX and ARTEMIS data.

  20. TDLAS for measurement of temperature in combustion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei-jin; Huang, Bin; Yang, Bin; He, Guo-qiang

    2013-05-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique has many significant advantages such as non-intrusive compared with traditional combustion parameter measurement techniques. In this paper, according to the absorption lines optimization criterions, the 7444.352+7444.371 cm-1 and 7185.597 cm-1 line pair of water vapor (H2O) is selected for the temperature measurement of combustion environment in 900-1600K region, and two most important influencing factors (temperature and pressure) are analyzed by simulation of absorption spectrum based on HITRAN. Therefore, TDLAS system using the 7444.352+7444.371 cm-1 and 7185.597 cm-1 line pair based on Time-Division-multiplexing (TDM) strategy has been designed. This TDLAS system has been applied for the temperature measurement in the exhaust of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. Compared with the pressure measured by the pressure transducer in combustion chamber, the tendency of temperature measurement has well agreement with the pressure. The result of temperature measurement using TDLAS technique has great importance to the evaluation of RBCC combustion efficiency.

  1. Disparities in neighborhood food environments: implications of measurement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Purciel, Marnie; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2010-01-01

    Public health researchers have begun to map the neighborhood “food environment” and examine its association with the risk of overweight and obesity. Some argue that “food deserts”—areas with little or no provision of fresh produce and other healthy food—may contribute to disparities in obesity, diabetes, and related health problems. While research on neighborhood food environments has taken advantage of more technically sophisticated ways to assess distance and density, in general, it has not considered how individual or neighborhood conditions might modify physical distance and thereby affect patterns of spatial accessibility. This study carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to illustrate the effects on the measurement of disparities in food environments of adjusting for cross-neighborhood variation in vehicle ownership rates, public transit access, and impediments to pedestrian travel, such as crime and poor traffic safety. The analysis used geographic information systems data for New York City supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and farmers' markets and employed both kernel density and distance measures. We found that adjusting for vehicle ownership and crime tended to increase measured disparities in access to supermarkets by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income, while adjusting for public transit and traffic safety tended to narrow these disparities. Further, considering fruit and vegetable markets and farmers' markets, as well as supermarkets, increased the density of healthy food outlets, especially in neighborhoods with high concentrations of Hispanics, Asians, and foreign-born residents and in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:21117330

  2. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged

  3. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  4. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  5. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  6. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  7. Measurement of participation: intersecting person, task, and environment.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Trudy; Hammel, Joy

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this article are to describe participation as a transaction and issues involved in measuring and intervening using this transactional approach; describe ecologic and systems-based theoretic approaches for conceptualizing person-task-environment transactions; and illustrate examples of an exploratory strategy, radar plots, as a clinical tool for rehabilitation professionals to show this interaction and use it to inform participation-focused interventions with people with disabilities in rehabilitation settings. Participation necessarily occurs at the intersection of what the person can do, wants to do, has the opportunity to do, and is not prevented from doing. It is a transaction that occurs at the nexus of the person-task-environment. Measurement of participation should capture this transactive nature. Radar plots are part of a group of graphic displays frequently referred to as exploratory data analysis. In situations in which theory is not well developed, exploratory techniques such as radar plots may hold promise as ways to explore better the relationship among variables. This article describes strengths and limitations of radar plots and presents an example with data from the Community Participation Database. PMID:20801276

  8. Measuring vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements for nutrition studies in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article illustrates the importance of having analytical data on the vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplements in nutrition studies and describes efforts to develop an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) by a consortium of federal agencies in the USA. ...

  9. An Examination of Correlates and Effects Associated with a Concise Measure of Consumers' Nutrition Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Tracy A.; Burton, Scot

    1996-01-01

    Consumers in two studies (n=374 and 500) were surveyed regarding their nutrition knowledge and the information on food labels. Validity of the survey instrument was supported by comparing results from professional nutritionists and dietitian students. Knowledge level was an important factor in consumer comprehension of and attitudes toward label…

  10. Description, measurement and evaluation of tertiary-education food environments.

    PubMed

    Roy, R; Hebden, L; Kelly, B; De Gois, T; Ferrone, E M; Samrout, M; Vermont, S; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their 'healthiness'. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe's testing, χ 2 tests, Kruskal-Wallis H test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed. PMID:27245102

  11. Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter Scientific and Measurement Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Langlais, B.; Fouchet, T.; Barabash, S.; Breuer, D.; Chassefière, E.; Coates, A.; Dehant, V.; Forget, F.; Lammer, H.; Lewis, S.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; Mandea, M.; Menvielle, M.; Pais, A.; Paetzold, M.; Read, P.; Sotin, C.; Tarits, P.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission -- Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) -- was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 M€). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: • Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; • Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; • A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements.

  12. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  13. Mars environment and magnetic orbiter scientific and measurement objectives.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, F; Langlais, B; Fouchet, T; Barabash, S; Breuer, D; Chassefière, E; Coates, A; Dehant, V; Forget, F; Lammer, H; Lewis, S; Lopez-Valverde, M; Mandea, M; Menvielle, M; Pais, A; Paetzold, M; Read, P; Sotin, C; Tarits, P; Vennerstrom, S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission--Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO)--was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 Meuro). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: * Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements. PMID:19317625

  14. X ray based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordon, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of x rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard x rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The x rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary x ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of x rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  15. X-ray-based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, H. A.; Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of X-rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard X-rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The X-rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary X-ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of X-rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  16. Beam Shaping for CARS Measurements in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines Planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal insensitive to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One set of experiments investigated the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another set of experiments, more qualitative, proved the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence.

  17. Evaluation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during changing nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Filler, R.M.; Swyer, P.R.; Smith, J.; Heim, T.

    1988-05-01

    Change in abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O in dietary water during a doubly labeled water energy period may introduce error into the calculated carbon dioxide production rate (RCO/sub 2/). To examine the accuracy of /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O during changing nutritional regimens, we compared /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O and periodic open-circuit respiratory gas exchange (RGE) in postsurgical infants who were changing from parenteral to alternative parenteral and/or oral nutrition. The two methods were compared before and after correction for shifts in isotopic abundance of the infant water pools during the energy-expenditure period. Baseline corrections were predicted using the difference between abundances of the initial body water and final nutrient solutions. Before isotopic correction, /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O underestimated RCO/sub 2/ in eight subjects by 11.8 +/- 20.1% (mean +/- SD). After correction, agreement between the two methods improved; the underestimate was then -8.7 +/- 12.9%. To obtain maximum precision of /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O, subjects should be maintained on the same nutritional regimen before and during the study unless valid correction formulae are used.

  18. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  19. Symposium on 'Geographical and geological influences on nutrition': Factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher C; Fordyce, Fiona M; Rayman, Margaret P

    2010-02-01

    Se is essential to human and animal health but can be toxic in excess. An interest in its geochemistry has developed alongside a greater understanding of its function in a number of health conditions. Geology exerts a strong control on the Se status of the surface environment; low-Se rock-types (0.05-0.09 mg Se/kg) make up the majority of rocks occurring at the Earth's surface, which in turn account for the generally low levels of Se in most soils. However, there are exceptions such as associations with sulfide mineralisation and in some types of sedimentary rocks (e.g. black shales) in which contents of Se can be much higher. Baseline geochemical data now enable a comparison to be made between environmental and human Se status, although a direct link is only likely to be seen if the population is dependent on the local environment for sustenance. This situation is demonstrated with an example from the work of the British Geological Survey in the Se-deficiency belt of China. The recent fall in the daily dietary Se intake in the UK is discussed in the context of human Se status and declining use of North American wheat in bread making. Generally, US wheat has ten times more Se than UK wheat, attributed to the fact that soils from the wheat-growing belt of America are more enriched in Se to a similar order of magnitude. In agriculture effective biofortification of crops with Se-rich fertilisers must be demonstrably safe to the environment and monitored appropriately and baseline geochemical data will enable this process to be done with confidence. PMID:19968907

  20. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R; Cardenas, A; Buttler, David; Critchlow, Terence J

    2011-01-01

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevance to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevance scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which would vary from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment, there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. A general framework, called iScore, is presented for defining and measuring the ‘‘interestingness of articles, incorporating user-feedback. iScore addresses the various aspects of what makes an article interesting, such as topic relevance, uniqueness, freshness, source reputation, and writing style. It employs various methods, such as multiple topic tracking, online parameter selection, language models, clustering, sentiment analysis, and phrase extraction to measure these features. Due to varying reasons that users hold about why an article is interesting, an online feature selection method in naι¨ve Bayes is also used to improve recommendation results. iScore can outperform traditional IR techniques by as much as 50.7%. iScore and its components are evaluated in the news recommendation task using three datasets from Yahoo! News, actual users, and Digg.

  1. Measurement realities of current collection in dynamic space plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.

    1990-01-01

    Theories which describe currents collected by conducting and non-conducting bodies immersed in plasmas have many of their concepts based upon the fundamentals of sheath-potential distributions and charged-particle behavior in superimposed electric and magnetic fields. Those current-collecting bodies (or electrodes) may be Langmuir probes, electric field detectors, aperture plates on ion mass spectrometers and retarding potential analyzers, or spacecraft and their rigid and tethered appendages. Often the models are incomplete in representing the conditions under which the current-voltage characteristics of the electrode and its system are to be measured. In such cases, the experimenter must carefully take into account magnetic field effects and particle anisotropies, perturbations caused by the current collection process itself and contamination on electrode surfaces, the complexities of non-Maxwellian plasma distributions, and the temporal variability of the local plasma density, temperature, composition and fields. This set of variables is by no means all-inclusive, but it represents a collection of circumstances guaranteed to accompany experiments involving energetic particle beams, plasma discharges, chemical releases, wave injection and various events of controlled and uncontrolled spacecraft charging. Here, an attempt is made to synopsize these diagnostic challenges and frame them within a perspective that focuses on the physics under investigation and the requirements on the parameters to be measured. Examples include laboratory and spaceborne applications, with specific interest in dynamic and unstable plasma environments.

  2. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  3. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour. PMID:26784377

  4. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  5. Space environment measurements by JAXA satellites and ISS/JEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu

    2012-02-01

    In order to monitor space environment and its temporal variations, JAXA Space Environment Group has been developing space radiation detectors as well as magnetometers and installing them on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites, Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) satellite, Quasi Zenith Orbit (QZO) satellite and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). We are using these space environment data to know the situation of space environment and to provide warning messages to the satellite operators as well as ISS/JEM manager, when the space environment will be harmful. Based on our observation data, we also have constructed an advanced electron belt model for the use in satellite manufacturing. With space radiation data obtained by JAXA satellites and ISS, some findings related to the space radiation environment have been obtained. We will review our activities related to the space environment research and development in JAXA.

  6. Risk factors affecting child cognitive development: a summary of nutrition, environment, and maternal-child interaction indicators for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, N D; Stein, A D

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240

  7. Measurements of the thermal plasma environment of the space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Siskind, D. E.; Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.

    1984-04-01

    The paper presents some initial results on measurements of the thermal plasma environment obtained by a spherical retarding potential analyzer and a Langmuir probe flown on the third space shuttle flight ( STS-3) as part of the NASA Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) payload in March 1982. One of the major effects observed is a higher degree of turbulence in the ambient plasma compared to what is observed from similar instruments flown on unmanned satellites. In addition we see the temperature of the thermal electrons elevated to values of 4000-5000 K. Associated with elevated electron temperatures are regions of enhanced plasma density resulting from the appearance of high densities of molecular ions. The thermal plasma data also show clear effects of an induced V × B · L potential at the location of the probes which matches that produced by an L vector linking the probes to the engine nozzles; thereby establishing the prime return current location on the Orbiter. The final observations discussed are the pronounced and complex wake effects resulting both from the main structure of the Orbiter and from the complex shapes of appendages attached to the Orbiter.

  8. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, Raymond K.

    2008-01-01

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevancy to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevancy scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which varies from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment, there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. A general framework, called iScore, is presented for defining and measuring the 'interestingness' of articles, incorporating user-feedback. iScore addresses various aspects of what makes an article interesting, such as topic relevancy, uniqueness, freshness, source reputation, and writing style. It employs various methods to measure these features and uses a classifier operating on these features to recommend articles. The basic iScore configuration is shown to improve recommendation results by as much as 20%. In addition to the basic iScore features, additional features are presented to address the deficiencies of existing feature extractors, such as one that tracks multiple topics, called MTT, and a version of the Rocchio algorithm that learns its parameters online as it processes documents, called eRocchio. The inclusion of both MTT and eRocchio into iScore is shown to improve iScore recommendation results by as much as 3.1% and 5.6%, respectively. Additionally, in TREC11 Adaptive Filter Task, eRocchio is shown to be 10% better than the best filter in the last run of the task. In addition to these two major topic relevancy measures, other features are also introduced that employ language models, phrases, clustering, and changes in topics to improve recommendation results. These additional features are shown to improve recommendation results by iScore by up to 14

  9. The Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES): Development of a Self-Report Measure to Assess Counseling Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jared Miki Jun Kong

    2012-01-01

    Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1992) ecological framework, the Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES) was developed as a self-report measure that assesses the learning and training environment of counseling and related mental health training programs as perceived by current students. A two-phase mixed-methods design was used to create…

  10. Measuring Perceived Sociability of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jochems, Wim; van Buuren, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Most asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments can be characterized as "functional" environments because they focus on functional, task-specific support, often disregarding explicit support for the social (emotional) aspects of learning in groups which are acknowledged by many educational researchers to be…

  11. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β -2.02, 95%CI (-2.15, -1.89)], reported income>20K [β -1.05, 95%CI (-1.79, -0.30)], and measured % body fat [β -0.07, 95%CI (-0.12, -0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness. PMID:25617601

  12. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β −2.02, 95%CI (−2.15, −1.89)], reported income > 20K [β −1.05, 95%CI (−1.79, −0.30)], and measured % body fat [β −0.07, 95%CI (−0.12, −0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness. PMID:25617601

  13. Early effects of the federally mandated Local Wellness Policy on school nutrition environments appear modest in Colorado's rural, low-income elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Belansky, Elaine S; Cutforth, Nick; Delong, Erin; Litt, Jill; Gilbert, Lynn; Scarbro, Sharon; Beatty, Bridget; Romaniello, Cathy; Brink, Lois; Marshall, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    To increase opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity, US school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program were required to create a Local Wellness Policy (LWP) by June 2006. The What's Working project described the initial influence of this mandate on nutrition environments and policies. In 2005 and 2007 (before and after the mandate went into effect), a survey about school features related to nutrition and physical activity was sent to a random sample of 45 low-income, rural elementary foodservice managers and principals. Schools averaged 204 students, 27% Hispanic. Districts' LWPs were coded for strength and comprehensiveness. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted with foodservice managers almost 2 years after the LWP went into effect. Three improvements were observed: increases in the percent of schools with policies stipulating predominantly healthy items be offered in classroom parties (21.4% in 2005 vs 48.7% in 2007), daily fresh fruit offerings in the lunchroom (0.80 choices in 2005 vs 1.15 choices in 2007), and the percent of schools using skinless poultry (27% in 2005 vs 59% in 2007). LWPs were weakly worded and rarely addressed energy content. Nutrition guideline elements most commonly addressed included vending machines, school stores, and à la carte food offerings. Seveny-three percent of foodservice managers were familiar with their district's LWP but did not perceive it changed lunchroom practices. Although LWPs offer a framework to support opportunities for healthy eating, few evidence-based practices were implemented as a direct result of the mandate. Schools need more information about evidence-based practices, as well as technical and financial assistance for implementation. PMID:21034885

  14. Nigerian Physiotherapy Clinical Students' Perception of Their Learning Environment Measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odole, Adesola C.; Oyewole, Olufemi O.; Ogunmola, Oluwasolape T.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the learning environment and the understanding of how students learn will help teacher to facilitate learning and plan a curriculum to achieve the learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate physiotherapy clinical students' perception of University of Ibadan's learning environment. Using the…

  15. Radiation environment measurements on shuttle missions using the CREAM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Sims, A. J.; Truscott, P. R.; Farren, J.; Underwood, C.

    1992-12-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) was successfully deployed in the middeck area on Shuttle missions STS-48 and STS-44 during September and November 1991 with the aim of monitoring those aspects of the primary and secondary radiation environment responsible for single event upsets in microelectronics and background noise in sensors. Results are compared with the outputs of standard radiation environment models. For the accurate location of trapped protons the choice of geomagnetic field model is shown to be critical, while results at high latitudes show the low-altitude manifestation of the new trapped proton belt observed to follow the March 1991 solar flare event. From deployment at a number of locations there is clear evidence for a significant build-up with shielding of secondary charged particles and neutrons.

  16. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  17. Shuttle measured contaminant environment and modeling for payloads. Preliminary assessment of the space telescope environment in the shuttle bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A baseline gaseous and particulate environment of the Shuttle bay was developed based on the various measurements which were made during the first four flights of the Shuttle. The environment is described by the time dependent pressure, density, scattered molecular fluxes, the column densities and including the transient effects of water dumps, engine firings and opening and closing of the bay doors. The particulate conditions in the ambient and on surfaces were predicted as a function of the mission time based on the available data. This basic Shuttle environment when combined with the outgassing and the particulate contributions of the payloads, can provide a description of the environment of a payload in the Shuttle bay. As an example of this application, the environment of the Space Telescope in the bay, which may be representative of the environment of several payloads, was derived. Among the many findings obtained in the process of modeling the environment, one is that the payloads environment in the bay is not substantially different or more objectionable than the self-generated environment of a large payload or spacecraft. It is, however, more severe during ground facilities operations, the first 15 to 20 hours of the flight, during and for a short period after ater was dumped overboard, and the reaction control engines are being fired.

  18. An Evaluation of the Measurement of Perceived Classroom Assessment Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    A classroom assessment environment is a classroom context experienced by students as the teacher determines assessment purposes, develops assessment tasks, defines assessment criteria and standards, provides feedback, and monitors outcomes (Brookhart, 1997). It is usually a group experience varying from class to class dependent upon the teacher's…

  19. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  20. "Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

    2012-01-01

    "Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

  1. Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

  2. Updated measurements from CREAM & CREDO & implications for environment & shielding models.

    PubMed

    Dyer, C S; Truscott, P R; Peerless, C L; Watson, C J; Evans, H E; Knight, P; Cosby, M; Underwood, C; Cousins, T; Noulty, R

    1998-06-01

    Flight data obtained between 1995 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM & CREDO carried on UoSat-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) have been added to the dataset affording coverage since 1990. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly are observed, the former comprising a factor three increase at high latitudes and the latter a general increase accompanied by a westward drift. Comparison of particle fluxes and linear energy transfer spectra is made with improved environment & radiation transport calculations which account for shield distributions and secondary particles. While there is an encouraging convergence between predictions and observations, significant improvements are still required, particularly in the treatrnent of locally produced secondary particles. PMID:11542404

  3. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  4. A multi-sensor oceanographic measurement system for coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Strahle, William J.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument system has been developed for long-term sediment transport studies that uses a modular design to combine off the shelf components into a complete and flexible package. A common data storage format is used in each instrument system so that the same hardware can be assembled in different ways to address specific scientific studies with minimal engineering support and modification. Three systems have been constructed and successfully deployed to date in two different coastal environments.

  5. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  6. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  7. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  8. We Can Do That! Collaborative Assessment of School Environments to Promote Healthy Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan L.; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for effectiveness of school-based studies for prevention of adolescent obesity is equivocal. Tailoring interventions to specific settings is considered necessary for effectiveness and sustainability. The PRECEDE framework provides a formative research approach for comprehensive understanding of school environments and identification of…

  9. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  10. Vestibular ontogeny: Measuring the influence of the dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Devries, Sherri M.; Dubois, Linda M.; Nelson, Rick C.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison to other special senses, we are only meagerly informed about the development of vestibular function and the mechanisms that may operate to control or influence the course of vestibular ontogeny. Perhaps one contributing factor to this disparity is the difficulty of evaluating vestibular sense organs directly and noninvasively. The present report describes a recently developed direct noninvasive vestibular function test that can be used to address many basic questions about the developing vestibular system. More particularly, the test can be used to examine the effects of the dynamic environment (e.g. gravitational field and vibration) on vestibular ontogeny.

  11. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using ...

  12. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  13. Mobile measurement system of ECG signal in vehicle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kwang-seok; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Choon-Young; Kim, Myun-Hee

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposed a new method to measure the ECG signal from the driver. The ECG signal is often measured in the room. But it is mixed with many kinds of noise when it is measured during the vehicle moving. Noise occupied most many parts as the experimental among them was classified. And one suitable filter for each noise was designed. It used ALE(Adaptive Line Enhancement) to remove the noise occurred to electromagnetic wave in vehicle. To remove the noise occurred to steering or vibration of vehicle, the paper used Wavelet transformation after ALE(preprocessing filter). To realize unconscious measurement, this research used the stainless steel(not the electrode) fixed at steering wheel and designed the adaptive filter without using reference signal.

  14. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of the Classroom Assessment Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study…

  15. Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW): Development and Measurement Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F.; Harris, David; Owen, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and administration of the Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW), which measures health-promoting characteristics of the workplace environment by direct observation (physical characteristics, information environment, and immediate neighborhood). Findings illustrate the type of data on environmental…

  16. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  17. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  18. Measuring odours in the environment vs. dispersion modelling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Guillot, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    Source characterization alone is not sufficient to account for the effective impact of odours on citizens, which would require to quantify odours directly at receptors. However, despite a certain simplicity of odour measurement at the emission source, odour measurement in the field is a quite more complicated task. This is one of the main reasons for the spreading of odour impact assessment approaches based on odour dispersion modelling. Currently, just a very limited number of reports discussing the use of tracer gas dispersion experiments both in the field and in wind tunnels for model validation purposes can be found in literature. However, when dealing with odour emissions, it is not always possible to identify a limited number of tracer compounds, nor to relate analytical concentrations to odour properties, thus giving that considering single odorous compounds might be insufficient to account for effective odour perception. For these reasons, the possibility of measuring of odours in the field, both as a way for directly assessing odour annoyance or for verifying that modelled odour concentrations correspond to the effective odour perception by humans, is still an important objective. The present work has the aim to review the techniques that can be adopted for measuring odours in the field, particularly discussing how such techniques can be used in alternative or in combination with odour dispersion models for odour impact assessment purposes, and how the results of field odour measurements and model outputs can be related and compared to each other.

  19. Feasibility analysis on integration of luminous environment measuring and design based on exposure curve calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuan; Shen, Tianxing

    2013-03-01

    Besides illumination calculating during architecture and luminous environment design, to provide more varieties of photometric data, the paper presents combining relation between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system, which contains a set of experiment devices including light information collecting and processing modules, and can offer us various types of photometric data. During the research process, we introduced a simulation method for calibration, which mainly includes rebuilding experiment scenes in 3ds Max Design, calibrating this computer aid design software in simulated environment under conditions of various typical light sources, and fitting the exposure curves of rendered images. As analytical research went on, the operation sequence and points for attention during the simulated calibration were concluded, connections between Mental Ray renderer and SM light environment measuring system were established as well. From the paper, valuable reference conception for coordination between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system was pointed out.

  20. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  1. Towards a mature measurement environment: Creating a software engineering research environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Software engineering researchers are building tools, defining methods, and models; however, there are problems with the nature and style of the research. The research is typically bottom-up, done in isolation so the pieces cannot be easily logically or physically integrated. A great deal of the research is essentially the packaging of a particular piece of technology with little indication of how the work would be integrated with other prices of research. The research is not aimed at solving the real problems of software engineering, i.e., the development and maintenance of quality systems in a productive manner. The research results are not evaluated or analyzed via experimentation or refined and tailored to the application environment. Thus, it cannot be easily transferred into practice. Because of these limitations we have not been able to understand the components of the discipline as a coherent whole and the relationships between various models of the process and product. What is needed is a top down experimental, evolutionary framework in which research can be focused, logically and physically integrated to produce quality software productively, and evaluated and tailored to the application environment. This implies the need for experimentation, which in turn implies the need for a laboratory that is associated with the artifact we are studying. This laboratory can only exist in an environment where software is being built, i.e., as part of a real software development and maintenance organization. Thus, we propose that Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) type activities exist in all organizations to support software engineering research. We describe the SEL from a researcher's point of view, and discuss the corporate and government benefits of the SEL. The discussion focuses on the benefits to the research community.

  2. The changing nutrition scenario.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  3. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  4. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  5. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  6. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  7. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    on females than males. Conclusion These results suggest that country of origin’s nutrition transition score and gender affect Latino immigrants’ objective and subjective measures of weight. Future investigation should investigate the relationship between gender and the nutrition transition in Latin America and how the nutrition transition globalizes obesity and weight consciousness. PMID:25001844

  8. Ground-based Measurement Of Saharan Dust In Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M. J.; Ji, Q.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, C.; Hansell, R. A.; Augustine, D.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive field experiment, named NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) was conducted during August-September of 2006 to investigate the genesis and development of hurricanes. Two ground-based mobile laboratories, Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT), were deployed at Sal Island, Cape Verde to continuously monitor the structure and composition of the atmosphere in the major path of the Saharan Air Layer and the African Easterly Waves. A Micro-Pulse Lidar in SMART, which measures the vertical profiles of backscatter from the atmospheric particulates continuously, caught several episodes of Saharan dust layers reached the surface site. Simultaneously, physical and optical properties of aerosols (e.g., mixture of the Saharan dust and maritime aerosols) were captured by several instruments in COMMIT. In this study, we propose a novel method to separate dust properties from those of marine background aerosols by utilizing the synergy of a suite of in-situ measurements. Derived parameters are mass scattering coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA) for dust near the surface (~10m). As a crosscheck, the SSA based on the surface measurements is compared with the result of Deep Blue satellite-based aerosol retrievals, which is now incorporated in the operational MODIS aerosol product. The presented preliminary results will be useful in studying the properties of Saharan dust originated from various source regions, which, in turns, can be used as inputs to aerosol transport models to help better understand the interactions between aerosol and cloud water cycle.

  9. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  10. Scale Development of a Measure to Assess Community-Based and Clinical Intervention Group Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Neufeld, Sharon; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Though group interventions are widely used in community-based and clinical settings, there are few brief instruments for assessing the group environment. Two studies on the development of a brief measure to assess intervention group environments are described, and psychometric properties of the new scale are presented. The new measure is based on…

  11. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  12. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical to establishing diet/health relationships. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites which may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity present a challenge to analytic...

  13. Measurement of surface reactions in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Megill, Lawrence R.; Brinza, David A.; Hart, Roger C.; Moore, R. Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Oxygen Measurement Spacecraft, ATOMS, and a suite of associated instruments, designed to measure the performance of improved atomic-oxygen-resistant materials and coatings in orbit and to telemeter the resulting data and video images to earth at intervals during a one-year mission, have been described in a definition study sponsored by the Langley Research Center under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program. The objective of the program is to work toward an improvement of base materials and surface coatings which will resist the serious degradation experienced by the external surfaces of LEO spacecraft as a result of the ablative effects of atmospheric oxygen, possibly catalyzed by solar UV radiation. This miniature orbiting laboratory includes a radio-frequency mass spectrometer, a set of osmium actinometers, and a scanning optical microscope. The design of these instruments and their use in the overall experiment are discussed.

  14. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the “noisy” environment. PMID:26733156

  15. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the “noisy” environment.

  16. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the "noisy" environment. PMID:26733156

  17. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Harnly, James

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical for establishing relations between diet and health. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites that may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity presents a challenge to analytical chemistry. With respect to flavonoids, putative identification is accessible, but positive identification and quantification are limited by the lack of standards. Quantification has been tested with use of both nonspecific and specific methods. Nonspecific methods, which include antioxidant capacity methods, fail to provide information on the measured components, suffer from numerous interferences, are not equatable, and are unsuitable for health research. Specific methods, such as LC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection, require the use of internal standards and relative molar response factors. These methods are relatively expensive and require a high level of expertise and experimental verification; however, they represent the only suitable means of relating health outcomes to specific dietary components. PMID:26980821

  18. Regression calibration method for correcting measurement-error bias in nutritional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, D; McDermott, A; Rosner, B

    1997-04-01

    Regression calibration is a statistical method for adjusting point and interval estimates of effect obtained from regression models commonly used in epidemiology for bias due to measurement error in assessing nutrients or other variables. Previous work developed regression calibration for use in estimating odds ratios from logistic regression. We extend this here to estimating incidence rate ratios from Cox proportional hazards models and regression slopes from linear-regression models. Regression calibration is appropriate when a gold standard is available in a validation study and a linear measurement error with constant variance applies or when replicate measurements are available in a reliability study and linear random within-person error can be assumed. In this paper, the method is illustrated by correction of rate ratios describing the relations between the incidence of breast cancer and dietary intakes of vitamin A, alcohol, and total energy in the Nurses' Health Study. An example using linear regression is based on estimation of the relation between ultradistal radius bone density and dietary intakes of caffeine, calcium, and total energy in the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Software implementing these methods uses SAS macros. PMID:9094918

  19. Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Andrey V; Dremin, Victor V; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Rafailov, Ilya E; Litvinova, Karina S; Palmer, Scott G; Stewart, Neil A; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik U

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has recently become more common in clinical medicine. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the methodology and implementation of instruments with this technology. In this study, we aimed to assess individual variability of fluorescence parameters of endogenous markers (NADH, FAD, etc.) measured by fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) in situ and to analyse the factors that lead to a significant scatter of results. Most studied fluorophores have an acceptable scatter of values (mostly up to 30%) for diagnostic purposes. Here we provide evidence that the level of blood volume in tissue impacts FS data with a significant inverse correlation. The distribution function of the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescent contrast coefficient values are a function of the normal distribution for most of the studied fluorophores and the redox ratio. The effects of various physiological (different content of skin melanin) and technical (characteristics of optical filters) factors on the measurement results were additionally studied. The data on the variability of the measurement results in FS should be considered when interpreting the diagnostic parameters, as well as when developing new algorithms for data processing and FS devices. PMID:25922293

  20. Non-contact true temperature measurements in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The theory developed is shown to be capable of calculating true temperature of any material from radiance measurements at a number of different wavelengths. This theory was also shown to be capable of predicting the uncertainty in these calculated temperatures. An additional advantage of these techniques is that they can estimate the emissivity of the target simultaneously with the temperature. This aspect can prove to be very important when a fast method of generating reflectivity vs. wavelength or emissivity vs. wavelength data is required. Experiments performed on various materials over a range of temperatures and experimental conditions were used to verify the accuracy of this theory.

  1. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization. PMID:12462657

  2. Interactive effects of nutrition, environment, and rat-strain on cortical and vertebral bone geometry and biomechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Li, K.-C.; Salem, G. J.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to generate comparative data on the sensitivity of cortical- and vertebral-bone adaptations in two different rat strains maintained at conditions typical for spaceborne experiments conducted by U.S.A. and USSR. The effects of cage environment, diet, and rat-strain on the cortical (humerus) and vertebral (T7) bones of male Taconic-Sprague-Dawley and Czechoslovakian-Wistar rats were investigated using different flight-simulation cages (one rat/cage for U.S.A.; ten rats/cage for USSR conditions) and fed either U.S.A. or USSR diet. The results showed significant effects of these factors on the humeral and vertebral geometry and mechanical properties, as well as significant interactive effects on the mechanical properties of the humerus.

  3. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou, jouben43@gmail.com

  4. Cross-Level Measurement Invariance in School and Classroom Environment Surveys: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…

  5. Quantifying the urban environment: a scale measure of urbanicity outperforms the urban-rural dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    The rapid urbanization of the developing world has important consequences for human health. Although several authorities have called for better research on the relationships between urbanicity and health, most researchers still use a poor measurement of urbanicity, the urban-rural dichotomy. Our goal was to construct a scale of urbanicity using community level data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We used established scale development methods to validate the new measure and tested its performance against the dichotomy. The new scale illustrated misclassification by the urban-rural dichotomy, and was able to detect differences in urbanicity, both between communities and across time, that were not apparent before. Furthermore, using a continuous measure of urbanicity allowed for better illustrations of the relationships between urbanicity and health. The new scale is a better measure of urbanicity than the traditionally used urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:17196724

  6. Women's higher health risks in the obesogenic environment: a gender nutrition approach to metabolic dimorphism with predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women's evolution for nurturing and fat accumulation, which historically yielded health and longevity advantages against scarcity, may now be counteracted by increasing risks in the obesogenic environment, recently shown by narrowing gender health gap. Women's differential metabolism/disease risks, i.e. in fat accumulation/distribution, exemplified during puberty/adolescence, suggest gender dimorphism with obesity outcomes. Women's higher body fat percentage than men, even with equal body mass index, may be a better risk predictor. Differential metabolic responses to weight-reduction diets, with women's lower abdominal fat loss, better response to high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets, higher risks with sedentariness vs. exercise benefits, and tendency toward delayed manifestation of central obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers until menopause—but accelerated thereafter—suggest a need for differing metabolic and chronological perspectives for prevention/intervention. These perspectives, including women's differential responses to lifestyle changes, strongly support further research with a gender nutrition emphasis within predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:23311512

  7. Going beyond nutrition: regulation of potassium homoeostasis as a common denominator of plant adaptive responses to environment.

    PubMed

    Anschütz, Uta; Becker, Dirk; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-05-15

    Partially and fully completed plant genome sequencing projects in both lower and higher plants allow drawing a comprehensive picture of the molecular and structural diversities of plant potassium transporter genes and their encoded proteins. While the early focus of the research in this field was aimed on the structure-function studies and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying K(+) transport, availability of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant collections in combination with micro-array techniques have significantly advanced our understanding of K(+) channel physiology, providing novel insights into the transcriptional regulation of potassium homeostasis in plants. More recently, posttranslational regulation of potassium transport systems has moved into the center stage of potassium transport research. The current review is focused on the most exciting developments in this field. By summarizing recent work on potassium transporter regulation we show that potassium transport in general, and potassium channels in particular, represent important targets and are mediators of the cellular responses during different developmental stages in a plant's life cycle. We show that regulation of intracellular K(+) homeostasis is essential to mediate plant adaptive responses to a broad range of abiotic and biotic stresses including drought, salinity, and oxidative stress. We further link post-translational regulation of K(+) channels with programmed cell death and show that K(+) plays a critical role in controlling the latter process. Thus, is appears that K(+) is not just the essential nutrient required to support optimal plant growth and yield but is also an important signaling agent mediating a wide range of plant adaptive responses to environment. PMID:24635902

  8. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, G S; Shukla, S; Obreza, T A; Harris, W G

    2014-08-01

    added fertilizer P between HEI (187kg P2O5/ha) and REI (124kg P2O5/ha), soil Mehlich 1 P (M1P) values were similar for both systems while they received Pinput. Soil M1P for REI and REI-SD increased to a maximum of 55mg/kg while they received Pinput, and then gradually decreased after Pinput ceased. However, M1P for HEI increased steadily to a maximum of 145mg/kg by the end of the study with continued Pinput. Mehlich-1 P measured six years after the study still showed relatively high levels of P, a legacy effect of Pinput. The main factors influencing groundwater P concentration varied by seasons. During fall with frequent rainfall, the concentrations were influenced mainly by M1P and Pinput, and highlight a need for greater focus on Pinput management (vs. water management) during this season. However, during the dry period of spring, a greater focus on irrigation management is required since depth to water table and rainfall also become contributing factors. Three multivariate models (r(2)=0.67 to 0.93), for spring, fall, and annual periods, were developed for predicting groundwater P concentrations for a wide range of water and P inputs (0 to 191kg P2O5/ha of Pinput). The uniqueness of these models is that they use readily available hydrologic (rainfall and water table depth), management (Pinput), and soil (M1P) data commonly monitored by growers when managing water and nutrient inputs on agricultural landscapes. The development of similar models may not be necessary for other agro-ecosystems in similar regions since long-term data collected in these regions may be applied, with verification, to the models presented here. PMID:24981965

  9. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G. S.; Shukla, S.; Obreza, T. A.; Harris, W. G.

    2014-08-01

    amount of added fertilizer P between HEI (187 kg P2O5/ha) and REI (124 kg P2O5/ha), soil Mehlich 1 P (M1P) values were similar for both systems while they received Pinput. Soil M1P for REI and REI-SD increased to a maximum of 55 mg/kg while they received Pinput, and then gradually decreased after Pinput ceased. However, M1P for HEI increased steadily to a maximum of 145 mg/kg by the end of the study with continued Pinput. Mehlich-1 P measured six years after the study still showed relatively high levels of P, a legacy effect of Pinput. The main factors influencing groundwater P concentration varied by seasons. During fall with frequent rainfall, the concentrations were influenced mainly by M1P and Pinput, and highlight a need for greater focus on Pinput management (vs. water management) during this season. However, during the dry period of spring, a greater focus on irrigation management is required since depth to water table and rainfall also become contributing factors. Three multivariate models (r2 = 0.67 to 0.93), for spring, fall, and annual periods, were developed for predicting groundwater P concentrations for a wide range of water and P inputs (0 to 191 kg P2O5/ha of Pinput). The uniqueness of these models is that they use readily available hydrologic (rainfall and water table depth), management (Pinput), and soil (M1P) data commonly monitored by growers when managing water and nutrient inputs on agricultural landscapes. The development of similar models may not be necessary for other agro-ecosystems in similar regions since long-term data collected in these regions may be applied, with verification, to the models presented here.

  10. Airborne RF Measurement System (ARMS) and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Smith, Laura J.; Jones, Richard A.; Fleck, Vincent J.; Salud, Maria Theresa; Mielnik, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radio frequency (RF) data over a broad band of frequencies (30 MHz to 1000 MHz) were obtained to evaluate the electromagnetic environment in airspace around several airports. An RF signal measurement system was designed utilizing a spectrum analyzer connected to the NASA Lancair Columbia 300 aircraft's VHF/UHF navigation antenna. This paper presents an overview of the RF measurement system and provides analysis of sample RF signal measurement data. This aircraft installation package and measurement system can be quickly returned to service if needed by future projects requiring measurement of an RF signal environment or exploration of suspected interference situations.

  11. A Student Environment Model: A Measure of Institutional Effectiveness. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris-Baldwin, Darline

    This study traces the development of a student environment model (SEM) at Texas State Technical College (Waco) that is used to assess students' perceptions of their college environment outside the formal classroom, provides baseline data for comparative analyses, establishes goals for student support services, measures program and process…

  12. Measuring the Computer Classroom Environment: Lessons Learned from Using a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Keri A.; Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research over the last four decades has shown that the classroom learning environment impacts on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to measure students' perceptions of their learning environment, and this has led to the development of a large number of survey instruments. One such instrument is the…

  13. Out with the Old, in with the New: Factor Analyses of a Classroom Environment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, Rachel; Callahan, Carolyn; Peugh, James

    2011-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed to gauge student perceptions of their classroom environment as greater attention has been given to the relationship between student achievement and student perceptions. One widely used instrument to assess those perceptions is the Classroom Environment Scale (CES), a 90-item measure for secondary level…

  14. The CANEP Scale: Preliminary Psychometric Findings of a Measure of Youths' Perception of Their Neighborhood Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisegger, Corinna; Cloetta, Bernhard; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the environment on the quality of life and health is considered to be important for adults as well as for children and adolescents. To include the subjective view of children and adolescents in this context, instruments for measuring the perception of the environment are needed. The new scale CANEP (Children's and Adolescents'…

  15. Evaluation of a Brazilian Postgraduate Dental Program by the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Vale Placa, Rebeca; Ragghianti Zangrando, Mariana S.; Sant'Ana, Adriana C. P.; Greghi, Sebastião L. A.; de Rezende, Maria Lucia R.; Damante, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of education environment is essential to provide to the professors a better understanding of the teaching process. One valuable tool for this assessment is the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM). This questionnaire has 50 questions and is divided in five dimensions: D1--Perceptions of teaching, D2--Perceptions of…

  16. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  17. Protecting tripartite entanglement in non-Markovian environments via quantum partially collapsing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhi-Yong; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of tripartite entanglement via π -tangle in independent non-Markovian environments is investigated. The results indicate that the π -tangle vanishes periodically as decoherence time increases with a damping of its revival amplitude due to the memory of the non-Markovian environments. In addition, we present a scheme to protect entanglement of W state from non-Markovian environments by means of the quantum partially collapsing measurements. It is worth mentioning that our scheme is a successful protection for the tripartite quantum system and the effect is better for the larger measurement strength, while the stronger decoherence suppression induces smaller success probability.

  18. Geometric measure of quantum correlation: The influence of the asymmetry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qinsheng; Ding, Changchun; Wu, Shaoyi; Lai, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The quantum correlation in open quantum systems is of fundamental and practical importance for quantum information processing and controllable nanometer devices. And the properties of quantum correlation can be influenced by the information flow between systems and environments. In this study, we investigated the geometric measure discord of quantum correlation of a two qubits system, interacting with two independent and intrinsic interacting spin-environments, respectively. Based on the asymmetry environments with comparable parameters, the different properties of the geometric measure of entanglement and quantum discord are displayed and discussed for initial Bell states.

  19. Measuring the Environment for Friendliness Toward Physical Activity: A Comparison of the Reliability of 3 Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Chang, Jen Jen; Eyler, Amy A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Kirtland, Karen A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Sallis, James F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the reliability of 3 instruments that assessed social and physical environments. Methods. We conducted a test–retest study among US adults (n = 289). We used telephone survey methods to measure suitableness of the perceived (vs objective) environment for recreational physical activity and nonmotorized transportation. Results. Most questions in our surveys that attempted to measure specific characteristics of the built environment showed moderate to high reliability. Questions about the social environment showed lower reliability than those that assessed the physical environment. Certain blocks of questions appeared to be selectively more reliable for urban or rural respondents. Conclusions. Despite differences in content and in response formats, all 3 surveys showed evidence of reliability, and most items are now ready for use in research and in public health surveillance. PMID:14998817

  20. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  1. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  2. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  3. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  4. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  5. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  6. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  7. Lessons Learned From Evaluations of California's Statewide School Nutrition Standards

    PubMed Central

    Gosliner, Wendi; Samuels, Sarah E.; Craypo, Lisa; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of legislation that established nutrition standards for foods and beverages that compete with reimbursable school meals in California. Methods. We used documentation of available foods and beverages, sales accounts, and surveys of and interviews with students and food service workers to conduct 3 studies measuring pre- and postlegislation food and beverage availability, sales, and student consumption at 99 schools. Results. Availability of nutrition standard–compliant foods and beverages increased. Availability of noncompliant items decreased, with the biggest reductions in sodas and other sweetened beverages, regular chips, and candy. At-school consumption of some noncompliant foods dropped; at-home consumption of selected noncompliant foods did not increase. Food and beverage sales decreased at most venues, and food service à la carte revenue losses were usually offset by increased meal program participation. Increased food service expenditures outpaced revenue increases. Conclusions. Regulation of competitive foods improved school food environments and student nutritional intake. Improvements were modest, partly because many compliant items are fat- and sugar-modified products of low nutritional value. Additional policies and actions are needed to achieve more substantive improvements in school nutrition environments and student nutrition and health. PMID:20864696

  8. Measuring Competitive Foods in Schools: A Point of Sales Approach. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Report No. CN-04-CFMPR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rhoda; KewalRamani, Angelina; Nogales, Renee; Ohls, James; Sinclair, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research that Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) has conducted for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), to develop methods to track the use of "competitive foods" in schools over time. Competitive foods are foods from a la carte cafeteria sales, vending machines, school stores,…

  9. Development and Validation of Short Forms of Some Instruments Measuring Student Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development/validation of short forms of Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), My Class Inventory (MCI), and Classroom Environment Scale (CES). In addition to these forms measuring perceptions of actual classroom environment, ICEQ and CES short forms measuring preferred classroom environment were also developed.…

  10. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  11. An examination of speech reception thresholds measured in a simulated reverberant cafeteria environment

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Buchholz, J(x004E7)rg M.; Freeston, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing demand in the hearing research community for the creation of laboratory environments that better simulate challenging real-world listening environments. The hope is that the use of such environments for testing will lead to more meaningful assessments of listening ability, and better predictions about the performance of hearing devices. Here we present one approach for simulating a complex acoustic environment in the laboratory, and investigate the effect of transplanting a speech test into such an environment. Design Speech reception thresholds were measured in a simulated reverberant cafeteria, and in a more typical anechoic laboratory environment containing background speech babble. Study Sample The participants were 46 listeners varying in age and hearing levels, including 25 hearing-aid wearers who were tested with and without their hearing aids. Results Reliable SRTs were obtained in the complex environment, but led to different estimates of performance and hearing aid benefit from those measured in the standard environment. Conclusions The findings provide a starting point for future efforts to increase the real-world relevance of laboratory-based speech tests. PMID:25853616

  12. The Development and Validation of an End-User Satisfaction Measure in a Student Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung; Meng, Juan; Kalinowski, Jon; Shin, Dooyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of a measurement model for student user satisfaction in a laptop environment. Using a "quasi Delphi" method in addition to contributions from prior research we used EFA and CFA (LISREL) to identify a five factor (14 item) measurement model that best fit the data. The…

  13. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  14. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system. PMID:26584807

  15. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: Measuring below the noise floor

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Roger M.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  16. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: measuring below the noise floor.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Roger M; Gallun, Frederick J; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  17. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2); environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184) = 7.82, p = .006), but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women. PMID:21736740

  18. Measurement and Characterization of the Acceleration Environment on Board the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop provides a comprehensive overview of the work and status of each of these areas to provide a basis for establishing a systematic approach to the challenge of avoiding these difficulties during the Space Station era of materials experimentation. The discussions were arranged in the order of: the scientific understanding of the requirements for a micro-gravity environment, a history of acceleration measurements on spacecraft, the state of accelerometer technology, and the current understanding of the predicted Space Station environment.

  19. Comparative measurements of single event upset and total dose environments using the CREAM instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J. ); Farren, J.; Stephen, J. ); Underwood, C. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) is taking regular measurements in the upper atmosphere on board the supersonic Concorde, while a further version of the same instrument is currently scheduled for flight on the Space Shuttle during September and November 1991. Meanwhile a sister instrument (CREDO) is continuously monitoring the environment in sun-synchronous orbit on board UOSAT-3. These contemporaneous flights of similar instruments enable intercomparison of environments as well as verification of predictive models and correlation with device behavior. The extensive data set encompasses both quiet-time data and solar-particle events.

  20. Recovering full coherence in a qubit by measuring half of its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miatto, Filippo M.; Piché, Kevin; Brougham, Thomas; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-12-01

    When a quantum system interacts with its environment it may incur in decoherence. Quantum erasure makes it possible to restore coherence in a system by gaining information about its environment, but measuring the whole of it may be prohibitive: Realistically, one might be forced to address only an accessible subspace and neglect the rest. In such a case, under what conditions will quantum erasure still be effective? In this work we compute analytically the largest recoverable coherence of a random qubit plus environment state and we show that it approaches 100% with overwhelmingly high probability as long as the dimension of the accessible subspace of the environment is larger than √{D }, where D is the dimension of the whole environment. Additionally, we find a sharp transition between a linear behavior and a power-law behavior as soon as the dimension of the inaccessible environment exceeds the dimension of the accessible one. Our results imply that the typical states of a qubit plus environment system admit a measurement spanning only about √{D } degrees of freedom, any outcome of which projects the qubit on a maximally coherent state. This suggests, for instance, that in the dynamics of open quantum systems, if the interactions are known, it would in principle be possible to gain sufficient information and restore coherence in a qubit by dealing with a fraction of the physical resources.

  1. Enhancing Robustness of Entanglement in Finite Temperature Environment Using Quantum Measurement Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yao-Hua; Tong, Lei; Tan, Yong-Gang; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate methods of enhancing robustness of entanglement of two-qubit systems undergoing generalized amplitude damping decoherence using weak measurement and measurement reversal. The results show that the local action of generalized amplitude damping noise can cause sudden death of entanglement, and the weak measurement and measurement reversal is useful for combating generalized amplitude damping decoherence and recovering the entanglement of two entangled qubits. In addition, the results indicate that it would be much more easily implemented by applying quantum measurement reversal on a single-qubit to enhance robustness of entanglement in finite temperature environment, than on both qubits.

  2. Biochemical composition of marine sediment from the eastern Weddell Sea (Antarctica): High nutritive value in a high benthic-biomass environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, E.; Rossi, S.; Palanques, A.; Gili, J.-M.; Gerdes, D.; Arntz, W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the SCAR's international EASIZ programme, as part of the benthic-pelagic coupling experiment, grain size and organic matter contents in marine surface sediment were measured. Samples were taken during the austral autumn of 2000 from 3 regions in the eastern Weddell Sea: Kapp Norvegia, Four Seasons Bank, and Austasen. In general, sediments were fine sand with a grain size fraction < 200 μm representing more than 40% of the total weight. The sediments from Four Seasons Bank (64 to 107 m depth) were coarser than those from Austasen and Kapp Norvegia (209 to 480 m depth), presumably due to winnowing of fine sediment at shallow depths. Organic carbon (OC) content ranged from 0.25% to 1.2% and constituted 10% to 97% of the total carbon. The samples from Kapp Norvegia presented the highest OC values. Overall, protein (PRT), lipid (LPD), and carbohydrate (CHO) contents were similar to those in sediment from cold regions (e.g., the North Atlantic and the Ross Sea) but higher than those in sediment from other Antarctic and more septentrional regions (e.g., the Ross Sea and the Mediterranean). The difference within the Antarctic is explained through the local conditions in Terra Nova Bay and Kapp Norvegia. In the Antarctic, PRT and LPD carbon were the main contributors to the biopolymeric carbon (BPC). In the eastern Weddell Sea shelf, the BPC accounted for more than 90% of the OC in most of the samples. More than 82% of the total PRT, LPD, and CHO were present in the fraction < 200 μm. This work remarks the existence of sediments with a high nutritional value persistent several weeks after the spring-summer pulse of fresh organic matter. It is also highlighted the high potential availability of these sediments (due to its grain size) for the benthic communities inhabiting this high-latitude continental shelf.

  3. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  4. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment. PMID:24324275

  5. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  6. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  7. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  8. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  9. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products. PMID:26999161

  10. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  11. Performance measurement and modeling of component applications in a high performance computing environment : a case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robert C.; Ray, Jaideep; Malony, A.; Shende, Sameer; Trebon, Nicholas D.

    2003-11-01

    We present a case study of performance measurement and modeling of a CCA (Common Component Architecture) component-based application in a high performance computing environment. We explore issues peculiar to component-based HPC applications and propose a performance measurement infrastructure for HPC based loosely on recent work done for Grid environments. A prototypical implementation of the infrastructure is used to collect data for a three components in a scientific application and construct performance models for two of them. Both computational and message-passing performance are addressed.

  12. The measured radiation environment within Spacelabs 1 and 2 and comparison with predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Fishman, G. J.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    A set of passive and active radiation detectors was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation (VFI) in an attempt to measure the radiation environment in the Spacelab (SL) module and on the pallet. SL 1 carried 4 passive and 2 active detector packages which were used to evaluate the radiation environment within the spacecraft and SL 2 carried 2 passive VFI units on the pallet. Dose equivalents of 330 + or - 70 mrem and 537 + or - 37 mrem were measured in the SL 1 module and SL 2 pallet, respectively.

  13. Measurement of surface profile in vibrating environment with instantaneous phase shifting interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, N. R.; Tan, B.; Venkatakrishnan, K.

    2006-01-01

    In-process measurement has been the requirement of the precision industries, but due to vibrations while manufacturing, in-process measurement has been difficult to achieve. There is little work on in-process measurement using phase shifting interferometry, as phase shifting is extremely sensitive to vibrations. In this work, the advantage of the developed non-mechanical and instantaneous phase shifting interferometry is felt while measuring surface profile of large flat surfaces under vibrating conditions which can be extended for in-process measurement of surface profile. A near common path optical configuration is achieved and the effect of the environment is reduced. Moreover, the measurement of phase is instantaneous which increases the versatility of this technique for measuring vibrating objects. Profile measurements were carried out on a smooth mirror surface excited with vibrations of different frequencies and the technique was found to be immune to vibrations of up to 1000 Hz.

  14. Differential correlates of nutritional status in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, W E; Mock, N B; Franklin, R R

    1988-09-01

    In an effort to search for causes of malnutrition in the urban environment to guide intervention efforts, a study of more than 2000 mother/child pairs was conducted in Kinshasa, Zaire. Under the auspices of the Zairian National Nutrition Planning Center a representative sample of a large lower class urban population was interviewed at two points in time. One phase covered morbidity and nutritional status measurements for all children under five years of age. A second phase examined a complex set of socioeconomic and behavioural variables possibly linked to nutritional outcomes for a 20% sample of the households. After merging the data sets bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed twice, using the youngest child and the household as the unit of analysis respectively. Results showed that different complexes of variables predicted malnutrition as measured by three separate anthropometric measures. For so-called acute malnutrition (weight-for-height) morbidity, migration, and diarrhoeal knowledge, all emerged as significant predictors. Chronic malnutrition (height-for-age), however, was only significantly predicted by zone of residence, a level of living score, and recent morbidity when all major variables were considered in the regression model. Factors that were significant predictors of each of these two indices also were predictors of the third nutritional indicator, weight-for-age. Birth interval also was associated with this index. The findings here suggest more careful scrutiny of the nature, causes, interpretation and use of these widely accepted measures of nutritional status. PMID:3145250

  15. Analogue Materials Measured Under Simulated Lunar and Asteroid Environments: Application to Thermal Infrared Measurements of Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Patterson, W., III; Moriarty, D.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote sensing study of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The near-surface vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids creates a thermal gradient in the upper hundred microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2010, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Compared to ambient conditions, these effects include: (1) the Christiansen feature (CF), an emissivity maximum diagnostic of mineralogy and average composition, shifts to higher wavenumbers and (2) an increase in spectral contrast of the CF relative to the Reststrahlen bands (RB), the fundamental molecular vibration bands due to Si-O stretching and bending. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. The Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) is the newest addition to the RELAB at Brown University. The vacuum chamber simulates the space environment experienced by the near-surface soils of the Moon and asteroids. The internal rotation stage allows for six samples and two blackbodies to be measured without breaking vacuum (<10-4 mbar). Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the interior of the chamber, creating a cold, low emission environment (mimicking the space environment) for heated samples to radiate into. Sample cups can be heated in one of three configurations: (1) from below using heaters embedded in the base of the sample cup, (2) from above using a solar-like radiant heat source, and (3) from

  16. Are Front of Pack Claims Indicators of Nutrition Quality? Evidence from 2 Product Categories.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Debra; Hooker, Neal H; Stanton, John L

    2016-01-01

    American grocery shoppers face an array of front of pack (FOP) nutrition and health claims when making food selections. Such systems have been categorized as summary or nutrient specific. Either type should help consumers make judgments about the nutrition quality of a product. This research tests if the type or quantity of FOP claims are indeed good indicators of objective nutrition quality. Claim and nutrition information from more than 2200 breakfast cereals and prepared meals launched between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. Results suggest that no type or number of front of pack claims could distinguish "healthy" foods. However, some types and frequencies of FOP claims were significant predictors of higher or lower levels of certain key nutrients. Given the complex and crowded label environment in which these FOP claims reside, one may be concerned that such cues are not closely related to objective measures of nutrition quality. PMID:26641596

  17. Effects of parental origins and length of residency on adiposity measures and nutrition in urban middle school students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in U.S. has been rising at an alarming rate, particularly among Hispanic, African, and Asian minority groups. This trend is due in part to excessive calorie consumption and sedentary lifestyle. We sought to investigate whether parental origins influence eating behaviors in healthy urban middle school students. Methods A multiethnic/racial population of students (N = 182) enrolled in the ROAD (Reduce Obesity and Diabetes) Study, a school-based trial to assess clinical, behavioral, and biochemical risk factors for adiposity and its co-morbidities completed questionnaires regarding parental origins, length of US residency, and food behaviors and preferences. The primary behavioral questionnaire outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, attitude, intention and behavior, which were then related to anthropometric measures of waist circumference, BMI z-scores, and percent body fat. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the joint effects of number of parents born in the U.S. and ethnicity on food preference and knowledge score. The Tukey-Kramer method was used to compute pairwise comparisons to determine where differences lie. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the joint effects of number of parents born in the US and student ethnicity, along with the interaction term, on each adiposity measure outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal length of residency in the US with measures of adiposity, food preference and food knowledge. Results African Americans had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Neither ethnicity/race nor parental origins had an impact on nutrition behavior. Mothers’ length of US residency positively correlated with students’ nutrition knowledge, but not food attitude, intention or behavior. Conclusions Adiposity measures in children differ

  18. Precise Temperature Measurement for Increasing the Survival of Newborn Babies in Incubator Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frischer, Robert; Penhaker, Marek; Krejcar, Ondrej; Kacerovsky, Marian; Selamat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Precise temperature measurement is essential in a wide range of applications in the medical environment, however the regarding the problem of temperature measurement inside a simple incubator, neither a simple nor a low cost solution have been proposed yet. Given that standard temperature sensors don't satisfy the necessary expectations, the problem is not measuring temperature, but rather achieving the desired sensitivity. In response, this paper introduces a novel hardware design as well as the implementation that increases measurement sensitivity in defined temperature intervals at low cost. PMID:25494352

  19. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Temperature and Velocity in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Greer, Lawrence C., III

    1998-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering system for temperature and velocity measurements in unseeded flows is described. The system is capable of making measurements in the harsh environments commonly found in aerospace test facilities, which may have high acoustic sound levels, varying temperatures, and high vibration levels. Light from an argon-ion laser is transmitted via an optical fiber to a remote location where two flow experiments were located. One was a subsonic free air jet; the second was a low-speed heated airjet. Rayleigh scattered light from the probe volume was transmitted through another optical fiber from the remote location to a controlled environment where a Fabry-Perot interferometer and cooled CCD camera were used to analyze the Rayleigh scattered light. Good agreement between the measured velocity and the velocity calculated from isentropic flow relations was demonstrated (less than 5 m/sec). The temperature measurements, however, exhibited systematic errors on the order of 10-15%.

  20. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  1. Can Nutritional Assessment Tools Predict Response to Nutritional Therapy?

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy. PMID:26936031

  2. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  3. Radiation counting technique allows density measurement of metals in high-pressure/ high-temperature environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillion, I. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Swanson, B. S.

    1967-01-01

    Radioactive tracers induced by neutron irradiation provide a gamma ray flux proportional to the density of a metal, allowing density measurement of these metals in extreme high-temperature and high-pressure environments. This concept is applicable to most metals, as well as other substances.

  4. Deceived by Omission: The Difficulty of Matching Measurement and Theory When Assessing the Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on theoretical and practical difficulties in constructing and evaluating a measure of the home environment of a diversity of families. Describes limitations of theory to guide developmental indicator selection and ways to deal with these limitations. Discusses rationale for selecting criteria for judging test validity and use of cause…

  5. Analysis and Interpretation of Twin Studies Including Measures of the Shared Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent reports using a classical behavior genetic research design in which twin data are combined with a measured characteristic of their shared family environment have made striking claims about estimating environmental influences on behavior with genetic effects controlled. Such claims are overstated for two related reasons. First, when a…

  6. Elastic and plastic strain measurement in high temperature environment using laser speckle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Fu-Pen

    1992-01-01

    Two laser speckle methods are described to measure strain in high temperature environment and thermal strain caused by high temperature. Both are non-contact, non-destructive and remote sensing techniques that can be automated. The methods have different but overlapping ranges of application with one being more suitable for large plastic deformation.

  7. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-01-01

    Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

  8. An assessment of corrections for eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes over snow in mountain environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow-covered complex terrain is an extremely important runoff generating landscape in high altitude and latitude environments, yet is often considered non-viable for eddy covariance measurements of turbulent fluxes. Turbulent flux data are useful for evaluating the coupled snow cover mass and energ...

  9. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alterations in expected therapeutic responses from drug and/or parenteral nutrition, occlusion in venous catheter or symptoms or mortality due to infusion of composed particles. Compatibilities between parenteral nutrition and drugs are not always guaranteed in clinical practice. Although the list of compatibility or incompatibilities of drugs are published for the use of clinicians in their practices, factors such as composition of parenteral nutrition admixture, drug concentration, contact time in catheter, temperature of the environment and exposure to light could change the status of compatibilities between drugs and nutrition admixtures. There could be substantial clinical changes occurring in the patient’s nutritional status and pharmacological effects of drugs due to interactions between enteral nutrition and drugs. Drug toxicity and ineffective nutritional support might occur as a result of those predictable interactions. Although administration of drugs via feeding tube is a complex and problematic route for drug usage, it is possible to minimise the risk of tube occlusion, decreased effects of drug and drug toxicity by using an appropriate technique. Therefore, it is important to consider pharmacological dosage forms of drugs while administering drugs via a feeding tube. In conclusion, since the pharmacists are well-experienced and more knowledgeable professionals in drugs and drug usage compared to other healthcare providers, it is suggested that provision of information

  10. Nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M; D'agostino, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experience of an International Children's Center (ICC) team following many years of work in the field of education for nutrition in developing and industrialized countries. Nutrition education, a long term intervention in which individuals of all ages are active participants who acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude pertaining to food and nutrition in the context of socioeconomic and cultural limitations. The discussion covers the concepts of attitude, behavior, and eating conduct. Attitude is defined as a way of viewing or internal disposition adopted by any person in a specific situation. Attitudes grow out of knowledge, beliefs, and values and personal predisposition. On the other hand, behavior denotes an observable act and results in a certain manner of acting in response to external stimuli. Eating conduct is expressed differently and in varying extents depending on living conditions and dietary resources. These concepts correspond to the different degrees of information, awareness, and participation achieved by individuals during the educational program. While examination of conduct and dietary resources are necessary for any education for nutrition programs, more attention and investigation should be given to the "negotiation" phase with the people. The community must be ready to take risks, made aware of the implications of the choices to be made to the professionals and to the general public. In this issue, the ICC team highlights important points concerning nutrition education programs. PMID:12295489

  11. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  12. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2014-10-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC) species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA) with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA). While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American) environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are

  13. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  14. Nutrition and behavior of lemurs.

    PubMed

    Junge, Randall E; Williams, Cathy V; Campbell, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Attention to nutritional and behavioral factors is important for appropriate care of lemurs in captivity. Although only a few species are commonly held in captivity, differences between them are important. Knowledge of feeding ecology and natural diet guide nutrition guidelines, as well as management and prevention of common nutrition-related disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and iron-storage disease. Behavioral characteristics that influence captive management are related to social organization, reproductive behavior, territoriality, and infant care. Housing animals in appropriate social groupings in adequately complex environments reduces abnormal behaviors, and addition of enrichment activities and operant conditioning encourages normal behaviors. PMID:19341960

  15. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  16. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised. PMID:25874831

  17. Recent Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. G.; Settecerri, T. J.; Africano, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Space debris presents many challenges to current space operations. Although, the probability of collision between an operational spacecraft and a piece of space debris is quite small, the potential losses can be quite high. Prior to 1990, characterization of the orbital debris environment was divided into two categories. Objects larger than 10 cm are monitored by the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and documented in the U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) catalog. Knowledge of debris smaller than 0.1 cm has come from the analyses of returned surfaces. The lack of information about the debris environment in the size range from 0.1 to 1 0 cm led to a joint NASA-DOD effort for orbital debris measurements using the Haystack radar and the unbuilt Haystack Auxiliary (HAX) radars. The data from these radars have been critical to the design of shielding for the International Space Station and have been extensively used in the creation of recent models describing the orbital debris environment. Recent debris campaigns have been conducted to verify and validate through comparative measurements, the results and conclusions drawn from the Haystack/HAX measurements. The Haystack/HAX measurements and results will be described as well as the results of the recent measurement campaigns.

  18. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  19. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  20. Mobile Robot Self-Localization System Using Single Webcam Distance Measurement Technology in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  1. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wu, Dewei

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT). PMID:27597859

  2. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT). PMID:27597859

  3. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment. PMID:25265399

  4. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  5. [Nutrition and gastrointestinal intolerance].

    PubMed

    Madl, C; Holzinger, U

    2013-06-01

    The functional integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential prerequisite in intensive care patients for the sufficient administration of enteral nutrition. Up to 65% of patients in intensive care units develop symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction with high residual gastric volume, vomiting and abdominal distension. The pathophysiological alterations of gastrointestinal intolerance and the subsequent effect on the tolerance of enteral nutrition can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract. Gastroduodenal motility disorders in particular, with increased gastroesophageal reflux lead to intolerance. In more than 90% of intensive care patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders an adequate postpyloric enteral nutrition can be carried out using a jejunal tube. In addition to improved tolerance of enteral nutrition this leads to a reduction of gastroesophageal reflux and the incidence of ventilation-associated pneumonia. Apart from the possibility of endoscopic application of the jejunal tube, alternative techniques were developed which allow a faster positioning of the jejunal tube with less complications. Furthermore, there are therapeutic options for improvement of gastrointestinal motility disorders and apart from general measures, also medicinal options for treatment of gastrointestinal intolerance which allow a sufficient enteral nutrition for intensive care patients. PMID:23740106

  6. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  7. Near-highway aerosol and gas-phase measurements in a high-diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2015-04-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of light duty vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September 2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter - DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the vehicle type, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen-containing aerosol with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel from that of gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are typically found to have low oxygen incorporation, OOA was found to comprise the majority of the measured organic aerosol, and isotopic analysis showed that the measured OOA contained mainly modern carbon, not fossil-derived carbon. Thus, even in this heavily vehicular-emission-impacted environment, photochemical processes

  8. Underwater measurement of narrowband sound power and directivity using Supersonic Intensity in Reverberant Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Andrew R.; Hambric, Stephen A.; Maynard, Julian D.

    2012-08-01

    A laboratory underwater acoustic measurement technique, Supersonic Intensity in Reverberant Environments (SIRE), is developed analytically and validated experimentally and numerically. Unlike standard free or diffuse field techniques, SIRE enables the measurement of narrowband sound power and directivity in an environment with inexact field conditions. The technique takes advantage of underwater vector sensors, measuring only acoustic pressure and the normal component of particle velocity/acceleration, and supersonic wavenumber filtering in the near field of a source. The result is outward-propagating acoustic waves separated from interfering incoming and/or evanescent waves. The SIRE technique was experimentally applied to monopole and dipole sources and the results are compared with theory and standard methods. SIRE is shown to accurately measure radiated sound power to within the limits of ANSI S12.51 and to accurately measure the directivity indices of simple sources to within ±3 dB. A coupled finite element/boundary element model of a point-driven, thin-walled cylinder is also developed to establish the limitations of the SIRE technique. The model results show that the measurement standoff distance should be less than the reciprocal of the largest wavenumber in the frequency band of interest. Furthermore, the maximum measurement grid spacing must be less than twice the standoff distance.

  9. District-level local measuring program of the urban environment in Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dian, Csenge; Pongrácz, Rita; Dezsö, Zsuzsanna; Bartholy, Judit

    2016-04-01

    The natural environment and thus, the climatic conditions are modified by the concentrated human presence of urban areas. In our research we aim to analyze the resulting urban climatic effects in a downtown district of Budapest, Hungary. For this purpose, we have started a measuring program of in-situ measurements in the southern central located district called Ferencváros, which can be found near the river Danube, and mainly consists of 3- and 4-storey older and newly built buildings. The newly built buildings are mainly the results of the Ferencváros local government's efforts to improve the environment for the citizens. Within the framework of the block rehabilitation program, inner parts of the old house blocks were demolished, and inside the blocks common green areas have been created. In our urban climate measurement program air temperature and relative humidity are recorded along a pre-defined path consisting of 22 measuring points, which covers the studied area. The measuring sites are located in different characteristical points of the district, such as green parks, narrow streets, paved squares and roads. In order to calculate the urban heat island intensity, temperature measurements are compared to the hourly recorded data of the Budapest synoptic station (ID number: 12843) located in the southeastern suburb district of the city. After completing an entire year of measurements, the seasonal cycle of temperature and relative humidity differences are analyzed as well, as the diurnal changes and the spatial structure within the study area.

  10. Characterizing ISS Charging Environments with On-Board Ionospheric Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Jospeh I.; Craven, Paul D.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright Jr, Kenneth; Parker, Paul D.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Kramer, Leonard; Hartman, William A.; Alred, John W.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interactions of the biased United States (US) 160 volt solar arrays with the relatively high density, low temperature plasma environment in low Earth orbit. Conducting surfaces on the vehicle structure charge negative relative to the ambient plasma environment because ISS structure is grounded to the negative end of the US solar arrays. Transient charging peaks reaching potentials of some tens of volts negative controlled by photovoltaic array current collection typically occur at orbital sunrise and sunset as well as near orbital noon. In addition, surface potentials across the vehicle structure vary due to an induced v x B (dot) L voltage generated by the high speed motion of the conducting structure across the Earth's magnetic field. Induced voltages in low Earth orbit are typically only approx.0.4 volts/meter but the approx.100 meter scale dimensions of the ISS yield maximum induced potential variations ofapprox.40 volts across the vehicle. Induced voltages are variable due to the orientation of the vehicle structure and orbital velocity vector with respect to the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field along the ISS orbit. In order to address the need to better understand the ISS spacecraft potential and plasma environments, NASA funded development and construction of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) which was deployed on an ISS starboard truss arm in August 2006. The suite of FPMU instruments includes two Langmuir probes, a plasma impedance probe, and a potential probe for use in in-situ monitoring of electron temperatures and densities and the vehicle potential relative to the plasma environment. This presentation will describe the use of the FPMU to better characterize interactions of the ISS with the space environment, changes in ISS charging as the vehicle configuration is modified during ISS construction, and contributions of FPMU vehicle potential and plasma environment

  11. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  12. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  13. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  14. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  15. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  16. Assessing validity and reliability of Dundee ready educational environment measure (DREEM) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Hashemi, Akram; Soltani Arabshahi, Kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Moosavi, Maryam; Hatami, Kamran; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: If an institute is looking for improvement of its learning environment, a reliable and valid assessment tool is needed for measurement of the educational environment .The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) has been used in various studies to evaluate the educational environment. However, psychometric evaluations of the instrument seem necessary, for all known versions of the instrument. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of Persian version of the DREEM in the major clinical wards in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive - analytical study, involved medical students (clinical stagers and interns) in 4 major clinical wards. In this study, DREEM questionnaire was reviewed in content, face validity and construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability was calculated according to test - retest and the internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: A total number of 267 questionnaires were completed by medical stagers (60%) and interns (40%) including 181 females and 82 males. The mean age of stagers and interns were 23.60 ± 1.27 and 25.45 ± 1.22 years, respectively. The total mean of the questionnaire was calculated as 96.15 (93.5375, 98.7547) out of 176, with 95% confidence interval. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed. The mean of content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated as 0.35, and 6 questions were omitted in this step. The content validity index (CVI) was 0.39. The reliability coefficient mean was 0.71. In confirmatory factor analysis five factors were confirmed that changed the orientation of some questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire was obtained as 0.914. Conclusion: The modified and validates DREEM questionnaire in Persian language with 44 items and appropriate psychometric attributes is capable of being used in assessment of

  17. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies. PMID:23117538

  18. Exhaust environment measurements of a turbofan engine equipped with an afterburner and 2D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brase, L. O.

    1990-01-01

    A test to measure the acoustic noise and static pressure environment on a structure exposed to engine exhaust flow was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory by using an F100 derivative engine with a two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2D/CD) non-flight-weight demonstrator nozzle. A highly instrumented, water cooled flat panel was placed behind the 2D/CD nozzle, and tests were conducted at simulated Mach/altitude flight conditions with the engine at military or maximum-afterburner power setting. The panel instrumentation consisted of acoustic pressure microphones, thermocouples, and static-pressure pickups. Measurements indicated that the exhaust environment may excite structural resonances up to 10,000 HZ and that overall sound pressure levels decrease with increasing altitude.

  19. Current and Near-Term Future Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Liou, J.-C.; Mulrooney, M.; Horstman, M

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2- 4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS- 125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

  20. Characteristic measurements of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas generated in a Planckian radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Quanli; Wang Shoujun; Li Yutong; Zhang Yi; Zhao Jing; Wei Huigang; Shi Jianrong; Zhao Gang; Zhang Jiyan; Gu Yuqiu; Ding Yongkun; Wen Tianshu; Zhang Wenhai; Hu Xin; Liu Shenye; Zhang Lin; Tang Yongjian; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2010-01-15

    The temporally and spatially resolved characteristics of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas were studied using x-ray spectroscopy. The plasma was generated in the near-Planckian radiation environment within gold hohlraum targets irradiated by laser pulses with a total energy of 2.4 kJ in 1 ns. The contributions of silicon ions at different charge states to the specific components of the measured absorption spectra were also investigated. It was found that each main feature in the absorption spectra of the measured silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas was contributed by two neighboring silicon ionic species.

  1. Measurement of the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in the underground mining environment.

    PubMed

    Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Kgwadi, N D; Taole, S H; Strydom, R

    2004-04-01

    A scintillation cell and a portable radiation spectrometer for radon progeny were respectively employed to measure the concentration of radon and that of its progeny in the underground gold mine environment. The measured concentrations were subsequently used to calculate the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. The results obtained indicate that various locations underground have different values of radon concentration and ratios of radon concentration to its progeny concentration. The differences can be ascribed to variations in grades of uranium at different locations and to some environmental factors such as ventilation, particle concentration, and the deposition of the progeny on surfaces or on the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:15057058

  2. Inducing multipartite entanglement revival in dissipative environment by means of prior quantum uncollapsing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Ye, Liu

    2015-11-01

    A scheme for inducing multipartite entanglement revival in the dissipative environment is proposed, which is implemented by performing a prior quantum uncollapsing (weak measurements or measurement reversals) procedure on partial qubits of the system simultaneously. This procedure preferentially equips our initial states, and make them hold more powerful ability to actively battle against degradation of entanglement, even postpone entanglement sudden death (ESD). Notably, the effect is more pronounced for the multipartite system with less initial entanglement. In addition, we found that our scheme also works for the N-qubit GHZ-class state.

  3. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Lyseen, Anders K; Hansen, Henning S; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2015-07-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  4. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lyseen, Anders K.; Hansen, Henning S.; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S.; Mikkelsen, Bent E.

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  5. A New Correction Technique for Strain-Gage Measurements Acquired in Transient-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient-temperature environments if conventional correction methods are applied. As heating or cooling rates increase, temperature gradients between the strain-gage sensor and substrate surface increase proportionally. These temperature gradients introduce strain-measurement errors that are currently neglected in both conventional strain-correction theory and practice. Therefore, the conventional correction theory has been modified to account for these errors. A new experimental method has been developed to correct strain-gage measurements acquired in environments experiencing significant temperature transients. The new correction technique has been demonstrated through a series of tests in which strain measurements were acquired for temperature-rise rates ranging from 1 to greater than 100 degrees F/sec. Strain-gage data from these tests have been corrected with both the new and conventional methods and then compared with an analysis. Results show that, for temperature-rise rates greater than 10 degrees F/sec, the strain measurements corrected with the conventional technique produced strain errors that deviated from analysis by as much as 45 percent, whereas results corrected with the new technique were in good agreement with analytical results.

  6. Development of an instrument to measure medical students’ perceptions of the assessment environment: initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Hiong Sim, Joong; Ting Tong, Wen; Hong, Wei-Han; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Hassan, Hamimah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment environment, synonymous with climate or atmosphere, is multifaceted. Although there are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the educational environment, there is no validated instrument for measuring the assessment environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students’ perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Method The Assessment Environment Questionnaire (AEQ), a 40-item, four-point (1=Strongly Disagree to 4=Strongly Agree) Likert scale instrument designed by the authors, was administered to medical undergraduates from the authors’ institution. The response rate was 626/794 (78.84%). To establish construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component analysis and varimax rotation was conducted. To examine the internal consistency reliability of the instrument, Cronbach's α was computed. Mean scores for the entire AEQ and for each factor/subscale were calculated. Mean AEQ scores of students from different academic years and sex were examined. Results Six hundred and eleven completed questionnaires were analysed. EFA extracted four factors: feedback mechanism (seven items), learning and performance (five items), information on assessment (five items), and assessment system/procedure (three items), which together explained 56.72% of the variance. Based on the four extracted factors/subscales, the AEQ was reduced to 20 items. Cronbach's α for the 20-item AEQ was 0.89, whereas Cronbach's α for the four factors/subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Mean score for the AEQ was 2.68/4.00. The factor/subscale of ‘feedback mechanism’ recorded the lowest mean (2.39/4.00), whereas the factor/subscale of ‘assessment system/procedure’ scored the highest mean (2.92/4.00). Significant differences were found among the AEQ scores of students from different academic

  7. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

  8. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O.; Drevon, Christian A.; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C.; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise

  9. Short wavelengths active bichromatic pulsed pyrometer for solids and liquids designed for measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navello, L.; Lebedinsky, J.; Offret, J. P.; Serio, B.; Davin, T.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Optical passive methods for temperature measurements such as thermography or optical pyrometry are very interesting because they allow a non-intrusive measurement when the emissivity is known. The knowledge of this coefficient is critical for determining the actual temperature of a surface from the thermal radiation emitted in a wavelength band. The bichromatic pulsed pyrometer allows to overcome the knowledge of this parameter provided that precautions are taken in the choice of the values of wavelengths. When the object to be measured is placed in harsh environments, such passive optical methods are greatly disturbed by the presence of an optically absorbing medium. They are also distorted when the measured objects are located in very hot environments emitting intense disturbing radiation. In this study, we present an active bichromatic radiometric method for measuring the temperature of a surface in harsh environments. The method is based on a localized excitation by a modulated laser source in the infrared range. Detecting the temperature modulation, which is correlated with the excitation, is performed using a lock-in amplifier able to extract the signal embedded in a noise up to a million times superior. Working at short wavelengths (visible range and near infrared range) offers a large dynamic range and minimizes the error due to variations in emissivity with the wavelength. This system collects the radiation emitted by the object at a distance from a few meters up to dozens of meters depending on the configuration of the optical system. Both the principle and the design of the active bichromatic optical surface thermometer are presented and discussed. To demonstrate the method, results obtained on a molten ceramic stream are presented.

  10. On-body calibration and measurements using personal radiofrequency exposimeters in indoor diffuse and specular environments.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Reza; Thielens, Arno; Bamba, Aliou; Kone, Lamine; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, response of personal exposimeters (PEMs) is studied under diffuse field exposure in indoor environments. To this aim, both numerical simulations, using finite-difference time-domain method, and calibration measurements were performed in the range of 880-5875 MHz covering 10 frequency bands in Belgium. Two PEMs were mounted on the body of a human male subject and calibrated on-body in an anechoic chamber (non-diffuse) and a reverberation chamber (RC) (diffuse fields). This was motivated by the fact that electromagnetic waves in indoor environments have both specular and diffuse components. Both calibrations show that PEMs underestimate actual incident electromagnetic fields. This can be compensated by using an on-body response. Moreover, it is shown that these responses are different in anechoic chamber and RC. Therefore, it is advised to use an on-body calibration in an RC in future indoor PEM measurements where diffuse fields are present. Using the response averaged over two PEMs reduced measurement uncertainty compared to single PEMs. Following the calibration, measurements in a realistic indoor environment were done for wireless fidelity (WiFi-5G) band. Measured power density values are maximally 8.9 mW/m(2) and 165.8 μW/m(2) on average. These satisfy reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection in 1998. Power density values obtained by applying on-body calibration in RC are higher than values obtained from no body calibration (only PEMs) and on-body calibration in anechoic room, by factors of 7.55 and 2.21, respectively. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:298-309, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27121268

  11. Simple instrument for measurement of remote sensing reflectance in coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    2003-06-01

    Measurement of spectral remote sensing reflectance is essential to characterize water color, and to further estimate various water constituents with bio-optical algorithms. The measurement is critical to satellite data calibration/validation as well as to bio-optical algorithm development. Unfortunately, commercial instruments for such measurement are expensive, and they are either not capable of displaying data in real-time or not easy to use in coastal environment where large vessels are not applicable. In this paper we describe a simple instrument for such measurement. The fiber-optic Ocean Optics S2000 spectrometer, originally designed for lab use, was further developed to measure remote sensing reflectance. Compared with concurrent measurements from other expensive commercial instruments over different water bodies, the measured spectral reflectance is nearly identical (mean RMS difference < 2%). Through linearity and sensitivity analysis we found that it is capable of characterizing a variety of water types, even though the sensitivity is not as high as its commercial counterparts. The instrument substantially reduces the cost; it has real-time display and is easy to operate (< 0.5 kg) on small vessels. Further, combined with a liquid waveguide and a light source it is also capable of measuring Gelbstoff absorption with sufficient accuracy.

  12. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  13. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  14. ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) Liftoff Acoustic Environments: Prediction vs. Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, Douglas; Kenny, Jeremy; Murphy, John

    2009-01-01

    The ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) provided an opportunity to measure liftoff acoustic noise data. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers were interested in the ALV-X1 launch because the First Stage motor and launch pad conditions, including a relativity short deflector ducting, provide a potential analogue to future Ares I launches. This paper presents the measured liftoff acoustics on the vehicle and tower. Those measured results are compared to predictions based upon the method described in NASA SP-8072 "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System" and the Vehicle Acoustic Environment Prediction Program (VAEPP) which was developed by MSFC acoustics engineers. One-third octave band sound pressure levels will be presented. This data is useful for the ALV-X1 in validating the pre-launch environments and loads predictions. Additionally, the ALV-X1 liftoff data can be scaled to define liftoff environments for the NASA Constellation program Ares vehicles. Vehicle liftoff noise is caused by the supersonic jet flow interaction with surrounding atmosphere or more simply, jet noise. As the vehicle's First Stage motor is ignited, an acoustic noise field is generated by the exhaust. This noise field persists due to the supersonic jet noise and reflections from the launch pad and tower, then changes as the vehicle begins to liftoff from the launch pad. Depending on launch pad and adjacent tower configurations, the liftoff noise is generally very high near the nozzle exit and decreases rapidly away from the nozzle. The liftoff acoustic time range of interest is typically 0 to 20 seconds after ignition. The exhaust plume thermo-fluid mechanics generates sound at approx.10 Hz to 20 kHz. Liftoff acoustic noise is usually the most severe dynamic environment for a launch vehicle or payload in the mid to high frequency range (approx.50 to 2000 Hz). This noise environment can induce high-level vibrations along the external surfaces of the vehicle and surrounding

  15. Current Measurements and Overwash Monitoring Using Tilt Current Meters in Three Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, N. S.; Sherwood, C. R.; Decarlo, T. M.; Grant, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCMs) provide accurate, cost effective measurements of near-bottom current velocities. Many studies in coastal environments require current measurements, which are frequently made with Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADPs). ADPs are expensive, however, and may not be suitable for locations where there is significant risk of damage, loss, or theft or where a large spatial array of measurements is required. TCMs, by contrast, are smaller, less expensive, and easier to deploy. This study tested TCMs in three sites to determine their suitability for use in research applications. TCMs are based on the drag-tilt principle, where the instrument tilts in response to current. The meter consists of a buoyant float with an onboard accelerometer, three-axis tilt sensor, three-axis magnetometer (compass), and a data logger. Current measurements are derived by post processing the tilt and compass values and converting them to velocity using empirical calibration data. Large data-storage capacity (4 GB) and low power requirements allow long deployments (many months) at high sample rates (16 Hz). We demonstrate the utility of TCM current measurements on a reef at Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and in Vineyard Sound off Cape Cod, where the TCM performance was evaluated against ADP measurements. We have also used the TCM to record waves during an overwash event on a Cape Cod barrier beach during a winter storm. The TCM recorded waves as they came through the overwash channel, and the data were in agreement with the water-level record used as a reference. These tests demonstrate that TCMs may be used in a variety of near shore environments and have the potential to significantly increase the density of meters in future studies were current measurements are required.

  16. Can Less Be More? Comparison of an 8-Item Placement Quality Measure with the 50-Item Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; Muijtjens, Arno; O'Flynn, Siun; Dornan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Clinical clerks learn more than they are taught and not all they learn can be measured. As a result, curriculum leaders evaluate clinical educational environments. The quantitative Dundee Ready Environment Measure (DREEM) is a "de facto" standard for that purpose. Its 50 items and 5 subscales were developed by consensus. Reasoning that…

  17. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Bk; Venable, As; Williams, Rr; Jackson, Aw

    2015-03-01

    Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual's temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes) for the measurement of peripheral (bicep) and central (abdominal) skin temperature. Young men and women (N = 30) were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max) of cycling in a hot (39±2°C), humid (45±5% RH) environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5) were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5), For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9) and thermal (1.9), suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35°C, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects. PMID:25729144

  18. Acoustical environment measurement at a very shallow port: Trial case in Hashirimizu Port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hanako; Mori, Kazuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the needs for coastal environment measurement has been increasing for many purposes, such as fishing, weather forecasting, ocean noise measurement for power plants, and coastal security. Acoustical measurement is one of the solutions because it can cover a wide area with few sensors, and it is possible to monitor long term or in real time. In this study, a small-scale reciprocal sound travel experiment was carried out in Hashirimizu Port for coastal environment measurement, such as current speed and water temperature. Since the distance between the surface and the transducer becomes short according to the tidal effect, the direct signal is canceled by the surface-reflected signal under a specific condition. However, even under such a condition, mean water temperature could be estimated from the reciprocal travel time using bottom-reflected signals. The current along the travel path was a reasonable value. It is possible to obtain a special current speed with another reciprocal path, which is in a direction perpendicular to the current travel path.

  19. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    PubMed Central

    Venable, AS; Williams, RR; Jackson, AW

    2014-01-01

    Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual's temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes) for the measurement of peripheral (bicep) and central (abdominal) skin temperature. Young men and women (N = 30) were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max) of cycling in a hot (39±2°C), humid (45±5% RH) environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5) were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5), For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9) and thermal (1.9), suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35°C, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects. PMID:25729144

  20. Measurement system for high-sensitivity LIBS analysis using ICCD camera in LabVIEW environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, S. M.; Popov, A. M.; Zorov, N. B.; Labutin, T. A.

    2014-06-01

    A measurement system based on ultrafast (up to 10 ns time resolution) intensified CCD detector ``Nanogate-2V'' (Nanoscan, Russia) was developed for high-sensitivity analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). LabVIEW environment provided a high level of compatibility with variety of electronic instruments and an easy development of user interface, while Visual Studio environment was used for creation of LabVIEW compatible dll library with the use of ``Nanogate-2V'' SDK. The program for camera management and laser-induced plasma spectra registration was created with the use of Call Library Node in LabVIEW. An algorithm of integration of the second device ADC ``PCI-9812'' (ADLINK) to the measurement system was proposed and successfully implemented. This allowed simultaneous registration of emission and acoustic signals under laser ablation. The measured resolving power of spectrometer-ICCD system was equal to 12000 at 632 nm. An electron density of laser plasma was estimated with the use of H-α Balmer line. Steel spectra obtained at different delays were used for selection of the optimal conditions for manganese analytical signal registration. The feature of accumulation of spectra from several laser pulses was shown. The accumulation allowed reliable observation of silver signal at 328.07 nm in the LIBS spectra of soil (CAg = 4.5 ppm). Finally, the correlation between acoustic and emission signals of plasma was found. Thus, technical possibilities of the developed LIBS system were demonstrated both for plasma diagnostics and analytical measurements.

  1. Measuring natural resource scarcity under common property environment and uncertainty: an interpretive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to extract and use a natural resource (e.g., coal) the environment (air, water, etc.) must also be used as a repository of the discharged wastes (e.g., sulfur oxides, nitrous oxides, particulates, etc.). Moreover, if there is a mandated level of the environmental resource (e.g., clean air) that has to be maintained, then certain additional costs must be borne by society (firms utilizing the resource). Thus, in evaluating the scarcity of an extractible resource, the relative position of the environmental resource also must be evaluated. This study incorporated such jointness in the evaluation of the measure of resource scarcity, something earlier studies did not address. The theoretical model was developed in an optimal-control framework. It was analytically shown that this new measure of resource scarcity would indicate a different trend compared to earlier ones. The measure of resource scarcity developed in this study captures previous measures as special cases. In an uncertain world, when the impacts of use of an extractible resource on the environment is not known, the stock size of the environmental resource becomes uncertain.

  2. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Van Varenbergh, S.; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2013-05-01

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1/0.8/0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures.

  3. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  4. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  5. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  6. Measurement of the Local Food Environment: A Comparison of Existing Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; House, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Studying the relation between the residential environment and health requires valid, reliable, and cost-effective methods to collect data on residential environments. This 2002 study compared the level of agreement between measures of the presence of neighborhood businesses drawn from 2 common sources of data used for research on the built environment and health: listings of businesses from commercial databases and direct observations of city blocks by raters. Kappa statistics were calculated for 6 types of businesses—drugstores, liquor stores, bars, convenience stores, restaurants, and grocers—located on 1,663 city blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Logistic regressions estimated whether disagreement between measurement methods was systematically correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Levels of agreement between the 2 sources were relatively high, with significant (P < 0.001) kappa statistics for each business type ranging from 0.32 to 0.70. Most business types were more likely to be reported by direct observations than in the commercial database listings. Disagreement between the 2 sources was not significantly correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Results suggest that researchers should have reasonable confidence using whichever method (or combination of methods) is most cost-effective and theoretically appropriate for their research design. PMID:20123688

  7. Thin Film Sensors for Minimally-Intrusive Measurements in Harsh High Temperature Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Will, Herbert A.; Martin, Lisa C.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensors are being developed to provide accurate surface temperature, heat flux and strain measurements for components used in hostile propulsion environments. These sensors are sputter deposited and microfabricated directly onto the test articles with no additional bonding agent. The thickness of the sensors is only a few micrometers which creates minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the test surface. Thus thin film sensors have the advantage over conventional wire- based sensors by providing minimally intrusive measurement and having a faster response. These thin film sensors are being developed for characterization of advanced materials and structures in hostile, high-temperature environments, and for validation of design codes. This paper presents the advances of three high temperature thin film sensor technologies developed at NASA Lewis Research Center: thermocouples, heat-flux gages and strain gages. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors which include physical vapor deposition, photolithography patterning and lead Wire attachment are described. Sensors demonstrations on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are presented. The advantages and limitations of thin film sensor technology are also discussed.

  8. The influence of nutritional levels and shade structure on testicular growth and hourly variations of plasma LH and testosterone levels in young Creole bulls in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D; Berbigier, P

    1982-01-01

    Twelve Creole bulls 13.3 months of age were divided into three groups according to live weight. The first group received a low nutritional level and was housed in a shaded stable; the second group received a high nutritional level and was housed in the same stable as the first group; the third group received the same ration as the second group but was exposed to solar radiation. Live weight and testicular diameter were recorded fortnightly. After 65 days, the blood of the bulls was sampled every 20 min for 12 h. Plasma LH and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay. There was no significant influence of solar radiation on the testicular growth or the hormonal levels. Underfeeding decreased testicular growth and the average plasma LH and testosterone levels. However, this action was effective only in decreasing the number of hormonal pulses per day (0.63 vs 2.55 LH pulses per day and 0.75 vs 2.50 testosterone pulses per day); it did not change the basal hormone levels. It is suggested that this decrease in LH pulsatility might be responsible for the slow testicular growth in the underfed bulls. PMID:7156502

  9. An approach to measuring the density of the environment of galaxies: results and comparisons with other measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Andernach, H.

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of obtaining a homogeneous and reliable measurement of the density of the environment of a large sample of galaxies, we developed a code that counts the number of neighboring galaxies around a target galaxy. As targets, we selected a large sample of 666,387 galaxies from the spectroscopic catalogue of the SDSS-DR7 with redshifts between 0.03 and 0.30 and more luminous than absolute magnitude of -19 in the SDSS r band. The photometric catalogue of the SDSS-DR7 was used to extract and count the neighboring galaxies from, including about 24M objects, also more luminous than an r-band absolute magnitude of -19, for which a photometric redshift was available to serve as a distance estimate. The code counts all galaxies within an absolute distance of 1.5 Mpc around the target (translated to an apparent radius and a redshift range around that of the target). We avoid galaxies close to the survey edges, leaving 527,074 target galaxies for which we have a measurement of environmental density. We present our results and compare them to other measurements of the density of the environment of galaxies, such as those in the MaxBCG catalogue of brightest cluster galaxies. As a control of our method, we apply it to a sample of galaxies from the 2MIG catalogue of isolated galaxies, and also to a sample of galaxies from a compilation of members of Abell clusters. We aim to use our results to test the morphology-local density relation and to study the relationship between the different types of emission-line activity of galaxies and their ambient density.

  10. The Role of Environment in the Development of Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Study of Preschool and School-Age Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 113 children (ages 3-10), including 35 with poor reading skills, found both socioeconomic status, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, and reading achievement scores were related to reading abilities, but preschool environment measures were more strongly and consistently related to and predictive of…

  11. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  12. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  13. An instrument design to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments: Case study of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sammarraie, Munadil Khaleel Faaeq; Faieq, Alaa K.; Al-Qasa, Khaled

    2016-08-01

    Electronic Government (eG) has become a vital tool to serve the beneficiaries; therefore, it has received the attention of many Information System (IS) researchers. Due to the importance of the sustainability of IS, this paper identifies the emergence of a clear gape to measure the sustainability of IS in risky circumstances, such as wars, conflicts and violence; nowadays, the risky issue is increasing remarkably. This paper expands previous studies whose focus was on investigating the sustainability of electronic services unsecured countries in the world. Consequently, a need for a specific tool to measure the sustainability of technology among the users in risky conditions has become urgent. Based on the findings, it can be confirmed that this instrument is reliable to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments.

  14. Resolving small signal measurements in experimental plasma environments using calibrated subtraction of noise signals

    SciTech Connect

    Fimognari, P. J. Demers, D. R.; Chen, X.; Schoch, P. M.

    2014-11-15

    The performance of many diagnostic and control systems within fusion and other fields of research are often detrimentally affected by spurious noise signals. This is particularly true for those (such as radiation or particle detectors) working with very small signals. Common sources of radiated and conducted noise in experimental fusion environments include the plasma itself and instrumentation. The noise complicates data analysis, as illustrated by noise on signals measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The noise is time-varying and often exceeds the secondary ion beam current (in contrast with previous applications). Analysis of the noise identifies the dominant source as photoelectric emission from the detectors induced by ultraviolet light from the plasma. This has led to the development of a calibrated subtraction technique, which largely removes the undesired temporal noise signals from data. The advantages of the technique for small signal measurement applications are demonstrated through improvements realized on HIBP fluctuation measurements.

  15. Design of a Multisensory Probe for Measuring Carbon Cycle Processes in Aqueous Subterranean Environments

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Kisner, Roger; Woodworth, Ken; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Frank, Steven Shane; McKnight, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    The global carbon cycle describes the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, oceans, and soil. Mechanisms involving carbon in sub-terrestrial ecosystems and their impact on climate are not well understood. This lack of understanding limits current climate models and prevents accurate soil-carbon storage predications for future climate conditions. To address the lack of instrumentation for conducting high fidelity measurements of appropriate parameters in the field, a multi-sensory probe using a mix of optical, fiber optic, and electronic technologies to measure CO2, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, and water level in subsurface environments has been developed. Details of the design, fabrication and laboratory performance verification are presented. Use cases and the anticipated impacts of such measurements on climate models are discussed.

  16. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Nutritional Ecology in the College Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metress, James

    1978-01-01

    Explores the University of Toledo's general studies course in nutritional ecology which emphasizes nutrition patterns in relation to the biophysical and sociocultural environment. Term topics vary according to student needs and interests, while a common instructional core is maintained to present the basics. (TR)

  18. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  19. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Krishna Bihari; Gupta, Rajesh; Atreja, Atulya; Verma, Manish; Vishvkarma, Suman

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host's susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world. PMID:20165588

  20. Regression modeling plan for 29 biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition measured in NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2013-06-01

    The collection of articles in this supplement issue provides insight into the association of various covariates with concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition (biomarkers), beyond age, race, and sex, using linear regression. We studied 10 specific sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates in combination with 29 biomarkers from NHANES 2003-2006 for persons aged ≥ 20 y. The covariates were organized into 2 sets or "chunks": sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, and physical activity) and fit in hierarchical fashion by using each category or set of related variables to determine how covariates, jointly, are related to biomarker concentrations. In contrast to many regression modeling applications, all variables were retained in a full regression model regardless of significance to preserve the interpretation of the statistical properties of β coefficients, P values, and CIs and to keep the interpretation consistent across a set of biomarkers. The variables were preselected before data analysis, and the data analysis plan was designed at the outset to minimize the reporting of false-positive findings by limiting the amount of preliminary hypothesis testing. Although we generally found that demographic differences seen in biomarkers were over- or underestimated when ignoring other key covariates, the demographic differences generally remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. These articles are intended to provide a foundation to researchers to help them generate hypotheses for future studies or data analyses and/or develop predictive regression models using the wealth of NHANES data. PMID:23596165

  1. Subjective versus objective measures of tic severity in Tourette syndrome - The influence of environment.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Meirav; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Gilboa-Sechtman, Eva; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of environmental challenges on tic expression by subjective and objective measures. The study group consisted of 41 children aged 6-18 years (M=10.15, SD=2.73) with a primary diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. Subjective measures included the Functional Assessment Interview developed for this study and three standard validated instruments. The objective measure was a video-recording of the patients in five daily-life situations: watching television, doing homework, being alone, receiving attention when ticcing, and talking to a stranger. In addition, the effect of premonitory urges on assessment of tic expression was evaluated. The associations between the subjective and objective measures of tic expression were moderate to low. A significantly higher number of tics were observed in the television situation, and a significantly lower number in the alone situation, compared to the other situations. Higher levels of premonitory urge were associated with greater awareness of objectively measured tic expression. In conclusion, tic expression is significantly influenced by the environment. Subjective measures of tic expression may be misleading. These results have implications for refining the clinical assessment of tics, improving research methodology, and developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27289326

  2. A dynamic technique for measuring surface tension at high temperatures in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miiller, A. P.; Cezairliyan, A.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a dynamic technique for measuring surface tension of liquid metals at high temperatures in a microgravity environment was demonstrated. The basic method involves heating a tubular specimen resistively from ambient temperature through its melting point in about 1 sec by passing an electrical current pulse through it, while simultaneously recording the pertinent experimental quantities. Static equilibrium for the molten specimen is achieved in a microgravity environment by splitting the current after it passes through the specimen tube and returning a fraction along the tube axis, and the remaining fraction outside the specimen. Adjustments to the current split enable a balance between the magnetic and surface tension forces acting on the specimen. Values for surface tension are determined from measurements of the equilibrium dimensions of the molten specimen tube, and the magnitudes of the currents. Rapid melting experiments, performed during microgravity simulations with the NASA KC-135 aircraft, yield a value for the surface tension of copper at its melting point which is in agreement with literature data. Measurements of surface tension of a refractory metal (tantalum) are underway.

  3. A clean radiation environment for opacity measurements of radiatively heated material

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yan; Zhang Jinyan; Yang Jiamin; Pei Wenbing; Ding Yongkun; Lai Donxian; Men Guangwei; Luo Zheng

    2007-05-15

    A clean x-ray radiation environment is essential for detailed measurements of the opacity of high-temperature radiatively heated material. A lot of laser energy is usually needed to heat a large hohlraum to produce such a clean x-ray radiation environment. A type of target is proposed that uses low-density, low-Z foam to provide a passage to radiation while isolating the sample from the disturbance from laser produced, high-temperature, high-Z plasma and heating by reflected laser light. With a smaller hohlraum, less laser energy is needed to produce high-temperature x-ray radiation for sample heating. Experiments have been done to check the proposal. The recorded clean Al self-emission spectra proved there was no gold plasma in the view-way to disturb the measurement. This type of hohlraum can provide a high-quality work-table for opacity measurement even in a relatively small laser facility.

  4. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools. PMID:26296310

  5. Multiparameter Flowfield Measurements in High-Pressure, Cryogenic Environments Using Femtosecond Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Peters, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) and Rayleigh scattering (RS) from a femtosecond laser are demonstrated in the NASA Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). The measured signals from these techniques are examined for their thermodynamic dependencies in pure nitrogen. The FLEET signal intensity and signal lifetimes are found to scale primarily with the gas density, as does the RS signal. Several models are developed, which capture these physical behaviors. Notably, the FLEET and Rayleigh scattering intensities scale linearly with the flow density, while the FLEET signal decay rates are a more complex function of the thermodynamic state of the gas. The measurement of various flow properties are demonstrated using these techniques. While density was directly measured from the signal intensities and FLEET signal lifetime, temperature and pressure were measured using the simultaneous FLEET velocity measurements while assuming the flow had a constant total enthalpy. Measurements of density, temperature, and pressure from the FLEET signal are made with accuracies as high as 5.3 percent, 0.62 percent, and 6.2 percent, respectively, while precisions were approximately 10 percent, 0.26 percent, and 11 percent for these same quantities. Similar measurements of density from Rayleigh scattering showed an overall accuracy of 3.5 percent and a precision of 10.2 percent over a limited temperature range (T greater than 195 K). These measurements suggest a high degree of utility at using the femtosecond-laser based diagnostics for making multiparameter measurements in high-pressure, cryogenic environments such as large-scale TCT facilities.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  7. Measuring the Emissivity of Samples in an Airless-Body Environment: Improvements, Results and Error Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key requirements for deriving surface properties from remote sensing instruments is to have a library of equivalent measurements of known samples. In the thermal infrared, constructing a spectral library for airless bodies such as the Moon and asteroids is complicated by the thermal environment present on these bodies, which can generate significant temperature gradients in the top millimetre of the sample. Such gradients can alter thermal infrared spectra, and therefore these conditions must be simulated in the laboratory to produce equivalent results to those of remote sensing instruments. We have constructed an experiment to achieve this, consisting of: (1) a chamber capable of maintaining a pressure of 1 x 10-5 mbar, (2) a solar-like halogen lamp to replicate surface heating by solar radiation, (3) a temperature controlled sample cup to provide equivalent at-depth heating, (4) a high-emissivity radiation shield, cooled to <150K, to simulate cold space, and (5) a Brüker IFS66v Fourier Transform Spectrometer, taking spectra from 2500-400cm-1 with 2cm-1 resolution. Meteorite, Apollo, terrestrial, and artificially weathered samples have all been measured recently in the chamber, which has required us to make some significant improvements in the design and calibration of the chamber, such as the addition of an intermediate calibration target, measured immediately before and after each sample, and a full examination of calibration errors. Monte Carlo analysis has been used to quantify the absolute uncertainty in the measured spectra, to investigate the extent to which small shifts in spectra can be attributed to the thermal environment over measurement uncertainty, allowing accurate error bars to be added to lunar emissivity spectra for the first time. Schematic of the airless-body simulation chamber, showing the main parts. The calibration target is moved into place via a linear actuator driven by a magnetic coupling.

  8. Detecting band inversions by measuring the environment: fingerprints of electronic band topology in bulk phonon linewidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kush; Legare, Katherine; Garate, Ion

    The interplay between topological phases of matter and dissipative baths constitutes an emergent research topic with links to condensed matter, photonic crystals, cold atomic gases and quantum information. While recent studies suggest that dissipative baths can induce topological phases in intrinsically trivial quantum materials, the backaction of topological invariants on dissipative baths is overlooked. By exploring this back action for a centrosymmetric Dirac insulator coupled to phonons, we show that the linewidths of bulk optical phonons can reveal electronic band inversions. This result is the first known example where topological phases of an open quantum system may be detected by measuring the bulk properties of the surrounding environment.

  9. Family and School Psychosocial Environment (FSPE): development of a brief questionnaire measuring perceived psychosocial environments in children/siblings.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bertil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a short Swedish standardized, factor analyzed and cross-validated, family and school psychosocial environment questionnaire (FSPE). The study was based on 244 Swedish girls and boys, 10-19 years old, who filled in the FSPE. Maximum likelihood factor analysis, promax rotation, yielded six primary factors, based on absolute ratings. Since the factors were somewhat correlated, two broader secondary factors, with satisfactory reliabilities, were also included in the form, named Warmth, support and openness from parents, siblings and peers, and Family conflicts and school discipline, respectively. Means and standard deviations for girls and boys showed sex differences in most of the factors. Because the children participated anonymously they could report about spanking without negative consequences. Indeed, 8.1% of the children had been spanked by their parents. Based on relative ratings, two factors were identified, covering environmental questions about "more than, the same as or less than" a sibling. Only 6.6% of the children rated their environment exactly the same on the Family Psychosocial Environment (FPE) factors, compared to a sibling within the family. Thus the majority reported environmental differences. Further research is proposed to evaluate such differences and relations to personality, genotype-environment correlation and genetic mediation. PMID:21332485

  10. Effects of the Physical Work Environment on Physiological Measures of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, J. F.; Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J. F.; Kampschroer, K.; West, A.; Sterling, C.; Christie, I.C.; Abernethy, D.; Sollers, J. J.; Cizza, G.; Marques, A. H.; Sternberg, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In this study we investigated the effects of the physical work environment on two physiological measures of the stress response. Methods and Results Circadian variations in vagally mediated HRV and the morning rise in cortisol were evaluated in sixty participants working in a government building either in a traditional (individual offices and old cubicles; n=40) or a modern workspace (individualized cubicles with improved views and lighting; n=20). Results revealed significant linear (B = −1.03; CI: −1.05 to −1.01, p < .05) and quadratic (B = 1.001; CI: 1.0004 to 1.002, p < .05) trends by office type interactions for indices of vagally mediated HRV. Individuals in the old office space had flatter slopes and thus less circadian variation including less HRV at night, and a larger rise in cortisol upon awakening compared to those in the new office space. Conclusions These results indicate that physical features of the work environment may affect two aspects of the physiological stress response: circadian variations in HRV and the morning rise in cortisol. These findings have important social, economic, and public health implications for work environment risk factors on health. PMID:20404733

  11. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, W. H.; Asner, D. M.; Conway, J. V.; Dennett, C. A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T. P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M. A.; Strohman, C. R.

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described.

  12. Establishing aeolian particulate 'fingerprints' in an airport environment using magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to

  13. An autonomous in situ detection system for radioactivity measurements in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Bagatelas, C; Dakladas, Th; Papadopoulos, C T; Vlastou, R; Chronis, G T

    2008-10-01

    A new detection system named "KATERINA" is developed and applied for measuring marine radioactivity using NaI(Tl) as a crystal. This apparatus is designed for qualitative and quantitative radionuclide detection in the marine environment with maximum depth of deployment 400 m. A detailed study for the enclosure of the system and for the electronics development is performed. The system offers volumetric activities in Bq/m(3) using the marine efficiency calibration, which is measured by dilution of three reference sources ((99m)Tc, (137)Cs, and (40)K) in a special tank. The calibration procedures for energy, energy resolution and efficiency were analyzed with particular attention to the factors that affect the calibration parameters. The underwater detector is tested in the field for acquiring radon daughters ((214)Pb and (214)Bi) in a region where submarine groundwater discharge exists in the coastal zone. PMID:18372182

  14. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  15. How Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM) can help rural and urban environments improve their resilience?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siauve, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    The challenges related to water resources management are exacerbated by climate change which implies additional complexity and uncertainty. The impacts of climate change have thus to be taken into account, from today on the next decades, to ensure a sustainable integrated water resources management. One of the main environmental objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/30/CE) was to achieve and maintain a good status for all water bodies by the target date of 2015. Unfortunately, Member States didn't manage to reach this goal and in this context, the European Commission (EC), since many years, have started many initiatives and reforms to improve the global situation. In 2012 the DG Environment (DGENV) of the EC published a "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources" that states the need for further implementation of water resource management measures and in particular Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRMs). NWRM are measures that aim to safeguard and enhance the water storage potential of landscape, soils and aquifers, by restoring ecosystems, natural features and characteristics of water courses, and by using natural processes. They are Nature-Based Solutions supporting adaptation and reducing vulnerability of water resources. Their interest lies with the multiple benefits they can deliver, and their capacity to contribute simultaneously to the achievement of the objectives of different European policies (WFD, FD, Biodiversity strategy …). However the knowledge on NWRM is scattered and addressed differently in the countries, whereas the NWRM potential for improving the state of the environment and resilience (drought, flood, biodiversity…) in a changing environment is high. In 2013, all EU countries started the elaboration of the second River Basin Management Plan and associated Programme of Measures. To support MS authorities and local implementers of these measures DGENV launched a 14 month project for collaboratively building knowledge and

  16. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  17. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  18. Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented. PMID:23792867

  19. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  20. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Varenbergh, S Van; Saghir, M Ziad

    2013-05-28

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1∕0.8∕0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures. PMID:23742467

  1. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  2. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J. Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  3. LP DAAC MEaSUREs Project Artifact Tracking Via the NASA Earthdata Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC that supports selected EOS Community non-standard data products such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED), and also supports NASA Earth Science programs such as Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. As described in The LP DAAC Project Lifecycle Plan (Daucsavage, J.; Bennett, S., 2014), key elements within the Project Inception Phase fuse knowledge between NASA stakeholders, data producers, and NASA data providers. To support and deliver excellence for NASA data stewardship, and to accommodate long-tail data preservation with Community and MEaSUREs products, the LP DAAC is utilizing NASA's own Earthdata Collaboration Environment to bridge stakeholder communication divides. By leveraging a NASA supported platform, this poster describes how the Atlassian Confluence software combined with a NASA URS/Earthdata support can maintain each project's members, status, documentation, and artifact checklist. Furthermore, this solution provides a gateway for project communities to become familiar with NASA clients, as well as educating the project's NASA DAAC Scientists for NASA client distribution.

  4. Volume Resistivity Measurement of Insulating Material in Space Environment Simulated Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Rikio; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nitta, Kumi

    Volume resistivities of polyimide film under simulated space environment are measured with “charge storage decay method.” The test material was irradiated by electron beam in a vacuum chamber to simulate space environment. Volume resistivity is calculated from the surface potential decay time constant after stopping electron irradiation. This is called “charge storage decay method” and is shown to be the preferred method to determine resistivities of highly insulating materials. As a result of experiments, we have found that volume resistivity of polyimide film is in order of 1016 Ωm, which is one order higher than the result from the conventional resistivity measurement method prescribed in JIS or ASTM. Higher resistivity requires much longer field relaxation time after injection of electron to dissipate through the material. Thus, charging analysis of spacecraft needs to consider this higher resistivity. The effect of injection energy of electron is also examined and it is found that the higher the energy is, the faster the charge decay become.

  5. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  7. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  8. Space Environment Measurements for Icy Surfaces in the Solar System and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    There are dozens of icy satellites orbiting the giant planets and trillions of icy comets populating the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud. Such objects are likely to be common throughout other planetary systems, particularly those now known to have giant plants. Interactions of the local space environment with these bodies must be taken in account for proper interpretation of photometric and spectroscopic measurements related to surface composition. Most of these bodies either are known to have, or likely have, tenuous atmospheres of volatile gases produced by internal outgassing and surface sublimation, sputtering from charged particle and UV irradiation, and diffuse dust clouds produced from meteoritic impacts. Whether or not Pluto counts as a small icy planet or a big comet, its thin and variable atmosphere also allows direct surface exposure to the space environment. Even glacial ices on the surface of (e.g., Snowball) Earth may have been exposed to much of the interplanetary solar UV flux at early times when an effective ozone shield was absent, and the Mars atmosphere is thin enough today for direct irradiation of polar cap ices by high energy cosmic ray and solar flare ions. Planetary magnetic fields reduce exposure to interplanetary charged particles but add irradiation by magnetospheric plasma and energetic particles. At Europa the intense surface irradiation from the Jovian magnetosphere might play a role via radiolytic chemistry in possible evolution of life within the putative sub-surface ocean. Although an armada of spacecraft have been measuring for many years the parameters of the solar UV, plasma, energetic particle, and dust environments of rocky bodies, large and small, in the inner solar system near Earth's orbit around the Sun, only six spacecraft with varying capabilities (Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo Orbiter, Cassini Orbiter) have yet ventured into the domain of the icy bodies near and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. The first five have

  9. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  10. Geriatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  11. Hydroxyl radical measurements and oxidation capacity in a boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Novelli, A.; Paasonen, P.; Sipilä, M.; Petäjä, T.; Nölscher, A.; Taraborrelli, D.; Keronen, P.; Trawny, K.; Kubistin, D.; Oswald, R.; Axinte, R.; Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Auld, J.; Klüpfel, T.; Mesarchaki, E.; Song, W.; Valverde Canossa, J.; González Orozco, D.; Königstedt, R.; Bohn, B.; Rudolf, M.; Fischer, H.; Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H. D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-12-01

    Forests cover about one third of the earth's total land surface and are known to be an important global source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that are partly very reactive towards OH. Different types of forests are known to emit various characteristic BVOCs significantly influencing atmospheric oxidation chemistry. Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals in forest environments, however, reveal a serious lack of understanding of the underlying processes. The HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field campaign took place in summer 2010 at the SMEAR II station, located in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, as collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and the University of Helsinki. The main goal of the campaign was to investigate the summertime emissions and photochemistry in a boreal forest. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many VOCs, HOx, and total OH reactivity were conducted to increase our understanding of atmospheric self-cleaning processes based on detailed analysis of production and loss mechanisms of the hydroxyl radical. Also the HOx budget in a coniferous forest was examined by using direct calculations from measured species as well as an observationally constrained chemical box model in steady state. For HUMPPA-COPEC chemical reaction schemes considering isoprene as the predominant primary BVOC lead to an over prediction of the measured OH concentration by a factor of up to 4. However, only a minor fraction of the measured total OH reactivity can be explained by measured isoprene. A preliminary terpene mechanism, taking the most abundant terpenes measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 and their oxidation products into account, improves the agreement between simulated and measured OH, but is not sufficient to explain the missing OH reactivity in all cases. HO2 is described reasonably well by the model for conditions where the modeled and measured total OH reactivity agree. For lower than measured reactivity, the HO2 mixing ratios

  12. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  13. Establishing aeolian particulate 'fingerprints' in an airport environment using magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to

  14. The Martian surface radiation environment - a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Ehresmann, Bent; Lohf, Henning; Köhler, Jan; Zeitlin, Cary; Appel, Jan; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Slaba, Tony; Martin, Cesar; Berger, Thomas; Boehm, Eckart; Boettcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Hassler, Donald M.; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Reitz, Günther; Wilson, John W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS) were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle spectra with respect to

  15. A Smart Measurement and Stimulation System to Analyze and Promote Non-Nutritive Sucking of Premature Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Miguel Dias; Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a complete system that can be used to measure and to stimulate sucking abilities of premature babies. The system integrates measurement and stimulation capabilities that can be used separately or together. The sensing unit includes mainly a pressure sensor, a conditioning circuit and a microcontroller device. The stimulation unit includes a miniature and low-cost pneumatic pump, an electro-valve, and a conditioning circuit. The microcontroller is shared by both units. The system's software includes a routine that is used to define the waveform parameters of the synthesized pressure signals, a wavelet based routine that is used to process measurement data and a software component to perform fault detection and diagnosis. The system capabilities include self-calibration and self-testing. Throughout the paper several implementation details and experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  16. Demystifying Data: Data Use in State and Local Public Health Nutrition Programs--Measuring Achievement of the 1990 Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Objectives for the Nation. Proceedings of the Continuing Education Conference for the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors and Association of Faculties of Graduate Programs in Public Health Nutrition (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, May 21-24, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Mildred, Comp.

    This document contains the proceedings from the Conference of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors and Faculties of Graduate Programs in Public Health Nutrition designed to improve participants' proficiency in data management. It includes an introduction by Mildred Kaufman, a conference agenda, and the following presentations:…

  17. Measurement Error in Multilevel Models of School and Classroom Environments: Implications for Reliability, Precision, and Prediction. CRESST Report 828

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Measuring school and classroom environments has become central in a nation-wide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and teacher effectiveness. Formulating successful programs necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This paper uses a generalizability theory framework…

  18. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Skliar, Mikhail

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  19. The Construction and Validation of a New Scale for Measuring Features of Constructivist Learning Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at mapping features of constructivist activities in higher education settings, constructing and validating a new scale for measuring their presence in lecture face-to-face based environments (LBE), seminars (SM), and distance learning environments (DLE). A mix-method approach was implemented in three phases. The first phase…

  20. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Systems for In Situ Measurements in Hazardous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argrow, B.

    2005-12-01

    Sondes are typically deployed from manned aircraft or taken to altitude by a balloon before they are dropped. There are obvious safety and physical limitations that dictate where and how sondes are deployed. These limitations have severely constrained sonde deployment into highly dynamic and dangerous environments. Additionally, conventional parachute dropsondes provide no means for active control. The "smartsonde" idea is to integrate miniature sonde packages into micro air vehicles (MAVs). These MAVs will be ferried into the hard to reach and hazardous environments to provide in situ measurements in regions that have been heretofore out of reach. Once deployed, the MAV will provide some means of control of the sonde, to enable it to remain aloft and to provide some measure of directional control. Preliminary smartsonde communications experiments have been completed. These experiments focused on characterizing the capabilities of the 802.11.4 wireless protocol. Range measurements with 60-mW, 2.4-GHz radios showed 100% throughput rate over 2.7 km during air to ground tests. The experiments also demonstrated the integration of an in-house distributed computing system that provides the interface between the sensors, UAV flight computers, and the telemetry system. The University of Colorado's Research and Engineering Center for Unmanned Vehicles (RECUV) is developing an engineering system that integrates small mobile sensor attributes into flexible mobile sensor infrastructures to be deployed for in situ sensing in hazardous environments. There are three focus applications: 1) Wildfire, to address sensing, communications, situational awareness, and safety needs to support fire-fighting operations and to increase capabilities for dynamic data acquisition for modeling and prediction; 2) Polar, where heterogeneous mixes of platforms and sensors will provide in-situ data acquisition from beneath the ocean surface into the troposphere; 3) Storm, to address the challenges

  1. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  2. Measuring microbial metabolism in atypical environments: Bentonite in used nuclear fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Moes, Ana; McKelvie, Jennifer; Korber, Darren R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2016-01-01

    Genomics enjoys overwhelming popularity in the study of microbial ecology. However, extreme or atypical environments often limit the use of such well-established tools and consequently demand a novel approach. The bentonite clay matrix proposed for use in Deep Geological Repositories for the long-term storage of used nuclear fuel is one such challenging microbial habitat. Simple, accessible tools were developed for the study of microbial ecology and metabolic processes that occur within this habitat, since the understanding of the microbiota-niche interaction is fundamental to describing microbial impacts on engineered systems such as compacted bentonite barriers. Even when genomic tools are useful for the study of community composition, techniques to describe such microbial impacts and niche interactions should complement these. Tools optimised for assessing localised microbial activity within bentonite included: (a) the qualitative use of the resazurin-resorufin indicator system for redox localisation, (b) the use of a CaCl2 buffer for the localisation of pH, and (c) fluorometry for the localisation of precipitated sulphide. The use of the Carbon Dioxide Evolution Monitoring System was also validated for measuring microbial activity in desiccated and saturated bentonite. Finally, the buffering of highly-basic bentonite at neutral pH improved the success of isolation of microbial populations, but not DNA, from the bentonite matrix. Thus, accessible techniques were optimised for exploring microbial metabolism in the atypical environments of clay matrices and desiccated conditions. These tools have application to the applied field of used nuclear fuel management, as well as for examining the fundamental biogeochemical cycles active in sedimentary and deep geological environments. PMID:26578245

  3. Psychometric analysis of the ambulatory care learning education environment measure (ACLEEM) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naghizadeh Moogari, Zahra; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Roff, Susanne; Montazeri, Ali; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Moosavi, Maryam; Azaminejad, Faranak; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining educational environment (academic and clinical) by means of a valid, reliable and comprehensive questionnaire is a major key in achieving a highly qualified student – oriented curricula. The Persian translation of Ambulatory Care Learning Education Environment Measure-ACLEEM questionnaire has been developed to support this goal, and its psychometrics has been explored in this administration in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive – analytical study involved medical residents in four major clinics. In this study, the ACLEEM Questionnaire was conducted after translating and retranslating the questionnaire and examine the face and content validity, construct validity, test retest reliability and internal consistency coefficient. Results: In this study, 157 out of 192 residents completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%). The mean age of the residents was 31.81 years .The final mean of the questionnaire was calculated as 110.91 out of 200 (with 95% confidence interval). Test – retest stability of the questionnaire was between 0.322 and 0.968. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed. The content validity ratio was 0.64; and content validity Index was 0.78. In Exploratory factor analysis, eight factors were confirmatory that changed the orientation of some questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire was 0.936. Conclusion: According to the data, the Persian version of the ACLEEM questionnaire has sufficient psychometric reliability and validity to be used for conducting research, teaching and practicing the educational learning environment in ambulatory care in Iran. PMID:26913262

  4. In situ Measurements of Absorbing Aerosols from Urban Sources, in Maritime Environments and during Biomass Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Manvendra, D.; Chylek, P.; Arnott, P.

    2006-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols have important but still ill quantified effects on climate, visibility, cloud processes, and air quality. The compilation of aerosol scattering and absorption databases from reliable measurements is essential to reduce uncertainties in these inter-linked research areas. The atmospheric radiative balance for example, is modeled using the aerosol single scattering albedo (ratio of scattering to scattering plus absorption, SSA) as a fundamental input parameter in climate models. Sulfate aerosols with SSA values close to 1 scatter solar radiation resulting in a negative radiative forcing. However aerosol SSA values less than 1 are common when combustion processes are contributing to the aerosol sources. Absorbing aerosols directly heat the atmosphere and reduce the solar radiation at the surface. Currently, the net global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing is estimated to be around -0.5W m-2 with uncertainty of about 80% largely due to lack of understanding of SSA of sulfate-organic-soot aerosols. We present a rapidly expanding data set of direct in situ aerosol absorption and scattering measurements performed since June 2005 by photoacoustic instrument (at 781 and 870 nm), with integrated a total scattering sensor, during numerous field campaigns. Data have been collected over a wide range of aerosol sources, local environments and anthropogenic activities. Airborne measurements were performed in marine stratus off shore of the California coast and in cumulus clouds and clear air in the Houston, TX area; ground-based measurements have been performed in many locations in Mexico City; while laboratory measurements have been collected during a controlled combustion experiment of many different biomass fuels. The large dynamic range of aerosol types and conditions from these different field campaigns will be integrated to help quantify the SSA values, their variability, and their implications on the radiative forcing of climate.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-Level Measuring Accuracy in a Low Pressure Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Dip Tubes which are used for determining liquid level in many processes at SRS will be used to measure the liquid level of the Am/Cm solution in the Feed Tank at the MPPF. The Feed Tank operates under a vacuum, therefore the Dip Tubes will operate under a vacuum. Uncertainty in how accurate the Dip Tubes would perform in a vacuum environment led to testing. The Am/Cm Melter Liquid-Feed Tank measurement test was mocked-up per Figure 1. The Feed Tank was designed to simulate actual conditions in which the Dip Tubes would measure the differential pressure. The Feed Tank was made of Stainless Steel with a Lexan window to view inside the tank during testing. The Feed Tank was built per Drawing SRT-ETF-DD-96008, Revision A. The accuracy of the Dip Tubes was checked first by filling the Feed Tank at a flow rate of 3.5 L/min and venting it to the atmosphere. Figure 2 shows that the Dip Tubes were responsive and accurate when compared to the data from the measuring scale on the view window. Then tests were conducted with 23y Hg vacuum inside the tank and water flow rates of 3.9 L/min, 1.8 L/min, and 0.7 L/min being fed to the tank. The data from each test are depicted in Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5, respectively. The Dip Tubes responded accurately for the three test with a maximum error range of +0.31y to -0.19y when compared to the measuring scale located next to the view window on the Feed Tank.

  6. Measurement and Modeling of Hydrogen Environment-Assisted Cracking in Monel K-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Ha, Hung M.; Burns, James T.; Scully, John R.

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen environment-assisted cracking (HEAC) of Monel K-500 is quantified using slow-rising stress intensity loading with electrical potential monitoring of small crack propagation and elastoplastic J-integral analysis. For this loading, with concurrent crack tip plastic strain and H accumulation, aged Monel K-500 is susceptible to intergranular HEAC in NaCl solution when cathodically polarized at -800 mVSCE ( E A, vs saturated calomel) and lower. Intergranular cracking is eliminated by reduced cathodic polarization more positive than -750 mVSCE. Crack tip diffusible H concentration rises, from near 0 wppm at E A of -765 mVSCE, with increasing cathodic polarization. This behavior is quantified by thermal desorption spectroscopy and barnacle cell measurements of hydrogen solubility vs overpotential for planar electrodes, plus measured-local crevice potential, and pH scaled to the crack tip. Using crack tip H concentration, excellent agreement is demonstrated between measurements and decohesion-based model predictions of the E A dependencies of threshold stress intensity and Stage II growth rate. A critical level of cathodic polarization must be exceeded for HEAC to occur in aged Monel K-500. The damaging-cathodic potential regime likely shifts more negative for quasi-static loading or increasing metallurgical resistance to HEAC.

  7. HOx Radical Chemistry in an Indiana Forest Environment: Measurement and Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Sigler, P. S. R.; Stevens, P. S.; Sklaveniti, S.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Dusanter, S.; Kundu, S.; Deming, B.; Wood, E. C. D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactions of the hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2) play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition to controlling the lifetimes of many trace gases important to issues of global climate change, OH radical reactions initiate the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can lead to the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Previous measurements of these radicals in forest environments characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx have shown serious discrepancies with modeled concentrations. These results bring into question our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene and other biogenic VOCs under low NOx conditions. In the summer of 2015, HOx radicals were measured using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique as part of the Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison (IRRONIC). This campaign took place in a forested area at the Indiana Research and Teaching Preserve (IURTP) near the Bloomington campus characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx. Supporting measurements of photolysis rates, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and other species were used to constrain a zero-dimensional box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) and the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM).

  8. A 100g Mass Comparator with an Improved Readability and Measuring Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Masaaki; Sun, Jian-Xin; Ueda, Kazunaga

    In order to achieve higher accuracy of the mass standard in the mass range equal to or less than 100g, it is necessary for a mass comparator in the range to have a relative sensitivity of the order of 1×10-9. For this purpose, a 111g capacity fully-automatic mass comparator has been renovated so that its readability is improved from 1 to 0.1µg. The mass comparator is also installed in an air-tight chamber originally developed by the NMIJ, so that it can be kept in stable environment, especially in the air of constant density. With these renovations, standard deviation of the mass comparisons is reduced and uncertainty of the air buoyancy corrections is lessened. This paper reports the features of the improved 100g mass comparator, the empirical method to evaluate its performance and the obtained results. As a result, the standard deviations of the mass difference measurements have been greatly improved to 0.22µg in the average with the chamber closed, compared with 0.97µg with the one open. The linearity of the comparator has been also verified by the mass difference measurements of weights at the six masses of 10, 20, 30, 50, 70 and 100g, and it confirms that the non-linearity errors of the comparator are within 0.28µg, showing good measuring performance.

  9. Small intestinal growth measures are correlated with feed efficiency in market weight cattle, despite minimal effects of maternal nutrition during early to midgestation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Hess, B W; Paisley, S I; Du, M; Caton, J S

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that gestational nutrition would affect calf feed efficiency and small intestinal biology, which would be correlated with feed efficiency. Multiparous beef cows (n = 36) were individually fed 1 of 3 diets from d 45 to 185 of gestation: native grass hay and supplement to meet NRC recommendations (control [CON]), 70% of CON NEm (nutrient restricted [NR]), or a NR diet with a RUP supplement (NR+RUP) to provide similar essential AA as CON. After d 185 of gestation, cows were managed as a single group, and calf individual feed intake was measured with the GrowSafe System during finishing. At slaughter, the small intestine was dissected and sampled. Data were analyzed with calf sex as a block. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.33) of maternal treatment on residual feed intake, G:F, DMI, ADG, or final BW. Small intestinal mass did not differ (P ≥ 0.38) among treatments, although calf small intestinal length tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for NR than NR+RUP. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.20) in calf small intestinal density or jejunal cellularity, proliferation, or vascularity among treatments. Jejunal soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA was greater (P < 0.03) for NR+RUP than CON and NR. Residual feed intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass and relative mass and jejunal RNA content but was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density and DNA concentration. Gain:feed was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density, DNA, protein, and total cells and was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with small intestinal relative mass, jejunal RNA, and RNA:DNA. Dry matter intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass, relative mass, length, and density as well as jejunal DNA and protein content, total cells, total vascularity, and kinase insert domain receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 mRNA and was negatively correlated (P = 0.02) with relative small intestinal

  10. Measuring motivation and volition of nursing students in nontraditional learning environments.

    PubMed

    Nagelsmith, Laurie; Bryer, Jason; Yan, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the best fitting model to represent interrelationships between motivation, volition, and academic success for adult nursing students learning in nontraditional environments. Participants (N=297) completed a survey that incorporated two measures: the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the academic volitional strategies inventory (AVSI) as well as demographic information. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. In phase 1, EFA resulted in factors that generally aligned with previous theoretical factors as defined by the psychometrics used. In Phase 2 of the analysis, CFA validated the use of predefined factor structures. In Phase 3, SEM analysis revealed that motivation has a larger effect on grade point average (GPA; beta = .28, p < .01) than volition (beta = .15, p < .05). The covariance between motivation and volition (r = .42, p < .01) was also found to be significant. These results suggest that there is a significant relationship among motivation, volition, and academic success for adult learners studying in nontraditional learning environments. These findings are consistent with and elaborate the relationship between motivation and volition with a population and setting underrepresented in the research. PMID:22988781

  11. Fitting Procedures for Novel Gene-by-Measured Environment Interaction Models in Behavior Genetic Designs

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    For quantitative behavior genetic (e.g., twin) studies, Purcell proposed a novel model for testing gene-by-measured environment (GxM) interactions while accounting for gene-by-environment correlation. Rathouz et al. expanded this model into a broader class of non-linear biometric models for quantifying and testing such interactions. In this work, we propose a novel factorization of the likelihood for this class of models, and adopt numerical integration techniques to achieve model estimation, especially for those without close-form likelihood. The validity of our procedures is established through numerical simulation studies. The new procedures are illustrated in a twin study analysis of the moderating effect of birth weight on the genetic influences on childhood anxiety. A second example is given in an online appendix. Both the exant GxM models and the new non-linear models critically assume normality of all structural components, which implies continuous, but not normal, manifest response variables. PMID:25732055

  12. Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2010-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

  13. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  14. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  15. Investigating factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' preparedness for managed care environments.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael N; Houston-Vega, Mary Kay; Tan, Philip P; Hawkins, Wesley E

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' perceptions of preparedness to enter managed care environments. Exploratory statistical procedures to reduce data through principle component analysis identified nine factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. These factors include: perceived understanding of agency financial agendas, managing personal risk and liability, perceived understanding of agency documentation requirements, awareness of ethical and value conflicts in documentation, classroom preparation for documentation, understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care agendas, worrying about law suits in employment settings, perceived understanding of managed care gatekeeping and service authorization, and perceptions of field preparation for documentation. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in training students for managed care settings. PMID:12425449

  16. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2014-12-09

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O{sup +}) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  17. High speed railway environment safety evaluation based on measurement attribute recognition model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Gao, Ningbo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  18. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O+) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  19. Light Emitting Diodes and Astronomical Environments: Results from in situ Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    2015-05-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) light fixtures are rapidly becoming industry standards for outdoor lighting. They are promoted on the strength of long lifetimes (hence economic efficiencies), low power requirements, directability, active brightness controls, and energy efficiency. They also tend to produce spectral shifts that are undesirable in astronomical settings, but which can be moderated by filters. LED lighting for continuous roadway and parking lot lighting is particularly popular, and many communities are in the process of retrofitting Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) and other lights by tens of thousands of new LED fixtures at a time. What is the impact of this process on astronomical observatories and on dark skies upon which amateur astronomers rely? We bypass modeling and predictions to make actual measurements of these lights in the field. We report on original ground, airborne, and satellite observations of LED lights and discuss their light budgets, zenith angle functions, and impacts on observatory environs.

  20. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.

    2012-04-01

    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  1. X-ray based displacement and strain measurements for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.

    1993-01-01

    A completely new method of non-contacting, hostile environment displacement and strain measurement based on the focus and scanning of x-rays, has been developed and demonstrated. The new technique has the ability to overcome many of the limitations associated with available methods. The system is based on the focus and scanning of low energy, hard x-rays such as those emanating from table top copper or molybdenum sources. The x-rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be swept onto targets that fluoresce secondary x-ray radiation. By monitoring the secondary radiation intensity and comparing it with the focused x-ray image's position as it is swept over the target edge, the position of the target edge relative to the focused image can be determined. The present system has a resolution of 0.5 micron, which has been shown to be limited by bearing backlash (or 'yaw' error) in the linear translation table. Its use has been demonstrated in the presence of an open flame with a resultant target temperature in excess of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit (1000 degrees Celsius). Strain measurements have been conducted in a laboratory environment at both room temperature and at a specimen temperature of 1300 degrees Fahrenheit, with an accuracy of within 20 microstrain (primarily a function of the 0.5 micron resolution limit). The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating, non-refractive nature of x-rays, which are virtually immune to the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame or intense thermal radiation.

  2. Time-resolved measurements of aerosol elemental concentrations in indoor working environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitnik, M.; Kastelic, A.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Vaupetič, P.; Bučar, K.; Novak, S.; Samardžija, Z.; Matsuyama, S.; Catella, G.; Ishii, K.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations in aerosols with a 2-h time resolution in two different types of working environment: a chemistry laboratory dealing with the processing of advanced nanoparticulate materials and a medium-sized machine workshop. Non-stop 10-day and 12-day samplings were performed at each location in order to determine the concentration trends during the non-working/working and weekday/weekend periods. Supplementary measurements of PM10 aerosols with a 2-day sample collection time were performed with a standard Gent PM10 sampler to compare the elemental concentrations with the time-averaged concentrations detected by the 2D step-sampler. The concentrations were determined a posteriori by analyzing the x-ray spectra of aerosol samples emitted after 3-MeV proton bombardment. The PM10 samples collected in the chemistry laboratory were additionally inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the chemical compositions of the individual particles. In the workshop, a total PM10 mass sampling was performed simultaneously with a minute resolution to compare the signal with typical outdoor PM10 concentration levels. A factor analysis of the time-resolved dataset points to six and eight factors in the chemistry laboratory and the machine workshop, respectively. These factors describe most of the data variance, and their composition in terms of different elements can be related to specific indoor activities and conditions. We were able to demonstrate that the elemental concentration sampling with hourly resolution is an excellent tool for studying the indoor air pollution. While sampling the total PM10 mass concentration with a minute resolution may lack the potential to identify the emission sources in a "noisy" environment, the time averaging on a day time scale is too coarse to cope with the working dynamics, even if elemental sensitivity is an option.

  3. Cysteine protease SpeB expression in group A streptococci is influenced by the nutritional environment but SpeB does not contribute to obtaining essential nutrients.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Woischnik, M; Kreikemeyer, B; Bettenbrock, K; Buttaro, B A

    1999-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) cysteine protease is a major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of purulent and invasive infections. The secreted enzyme cleaves a number of different bacterial and host proteins which could contribute to different stages of the infective processes. It has been proposed that, among these functions, SpeB plays a role in obtaining nutrients during late growth phases. In the present study, speB mutants of various GAS serotypes were found to exhibit unaltered growth characteristics in several complex and chemically defined media (CDM). When amino acid-depleted CDM was prepared, neither SpeB activity on whole proteins added to the medium during incubation nor the addition of SpeB-digested proteins was able to support bacterial growth. SpeB also was unable to liberate iron from iron-containing protein sources added to iron-deficient CDM. However, SpeB levels in culture supernatants changed in response to the protein and glucose content of the media. Using a speB promoter-luciferase reporter, speB expression levels were found to correspond to peptide concentrations in the culture media. The effect appeared to be specific for peptides since addition of peptides derived from various proteins had an affect on expression, while addition of the whole proteins had no effect. Addition of glucose to CDM had no effect on speB expression, while glucose addition to complex medium decreased speB expression. Overall, SpeB did not appear to be directly involved in providing the bacteria with nutritional factors but expression of the speB gene responded to ratios of peptides and carbohydrates in the culture medium. PMID:10753062

  4. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing

    2016-06-01

    divided by 3 is MOR. The aerosol concentration in chamber can be changed by adjusting aerosol generator that producing variety of visibility atmospherical environment. The experiment has been carried out and the measurement accuracy of atmospheric transmittance is 0.3‰ Corresponding to the accuracy of MOR 4.9% at the 2km visibility environment. So this system can be calibrated and validated the other visibility measuring devices.

  5. Measurement of Effective Canopy Temperature: The Missing Link to Modeling Transpiration in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O. A.; McCormack, Ann; Bugbee, Bruce; Jones, Harry W., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives were to apply energy balance principles to plant canopies, and to determine which parameters are essential for predicting plant canopy transpiration (E) in controlled environments. Transpiration was accurately measured in a gas-exchange system. Absorbed radiation (R(sub abs)) by the canopy was measured with a net radiometer and calculated from short and long-wave radiation components. Average canopy foliar temperature T(sub L) can be measured with an infrared radiometer, but since T(sub L) is seldom uniform, a weighed average measurement of T(sub L) must be made. The effective canopy temperature T(sub C) is that temperature that balances the energy flux between absorbed radiation and latent heat L(sub E) and sensible heat (H) fluxes. TC should exactly equal air temperature T(sub A) when L(sub E) equals R(sub abs). When unnecessary thermal radiation from the lighting system is removed by a water filter, the magnitude of L(sub E) from transpiration approaches Rabs and T(sub C) is close to T(sub A). Unlike field models, we included the energy used in photosynthesis and found that up to 10% of Rabs was used in photosynthesis. We calculated aerodynamic conductance for H from measurements of wind speed and canopy height using the wind profile equation. Canopy aerodynamic conductance ranged from.03 to.04 m/s for wind speeds from.6 to 1 m/s; thus a 0.1 C canopy to air temperature difference results in a sensible heat flux of about 4 W/sq m, which is only 1% of R(sub abs). We examined the ability of wide angle infrared transducers to accurately integrate T(sub L) from the top to the bottom of the canopy. We measured evaporation from the hydroponic media to be approximately 1 micro mol/sq m s or 10% of R(sub abs). This result indicates that separating evaporation from transpiration is more important than exact measurement of canopy temperature.

  6. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  7. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  8. Work function measurements of olivine: Implication to photoemission charging properties in planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hong; Li, Xiongyao; Wei, Guangfei; Wang, Shijie

    2015-12-01

    For understanding the ubiquitous photoemission charging of solid surface in planetary environments, it is important to characterize the photoemission charging properties of silicate minerals such as the work function. In this study, we measured the work function of olivine mineral based on the measurements of contact potential difference by using an ultrahigh vacuum Kelvin probe force microscopy. Our results showed that work function on olivine mineral surface is mainly affected by surface morphology and crystal orientation and that the variation range of work function is 7.3-8.5 eV. It implicates that photoemission of the olivine mineral occurs under the X-ray and solar ultraviolet irradiation with wavelength of <171 nm. Consequently, it is possible to form electrostatic field of +(5-10) V on the sunlit planet, moon or asteroid surfaces due to dust photoemission charging, which even induces the migration of dust grains and the formation of dust-plasma atmosphere. Those are important problems worried to be solved for future lunar missions. Additionally, our work can help to instruct the dust mitigation technology and the electrostatic beneficiation in future space missions.

  9. Magnetoresistive sensors for angle, position, and electrical current measurement in demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doms, Marco; Slatter, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, magnetoresistive (MR) sensors are used in a wide range of applications. In general, the MR-effect describes the change of the electrical resistance in an external magnetic field. MR sensors are not only used for measuring magnetic fields and rotational or linear motion, but also for non-contact switching applications and furthermore for highly dynamic current measurement. This is largely the result of increasingly complex demands on the sensors for e.g. high performance electrical drives. The sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be robust under difficult operating conditions and exhibit very high reliability. Due to their physical working principle and their small size, MR sensors are especially suited to work in harsh environments like high or low temperature, radiation, pressure or mechanical shock. This paper describes the principle of operation, manufacturing process and benefits of MR sensors. This will be followed by a description of practical application examples from the automotive, oil and gas, renewable energy and space fields, where MR sensors are successfully applied in very small envelopes at very low /very high temperatures, under high pressure, high mechanical loading and under strong radiation.

  10. Measurement of dissolved organic matter fluorescense in aquatic environments: An interlaboratory comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Kathleen R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Boehme, Jennifer R.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are often studied in order to infer DOM characteristics in aquatic environments, including source, quantity, composition, and behavior. While a potentially powerful technique, a single widely implemented standard method for correcting and presenting fluorescence measurements is lacking, leading to difficulties when comparing data collected by different research groups. This paper reports on a large-scale interlaboratory comparison in which natural samples and well-characterized fluorophores were analyzed in 20 laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Australia. Shortcomings were evident in several areas, including data quality-assurance, the accuracy of spectral correction factors used to correct EEMs, and the treatment of optically dense samples. Data corrected by participants according to individual laboratory procedures were more variable than when corrected under a standard protocol. Wavelength dependency in measurement precision and accuracy were observed within and between instruments, even in corrected data. In an effort to reduce future occurrences of similar problems, algorithms for correcting and calibrating EEMs are described in detail, and MATLAB scripts for implementing the study's protocol are provided. Combined with the recent expansion of spectral fluorescence standards, this approach will serve to increase the intercomparability of DOM fluorescence studies.

  11. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores.

    PubMed

    Farley, Thomas A; Rice, Janet; Bodor, J Nicholas; Cohen, Deborah A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Rose, Donald

    2009-09-01

    Dietary patterns may be influenced by the availability and accessibility within stores of different types of foods. However, little is known about the amount of shelf space used for healthy and unhealthy foods in different types of stores. We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores in 217 urban census tracts in southern Louisiana and in Los Angeles County. Although supermarkets offered far more shelf space of fruits and vegetables than did other types of stores, they also devoted more shelf space to unhealthy snacks (mean 205 m for all of these items combined) than to fruits and vegetables (mean 117 m, p < 0.001). After supermarkets, drug stores devoted the most shelf space to unhealthy items. The ratio of the total shelf space for fruits and vegetables to the total shelf space for these unhealthy snack items was the lowest (0.10 or below) and very similar in convenience stores, drug stores, and liquor stores, was in a middle range (0.18 to 0.30) in small food stores, and was highest in medium-sized food stores (0.40 to 0.61) and supermarkets (0.55 to 0.72). Simple measurements of shelf space can be used by researchers to characterize the healthfulness of the food environment and by policymakers to establish criteria for favorable policy treatment of stores. PMID:19603271

  12. Effectiveness of incentives for agri-environment measure in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galati, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano; Crescimanno, Maria; Barone, Ettore; Novara, Agata

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the economic damage caused by soil erosion assumes great importance. It serves to increase awareness of the problem among farmers and policy makers. Moreover, it can promote the implementation of conservative measures at the field and basin level by spurring the development of more sustainable soil management practices. In the present study we have developed a new approach to evaluate the incentive for the adoption of Agri-Environment Measure (AEM) in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards. In order to estimate this incentive, the replacement cost and the loss of income are calculated under two different soil management such as Conventional Tillage (CT) and Cover crop (AEM). Our findings show that the incentive could range between the loss of income due to AEM adoption and ecosystem service benefit (RCCT - RC AEM). In the case of study the incentive ranged between 315 € ha-1 (loss of income) and 1,087.86 € ha-1 (Ecosystem service benefit). Within this range, the incentive amount is determined according to efficiency criteria taking into account the morphological conditions of the territory in which operate the farms. Moreover, a conceptual model on the public spending efficiency has been developed to allocate the incentives where the economic return in term of ecosystem service is higher.

  13. X-ray beam method for displacement measurement in hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, D. M.; Canistraro, H.; Brew, Dale

    1989-01-01

    A new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was devised, and the results of current testing reveal it to be highly feasible. This technique has been shown to provide a non-contacting system that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments, that plague currently available optical methods. This advantage is a result of the non-refracting penetrating nature of X-rays. The method is based on X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence of targets, which subsequently serve as fudicial markers. Some target materials have melting points over 1600 degrees C which will facilitate measurement at extremely high temperatures. A highly focused intense X-ray beam, which is produced using a Johansen 'bent crystal', is then scanned across the target, which responds by fluorescing X-rays when stimulated by the incident beam. This secondary radiation is monitored using a detector. By carefully measuring beam orientation, change in target edge position can be determined. Many variations on this basic theme are now possible such as two targets demarcating a gage length, or a beam shadowing method using opaque targets.

  14. Use of Smoothed Measured Winds to Predict and Assess Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Henry S.; Leahy, Frank; Adelfang, Stanley; Roberts, Barry; Starr, Brett; Duffin, Paul; Pueri, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Since many of the larger launch vehicles are operated near their design limits during the ascent phase of flight to optimize payload to orbit, it often becomes necessary to verify that the vehicle will remain within certification limits during the ascent phase as part of the go/no-go review made prior to launch. This paper describes the approach used to predict Ares I-X launch vehicle structural air loads and controllability prior to launch which represents a distinct departure from the methodology of the Space Shuttle and Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) programs. Protection for uncertainty of key environment and trajectory parameters is added to the nominal assessment of launch capability to ensure that critical launch trajectory variables would be within the integrated vehicle certification envelopes. This process was applied by the launch team as a key element of the launch day go/no-go recommendation. Pre-launch assessments of vehicle launch capability for NASA's Space Shuttle and the EELV heavy lift versions require the use of a high-resolution wind profile measurements, which have relatively small sample size compared with low-resolution profile databases (which include low-resolution balloons and radar wind profilers). The approach described in this paper has the potential to allow the pre-launch assessment team to use larger samples of wind measurements from low-resolution wind profile databases that will improve the accuracy of pre-launch assessments of launch availability with no degradation of mission assurance or launch safety.

  15. The use of autonomous unmanned vehicles for measuring the mean flow field in riverine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuggle, C.; Macmahan, J. H.; Brown, J.; Reniers, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous unmanned vehicles (AUVs) are commonly used in oceanic, estuarine and, more recently, riverine environments because they are small, versatile, moving platforms equipped with a suite of instruments for measuring environmental conditions. However, moving vessel observations, particularly those associated acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations, can be problematic owing to instrument noise, flow fluctuations, and spatial variability. As part of a riverine field experiment conducted in the Kootenai River, ID in August 2010, a spatial map of the mean horizontal and vertical velocity fields in a 200m wide, 8 m deep, and 0.5m/s meandering reach was obtained using two different AUV platforms: SeaRobotics unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and YSI/OceanServer Technology IVER-II unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The USV has dual-propellers navigating with GPS and was able to station-keep to within 1 m for 10 minutes at various locations within the reach in order to obtain the 3-D velocity field. Obtaining a statistically confident estimate of the mean velocity profile requires an appropriate time-interval to average instrument noise and environmental fluctuations. It has been previously proposed that 10 minutes is an adequate time interval when using an ADCP in a river. Preliminary results show that a shorter time interval is adequate, which would allow for increased spatial coverage. The UUV has a station-keeping capability when at the surface, but owing to its single propeller, it operates best by performing slow (0.2-0.35m/s) moving transects. Since the UUV is moving in a system that is spatially non-homogenous, additional errors in the mean velocity profile can be introduced due to spatial variability. An evaluation of the velocity profile quality, current measuring performance and minimum averaging time interval requirements are discussed for each platform, including the appropriate mission planning considerations for riverine observations. In

  16. Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes in Athletes With Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rastmanesh, Reza; Taleban, Furugh Azam; Kimiagar, Masood; Mehrabi, Yadolah; Salehi, Moosa

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about sport nutritional problems and requirements of athletes with physical disabilities. Objective: To compare the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of Iranian athletes with physical disabilities (APDs) after nutrition education. Because proper nutrition is important for both performance and injury healing, learning about the nutritional areas in which APDs are deficient may assist professionals in educating them. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting: Sport camp. Patients or Other Participants: Seventy-two APDs (42 APDs in the intervention group and 30 age-matched and sex-matched control APDs) and 10 coaches completed the study. Intervention(s): The APDs in the intervention group and their coaches were given nutrition education, which included a booklet with a simplified food guide pyramid, simple concepts about nutrition and weight loss, and four 3-hour courses. The APDs in the control group and their coaches were not given nutrition education. Main Outcome Measure(s): Subjects completed 2 nutritional questionnaires with both quantitative and qualitative components. Nutritional questionnaires were administered at 2 consecutive camps, 30 days apart, before and after nutrition education. Our questionnaires included a demographics section; 88 Likert scale and true-false questions; and 18 open-ended questions, 13 of which were specifically designed for APDs. Each APD completed two 3-day food records. Results: The APDs in the intervention group scored significantly higher after nutrition education and higher than the control group on the knowledge subscales and interest in nutrition. Although the nutrition knowledge score in this study was moderate, several specific areas of deficient nutritional knowledge were identified that are critical for the health of APDs. Our model of nutrition education was more effective than the usual instructions presented irregularly by coaches. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Iranian APDs lack

  17. Using MEMS sensor arrays to measure temperature at small spatial scales in hot spring environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiler, J.; Schliep, K.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In situ measurement of temperature across the transition zones between chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities, or between different photosynthetic microbial communities in hot springs, can be ambiguous using current robust bulk measurement techniques due to the small spatial scale at of the transitions. Outflow channels are often narrow and shallow as they transport water away from the source, creating additional constraints on the size of the instrument and measurement technique used. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is well-suited to take measurements of temperature within hot spring environments or other chemical parameters such as conductivity or pH. With recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques, devices can be fabricated to be chemically and thermally tolerant to the conditions present in the hot springs. The small size of the sensing elements (micron scale) provides the high spatial resolution necessary to interrogate the sharp transition zones between chemotrophic and photosynthetic communities. Owing to the small size of each sensor and the ability to batch-fabricate many sensors at once, an array of sensors can be made to measure a particular parameter simultaneously at short spatial intervals. Arrays of MEMS sensors were fabricated to measure temperature changes at intervals of ~1 cm. Our sensors consist of thermistors fabricated from a bi-layer of titanium and platinum. When heated, the electrical resistance of the thermistors will increase, and through calibration the resistance value is paired to a temperature value. The sensors and wires are covered with an inert biocompatible water-resistant polymer, Parylene-C, that protects them from chemical attack in the hot spring water. Using the arrays, a two-dimensional map of depth and distance was created at the Geothermal Explosion site in Tengchong, China, by placing the array vertically into a channel at spatial intervals of ~2 cm. Vertical measurements

  18. Combined Measurements of the Magnetic Field in the Plasma Environment of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Christoph; Richter, Ingo; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Tsurutani, Bruce; Volwerk, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 2004, the European spacecraft Rosetta was launched to a long journey to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Two magnetometers are among the different scientific instruments. One of them is mounted on the lander Philae and incorporated into the ROMAP package. The other one (RPC MAG) is part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) and located on a boom outside the orbiter. Both instruments are intended to study the plasma environment of the comet during the mission. As known from numerical simulations, this environment will change dramatically. In the early phase the activity of the comet will be low, and instead of a bow shock a Mach cone will be triggered. At this stage, Rosetta will arrive at the comet and the magnetometers will probably detect pick-up ion waves in the upstream region. In addition, the solar wind will penetrate the developing coma and reach the surface of the nucleus. Thus, our magnetometers will be able to study this situation for the first time ever. Furthermore, combined measurements of our magnetometers allow the characterisation of conductivity properties of the nucleus during the weak activity phase and a detection of a remanent magnetisation, possibly generated during formation of the comet. Later, the activity of the comet increases and the structures such as the cometary ionopause and the diamagnetic cavity will evolve. The two instruments will allow us to study these structures and their stabilities. We will present the design of the instruments and look forward to the next two years of unique magnetic field observations at the comet.

  19. A coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device for continuous measurement of formaldehyde in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison M; Jackson, Mark C; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2014-01-01

    Despite long-standing awareness of adverse health effects associated with chronic human exposure to formaldehyde, this hazardous air pollutant remains a challenge to measure in indoor environments. Traditional analytical techniques evaluate formaldehyde concentrations over several hours to several days in a single location in a residence, making it difficult to characterize daily temporal and spatial variation in human exposure to formaldehyde. There is a need for portable, easy-to-use devices that are specific and sensitive to gas-phase formaldehyde over short sampling periods so that dynamic processes governing formaldehyde fate, transport, and potential remediation in indoor environments may be studied more effectively. A recently developed device couples a chemical sensor element with spectrophotometric analysis for detection and quantification of part per billion (ppbv) gas-phase formaldehyde concentrations. This study established the ability of the coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device (CSSD) to report formaldehyde concentrations accurately and continuously on a 30-min sampling cycle at low ppbv concentrations previously untested for this device in a laboratory setting. Determination of the method detection limit (MDL), based on 40 samples each at test concentrations of 5 and 10 ppbv, was found to be 1.9 and 2.0 ppbv, respectively. Performance of the CSSD was compared with the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method for formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 5-50 ppbv, and a linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.983 was found between these two analytical techniques. The CSSD was also used to monitor indoor formaldehyde concentrations in two manufactured homes. During this time, formaldehyde concentrations varied from below detection limit to 65 ppbv and were above the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) of 16 ppbv, which is also the exposure limit

  20. A miniaturized optical package for wall shear stress measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-An; Mills, David; Chandrasekharan, Vijay; Sheplak, Mark

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of a time-resolved direct wall shear stress senor using an optical moiré transduction technique for harsh environments. The floating-element sensor is a lateral-position sensor that is micromachined to enable sufficient bandwidth and to minimize spatial aliasing. The optical transduction approach offers several advantages over electrical-based floating element techniques including immunity from electromagnetic interference and the ability to operate in a conductive fluid medium. Packaging for optical sensors presents significant challenges. The bulky nature and size of conventional free-space optics often limit their use to an optical test bench, making them unsuitable for harsh environments. The optical package developed in this research utilizes an array of optical fibers mapped over the moiré fringe. The fiber bundle approach results in a robust package that reduces the overall size of the optics, mitigates vibration between the sensor and optoelectronics and enables in situ measurement. The optical package for sampling the amplified moiré fringe is evaluated using bench top test setups. An optical test bench is constructed to simulate the movement of the moiré fringe on the floating element. High-resolution images of the optical fringe and optical fibers are combined in simulation to model the lateral displacement of the fringe. The performance of several fringe estimation algorithms are studied and evaluated. Based on the optical study, the optical package and post-processing algorithms are implemented on an actual device. Initial device characterization using this approach results in a device sensitivity of 12.4 nm/Pa.

  1. Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysinger, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

  2. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  3. Regulating environments to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally. PMID:15683074

  4. Show 'n' Tell Nutrition at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhner, Jeanne Incantalupo

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed a measure that would scrap the Child Nutrition Act's requirements and funding for more healthy lunches in schools. Unfortunately, foods of lower nutritional value are more available than healthier snacks in the nation's schools. The author argues that providing students with more fresh fruit and produce, whole grains…

  5. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?

    PubMed

    Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold

    2013-08-10

    , physical and mental health, and empowerment. Nutrition-sensitive programmes can help scale up nutrition-specific interventions and create a stimulating environment in which young children can grow and develop to their full potential. PMID:23746780

  6. MELIFT - A new device for accurate measurements in a snow rich environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, M.

    2012-04-01

    A deep snow pack, remote locations, no external power supply and very low temperatures are often the main ingredients when it comes to the deployment of meteorological stations in mountainous terrain. The accurate position of the sensor related to the snow surface is normally not known. A new device called METLIFT overcomes the problems. WMO recommends a height between 1.2 m and 2 m above ground level for the measurement of air temperature and humidity. The height above ground level is specified to take care of the possible strong vertical temperature and humidity gradients at the lowest layers in the atmosphere. Especially in snow rich and remote locations it may be hardly possible to follow this advice. Therefore most of the meteorological stations in mountainous terrain are situated at mountain tops where strong winds will blow off the snow or in valleys where a daily inspection of the sensors is possible. In other unpopulated mountainous areas, e.g. basins, plateaus, the distance of the sensor to the snow surface is not known or the sensor will be snow-covered. A new device was developed to guarantee the sensor height above surface within the WMO limits in harsh and remote environments. An ultrasonic snow height sensor measures the distance to the snow surface. If it exceeds certain limits due to snow accumulation or snow melt the lift adapts its height accordingly. The prototype of METLIFT has been installed in Lower Austria at an altitude of 1000m. The lift is 6 m high and can pull out for another 4 m. Sensor arms are mounted every meter to allow the connection of additional sensors or to measure a profile of a certain parameter of the lowest 5 m above surface. Sensors can be added easily since cable wiring is provided to each sensor arm. Horizontal winds are measured at 7 m height above surface. METLIFT is independent of external power supply. Three lead gel accumulators recharged by three solar panels provide the energy necessary for the sensors, the data

  7. Quantum Measurement of Two-Qubit System in Damping Noise Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-03-01

    It is known that the inevitable interaction of the entangled qubits with their environments may result in the degradation of quantum correlation. We study the decoherence of two remote qubits under general local single- and two-sided amplitude-damping channel (ADC). By using concurrence, quantum discord and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, we find that the relation between the residual quantum correlations and the initial ones are different. Recently, Wang et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54 (2015) 5] showed that there exist a set of partially entangled states that are more robust than maximally entangled states in terms of the residual quantum correlation measured by concurrence, fully entangled fraction and quantum discord, respectively. Here we find that both in single- and two-sided ADC, only the evolution of CHSH inequality with the initial parameter is proportional to that of the initial nonlocality. That means the initial state with maximally nonlocality will retain its role in the evolution. It implies that the evolution of nonlocality may reveal the characteristics of quantum state better. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutions of the three different quantum measurements with the initial parameter under generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) and find that they are all proportional to that of the initial state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204002, 11274010, 61073048, 11005029, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123401120003, 20113401110002), the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Nos. 211080, 210092), the Key Program of the Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No. KJ2012A020, the “211” Project of Anhui University, the Talent Foundation of Anhui University, the personnel department of Anhui province

  8. Quantum Measurement of Two-Qubit System in Damping Noise Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Yang; Hui, Liu; Xiu-Lan, Zhen; Ming, Yang; Zhuo-Liang, Cao

    2016-03-01

    It is known that the inevitable interaction of the entangled qubits with their environments may result in the degradation of quantum correlation. We study the decoherence of two remote qubits under general local single- and two-sided amplitude-damping channel (ADC). By using concurrence, quantum discord and Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality, we find that the relation between the residual quantum correlations and the initial ones are different. Recently, Wang et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54 (2015) 5] showed that there exist a set of partially entangled states that are more robust than maximally entangled states in terms of the residual quantum correlation measured by concurrence, fully entangled fraction and quantum discord, respectively. Here we find that both in single- and two-sided ADC, only the evolution of CHSH inequality with the initial parameter is proportional to that of the initial nonlocality. That means the initial state with maximally nonlocality will retain its role in the evolution. It implies that the evolution of nonlocality may reveal the characteristics of quantum state better. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutions of the three different quantum measurements with the initial parameter under generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) and find that they are all proportional to that of the initial state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204002, 11274010, 61073048, 11005029, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123401120003, 20113401110002), the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Nos. 211080, 210092), the Key Program of the Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No. KJ2012A020, the “211” Project of Anhui University, the Talent Foundation of Anhui University, the personnel department of Anhui province

  9. Measurements of ultrafine particles carrying different number of charges in on- and near-freeway environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eon S.; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of electrical charges on ultrafine particles (UFPs) of different electrical mobility diameters (30, 50, 80, and 100 nm) in on- and near-freeway environments. Using a tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) system, we first examined the fraction of UFPs carrying different number of charges on two distinctive freeways: a gasoline-vehicle dominated freeway (I-405) and a heavy-duty diesel truck dominated freeway (I-710). The fractions of UFPs of a given size carrying one or more charges were significantly higher on the freeways than in the background. The background UFPs only carried up to two charges but freeway UFPs could have up to three charges. The total fraction of charged particles was higher on the I-710 than I-405 across the studied electrical mobility diameters. Near the I-405 freeway, we observed a strong decay of charged particles on the downwind side of the freeway. We also found fractional decay of the charged particles was faster than total particle number concentrations, but slower than total ion concentrations downwind from the freeway I-405. Among charged particles, the highest decay rate was observed for particles carrying three charges. Near the I-710 freeway, we found strong net positive charges on nucleation mode particles, suggesting that UFPs were not at steady-state charge equilibrium near freeways.

  10. PV Ramping in a Distributed Generation Environment: A Study Using Solar Measurements; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-06-01

    Variability in Photovoltaic (PV) generation resulting from variability in the solar radiation over the PV arrays is a topic of continuing concern for those involved with integrating renewables onto existing electrical grids. The island of Lanai, Hawaii is an extreme example of the challenges that integrators will face due to the fact that it is a small standalone grid. One way to study this problem is to take high-resolution solar measurements in multiple locations and model simultaneous PV production for various sizes at those locations. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected high-resolution solar data at four locations on the island where proposed PV plants will be deployed in the near future. This data set provides unique insight into how the solar radiation may vary between points that are proximal in distance, but diverse in weather, due to the formation of orographic clouds in the center of the island. Using information about each proposed PV plant size, power output was created at high resolution. The team analyzed this output to understand power production ramps at individual locations and the effects of aggregating the production from all four locations. Hawaii is a unique environment, with extremely variable events occurring on a daily basis. This study provided an excellent opportunity for understanding potential worst-case scenarios for PV ramping. This paper provides an introduction to the datasets that NREL collected over a year and a comprehensive analysis of PV variability in a distributed generation scenario.

  11. Interferometric Tomographic Measurement of an Instataneous Flow Field Under Adverse Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, En-Xi; Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Burner, Alpheus W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a three-dimensional refractive-index field from multi-directional projection data, has been conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four-bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques. Keywords: interferometry, tomography, phase stepping

  12. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  13. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  14. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  15. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  16. Characterization and measurement of qubit-environment-entanglement generation during pure dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, Katarzyna; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    We consider the coupling of a qubit in a pure state to an environment in an arbitrary state and characterize the possibility of qubit-environment-entanglement generation during the evolution of the joint system, that leads to pure dephasing of the qubit. We give a simple necessary and sufficient condition on the initial density matrix of the environment together with the properties of the interaction for the appearance of qubit-environment entanglement. Any entanglement created turns out to be detectable by the Peres-Horodecki criterion. Furthermore, we show that for a large family of initial environmental states, the appearance of nonzero entanglement with the environment is necessarily accompanied by a change in the state of the environment (i.e., by the backaction of the qubit).

  17. Measurements of Ground Acoustic Environments for Small Solid Rocket Motor Firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Plotkin, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Mobile launcher deck and tower are exposed to severe acoustic environments during launch. These environments, if not properly managed, can weaken ground support equipment and result in structure failure. The objectives of this study were: (1) Characterize the acoustic ground environment with and without water suppression systems. (2) Validate the ground acoustic prediction based on scaling of Saturn V data. and (3) Validate a semi-empirical acoustic analysis.

  18. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic

  19. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered. PMID:26115561

  20. Branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements from Fagus sylvatica L. in a natural forest environment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarcke, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Joo, E.; Dewulf, J.; van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Lemeur, R.; Samson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Natural ecosystems, such as forests, are known to be important sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Oxidation of these biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides can result in net ozone formation and the low-volatility oxidation products may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation and/or growth. As a result BVOC emissions can have a negative effect on air quality and human health. In the commonly used emission algorithms [Guenther et al., 1995], leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) are the driving variables for BVOC emissions. However, in order to better explain the variability over time of BVOC emissions for a given tree species, the most recent emission algorithms, such as MEGAN [Guenther et al., 2006], also consider other driving variables such as phenology, temperature and light history. To validate these new emission algorithms, dynamic branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements have been performed on an adult Fagus sylvatica L. tree in a natural forest environment under ambient PPFD and temperature conditions. Branches at different levels in the canopy were accessible from a 35 m high measurement tower. The cuvette air was analysed on-line with a hs-PTR-MS instrument, which was located in a log cabin at the bottom of the tower. Ion signals related to monoterpenoid compounds (m/z 81 and 137), isoprene (m/z 69), acetone (m/z 59) and methanol (m/z 33) have been measured continuously with the PTR-MS during several phenological periods, from bud-break to senescence. The data show high monoterpenoid emission rates in spring which gradually decrease until leaf fall. Furthermore, monoterpenoid emissions from shaded leaves in the lower layers of the canopy were found to be negligible compared to those from sunlit leaves in the upper layer of the canopy. Effects of light and temperature history on monoterpenoid emissions from Fagus sylvatica L. will be discussed and compared with results obtained in