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1

Stress management  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical stress (e.g., stomach cramps). Stress management involves controlling and reducing the tension that occurs ... helps people cope with stress. AN INDIVIDUAL STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Find the positive in situations, and don' ...

2

Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

Perea, Sally

2012-05-01

3

Nutritional management of cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to normal feeding behaviour and vigilance when instituting supplementary nutrition may prevent many feeding difficulties.

MacDonald, A

1996-01-01

4

Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous school counselors have taught their students how to use solution-focused techniques to address their problems. This article suggests that counselors learn how to use solution-focused techniques to manage their own day-to-day stress. (GCP)

Daughhetee, Charlotte; Grant, Debbie

2002-01-01

5

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."?¯ T...

6

Managing Stress  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

7

Nutritional management of stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke has a significant impact on public health in Italy as well as in most industri- alized countries due to its high incidence, prevalence and subsequent disability rate. While ap- propriate diagnostic tools and pharmacological agents have proven effective in the manage- ment of this disease, the unequivocal demonstration of the usefulness of nutrition therapy in stroke patients is lacking.

G. CAIRELLA; L. SCALFI; R. BERNI CANANI; F. GARBAGNATI; M. G. GENTILE; C. GIANNI; M. MARCELLI; A. MOLFINO; M. MUSCARITOLI; S. PAOLUCCI; L. PRATESI; F. ROSSI FANELLI; U. SCOGNAMIGLIO; Y. TARI; E. TROIANO; F. BRANCA

8

[Exercise training and nutritional management].  

PubMed

In Japan, aged population has been increasing and aging related problems, in particular, bone and joint diseases are causing impaired ADL and QOL. Osteoporosis, one disease of locomotive syndrome, is important issue in the elderly population. Nutritional management and exercise training are fundamental treatment for prevention of osteoporosis. Serum 25(OH)D is important and useful index to evaluate fracture risk. PMID:21774376

Endo, Naoto

2011-07-01

9

Stress Management: Reexamine Your Stress Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... What's New Products and services Sign up now Stress management: Examine your stress reaction Stress management starts with an honest assessment ... to health problems. Evaluate how you react to stress Stress management skills often don't come naturally. ...

10

Nutrition and management of the dog.  

PubMed

This article reviews those aspects of canine management relating to sanitation, reproduction, and nutrition. Within an effective system of management, the clinician will be better able to recognize and solve individual health problems and to assess their relationship to the facility as a whole. Integration of sanitation, nutrition, reproduction management, and health procedures and thorough and accurate record-keeping should be the goals of the consulting clinician. PMID:3496701

Bebiak, D M; Lawler, D F; Reutzel, L F

1987-05-01

11

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Carrie Gleeksman, MS, RD Clinical Dietician COPD: Lifestyle Management Nutrition Eating a balanced diet and maintaining a ... Up Mucus More Nutrition Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

12

Managing Time and Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stress management by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…

Huffstutter, Sandra; Smith, Stuart C.

13

Nutrition Management Guidelines for Pediatric HIV+ Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six regions of the United States developed multidisciplinary pediatric HIV-specialist working groups to address nutrition issues in pediatric HIV disease. Literature reviews and professional experiences were summarized and translated into nutrition assessment and management guidelines. The groups included physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, dietitians, and social workers from Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami\\/Tampa, New York\\/New Jersey, San Francisco\\/Oakland, and Washington DC. Members

M. Romeyn; M. Bowers; C. Fields-Gardner

1999-01-01

14

Stress Management for Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…

Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

15

Nutritionally mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.  

PubMed

There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NF ? B. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF- ? and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1 ? , CCL4/MIP-1 ? , CXCL2/MIP-2 ? , and CXCL3/MIP-2 ? is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF ? , IL-1 ? , and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation. PMID:23844276

Muńoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

16

Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NF?B. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-? and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, CXCL2/MIP-2?, and CXCL3/MIP-2? is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF?, IL-1?, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

Munoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

17

Advances in nutritional management of chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Nutrition has an important role in the management of chronic pancreatitis (CP), with two main goals for treatment of patients. The first goal is to provide optimal nutrition support and the second is to decrease pain by minimizing stimulation of the exocrine pancreas. Because cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates secretion from the exocrine pancreas, one approach is to decrease CCK levels through modulation of diet. If postprandial pain is a limiting factor, alternative enteral therapies that minimally stimulate the pancreas may be beneficial. Nutritional counseling, antioxidants, and pancreatic enzymes may play a role in effective management of CP as well. In addition, because idiopathic CP is associated with cystic fibrosis gene mutations, therapies directed toward cystic fibrosis may also benefit these patients. PMID:10981031

Shea, J C; Hopper, I K; Blanco, P G; Freedman, S D

2000-08-01

18

Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers' Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.

Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

2013-01-01

19

Nutritional Management of Cholestatic Syndromes in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholestatic liver disease causes severe risk of malnutrition which includes protein-energy malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies. The nutritional status can be assessed based on anthropometric measurements, which can be misleading because of ascitis and peripheral edema. Biochemical determinations of lipid-soluble vitamin status are important to evaluate requirements. Based on nutritional status assessment, nutritional therapy should be planned according to a

Piotr Socha

2008-01-01

20

Stress Management in Occupational Settings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various stress management procedures for use in the occupational setting are summarized, including relaxation, biofeedback, and psychological coping strategies. Most research linking stress to illness is not based on data derived from the occupational env...

G. E. Schwartz

1979-01-01

21

Experimental Evidence for Nutrition Regulated Stress Resistance in Drosophila ananassae  

PubMed Central

Background The amount and quality of nutrients consumed by organisms have a strong impact on stress resistance, life-history traits and reproduction. The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is crucial to the survival and reproductive success of animals. The ability of organisms to adjust their development, physiology or behavior in response to environmental conditions, called phenotypic plasticity, is a defining property of life. One of the most familiar and important examples of phenotypic plasticity is the response of stress tolerance and reproduction to changes in developmental nutrition. Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life-history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult. Principal Findings Here we investigate the effect of larval nutrition on desiccation, starvation, chill-coma recovery, heat resistance as well as egg to adult viability, egg production and ovariole number in Drosophila ananassae. We raised larvae on either protein rich diet or carbohydrate rich diet. We found that flies consuming protein rich diet have higher desiccation and heat shock resistance whereas flies developed on carbohydrate rich diet have higher starvation and cold resistance. Egg production was higher in females developed on protein rich diet and we also found trade-off between egg production and Egg to adult viability of the flies. Viability was higher in carbohydrate rich diet. However, sex specific viability was found in different nutritional regimes. Higher Egg production might be due to higher ovariole number in females of protein rich diet. Conclusion Thus, Drosophila ananassae adapts different stress tolerance and life-history strategies according to the quality of the available diet, which are correlated with phenotypic adjustment at anatomical and physiological levels.

Sisodia, Seema; Singh, Bashisth N.

2012-01-01

22

Nutritional evaluation and management of AKI patients.  

PubMed

Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and represents a major negative prognostic factor. Nutritional support as parenteral and/or enteral nutrition is frequently needed because the early phases of this are often a highly catabolic state, although the optimal nutritional requirements and nutrient intake composition remain a partially unresolved issue. Nutrient needs of patients with AKI are highly heterogeneous, depending on different pathogenetic mechanisms, catabolic rate, acute and chronic comorbidities, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities. Thus, quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake should be frequently evaluated in this clinical setting to achieve better individualization of nutritional support, to integrate nutritional support with RRT, and to avoid under- and overfeeding. Moreover, AKI is now considered a kidney-centered inflammatory syndrome; indeed, recent experimental data indicate that specific nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could play an important role in the prevention of renal function loss after an episode of AKI. PMID:23489867

Fiaccadori, Enrico; Maggiore, Umberto; Cabassi, Aderville; Morabito, Santo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Regolisti, Giuseppe

2013-05-01

23

Early Fasting Is Long Lasting: Differences in Early Nutritional Conditions Reappear under Stressful Conditions in Adult Female Zebra Finches  

PubMed Central

Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR). During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

Krause, E. Tobias; Honarmand, Mariam; Wetzel, Jennifer; Naguib, Marc

2009-01-01

24

Nutritional interventions to alleviate the negative consequences of heat stress.  

PubMed

Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Suagee, Jessica K; Sanders, Sara R

2013-05-01

25

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (NHRIM) System: Databases of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY82-FY89).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. Subject coverage includes sponsoring organ...

1989-01-01

26

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System: Database of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY82-FY87).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. The file contains sponsoring organization,...

B. T. Finn J. Mahaffey

1987-01-01

27

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System: Database of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY82-FY85).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. SUBJECT COVERAGE: Sponsoring organization,...

B. T. Finn J. Mahaffey

1985-01-01

28

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System: Database of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY82-FY90).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. Subject coverage includes sponsoring organ...

1990-01-01

29

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System: Database of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY82-FY86).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. Subject coverage: Sponsoring organization,...

B. T. Finn J. Mahaffey

1986-01-01

30

Questionable methods of cancer management: 'nutritional' therapies.  

PubMed

Although dietary measures may be helpful in preventing certain cancers, there is no scientific evidence that any nutritionally related regimen is appropriate as a primary treatment for cancer. This paper focuses on seven questionable modalities: vitamin C, pau d'arco tea, the Gerson diet, Hoxsey herbal therapy, the macrobiotic diet, Manner metabolic therapy, and Kelley metabolic therapy. Some of these approaches involve a diet that is nutritionally inadequate. Some involve potentially toxic doses of vitamins and/or other substances. Some are quite expensive. All pose the risk that patients who use them will abandon effective treatment. The American Cancer Society therefore recommends that "nutritional cancer cures" be avoided. PMID:8364770

1993-01-01

31

Nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To summarize the latest information on the nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), focusing on the foods implicated and how to avoid these whilst maintaining a nutritionally sound diet. Recent findings A number of foods are implicated in FPIES such as milk, soy and grains, particularly rice. The number of foods implicated in FPIES per individual differs, but the majority of reported cases have two or fewer food triggers involved. Summary FPIES is a complex presentation of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Dietary management is complicated as both common food allergens as well as atypical food allergens can trigger FPIES. Sound nutritional advice is required to ensure appropriate food avoidance, adequate consumption of other foods and sufficient nutritional intake to maintain and ensure growth and development.

Venter, Carina; Groetch, Marion

2014-01-01

32

Guidance for the nutrition management of gastrointestinal allergy in pediatrics.  

PubMed

Food allergies and their related elimination diets have been associated with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake and poor growth in the pediatric population. In recognition of these nutritional risks, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States recommend nutrition counseling and close growth monitoring for all children with food allergy. The care of children with gastrointestinal food allergic disorders can be complicated and is best performed with a structured approach in which medical and nutrition needs are addressed simultaneously. Children with gastrointestinal food allergy may be at greater nutritional risk because of decreased dietary intake. For these children, it is important to perform a comprehensive nutrition assessment to identify nutrition-related problems and to develop and implement a plan that meets the patient's needs within the context of the elimination diet. We provide an overview of the nutritional risks and strategies to assess nutritional status in pediatric patients with gastrointestinal food allergy. PMID:24565537

Groetch, Marion; Henry, Michelle; Feuling, Mary Beth; Kim, Jennifer

2013-01-01

33

Nutritional Implications in Wound Healing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes that take place in the nutritional requirements of persons under stress are discussed, metabolic alterations triggered by wounding are described, and practical approaches to the nutritional management of the wounded or injured patient are suggeste...

J. M. Navia L. Menaker

1976-01-01

34

Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

35

Nutrition in the Management of the Cancer Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention to nutritional status is important in the management of the cancer patient, across the spectrum from the initial\\u000a phases of treatment and recovery through the long-term continuum of care. Maintaining good nutritional status during the initial\\u000a post-diagnosis treatment phase may enable the successful completion of prescribed treatments and improve the quality of life\\u000a of the patient. Following initial treatment,

Cheryl L. Rock

36

Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients.

Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

2014-01-01

37

How IT project managers cope with stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the level of stress experienced by IT project managers and determines the types of coping strategies used to handle their stress. Sixty-four South African IT project managers completed an online questionnaire. The findings indicate that IT project managers are highly stressed and tend to utilize maladaptive coping strategies more as their stress levels increase. These strategies included

Derek Smith; Justin de Passos; Rafieqah Isaacs

2010-01-01

38

The Relationship Between Body Weight and Stress and Nutritional Status in Turkish Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of body weight on stress and nutrition in women. Data were gathered from 889 women living in Turkey. The participants were selected randomly. Women were informed that the purpose of the study was to gather information on stress and nutrition and each participant attended a face-to-face interview .Subjects

N. Sanlier; N. Unusan

2007-01-01

39

Nutrition and Supplements for Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses dietary guidelines and nutritional supplements that have been proven to be beneficial in the treatment\\u000a of pain. First, a strong foundational diet is presented, including anti-inflammatory ingredients. Next, several key supplements\\u000a that are helpful for pain conditions are discussed. The chapter is completed with a discussion of some of the most common\\u000a chronic pain conditions, with specific

Maria Sulindro-Ma; Charise L. Ivy; Amber C. Isenhart

40

Stress Management by Biofeedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

1997-01-01

41

Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... chances of regaining weight and to ensure good management of other obesity-related health problems. Care after ... immediately after surgery, as well as long-term management to prevent complications and weight regain. How does ...

42

Body fluids and exercise: Influences of nutrition and feeding management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic performance may be initially enabled but then become limited by changes in body fluids. This subject is reviewed in three parts: physiological responses, replacement strategies, and the influences of nutrition and feeding management. Emphasis on losses in sweat during strenuous exercise have focused attention on replacement of water and electrolytes, but the economies of water and energy are intertwined,

David S. Kronfeld

2001-01-01

43

Managing Your Stress in Tough Economic Times  

MedlinePLUS

... available for managing stress during any difficult financial time for you and your family. APA offers tips ... with stress related to money. In tough economic times some people are more likely to relieve stress ...

44

Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review.  

PubMed

Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), or slow emptying of the stomach, is a well-established complication of diabetes mellitus and is typically considered to occur in individuals with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical consequences of DGP include induction of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (early satiety, abdominal distension, reflux, stomach spasm, postprandial nausea, vomiting), alteration in drug absorption, and destabilization of glycemic control (due to mismatched postprandial glycemic and insulin peaks). Effective nutritional management not only helps in alleviating the symptoms, but also in facilitating better glycemic control. Although there have been no evidence-based guidelines pertaining to the nutrition care process of the DGP, the current dietary recommendations are based on expert opinions or observational studies. The dietary management of gastroparesis needs to be tailored according to the severity of malnutrition and kind of upper GI symptom by changing the volume, consistency, frequency, fiber, fat, and carbohydrates in the meal. Small frequent meals, using more liquid calories, reducing high fat or high fiber, consuming bezoar forming foods, and adjusting meal carbohydrates based on medications or insulin helps in improving the upper GI symptoms and glycemic control. Enteral nutrition can be an option for patients who fail to stabilize their weight loss, or for those who cannot gain weight with oral feedings, while total parenteral nutrition is rarely necessary for the patient with gastroparesis. PMID:23055757

Sadiya, Amena

2012-01-01

45

Nutrition and the incidence of stress fractures in ballet dancers13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nutrition on the incidence of stress fractures among classical ballet dancers were studied. Ten dancers with stress fractures were compared with a group of dancers without stress fractures and a group of nondancing control subjects. Subject pairs were matched for age, weight, and height. Specific nutrient intake and eating patterns were thus isolated to determine ifdietary patterns

Nina T Frusztajer; Santa Dhuper; Michelle P Warren; J Brooks-Gunn; Richard P Fox

46

The stressful condition as a nutritionally dependent adaptive dichotomy.  

PubMed

The injured body manifests a cascade of cytokine-induced metabolic events aimed at developing defense mechanisms and tissue repair. Rising concentrations of counterregulatory hormones work in concert with cytokines to generate overall insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), postreceptor resistance and energy requirements grounded on lipid dependency. Salient features are self-sustained hypercortisolemia persisting as long as cytokines are oversecreted and down-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis stabilized at low basal levels. Inhibition of thyroxine 5'-deiodinating activity (5'-DA) accounts for the depressed T3 values associated with the sparing of both N and energy-consuming processes. Both the liver and damaged territories adapt to stressful signals along up-regulated pathways disconnected from the central and peripheral control systems. Cytokines stimulate liver 5'-DA and suppress the synthesis of transthyretin (TTR), causing the drop of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the leakage of increased amounts of T4 and retinol in free form. TTR and RBP thus work as prohormonal reservoirs of precursor molecules which need to be converted into bioactive derivatives (T3 and retinoic acids) to reach transcriptional efficiency. The converting steps (5'-DA and cellular retinol-binding protein-I) are activated by T4 and retinol, themselves operating as limiting factors of positive feedback loops. Healthy adults with normal macrophage functioning and liver parenchymal integrity, who submitted to a stress of medium severity, are characterized by TTR-RBP plasma levels reduced by half and an estimated ten-fold increase in free ligand disposal to target cells during the days ensuing injury. This transient hyperthyroid and hyperretinoid climate creates a second defense line strengthening and fine-tuning the effects primarily initiated by cytokines. The suicidal behavior of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and IGFBP-3 allows the occurrence of peak endocrine and mitogenic influences at the site of inflammation. The production rate of TTR by the liver is the main determinant of both the hepatic release and blood transport of holoRBP, which explains why poor nutritional status concomitantly impairs thyroid- and retinoid-dependent acute-phase responses, hindering the stressed body to appropriately face the survival crisis. The prognostic significance of low TT4 blood levels may be assigned to the exhaustion of extrathyroidal hormonal pools normally stored in liver and plasma but markedly shrunken in protein-depleted states. These data offer new insights into the mechanisms whereby preexisting malnutrition and stressful complications are interrelated, emphasizing the pivotal role played by TTR in that context. PMID:10319365

Ingenbleek, Y; Bernstein, L

1999-04-01

47

Parenteral nutrition in the management of severe protracted diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen children aged 3 weeks to 19 months with severe Protracted Diarrhea (PD), and who were deteriorating on our standard\\u000a management protocol (including special diets) were given parenteral Nutrition (PN) for 4 to 19 days with crystalline aminoacid\\u000a solution (Vamin N) in 10% dextrose and lipid emulsion (Intralipid 10%). Peripheral lines were used in majority (84%). Enteral\\u000a feeds were started

Umesh Vaidya; Sheila Bhave; Anand Pandit

1993-01-01

48

Potato nutritional management changes and challenges into the next century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant nutrients are important components of the intensive production system used for potatoes. Nutrient management practices\\u000a need to be improved for sustained and increased productivity. Better mangement decisions will be made when accurate information\\u000a is available about (a) crop residues and rotation effects on nutrient cycling, (b) the nutritional characteristics and requirements\\u000a of each variety, (c) bioavailability of nutrients in

D. T. Westermann; J. R. Davis

1992-01-01

49

Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocols… Modeling For Managed Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this poster session is to discuss four protocols: “Pressure Ulcers (Stage I - IV)”, “Pre-End-Stage Renal Disease”, “HIV\\/AIDS”, and “Type II Diabetes Mellitus”.As a result of managed care and the health care environment dietetic professionals now have significant opportunities to offer Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT), generate positive client\\/client health outcomes and decrease the cost of health care.

G. E. Robinson

1998-01-01

50

Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Genet Med 16 2, 121–131.

Singh, Rani H.; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L.; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C.

2014-01-01

51

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System: Database Layout of Files Supplied to NTIS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) database provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal Government. Subject coverage includes: Sponsoring Organ...

1993-01-01

52

Managing the patient journey through enteral nutritional care.  

PubMed

Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed. PMID:16697502

Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C

2006-04-01

53

A Review of Nutritional Factors in Hypertension Management  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Its attendant morbidity and mortality complications have a great impact on patient's quality of life and survival. Optimizing blood pressure control has been shown to improve overall health outcomes. In addition to pharmacological therapies, nonpharmacological approach such as dietary modification plays an important role in controlling blood pressure. Many dietary components such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium have been studied substantially in the past decades. While some of these nutrients have clear evidence for their recommendation, some remain controversial and are still of ongoing study. Dietary modification is often discussed with patients and can provide a great benefit in blood pressure regulation. As such, reviewing the current evidence will be very useful in guiding patients and their physician and/or dietician in decision making. In this review article of nutritional factors in hypertension management, we aim to examine the role of nutritional factors individually and as components of whole dietary patterns.

Nguyen, Ha; Odelola, Olaide A.; Rangaswami, Janani; Amanullah, Aman

2013-01-01

54

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Pearson, Ms.

2007-10-12

55

STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR TREES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive stress is a common cause of tree mor- tality in the urban environment. People must take positive steps to minimize and avoid stress on trees if urban shade trees are to survive and grow. Stress kills trees. However, stress is also part of the environment of all trees and a stress-free con- dition for a tree can only exist

Terry A. Tattar

1983-01-01

56

Nutritional Management of Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to propose dietetic guidelines for the nutritional management of weight regain in Roux-en-Y gastric\\u000a bypass (RYGB) patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty patients more than 2 years after RYGB surgery were followed up once every 15 days for at least 3 months. We collected\\u000a from the medical records weight before surgery, excess weight, minimum weight reached 2 years after surgery, and percent

Silvia Leite Faria; Emily de Oliveira Kelly; Renato Diniz Lins; Orlando Pereira Faria

2010-01-01

57

Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (NHRIM) System: Databases of Federally Supported Human Nutrition Research Projects (FY88-FY91) (Date of Coverage: FY88-FY91).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) data base provides information on human nutrition research and research training activities supported in whole or in part by the Federal government. Subject coverage includes sponsoring organ...

1991-01-01

58

Purification and Use of Glycomacropeptide for Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) and must adhere to a low-Phe diet in which most dietary protein is provided by a Phe-free amino acid formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the only naturally occurring protein that does not contain Phe, and is of interest as a source of protein for dietary management of PKU. However, commercially available GMP contains too much Phe from residual whey proteins and does not contain adequate levels of all the indispensable amino acids to provide a nutritionally complete protein. The aim of this study was to increase purity of GMP and develop a mass balance calculation for indispensable amino acid supplementation of GMP foods. Cation exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration/diafiltration, and lyophilization were used at the pilot plant scale to decrease Phe. Enough purified GMP (5 kg) was manufactured to provide 15 PKU subjects with a 4-d diet in which the majority of protein was from GMP foods. A mass balance was used to supplement GMP foods so that all indispensable amino acids met or exceeded the daily recommended intake. GMP foods were tested in a human clinical trial as a replacement for the traditional amino acid formula. Nutritionally complete GMP foods created with high purity GMP provide individuals with PKU with more options to manage PKU, which may lead to improved compliance and quality of life.

LaClair, Caitlin E.; Ney, Denise M.; MacLeod, Erin L.; Etzel, Mark R.

2013-01-01

59

Helping Young Children Manage Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

Texas Child Care, 2002

2002-01-01

60

Management of oxidative stress by microalgae.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current research on oxidative stress in eukaryotic microalgae and the antioxidant compounds microalgae utilize to control oxidative stress. With the potential to exploit microalgae for the large-scale production of antioxidants, interest in how microalgae manage oxidative stress is growing. Microalgae can experience increased levels of oxidative stress and toxicity as a result of environmental conditions, metals, and chemicals. The defence mechanisms for microalgae include antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and glutathione reductase, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules such as phytochelatins, pigments, polysaccharides, and polyphenols. Discussed herein are the 3 areas the literature has focused on, including how conditions stress microalgae and how microalgae respond to oxidative stress by managing reactive oxygen species. The third area is how beneficial microalgae antioxidants are when administered to cancerous mammalian cells or to rodents experiencing oxidative stress. PMID:23368282

Cirulis, Judith T; Scott, J Ashley; Ross, Gregory M

2013-01-01

61

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

62

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

63

Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

Shea, Gordon F.

1980-01-01

64

[Stress management in European countries and US].  

PubMed

In recent years, job stress and stress management have emerged as key issues in health promotion in the workplace in all of the post-industrialized countries. In the EU, the European Survey on Working Conditions has reveals that stress and musculo-skeletal disorders are the main health risks at work. In the US, NORA (national occupational research agenda) identifies 21 research priorities, in which "organization of work" is included as a job stress related factor. In this paper, trends and characteristics in occupational stress management in western countries, especially in the EU are overviewed. Presently, most stress management activities are oriented towards secondary or tertiary prevention, and are worker-oriented. But in future, priority strategy for intervention should be primary prevention, and focused on the organization as the generator of risk. In the group of countries paying a lot of attention to work stress, health policies or legal framework at the national level and a variety of activities for stress prevention at the company level are well integrated. By analyzing various stress management cases or projects, key factors for a successful approach to stress prevention are extracted as follows: 1. A stepwise and systematic approach, 2. clear determination of aims, tasks, responsibilities, planning and financial means, 3. An adequate diagnosis of risk analysis, 4. A combination of work-directed and worker-directed measures, 5. A participative approach, 6. Top management support. Costs-benefit assessment should be introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of stress prevention and to promote more integrated approaches in the workplace. PMID:11889821

Kobayashi, Fumio; Takeuchi, Kiyomi

2002-01-01

65

Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…

Brodkin, Adele M.

2005-01-01

66

Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the tremendous public interest in the recent large honeybee losses attributed to colony collapse disorder, there is still no definitive explanation for the phenomenon. With the hypothesis that nutritional stress due to habitat loss has played an important role in honeybee colony collapse, I analyze the land use data in United States to show that the colony

Dhruba Naug

2009-01-01

67

Relationship of secondary metabolism to growth in oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) shoot cultures under nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropropagation of Origanum vulgare L. by shoot buds, as a potential model system for studying carbon skeleton diversion from growth to secondary metabolism as adaptive response to nutrient deficiency, has been performed. In addition, the antioxidant phenolic compounds, produced by shoots under nutritional stress or in response to exogenously added proline, have been studied. Caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and lithospermic

Vincenzo Lattanzio; Angela Cardinali; Claudia Ruta; Irene Morone Fortunato; Veronica M. T. Lattanzio; Vito Linsalata; Nunzia Cicco

2009-01-01

68

Nutritional supplement attenuates selected oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to test the hypothesis that nutritional supplement (AquADEKs; Axcan Scandipharm Inc., Birmingham, Ala, USA) with various pharmaceutical forms of such as chewable tablets, capsules, and liquid administered daily for 12 weeks would reduce oxidative stress and enhance antioxidant status in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A total of 50 patients with CF and 21 healthy children

Izabela Sadowska-Woda; Marta Rachel; Joanna Pazdan; Edyta Bieszczad-Bedrejczuk; Katarzyna Pawliszak

2011-01-01

69

Managing stress and change during service reviews.  

PubMed

Service reviews occur throughout the National Health Service from time to time, and changes in commissioning policies have recently led many Primary Care Trusts to hold reviews of the community health services. Although reviews can provide opportunities for fresh thinking, the process can be a time of considerable stress and apprehension for many staff as current systems and ways of working are challenged and possibly changed. If this stress is not managed appropriately, staff may suffer ill health leading to possible staff absences and pressure on services. Leaders and managers are ideally placed to manage this time of stress, if they have the necessary skills and qualities. Self-help measures are also beneficial and recommended as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article discusses how change can affect people in different stages of their life and how it can be managed more positively in the workplace. PMID:19517944

Sweeney, Corinne

2009-01-01

70

Dietary Management in Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

71

Dietary Management in Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

72

Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management

S. J. M. de Brouwer; F. W. Kraaimaat; F. C. Sweep; A. R. T. Donders; A. Eijsbouts; S. van Koulil; A. W. M. Evers

2011-01-01

73

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

74

Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Applications in Nutrition and Food Service Management (1st).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of computers in nutrition and food service management was discussed at the conference. Specific objectives of the meeting were to discuss and exchange research information on the application of computer technology to: (1) menu planning and nutriti...

J. P. Casbergue M. D. Keller G. Shugart V. E. Smith

1965-01-01

75

Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).  

PubMed

We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress. PMID:22112201

Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

2012-09-01

76

A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress.

Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

2014-01-01

77

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

78

Soybean products for feeding infants, children and adults under nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review points out the good quality of well-processed soya products. Normal infants, children and adults are able to utilize\\u000a the protein and other nutrients present in the soya, when fed these products in amounts that will cover their needs. Under\\u000a nutritional stress, such as in infant malnutrition, soya products such as soya-milk have been shown to help in the

J. E. Dutra de Oliveira; J. E. dos Santos

1981-01-01

79

Using Stress Management to Promote Critical Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of distress upon critical thinking and offers a variety of stress management techniques to enhance critical thinking skills. A major theme throughout this paper is that one cannot think clearly when one is distressed. The harmful effects of distress upon critical thinking are discussed in the content of the works of several authors in the

Robert Schoenberg

1992-01-01

80

Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed.

Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

2013-01-01

81

Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy.

Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

2012-01-01

82

Total Parenteral Nutrition in the Management of Traumatic Chylous Ascites in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chylous ascites is rare in the pediatric age group and usually of unknown etiology or due to congenital abnormalities of the lymphatic system. This report describes an infant with posttraumatic chylous ascites, unable to tolerate dietary therapy, in whom total parenteral nutrition allowed successful management. The experience gained in this case clarifies the management of chylous ascites from all causes.

Robert P. Dillard; Angela G. Stewart

1985-01-01

83

Management of failed stress urinary incontinence surgery.  

PubMed

With the increasing volume of surgery being performed for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), especially with the widespread use of midurethral slings (MUS), recurrent urinary incontinence is becoming an increasingly common condition. Various preoperative and intraoperative factors have been associated with failed SUI surgery. Treatment options for failed SUI surgery include conservative management and/or surgical management, which include pubovaginal sling, MUS, retropubic suspension, periurethral bulking agents, and artificial sphincters. The choice of treatment option will depend on the etiology of the patient's failure, patient comorbidities, and patient preference. PMID:24916327

MacLachlan, Lara S; Rovner, Eric S

2014-08-01

84

Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-?B/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-?B, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-?B and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-?B expression (1, p?0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p?0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-?B/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta.

Zeron, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chavez, Araceli Amaya; Alanis, Adriana Garduno; Ferreyra, Maria del Carmen Colin; Benitez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillan; Castaneda, Violeta Sarai Morales; Garcia, Ma. Victoria Dominguez

2013-01-01

85

Perceived job importance and job performance satisfaction of selected clinical nutrition management responsibilities.  

PubMed

A nationwide survey of clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess perceived importance of selected job responsibilities and perceived performance satisfaction of those job responsibilities. A questionnaire was developed to achieve the study objectives, validated by an expert panel, and pilot-tested prior to data collection. All members of the American Dietetic Association's Clinical Nutrition Management dietetic practice group (N=1,668) were asked to rate the importance of selected job responsibilities and their satisfaction with those responsibilities using Likert-type scales with descriptions. Results revealed that clinical nutrition managers perceived all job responsibilities listed in the questionnaire to be important (ie, the mean score of each responsibility was >3.0 of a 4.0 scale). Respondents rated regulatory-related job responsibilities as most important and were most satisfied with their performance of these responsibilities. Following regulatory-related responsibilities, clinical nutrition managers perceived patient satisfaction and staff retention to be more important than other responsibilities. In general, clinical nutrition managers were more satisfied with their job performance for job responsibilities that they ranked as more important. PMID:15983533

Pratt, Peggy E; Kwon, Junehee; Rew, Martha L

2005-07-01

86

Stress coping styles among German managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a weekly managerial newspaper survey the abbreviated German version of the Occupational Stress Indicator’s Coping scale was completed anonymously by over 200 readers. Of these we selected only those who were categorised as management (n = 160) in our study. The mean coping score for the full Coping scale was 36.98 (SD 8.65) with a split half reliability of

Bruce Kirkcaldy; Adrian Furnham

1999-01-01

87

Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues. PMID:22825360

Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

2013-04-01

88

Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. ERIC Digest #E488.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in a question-and-answer format, this digest offers guidelines to help gifted students manage stress effectively. The following questions are considered: What is stress? How can a youngster experience stress when nothing bad is happening? Is a gifted student more likely to feel stress than others? What are some stresses on a gifted…

Kaplan, Leslie S.

89

Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.  

PubMed

Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

2014-07-01

90

Nutritional and metabolic modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the perspective for nutritional modulation of systemic impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is discussed. Progressive weight loss is characterised by disease-specific elevated energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Weight gain per se can be achieved by caloric supplementation while future studies may prove efficacy of amino acid modulation to stimulate protein synthesis and

A. M. W. J. Schols

2003-01-01

91

Financial Management: A Growing Concern for Child Nutrition Program Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of revenue-generation and cost-control measures currently employed at four school districts operating financially successful child-nutrition programs disclosed the importance of student participation to each program's financial integrity. Financial reports, productivity monitoring, and procurement plans to curb food costs were also…

Cater, Jerry B.; Mann, Nadine; Conklin, Martha

1999-01-01

92

Critical illness and hyperglycemia management in parenteral and enteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid balance, immune function, inflammation and final outcome may all be adversely affected by hyperglycemia, and these effects may be diminished by glucose control. Accordingly, all patients should undergo hyperglycemic treatment, this being necessary for patients with and with- out a known diagnosis of diabetes. Moreover, avoidance and\\/or minimization of hyperglycemia are important. Nondiabetic patients have nutritional requirements very much

G. M. ROVERA; L. FRANSOS; H. CENA; C. ROGGI

93

Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

94

Nutritional Management of an Infant with Primary Oxalosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe nutritional needs of an infant with primary oxalosis (PHO) while on dialysis and after kidney\\/liver transplantation.Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PHO) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism in which excessive oxalate synthesis and lack of excretion cause nephrocalcinosis, renal failure and systemic oxalate deposition. Infants with PHO have a significant morbidity and mortality,

J. DeVee; T. Bunchman; R. Parekh; J. Kerestes-Smith

1996-01-01

95

Downregulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA, But Not Vasopressin mRNA, in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus of Rats Following Nutritional Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress can cause disturbance of homeostasis to result in illness. Stress can also induce various gene expression in different neuronal systems. For example, nutritional stress induced by acute food deprivation upregulates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA, whereas osmotic stress increases vasopressin (VP) mRNA. However, it is unknown if nutritional stress induced by chronic food deprivation has synergistic effects on CRF and

Bang H Hwang; Jaime M Guntz

1997-01-01

96

Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress.  

PubMed

Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection. PMID:14738460

Kelly, P; Feakins, R; Domizio, P; Murphy, J; Bevins, C; Wilson, J; McPhail, G; Poulsom, R; Dhaliwal, W

2004-02-01

97

Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress  

PubMed Central

Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection.

KELLY, P; FEAKINS, R; DOMIZIO, P; MURPHY, J; BEVINS, C; WILSON, J; MCPHAIL, G; POULSOM, R; DHALIWAL, W

2004-01-01

98

Stress, Food, and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology and Nutrition at the Cutting Edge  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would certainly be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can impact mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen NF-?B activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community.

Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

2010-01-01

99

The Pro-Survival Role of Autophagy Depends on Bcl-2 Under Nutrition Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Autophagy can be induced under nutrition stress conditions. Bcl-2 is a pro-survival protein which inhibits apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of Bcl-2 in autophagy regulation and cell survival under nutrition deprivation has not been fully understood. This study sought to investigate if Bcl-2 upregulation is essential in limiting autophagic activity and prevent cell death under nutrition deprivation conditions. Autophagic activity was monitored by the changes in GFP-LC3 localization and protein levels of Beclin1, LC3-II, cathepsin D and p62 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells underwent serum deprivation. Manipulation of Bcl-2 function was achieved with siRNAs and small molecular inhibitors. The cell viability and apoptosis were assessed with MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. The results showed that serum starvation increased protein levels of LC3-II and Beclin1 but decreased autophagy substrate p62. Autophagy activation induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin was accompanied by an upregulation of Bcl-2 protein levels. When Bcl-2 was knocked down with siRNA or inhibited with HA 14-1 or ABT-737, serum starvation induced profound cell death and enhanced autophagic flux under nutrition deprivation conditions, while knockdown of autophagic gene Beclin1 or autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and E64D), rescued cell death. In contrast, overexpression of Bcl-2 inhibited autophagy and blocked cell death in response to serum deprivation. These data suggest that Bcl-2 plays an essential role in limiting autophagy activation and preventing initiation of programmed cell death. Thus Bcl-2 may be an important mechanism for balancing beneficial and detrimental impacts of autophagy on cell survival.

Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Dan; Gu, Jin-Hua; Ge, Jian-Bin; Wu, Jun-Chao; Han, Rong; Liang, Zhong-Qin; Qin, Zheng-Hong

2013-01-01

100

The pro-survival role of autophagy depends on Bcl-2 under nutrition stress conditions.  

PubMed

Autophagy can be induced under nutrition stress conditions. Bcl-2 is a pro-survival protein which inhibits apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of Bcl-2 in autophagy regulation and cell survival under nutrition deprivation has not been fully understood. This study sought to investigate if Bcl-2 upregulation is essential in limiting autophagic activity and prevent cell death under nutrition deprivation conditions. Autophagic activity was monitored by the changes in GFP-LC3 localization and protein levels of Beclin1, LC3-II, cathepsin D and p62 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells underwent serum deprivation. Manipulation of Bcl-2 function was achieved with siRNAs and small molecular inhibitors. The cell viability and apoptosis were assessed with MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. The results showed that serum starvation increased protein levels of LC3-II and Beclin1 but decreased autophagy substrate p62. Autophagy activation induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin was accompanied by an upregulation of Bcl-2 protein levels. When Bcl-2 was knocked down with siRNA or inhibited with HA 14-1 or ABT-737, serum starvation induced profound cell death and enhanced autophagic flux under nutrition deprivation conditions, while knockdown of autophagic gene Beclin1 or autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and E64D), rescued cell death. In contrast, overexpression of Bcl-2 inhibited autophagy and blocked cell death in response to serum deprivation. These data suggest that Bcl-2 plays an essential role in limiting autophagy activation and preventing initiation of programmed cell death. Thus Bcl-2 may be an important mechanism for balancing beneficial and detrimental impacts of autophagy on cell survival. PMID:23658815

Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Dan; Gu, Jin-Hua; Ge, Jian-Bin; Wu, Jun-Chao; Han, Rong; Liang, Zhong-Qin; Qin, Zheng-Hong

2013-01-01

101

Lipidomic analysis of lipid droplets from murine hepatocytes reveals distinct signatures for nutritional stress.  

PubMed

Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritional stress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritional stress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights. PMID:22872753

Chitraju, Chandramohan; Trötzmüller, Martin; Hartler, Jürgen; Wolinski, Heimo; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Köfeler, Harald C; Spener, Friedrich

2012-10-01

102

Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of Resource-Activating Stress Management Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The stress-induced release of cortisol has been linked to detrimental health outcomes. Therefore, strategies to attenuate cortisol stress responses are of interest for prevention and treatment of stress-related symptoms and problems. Previous studies have found protective effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management training—which focuses on the modification of stress-inducing cognitions—on cortisol stress responses; however, the effects of resource-oriented interventions on

Maja Storch; Jens Gaab; Yvonne Küttel; Ann-Christin Stüssi; Helmut Fend

2007-01-01

103

Nutritional Management of Children with Chronic Renal Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document reviews the current status of dietary management of kidney failure in children. It examines evidence that diet contributes to progressive loss of function in children with renal damage, and that dietary management can therefore be used to dec...

1986-01-01

104

Antioxidant enriched enteral nutrition and oxidative stress after major gastrointestinal tract surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of an enteral supple-ment containing antioxidants on circulating levels of antioxidants and indicators of oxidative stress after major gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-one patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal tract surgery were randomised in a single centre, open label study on the effect of postoperative enteral nutrition supplemented with antioxidants. The effect on circulating levels of antioxidants and indicators of oxidative stress, such as F2-isoprostane, was studied. RESULTS: The antioxidant enteral supplement showed no adverse effects and was well tolerated. After surgery a decrease in the circulating levels of antioxidant parameters was observed. Only selenium and glutamine levels were restored to pre-operative values one week after surgery. F2-isoprostane increased in the first three postoperative days only in the antioxidant supplemented group. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) levels decreased faster in the antioxidant group after surgery. CONCLUSION: Despite lower antioxidant levels there was no increase in the circulating markers of oxidative stress on the first day after major abdominal surgery. The rise in F2-isoprostane in patients receiving the antioxidant supplement may be related to the conversion of antioxidants to oxidants which raises questions on antioxidant supplementation. Module AOX restored the postoperative decrease in selenium levels. The rapid decrease in LBP levels in the antioxidant group suggests a possible protective effect on gut wall integrity. Further studies are needed on the role of oxidative stress on outcome and the use of antioxidants in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

van Stijn, Mireille FM; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Boelens, Petra G; Scheffer, Peter G; Teerlink, Tom; Twisk, Jos WR; Houdijk, Alexander PJ; van Leeuwen, Paul AM

2008-01-01

105

College Students' Time Management: Correlations with Academic Performance and Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships between time management of college students and self-reported academic performance and various affective measures of stress were explored for 123 undergraduates. The study indicates that self-reported time management is multidimensional and that there are important relationships among time management, performance, and stress.…

Macan, Therese Hoff; And Others

1990-01-01

106

Stress in Education Management--Underlying Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several alternative conceptions of stress drawn from the literature in an effort to clarify some of the reasons that stressful situations are perceived as stressful. Particular attention is paid to educational managership as a stress-inducing condition. (PGD)

French, Brian

1985-01-01

107

Pharmacotherapy prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.  

PubMed

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure. It is associated with nutritional deficiencies due to gastric reduction, intestinal bypass, reduced caloric intake, avoidance of nutrient-rich foods, noncompliance with supplementation and poor food tolerability. Although there are multiple publications on this topic, there is a lack of consistent guidance for the healthcare practitioner caring for the bariatric patient. This article will encompass literature reviewing the pharmacotherapy approach to prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies since the American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery guidelines were published in 2008. PMID:23558789

Levinson, Radmila; Silverman, Jon B; Catella, Jennifer G; Rybak, Iwona; Jolin, Hina; Isom, Kellene

2013-07-01

108

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality. PMID:24134511

Scalone, Francesco

2014-07-01

109

Dietary intakes in the nutritional management of gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Purpose: Changes were examined in energy intakes and percentage of energy from macronutrients in response to nutritional intervention in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The study included 17 women with GDM and 27 women with normal glucose tolerance (controls). Women with GDM were followed by a multidisciplinary team; they received dietary counselling by a registered dietitian, and were prescribed diets with 40% to 45% energy from carbohydrate (CHO), 20% to 25% from protein, and 30% to 35% from fat. Dietary intakes were assessed with food frequency questionnaires before the intervention (26.9 ± 3.8 weeks) and after the intervention (32.6 ± 0.6 weeks). Results: After the intervention, women with GDM reduced their total energy intake to reach lower values than did controls (P value for time-group interaction =0.05). A concomitant reduction in total CHO and glucose intakes in women with GDM led to significantly lower values compared with intakes in controls (P values for time-group interaction =0.001 for all). The post-intervention rate of weight gain in women with GDM was within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended values, while the post-intervention rate of weight gain in controls was above IOM-recommended values (0.30 ± 0.27 versus 0.61 ± 0.50 kg/week, P=0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that this multidisciplinary medical and nutritional intervention was effective in the achievement of prescribed macronutrient distribution and controlling gestational weight gain in Canadian women with GDM. PMID:24897011

Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Cōté, Julie Anne; Michaud, Andréanne; Robitaille, Julie; Tchernof, André; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Veillette, Johanne; Weisnagel, S John

2014-01-01

110

Stress management in dental students: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program.

Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

2014-01-01

111

Bacteria modulate the degree of amphimix of their symbiotic entomopathogenic nematodes ( Heterohabditis spp) in response to nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facultatively sexual entomopathogenic nematodes are a promising model for the experimental study of the adaptive values of sex. Our experiments in the laboratory showed that entomopathogenic nematodes display at least two different strategies in regulating the degree of amphimix as a response to nutritional stress. One strategy promotes the production of males, amphimix and the genetic variability of the offspring,

Johana Rincones; Hervé Mauléon; Klaus Jaffe

2001-01-01

112

Growth, nutrition and response to water stress of Pinus pinaster inoculated with ten dikaryotic strains of Pisolithus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reconstituted dikaryons of Pisolithus sp. (Pers.) Coker & Couch from South Africa influenced growth parameters (shoot length, shoot\\/root ratio and leaf area), nutrition and physiological indicators (transpi- ration rate, stomatal conductance and xylem water potential) of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings during drought and recovery from drought. Seedlings colonized with certain dikaryons were more sensitive to water stress

MOHAMMED S. LAMHAMEDI; PIERRE Y. BERNIER; J. ANDRE FORTIN

113

Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.  

PubMed

As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited. PMID:24360757

Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

2014-01-01

114

Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. PMID:24491646

Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong

2014-03-01

115

Natural variation reveals relationships between pre-stress carbohydrate nutritional status and subsequent responses to xenobiotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Soluble sugars are involved in responses to stress, and act as signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone cross-talk transduction pathways. Thus, exogenous sucrose treatment efficiently induces tolerance to the herbicide atrazine in Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets, at least partially through large-scale modifications of expression of stress-related genes. Methods Availability of sugars in planta for stress responses is likely to depend on complex dynamics of soluble sugar accumulation, sucrose–starch partition and organ allocation. The question of potential relationships between endogenous sugar levels and stress responses to atrazine treatment was investigated through analysis of natural genetic accessions of A. thaliana. Parallel quantitative and statistical analysis of biochemical parameters and of stress-sensitive physiological traits was carried out on a set of 11 accessions. Key Results Important natural variation was found between accessions of A. thaliana in pre-stress shoot endogenous sugar levels and responses of plantlets to subsequent atrazine stress. Moreover, consistent trends and statistically significant correlations were detected between specific endogenous sugar parameters, such as the pre-stress end of day sucrose level in shoots, and physiological markers of atrazine tolerance. Conclusions These significant relationships between endogenous carbohydrate metabolism and stress response therefore point to an important integration of carbon nutritional status and induction of stress tolerance in plants. The specific correlation between pre-stress sucrose level and greater atrazine tolerance may reflect adaptive mechanisms that link sucrose accumulation, photosynthesis-related stress and sucrose induction of stress defences.

Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cecile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couee, Ivan

2009-01-01

116

Measuring occupational stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome

Stephen Williams; Cary L. Cooper

1998-01-01

117

Rational-Emotive Therapy: Contributions to Teacher Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that irrational beliefs are significantly related to teacher stress levels and that teacher stress management interventions having most evidence of effectiveness employ cognitive restructuring components based on rational-emotive therapy procedures. Notes that programs use stress inoculation training framework and provide behavioral and…

Forman, Susan G.

1990-01-01

118

Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naļve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD. The recent advance of methodologies and techniques for early diagnosis of AD facilitates the investigation of strategies to reduce the risk for AD progression in the earliest stages of the disease. Nutrition-based approaches deserve further investigation as an integral part of such strategies due to their low risk for side effects and their potential to affect pathological processes of very early AD. PMID:23756280

Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

2013-09-01

119

Immune responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Psychological stress may alter immune function by activating physiological stress pathways. Building on our previous study, in which we report that stress management training led to an altered self-reported and cortisol response to psychological stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we explored the effects of this stress management intervention on the immune response to a psychological stress task in patients with RA. Methods In this study, 74 patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short stress management training, performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) 1 week after the intervention and at a 9-week follow-up. Stress-induced changes in levels of key cytokines involved in stress and inflammatory processes (for example, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8) were assessed. Results Basal and stress-induced cytokine levels were not significantly different in patients in the intervention and control groups one week after treatment, but stress-induced IL-8 levels were lower in patients in the intervention group than in the control group at the follow-up assessment. Conclusions In line with our previous findings of lower stress-induced cortisol levels at the follow-up of stress management intervention, this is the first study to show that relatively short stress management training might also alter stress-induced IL-8 levels in patients with RA. These results might help to determine the role of immunological mediators in stress and disease. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR1193)

2013-01-01

120

Nutritional supplementation: the additional costs of managing children infected with HIV in resource-constrained settings  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the financial implications of applying the WHO guidelines for the nutritional management of HIV-infected children in a rural South African HIV programme. Methods WHO guidelines describe Nutritional Care Plans (NCPs) for three categories of HIV-infected children: NCP-A: growing adequately; NCP-B: weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) ??2 but no evidence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM), confirmed weight loss/growth curve flattening, or condition with increased nutritional needs (e.g. tuberculosis); NCP-C: SAM. In resource-constrained settings, children requiring NCP-B or NCP-C usually need supplementation to achieve the additional energy recommendation. We estimated the proportion of children initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Hlabisa HIV Programme who would have been eligible for supplementation in 2010. The cost of supplying 26-weeks supplementation as a proportion of the cost of supplying ART to the same group was calculated. Results A total of 251 children aged 6 months to 14 years initiated ART. Eighty-eight required 6-month NCP-B, including 41 with a WAZ ??2 (no evidence of SAM) and 47 with a WAZ >?2 with co-existent morbidities including tuberculosis. Additionally, 25 children had SAM and required 10-weeks NCP-C followed by 16-weeks NCP-B. Thus, 113 of 251 (45%) children were eligible for nutritional supplementation at an estimated overall cost of $11 136, using 2010 exchange rates. These costs are an estimated additional 11.6% to that of supplying 26-week ART to the 251 children initiated. Conclusions It is essential to address nutritional needs of HIV-infected children to optimise their health outcomes. Nutritional supplementation should be integral to, and budgeted for, in HIV programmes.

Cobb, G; Bland, R M

2013-01-01

121

Nutritional education for management of osteodystrophy (NEMO) trial: Design and patient characteristics, Lebanon.  

PubMed

THIS STUDY AIMS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF A TRAINED DEDICATED DIETITIAN ON CLINICAL OUTCOMES AMONG LEBANESE HEMODIALYSIS (HD) PATIENTS: and thus demonstrate a viable developing country model. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline data. The study was a multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel-group design involving 12 HD units: assigned to cluster A (n = 6) or B (n = 6). A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients in cluster A were randomly assigned as per dialysis shift to the following: Dedicated Dietitian (DD) (n = 133) and Existing Practice (EP) (n = 138) protocols. Cluster B patients (n = 299) received Trained Hospital Dietitian (THD) protocol. Dietitians of the DD and THD groups were trained by the research team on Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative nutrition guidelines. DD protocol included: individualized nutrition education for 2 hours/month/HD patient for 6 months focusing on renal osteodystrophy and using the Trans-theoretical theory for behavioral change. EP protocol included nutrition education given to patients by hospital dietitians who were blinded to the study. The THD protocol included nutrition education to patients given by hospital dietitian as per the training received but within hospital responsibilities, with no set educational protocol or tools. Baseline data revealed that 40% of patients were hyperphosphatemics (> 5.5 mg/dl) with low dietary adherence and knowledge of dietary P restriction in addition to inadequate daily protein intake (58.86%± 33.87% of needs) yet adequate dietary P intake (795.52 ± 366.94 mg/day). Quality of life (QOL) ranged from 48-75% of full health. Baseline differences between the 3 groups revealed significant differences in serum P, malnutrition status, adherence to diet and P chelators and in 2 factors of the QOL: physical and social functioning. The data show room for improvement in the nutritional status of the patients. The NEMO trial may be able to demonstrate a better nutritional management of HD patients. PMID:24611112

Karavetian, Mirey; Abboud, Saade; Elzein, Hafez; Haydar, Sarah; de Vries, Nanne

2014-02-01

122

Stress and Stress Management in Contemporary Adult Education: A Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress felt by older students in higher education should be addressed by educators and members of the helping professions. The word stress is related to "distress" and perhaps best describes what substantial numbers of adult learners experience when returning to school. For instance, researchers have found graduate students to be particularly…

Kosbab, F. Paul

123

Guidelines on nutritional management in Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis from the perspective of preventing hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Aim:? The Japanese Nutritional Study Group for Liver Cirrhosis (JNUS) was assembled in 2008 with the support of a Health Labor Sciences Research Grant from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. The goal of the study group was to propose new nutritional guidelines for Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), with the aim of preventing hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods:? Between 2008 and 2010, the member investigators of JNUS conducted various clinical and experimental studies on nutrition on LC. These included anthropometric studies, a questionnaire study on daily nutrient intake, clinical trials, experimental studies using animal models, re-evaluation of previous publications and patient education. Over this 3-year period, the group members regularly discussed the nutritional issues related to LC, and a proposal was finally produced. Results:? Based on the results of JNUS projects and discussions among the members, general recommendations were made on how Japanese patients with LC should be managed nutritionally. These recommendations were proposed with a specific regard to the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion:? The new JNUS guidelines on nutritional management for Japanese patients with LC will be useful for the actual nutritional management of patients with LC. The JNUS members hope that these guidelines will form the basis for future discussions and provide some direction in nutritional studies in the field of hepatology. PMID:22686857

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Endo, Ryujin; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazutomo; Shiraki, Ryo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Habu, Daiki; Saito, Masaki; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sakaida, Isao

2012-07-01

124

Nutritional supplement attenuates selected oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to test the hypothesis that nutritional supplement (AquADEKs; Axcan Scandipharm Inc., Birmingham, Ala, USA) with various pharmaceutical forms of such as chewable tablets, capsules, and liquid administered daily for 12 weeks would reduce oxidative stress and enhance antioxidant status in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A total of 50 patients with CF and 21 healthy children were included in the study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group A received supplementation with vitamins A (3 mg daily), E (200 mg daily), and D(3) (20 ?g daily); group B was supplemented with AquADEKs chewable tablets; group C received the recommended amount of AquADEKs capsules; and group D was supplemented with AquADEKs liquid. The level of oxidative stress was determined by the analysis of activities of enzymes neutralizing reactive oxygen species and by the estimated markers of intensity of free radical processes. There was no difference in the activity of erythrocyte catalase, hydroperoxides level, and sulfhydryl group content in blood plasma between patients with CF and healthy children. The plasma total antioxidant status was decreased in all CF groups compared with the control. The supplementation with either AquADEKs chewable tablets or capsules normalized the malondialdehyde level in plasma. AquADEKs in various pharmaceutical forms normalized the sulfhydryl group content of erythrocytes. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased to near control level in the patients supplemented with either AquADEKs chewable tablets or liquid as compared with the group supplemented with vitamins or with AquADEKs capsules. In conclusion, AquADEKs attenuates selected oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients with CF. PMID:21840467

Sadowska-Woda, Izabela; Rachel, Marta; Pazdan, Joanna; Bieszczad-Bedrejczuk, Edyta; Pawliszak, Katarzyna

2011-07-01

125

[Stress load of management personnel. Results of a survey].  

PubMed

Out of 258 managers with top or middle management jobs in industry and economics, 8% felt themselves as being very strongly under stress and a further 23% as being strongly under stress. Moreover, every tenth manager felt that he was powerless against his stress problems. In 38% the stress was compensated for by sporting activities, however, in 9% medication compensated for the stress, whereby only in half of the cases had the tablets been prescribed by a doctor. It is remarkable, that 10% of the managers interviewed had not had a holiday in the previous year and similarly 10% stated that they had no time for sport in their spare time. These persons had to be specially treated with "preventive" medical measures, especially since overweight, high blood pressure and a high tobacco consumption have to be taken into consideration in such cases, as shown by our comparative studies. PMID:6714892

Biener, K

1984-03-15

126

Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time. PMID:23822751

Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

2014-08-01

127

Current trends in pig nutrition at intensive or organic-farm management.  

PubMed

The paper presents some current problems related to pig nutrition at the intensive and organic rearing systems. Issues shared by both sectors of the pig management as well as specific organic feeding regimes are discussed. A growing concern in nutrient balance has been emphasized, especially protein digested in the caudal segment of the small intestine. Besides, the problems of animal welfare in both management systems were addressed along with the ban on growth promoter application (hormones and antibiotics) that appear to be redundant or even hazardous for human health. PMID:19227142

Grela, E R

2008-01-01

128

Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity--The Dietitians Role  

PubMed Central

Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process.

Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

2012-01-01

129

Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly.

Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

2002-01-01

130

Perspectives on the nutritional management of renal disease in Asia: people, practice, and programs.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many Asian countries is attributed to diabetes and hypertension. Health care expenditure in relation to per capita income and government share of this expenditure vary among Asian countries and are affected by large populations and the poverty factor. The impact of ESRD on nutritional management in Asia reveals the need for clinicians to balance the requirements for higher standards of dietetic practice as they implement optimal care algorithms with the goal of improving outcomes, against the backdrop of staffing limitations, limited expertise in renal nutrition practice, and cultural diversity among Asian people. This paper discusses current aspects of dietetic practice and the likelihood that a change in practice is required if dietitians are to play an active role in preventing or slowing down ESRD. PMID:17198942

Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Morad, Z

2007-01-01

131

Evaluation of nutritional and physical stress conditions during vegetative growth on conidial production and germination in Ophiocordyceps sinensis.  

PubMed

The influence of nutritional and physical stress on sporulation, conidial germination and vegetative biomass of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most important medicinal fungi in China and now globally, was evaluated using a two-stage culture method. All the treatments, except nutrient deprivation, enhanced conidial production and vegetative biomass to some extent. However, conidia produced under stress showed decreased germination in comparison with those continuously cultured on the enriched potato dextrose agar (PDA; as the control). Among 10 treatments tested, the physical stress of frozen-shock produced the largest number of conidia, 7.5 times higher than that of the control, followed by heat-shock treatment. These results demonstrate that the fungus has strong physiological adaptations to environmental stress that may have evolved because it is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. This report will be relevant to the study of the pathogenicity and artificial cultivation of this endangered fungus. PMID:23731440

Ren, Shu-Yu; Yao, Yi-Jian

2013-09-01

132

Rhizosphere carbon deposition, oxidative stress and nutritional changes in two poplar species exposed to aluminum.  

PubMed

Species and hybrids in the genus Populus have become the focus of investigation for use in biofuels production and their capacity to sequester carbon (C) in the environment. The identification of species resistant to marginal edaphic sites may be important in both of these endeavors. Plant growth, total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) and low molecular weight organic acid (OA) production, antioxidative enzyme activities and mineral content were assessed in Populus tremuloides L. and Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray seedlings under exposure to aluminum (Al). Both species were sensitive to Al, with significant reductions in shoot and root biomass at and above 50 microM Al. Exposure to Al induced 40-fold increases in TOC deposition in P. tremuloides and 100-fold increases in P. trichocarpa. In P. tremuloides, Al treatment induced root exudation of malic and citric acids, while Al increased exudation of citrate and oxalate in P. trichocarpa. Organic acids accounted for 20-64% of total C released upon Al exposure, with the proportion of OAs increasing in P. tremuloides and decreasing in P. trichocarpa. Dose-dependent responses of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in both root and leaf tissues, indicating that Al exposure induced oxidative stress in poplar. Treatment at and above 100 microM Al reduced the concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in roots and leaves, whereas Al at or above 50 microM reduced root and leaf phosphorous (P) concentrations. The majority of Al taken up was retained in the root system. Even with the induction of OA exudation and accumulation, P. tremuloides and P. trichocarpa remained sensitive to Al, as evidenced by elevated antioxidative enzyme activities, which may reflect inhibition of Ca or P uptake and destabilization of cell homeostasis in these poplar species. Although plants exhibited reductions in growth and evidence of oxidative and nutritional stress, total C rhizodeposition rates for both species increased with increasing Al exposure concentration. Estimated C deposition rates of 16 mg C plant(-1) day(-1) were four-times larger than previously reported values for forest tree species, indicating that edaphic stress plays an important role in C flux to the rhizosphere. PMID:19203961

Naik, Dhiraj; Smith, Ernest; Cumming, Jonathan R

2009-03-01

133

A Stress Management Course To Prevent Teacher Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a stress management course for teachers that taught sharing professional experiences with colleagues, identifying specific stress factors and possible coping strategies, replacing irrational beliefs with more appropriate beliefs, analyzing strategies for dealing with student discipline and motivation problems, and assertiveness and…

de Jesus, Saul Neves; Conboy, Joseph

2001-01-01

134

Decreasing Stress among Nurse Managers: A Long-Term Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hospital nursing managers (n=31) in a rural Texas hospital completed a self-paced module on stress and hardiness (beliefs related to control, commitment, and challenge). Pre/posttest scores showed the module had a significant effect on understanding of stress and coping and increased their hardiness levels. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

Judkins, Sharon K.; Ingram, Melba

2002-01-01

135

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

136

Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

2010-11-01

137

Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study.

Mark Hilary Van Benthem; Ryan W. Davis; James Bryce Ricken; Amy Jo Powell; Michael Robert Keenan

2008-01-01

138

Bioenergetic Response of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to Thermal and Nutritional Stresses  

PubMed Central

The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins, including a 62-kDa protein immunologically related to the molecular chaperone designated thermophilic factor 55 in Sulfolobus shibatae (J. D. Trent, J. Osipiuk, and T. Pinkau, J. Bacteriol. 172:1478-1484, 1990), on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The 62-kDa protein was also noted at elevated levels in cells that had been shifted from 70 to either 80 or 85(deg)C. The proton motive force ((Delta)p), transmembrane pH ((Delta)pH), and membrane potential ((Delta)(psi)) were determined for samples obtained from continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) and incubated under nutritionally and/or thermally stressed and unstressed conditions. At 70(deg)C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a (Delta)p of approximately -190 to -200 mV, the result of an intracellular pH of 5.4 (extracellular pH, 2.0) and a (Delta)(psi) of +40 to +50 mV (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85(deg)C, (Delta)(psi) decreased to nearly 0 mV and internal pH approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from 70 to 80(deg)C were shifted back to 70(deg)C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal pH increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, (Delta)(psi) remained close to 0 mV, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79(deg)C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73(deg)C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs.

Peeples, T. L.; Kelly, R. M.

1995-01-01

139

Management Styles, Mediating Variables, and Stress among HRD Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 355 valid responses from 1,000 human resource professionals showed that specific variables predicted stress according to the management style of respondents' managers (authoritative, benevolent, consultative, participative). Self-esteem, locus of control, and Type A behavior were consistent predictors. (SK)

Lind, Susan L.; Otte, Fred L.

1994-01-01

140

Stress management interventions in the workplace improve stress reactivity: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the long-term effects of a stress management intervention (SMI) based on the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model, on psychological and biological reactions to work stress.Methods174 lower or middle management employees (99% male) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a waiting control group. The programme comprised 24×45 min group sessions (2 full days followed by two 4×45 min sessions

Heribert Limm; Harald Gündel; Mechthild Heinmüller; Birgitt Marten-Mittag; Urs M Nater; Johannes Siegrist; Peter Angerer

2010-01-01

141

Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

2011-07-01

142

Stress management and multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

There is a well-established adverse reciprocal relationship between stress and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, stress management in these patients has been parsimoniously studied. In this parallel randomized controlled trial, relapsing-remitting MS patients were randomly assigned to undergo either an 8-week stress management program (n=31; relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day) or not (n=30). Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, anxiety, and depression. Daily diaries of MS symptoms were also kept by patients. In patients in the intervention group, perceived stress and symptoms of depression were significantly decreased after 8 weeks of relaxation. Repeated measures analyses showed significant group-by-time interactions for both the number of weekly symptoms and the mean intensity per symptom. No other significant change was reported. We deem that our results should encourage future studies that will incorporate more objective clinical and laboratory outcomes. PMID:22491729

Artemiadis, Artemios K; Vervainioti, Angeliki A; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Rombos, Antonis; Anagnostouli, Maria C; Darviri, Christina

2012-06-01

143

Stress Reduction for Family Caregivers in Chronic Mental Illness: Implications of a Work Stress Management Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several studies involving a total of 291 family caregivers for schizophrenia sufferers, the stressors that arise from caregiving were identified. Also identified were the outcomes for caregivers, which often include psychological distress. Caregivers develop various stress-reduction techniques, but this article explores the utility of applying the principles of work stress management to caregiver well-being. An organizational psychology perspective suggests

Helen R. Winefield

2000-01-01

144

Immune system function, stress, exercise and nutrition profile can affect pregnancy outcome: Lessons from a Mediterranean cohort.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is associated with major physiological and future psychosocial changes, and maternal adaptation to these changes is crucial for normal foetal development. Psychological stress in pregnancy predicts an earlier birth and lower birth weight. Pregnancy-specific stress contributes directly to preterm delivery. The importance of nutrition and exercise during pregnancy with regard to pregnancy outcome has long been acknowledged. This importance has only been further emphasized by the recent changes in food quality and availability, lifestyle changes and a new understanding of foetal programming's effects on adult outcomes. We hypothesised that for a successful pregnancy certain events at a nutritional, immune, psycho-emotional and genetic level should be tightly linked. Therefore, in this study we followed an 'integrative' approach to investigate how maternal stress, nutrition, pregnancy planning and exercise influence pregnancy outcome. A key finding of our study is that there was a significant reduction in the intake of alcohol, caffeine-containing and sugary drinks during pregnancy. However, passive smoking in the household remained unchanged. In terms of immune profile, a significant inverse correlation was noted between difficulty to 'fight' an infection and number of colds (r=-0.289, P=0.003) as well as the number of infections (r=-0.446, P<0.0001) during pregnancy. The vast majority of the pregnant women acquired a more sedentary lifestyle in the third trimester. In planned, but not in unplanned, pregnancies stress predicted infant weight, independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Notably, in mothers with negative attitudes towards the pregnancy, those with an unplanned pregnancy gave birth to infants with significantly higher weights than those with planned pregnancies. Collectively these data suggest that there is a higher order of complexity, possibly involving gene-environment interactions that work together to ensure a positive outcome for the mother as well as the foetus. PMID:23404257

Mparmpakas, D; Goumenou, A; Zachariades, E; Pados, G; Gidron, Y; Karteris, E

2013-02-01

145

The masticatory organ and stress management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In humans, the strong grinding and clenching function of the masticatory muscles known as bruxism has been thought to play\\u000a an important role in mitigating stress-induced psychosomatic disorders by down-regulating the limbic system, the autonomic\\u000a nervous system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Experimental research results showed that bruxism-like activity\\u000a has beneficial effects on stress-induced reactions such as increasing expression of Fos

S. Sato; R. Slavicek

2008-01-01

146

Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: An evidence- and consensus-based approach.  

PubMed

In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

2014-07-01

147

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

148

Agricultural Hazards Reduction Through Stress Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a community based program to reduce farm hazards through recognition and training about the role of stress in farm health and safety. Through data from focus groups and a questionnaire administered at the 1993 Agricultural Exposition in Spokane, Washington it was hypothesized that occupational stres-sors are perceived by farmers to be significantly related to farm injuries. Farm-related

Pamela Dee Elkind; John E. Carlson; Barbara Schnabel

1998-01-01

149

Stress Management for Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook was designed to provide a basic introduction to and understanding of stress and its impact upon children. Several coping techniques for children are presented along with the methods with which to teach them. These techniques are intended to provide a resource for school psychologists working with children and adolescents who are…

Sensor, M. Carol

150

The conservative management of genuine stress incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

All conservative methods of treating genuine stress incontinence (GSI) aim to increase the urethral closure pressure, either by increasing pelvic floor or urethral muscular tone (pelvic floor physiotherapy, electrostimulation, alpha-adrenergic agents), increasing tissue occlusive forces (hormone replacement) or by mechanical means. Simple pelvic floor exercises should suffice for motivated patients who are able to isolate the correct muscles. In the

K. S. Olfih; N. Bridges; D. Farrar

1991-01-01

151

COPD - managing stress and your mood  

MedlinePLUS

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vancouver (WA): Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD); ...

152

Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.  

PubMed

Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

2014-01-01

153

Bioenergetic response of the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses  

SciTech Connect

The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70{degrees}C, and dilution rate of 0.05h{sup {minus}1}) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins. At 70{degrees}C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a {triangle}p of approximately -190 to -200{sub m}V, the result of an intracellular {sub p}H of 5.4 (extracellular {sub p}H, 2.0) and a {triangle}{Psi} of +40 to +50 {sub m}V, (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85{degrees}C, {triangle}{Psi} decreased to nearly 0 {sub m}V and internal {sub p}H approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from ;70 to 80{degrees}C were shifted back to 70{degrees}C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal {sub p}H increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, {triangle}{Psi} remained close to 9 {sub m}V, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79{degrees}C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73{degrees}C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Peeples, T.L. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Kelly, R.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

154

Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate  

PubMed Central

This statement is intended for health care professionals caring for neonates (preterm to one month of age). The objectives of this statement are to: increase awareness that neonates experience pain; provide a physiological basis for neonatal pain and stress assessment and management by health care professionals; make recommendations for reduced exposure of the neonate to noxious stimuli and to minimize associated adverse outcomes; and recommend effective and safe interventions that relieve pain and stress.

2000-01-01

155

RelA is a component of the nutritional stress activation pathway of the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor sigma B.  

PubMed

The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis is induced by the activation of the sigma(B) transcription factor. Activation of sigma(B) occurs when one of two phosphatases (RsbU and RsbP), each responding to a unique type of stress, actuates a positive regulator of sigma(B) by dephosphorylation. Nutritional stress triggers the RsbP phosphatase. The mechanism by which RsbP becomes active is unknown; however, its activation coincides with culture conditions that are likely to reduce the cell's levels of high-energy nucleotides. We now present evidence that RelA, a (p)ppGpp synthetase and the key enzyme of the stringent response, plays a role in nutritional stress activation of sigma(B). An insertion mutation that disrupts relA blocks the activation of sigma(B) in response to PO(4) or glucose limitation and inhibits the drop in ATP/GTP levels that normally accompanies sigma(B) induction under these conditions. In contrast, the activation of sigma(B) by physical stress (e.g., ethanol treatment) is not affected by the loss of RelA. RelA's role in sigma(B) activation appears to be distinct from its participation in the stringent response. Amino acid analogs which induce the stringent response and RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp synthesis do not trigger sigma(B) activity. In addition, neither a missense mutation in relA (relA240GE) nor a null mutation in rplK (rplK54), either of which is sufficient to inhibit the stringent response and RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp synthesis, fails to block sigma(B) activation by PO(4) or glucose limitation. PMID:13129942

Zhang, Shuyu; Haldenwang, W G

2003-10-01

156

Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

2008-08-01

157

Acid stress management by Cronobacter sakazakii.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogenic microorganism associated with sporadic cases of neonatal meningitis, necrotising enterocolitis, septicaemia, bloody diarrhoea and brain abscesses acquired through the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). This study aimed to investigate the growth of C. sakazakii DPC6529, a particularly stress tolerant clinical isolate, in acidified laboratory media and PIF. The possibility of a stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) was also investigated. C. sakazakii DPC6529 grew in LB broth acidified to pH4.2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and was capable of relatively fast growth in PIF acidified to pH5.0 with HCl, representing the stomach pH reported for newborns and infants. Moreover, bacterial growth in LB broth supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose gave rise to a stationary-phase ATR which resulted in enhanced survival against a subsequent acid challenge at pH3.0. A transposon mutagenesis approach was used to shed light on some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response C. sakazakii DPC6529 to normally lethal acid exposures. The data suggests that repairing damage in proteins and nucleic acids, posttranscriptional modification of tRNA molecules and maintenance of the integrity of the cellular envelope are key processes in the defence against acid stress. Clones carrying transposon insertions in genes encoding the envelope stress response regulators CpxR and OmpR were identified as acid-sensitive mutants. Further analyses of the ompR defective mutant and its complemented counterpart evidenced that OmpR is a key player in the response of C. sakazakii to acid stress, although it was not essential to mount an active stationary-phase ATR, at least under the tested conditions. The ability of C. sakazakii DPC6529 to grow in acid environments and to develop an adaptive stationary-phase ATR may allow for its survival or even proliferation within the infant gastrointestinal tract after consumption of contaminated milk formulae. PMID:24667315

Alvarez-Ordóńez, Avelino; Cummins, Conor; Deasy, Thérčse; Clifford, Tanya; Begley, Mįire; Hill, Colin

2014-05-16

158

The Involvement of Glutamate Metabolism in the Resistance to Thermal, Nutritional, and Oxidative Stress in Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

The inhibition of some glutamate metabolic pathways could lead to diminished parasite survival. In this study, the effects of L-methionine sulfoximine (MS), DL-methionine sulfone (MSO), and DL-methionine sulfoxide (MSE), three glutamate analogs, on several biological processes were evaluated. We found that these analogs inhibited the growth of epimastigotes cells and showed a synergistic effect with stress conditions such as temperature, nutritional starvation, and oxidative stress. The specific activity for the reductive amination of ?-ketoglutaric acid, catalyzed by the NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, showed an increase in the NADP+ levels, when MS, MSE, and MSO were added. It suggests an eventual conversion of the compounds tested by the T. cruzi cells. The fact that trypomastigote bursting was not significantly inhibited when infected cells were treated with these compounds, remarks the existence of relevant metabolic differences among the different life-cycle stages. It must be considered when proposing a new therapeutic drug.

Magdaleno, Anahi; Suarez Mantilla, Brian; Rocha, Sandra C.; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Silber, Ariel M.

2011-01-01

159

Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health.  

PubMed

Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements. PMID:20711440

Ahmed, Tanvir; Haboubi, Nadim

2010-01-01

160

Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.  

PubMed

A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required. PMID:22576135

Guenthner, Daniel H

2012-01-01

161

Structural linear relationships between job stress, burnout, physiological stress, and performance of construction project managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Construction is a competitive, ever-changing, and challenging industry. Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of construction professionals suffer from stress, especially construction project managers (C-PMs), who are often driven by the time pressures, uncertainties, crisis-ridden environment, and dynamic social structures that are intrinsic to every construction project. Extensive literature has indicated that stress can be categorized

Mei-yung Leung; Yee Shan Isabelle Chan; Chen Dongyu

2011-01-01

162

Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.  

PubMed

Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n?=?75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n?=?42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

2013-01-01

163

Salicylic acid and the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog are involved in poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering of Pharbitis nil.  

PubMed

The short-day plants Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil), var. Violet and Tendan were grown in a diluted nutrient solution or tap water for 20 days under long-day conditions. Violet plants were induced to flower and vegetative growth was inhibited, whereas Tendan plants were not induced to flower, although vegetative growth was inhibited under these conditions. The Violet plants induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress produced fertile seeds and their progeny developed normally. Defoliated Violet scions grafted onto the rootstocks of Violet or Tendan were induced to flower under poor-nutrition stress conditions, but Tendan scions grafted onto the Violet rootstocks were not induced to flower. These results indicate that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in the induction of flowering by poor-nutrition stress. The poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor, and this inhibition was almost completely reversed by salicylic acid (SA). However, exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions, suggesting that SA may be necessary but not sufficient to induce flowering. PnFT2, a P. nil ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the Violet plants were induced to flower by growing in tap water, but expression of PnFT1, another ortholog of FT, was not induced, suggesting the specific involvement of PnFT2 in stress-induced flowering. PMID:19906461

Wada, Kaede C; Yamada, Mizuki; Shiraya, Takeshi; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

2010-04-15

164

Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans.

Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

2013-01-01

165

Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs' apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and 'necroapoptophagy'. The concept of 'necroapoptophagy' is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967

Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

2013-08-01

166

Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach.

Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabre, Mateu; Campins, Lluis; Garcia-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renee; Clave, Pere

2011-01-01

167

Psychological and Physiological Effects of a Stress Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in health promotion has resulted in various programs designed to enhance health and prevent disease through changes in lifestyles. The effects of a widely used stress management program were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, office employees in treatment (N=21) and control (N=24) groups were administered the State-Trait Anxiety…

Wheeler, Robert J.; Munz, David C.

168

Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management  

PubMed Central

Background: The main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. Results: A third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. Conclusion: Hospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention.

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2013-01-01

169

A retrospective study on the influence of nutritional status on pain management in cancer patients using the transdermal fentanyl patch.  

PubMed

It is unknown whether nutritional status influences pain intensity in cancer patients receiving a transdermal fentanyl patch (FP). This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status is associated with pain intensity and to evaluate the influence of changes in nutritional status on pain intensity in cancer patients receiving transdermal FP treatment. We included 92 patients receiving transdermal FP treatment for the first time with switching from oxycodone. The patients were classified into low- and normal-nutrition groups based on their nutritional status, which was assessed according to the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) parameters. The pain intensity of each patient was evaluated by a numeric rating scale (11-point scale from 0 to 10). NRS 2002 score and pain intensity were obtained on day 3 after the FP was applied to the skin. Pain intensities were significantly higher among patients in the low-nutrition group than among patients in the normal-nutrition group. NRS 2002 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the pain intensities. In 52 of 92 patients, who were evaluated using the NRS 2002 score and pain intensity on day 30 after FP application, the changes in NRS 2002 scores were significantly related to changes in pain intensities (odds ratio, 30.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.48-200.97; p=0.0005). These results suggest that an increase in the NRS 2002 score is a risk factor for an increase in pain intensity in cancer patients receiving FP treatment. Malnutrition may lead to poor pain management in cancer patients receiving FP treatment. PMID:24790008

Takahashi, Hiroaki; Chiba, Takeshi; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Kimura, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Go; Takahashi, Katsuo; Kudo, Kenzo

2014-01-01

170

The ABCs of Stress Management: A Little Stress Is Good For You, If You Know How To Handle It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to manage stress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…

Kelehear, Zach

2005-01-01

171

[Management of stressing events and prevention of post-traumatic stress in the railroad setting].  

PubMed

The paper addresses the proper management of events that can lead to post traumatic stress, that are the situations where: the person experienced or witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. This document results from a collation of the knowledge acquired by railway undertakings and infrastructure managers on the management and prevention of post-traumatic stress. Having surveyed the various strategies for the management of post-traumatic stress as these are applied in the participating countries, a number of recommendations and best practices were identified and these are presented in this guide. This guide comprises two parts: * A theoretical document comprising several parts: Part one deals with the fundamental notions involved in post-traumatic stress and potentially traumatic events; Part two deals with a strategy for managing potentially traumatic events and sets out a reference framework to this end. This strategy is broken down into five key phases: risk assessment, preparation and prevention, intervention, post-intervention and follow-up, appraisal, including reports from experience. Practical "check sheets" stating the key messages to be understood and/or the specific actions to be taken before, during or after a potentially traumatic event. These sheets are intended for operational staff, managers, directors and support workers. This guide was prepared by a working group under the supervision of the UIC Safety Platform's Occupational Health and Safety Group (OHSG). The working group brought together psychologists, occupational physicians, ergonomists, safety experts, managers and safety directors. It is the fruit of interdisciplinary collaboration, marrying the concerns, needs and knowledge of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers from a variety of European countries. PMID:23405657

del Nord, P

2012-01-01

172

Sesame oil mitigates nutritional steatohepatitis via attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation: a tale of two-hit hypothesis.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common chronic liver disorder worldwide, comprises conditions from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sesame oil, a healthful food, increases resistance to oxidative stress, inflammation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. We investigated the protective effect of sesame oil against nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 28 days to induce NASH. Sesame oil (1 and 2 ml/kg) was treated from 22nd to 28th day. Body weight, steatosis, triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-?, interlukin-6, interleukin-1?, leptin, and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were assessed after 28 days. All tested parameters were higher in MCD-fed mice than in normal control mice. Mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks showed severe liver injury with steatosis, oxidative stress, and necrotic inflammation. In sesame-oil-treated mice, all tested parameters were significantly attenuated compared with MCD-alone mice. Sesame oil inhibited oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, leptin, and TGF-?1 in MCD-fed mice. In addition, histological analysis showed that sesame oil provided significant protection against fibrotic collagen. We conclude that sesame oil protects against steatohepatitic fibrosis by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, leptin and TGF-?1. PMID:24445049

Periasamy, Srinivasan; Chien, Se-Ping; Chang, Po-Cheng; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

2014-02-01

173

RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

174

Glycyrrhizin Represses Total Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Acute Liver Injury in Rats by Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

PubMed Central

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress.

Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

175

An online stress management workbook for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral stress management groups have been shown to be decrease psychological symptoms and increase adaptive coping in breast cancer patients, but dissemination of this effective intervention has been challenging. The goal of the present project was to develop an online cognitive behavioral stress management intervention for early stage breast cancer survivors and evaluate its effectiveness using a 2 group × 3 time randomized, waitlist-controlled design. Intervention and waitlist control group participants were assessed at three time points: at baseline; at 10 weeks, after which only intervention participants had used the workbook; and at 20 weeks, after which both groups had used the workbook. Results indicate that at 10 weeks intervention participants showed improved self-efficacy for coping with their cancer and for regulating negative mood and lower levels of cancer-related post-traumatic symptoms as compared to the control group, suggesting that an internet stress management intervention could be effective for helping breast cancer patients increase their confidence in their ability to cope with stress. PMID:23212928

Carpenter, Kelly M; Stoner, Susan A; Schmitz, KrisAnn; McGregor, Bonnie A; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

2014-06-01

176

Occupational Stress in Secondary Education in Cyprus: Causes, Symptoms, Consequences and Stress Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The survey attempted to look into the causes, symptoms and consequences that occupational stress has on teachers in Secondary Education in Cyprus and find ways to manage it. Thirty eight schools with 553 teachers participated in the survey. The sample chosen is a result of a simple random sampling and it is representative of the country's…

Hadjisymeou, Georgia

2010-01-01

177

Nutrition, management and other environmental influences on the quality and production of mohair and cashmere: A review with particular reference to mediterranean and annual temperate climatic zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat fibre production is affected by genetic and environmental influences. Environmental influences which are the subject of this review include bio–geophysical factors (photoperiod, climate–herbage system and soil–plant trace nutrient composition), nutrition factors and management factors. Nutrition and management influences discussed include rate of stocking, supplementary feeding of energy and protein, liveweight change, parturition and management during shearing. While experimental data

B. A McGregor

1998-01-01

178

Ammonium nutrition increases water absorption in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa L.) under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress is a primary limitation on plant growth. In previous studies, it has been found that ammonium enhances the tolerance\\u000a of rice plants to water stress, but how water is related to nitrogen form and water stress remains unknown. To study the effects\\u000a of nitrogen form (NH4+, NO3?, and a mixture of NH4+ and NO3?) on the growth and

Yingxu Gao; Yong Li; Xiuxia Yang; Haijun Li; Qirong Shen; Shiwei Guo

2010-01-01

179

Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies.  

PubMed

In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than is the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in wholegrains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts; moderate in alcohol consumption; and lower in refined grains, red or processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and improve glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. With an emphasis on overall diet quality, several dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, low glycaemic index, moderately low carbohydrate, and vegetarian diets can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although much progress has been made in development and implementation of evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted worldwide efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

Ley, Sylvia H; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, Viswanathan; Hu, Frank B

2014-06-01

180

Nutritional management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and pharmacologic therapies to facilitate weight loss.  

PubMed

Diet plays an integral role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Unfortunately, many patients with T2DM do not have access to a registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator, and rates of physician counseling about diet remain low. This article provides an overview of the current recommendations for the nutritional management of T2DM, which are endorsed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Medical nutrition therapy, which provides a flexible and individualized approach to diet, emphasizes the total number (rather than the type) of carbohydrate consumed. Because fat intake also affects glycemia and cardiovascular risk, a reduction in daily mono- and polyunsaturated fat intake is recommended for most patients with T2DM. Weight loss plays an important adjunct role in treating patients with T2DM, because the majority of individuals with T2DM are overweight or obese. Patient lifestyle modification, which encompasses diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, can be used to facilitate weight loss in conjunction with several different dietary approaches. These include low-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-glycemic index, and Mediterranean diets. Studies have demonstrated that modest weight loss (5%-10% of body weight) is associated with significant improvements in patient measures of glycemic control, lipids, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, a modest weight loss of as little as 4.5 kg can result in reducing the glycated hemoglobin level by approximately 0.5%. Pharmacologic agents, when combined with these approaches, may further augment weight loss. Familiarity with these principles can help physicians provide dietary counseling to their patients with T2DM and obesity. PMID:24393761

Vetter, Marion L; Amaro, Anastassia; Volger, Sheri

2014-01-01

181

The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

2012-01-01

182

The Impact of Stress Management Training on the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the impact of stress management training as part of an academic skills training program upon students' (N=22) self-reported symptoms of stress and academic performance. Results indicated that success-stress management treatment was more effective in reducing stress and increasing academic performance than success treatment alone. (LLL)

Williams, John M.; And Others

1983-01-01

183

Trait Anxiety Reductions in a Substance Abuse Population Trained in Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…

Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George

1982-01-01

184

Effects of nutritional antioxidants on AAPH- or AGEs-induced oxidative stress in human SW872 liposarcoma cells.  

PubMed

High levels of oxidative stress were reported in obesity-linked type 2 diabetes and were associated with elevated formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Many studies have focused on the effect of antioxidants on vascular and circulating cells such as macrophages. However, despite the major role of adipocytes in the etiology of diabetes, little is known about the effect of natural antioxidants on adipocyte response to oxidative stress. The present study reports the differential protective effects of plant nutrients toward adipose cells subjected to oxidative stress. Caffeic acid, quercetin, L: -ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol were tested on SW872 liposarcoma cells subjected to a free radical generator or to AGEs. Proliferation, viability, free radical formation, and superoxide dismutase expression were assessed in treated cells. Caffeic acid and quercetin appeared as the most potent antioxidant nutrients. Our findings clearly show a novel antioxidant role for caffeic acid and quercetin at the adipose tissue level. These new data confirm the beneficial role of phytotherapy as an interesting alternative mean for the development of novel therapeutical and nutritional strategy to prevent metabolic disorders inherent to obesity-linked diabetes. PMID:19152116

Roche, Marjolaine; Tarnus, Evelyne; Rondeau, Philippe; Bourdon, Emmanuel

2009-12-01

185

Stress and Nutrition During Alcohol Dependence And Withdrawal: A Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

During attempts to achieve and maintain sobriety, humans with a history of alcohol dependence struggle with symptoms including stress hypersensitivity and eating disruption. Rat models can help to develop treatment protocols that ease symptoms and thus increase the likelihood of success. The present study examined: how protracted alcohol exposure affects chow consumption and body weight; withdrawal stress; and whether exposure

Patricia ONeill

2003-01-01

186

Antioxidant mobilization in response to oxidative stress: a dynamic environmental–nutritional interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s society, human activities and lifestyles generate numerous forms of environmental oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as a process in which the balance between oxidants and antioxidants is shifted toward the oxidant side. This shift can lead to antioxidant depletion and potentially to biological damage if the body has an insufficient reserve to compensate for consumed antioxidants. This

Nabil M. Elsayed

2001-01-01

187

Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.

Basu, Maya; Duckett, Jonathan RA

2009-01-01

188

Managing traumatic stress in children anticipating parental death.  

PubMed

QUALITATIVE EVIDENCE drawn from a community study of 58 parentally bereaved school-age children and their surviving parents provides a descriptive exploration of one of the most difficult challenges faced by families in anticipated deaths: managing the stress of a child's exposure to the graphic physical, emotional, and mental deterioration of the dying parent. The concept of traumatic stress is broadly defined to include exposure to the "fact" of impending death itself, that is, the anxiety that comes from knowing that one may lose a close other. Included, as well, is an exploration of secondary traumatic stress, defined here to cover the notion of the stress of watching other loved ones in the family succumb to terror and anxiety about the impending death. Emphasis is placed on a child's unique vulnerability to traumatic stressors and on the role of parenting in mediating child exposure to parental decline. In contrast to the anticipatory grief literature which emphasizes the advantages of forewarning in cushioning postmortem adjustment, this study documents the adverse impact of a child's exposure to graphic stimuli. These findings underscore the need for clinicians to attend to the traumatic stress of "ordinary" anticipated deaths, rather than maintaining an exclusive grief orientation. PMID:12868295

Saldinger, Amy; Cain, Albert; Porterfield, Katherine

2003-01-01

189

Easing the burden of stress. A stress management program can help eldercare professionals cope.  

PubMed

Healthcare professionals in general, and those who care for the elderly in particular, must cope with a number of stressors in the working environment. Moreover, because care givers tend to put others' needs before their own, they often place an added burden of stress on themselves. Eldercare professionals must often forego the reward of finding a cure for their patients. In addition, the persons they care for can sometimes become overly dependent, depressed, unappreciative, self-centered, and demanding. The daily effort to deflect or diffuse this negative energy can take its toll on care givers, leading to coping deficiencies that themselves increase workplace tension and stress. Not only individuals, but entire departments can develop dysfunctional reactions to stress. To break this vicious cycle and improve workplace morale, facilities can implement stress management programs. As part of such a program, supervisors and managers identify stressors in the environment and suggest ways to alleviate or eliminate their effects. Once morale improves, coordinators should shift the program's focus to maintaining employee morale. PMID:10108426

Johnson, R P

1991-01-01

190

Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone.  

PubMed

The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated dairy production systems. Whether sustainable production methods will be implemented also depends on macro-economic conditions and awareness of regional and global environmental concerns. PMID:23031652

van Vuuren, A M; Chilibroste, P

2013-03-01

191

A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

2013-01-01

192

The Effects of a High School Stress Management Unit on Student's Heart Rate and Muscle Tension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempted to determine effectiveness of three-week stress management unit for high school students. Measures of heart rate and muscle tension were used to determine the amount of control demonstrated during a period of relaxation and a period of induced stress. Results of the study indicate that a stress management unit for high school students…

Richardson, Glenn E.; And Others

1982-01-01

193

Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea.

Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

2013-01-01

194

[The trajectory of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program between 2003 and 2010: report of the national manager].  

PubMed

The scope of this paper is to study the report of the manager of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE), with special emphasis on the period from 2003 to 2010. It is a critical essay based on a review of the literature and the official data. It was revealed that the program spent 954.2 million Brazilian reals in 2003 to assist 37.3 million students, and in 2010 the total resources increased to 3 billion Brazilian reals with 45.6 million students attended. Other important advances were the broadening and strengthening of the role of the School Nutrition Councils and the regulatory strategies of nutritionists as Accountable Technicians. Law No. 11.947/2009 gave a new impetus to the PNAE, extending the program to the entire basic public education grid and youths and adults, and recommending that 30% of the funds transferred from the FNDE should be used to acquire products from small farmers. The progress in technical and operational criteria seeking greater flexibility, efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the Program is clear for all to see. It is hoped that these advances will translate into effective improvement in food and nutrition conditions for schoolchildren. PMID:23670366

Peixinho, Albaneide Maria Lima

2013-04-01

195

The assessment of oxidative stress in clinical practice and its importance in nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased production of oxidative chemical species (OCS) and\\/or a decreased effi- cacy of antioxidant systems (AOS) can lead to the breakdown of the oxidative balance, thus gener- ating the so-called oxidative stress, which is generally recognized as playing a relevant pathogenic role in early aging and in several inflammatory and\\/or degenerative diseases including atheroscle- rosis and hypertension (and their

N. REGANO; E. L. IORIO; A. GUGLIELMI; S. MAZZUOLI; A. FRANCAVILLA; S. FREGNAN; G. LEOGRANDE; F. W. GUGLIELMI

2008-01-01

196

Improved nutritional management of phenylketonuria by using a diet containing glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids  

PubMed Central

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) requires a lifelong low-phenylalanine diet that provides the majority of protein from a phenylalanine-free amino acid (AA) formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein formed during cheese production, contains minimal phenylalanine. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effects of substituting GMP food products for the AA formula on acceptability, safety, plasma AA concentrations, and measures of protein utilization in subjects with PKU. Design: Eleven subjects participated in an inpatient metabolic study with two 4-d treatments: a current AA diet (AA diet) followed by a diet that replaced the AA formula with GMP (GMP diet) supplemented with limiting AAs. Plasma concentrations of AAs, blood chemistries, and insulin were measured and compared in AA (day 4) and GMP diets (day 8). Results: The GMP diet was preferred to the AA diet in 10 of 11 subjects with PKU, and there were no adverse reactions to GMP. There was no significant difference in phenylalanine concentration in postprandial plasma with the GMP diet compared with the AA diet. When comparing fasting with postprandial plasma, plasma phenalyalanine concentration increased significantly with the AA but not with the GMP diet. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower, which suggests decreased ureagenesis, and plasma insulin was higher with the GMP diet than with the AA diet. Conclusions: GMP, when supplemented with limiting AAs, is a safe and highly acceptable alternative to synthetic AAs as the primary protein source in the nutritional management of PKU. As an intact protein source, GMP improves protein retention and phenylalanine utilization compared with AAs.

van Calcar, Sandra C; MacLeod, Erin L; Gleason, Sally T; Etzel, Mark R; Clayton, Murray K; Wolff, Jon A; Ney, Denise M

2009-01-01

197

A Review of Foods for Medical Purposes: Specially Formulated Products for Nutritional Management of Medical Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the history, current status, and expected development of special dietary products intended for use under medical supervision. Proposed definitions are presented for these products, which have been designated medical foods. The nutrition...

K. D. Fisher J. M. Talbot C. J. Carr

1977-01-01

198

Management of Stress in Corrections. Participant's Handbook. Criminal Justice Research Utilization Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbooks for participants contains materials for a three-day workshop on stress management in corrections. The workshop is intended for correctional administrators and managers, to enable them to produce a stress-management plan for identifying and remedying such problems as employee disability, alcoholism, drug abuse, and distressed…

Dahl, James J.

199

Stressful Dieting: Nutritional Conditions but Not Compensatory Growth Elevate Corticosterone Levels in Zebra Finch Nestlings and Fledglings  

PubMed Central

Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species. As nestlings (day 0–17) or fledglings (day 17–35), subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

Honarmand, Mariam; Goymann, Wolfgang; Naguib, Marc

2010-01-01

200

Carotenoid and lipid production by the autotrophic microalga Chlorella protothecoides under nutritional, salinity, and luminosity stress conditions.  

PubMed

Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source for high-value products. The specie Chlorella protothecoides (Cp), heterotrophically grown, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of lutein and fatty acids (FA) and has a good profile for biodiesel production. This work studies carotenoid and FA production by autotrophic grown Cp. Cp was grown until the medium's nitrogen was depleted, then diluted in NaCl solution, resulting in nutritional, luminosity, and salinity stresses. Different NaCl concentrations were tested (10, 20, 30 g/L) at two different dilutions. After dilution, a color shifting from green to orange-red was noticed, showing carotenoid production. The best production of both carotenoids and FA was attained with a 20 g/L NaCl solution. The total carotenoid content was 0.8 % w/w (canthaxanthin (23.3 %), echinenone (14.7 %), free astaxanthin (7.1 %), and lutein/zeaxanthin (4.1 %)). Furthermore, the total lipid content reached 43.4 % w/w, with a FA composition of C18:1 (33.64 %), C16:0 (23.30 %), C18:2 (11.53 %), and less than 12 % of C18:3, which is needed to fulfill the biodiesel quality specifications (EN 14214). PMID:23160982

Campenni', L; Nobre, B P; Santos, C A; Oliveira, A C; Aires-Barros, M R; Palavra, A M F; Gouveia, L

2013-02-01

201

Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus)  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. We also investigated whether seasonal changes in host behaviour, physiology and demography affect host–pathogen dynamics. Data showed that pregnant and lactating females had significantly higher risk of infection, which may explain previously observed temporal associations between HeV outbreaks and flying fox birthing periods. Age-specific seroprevalence curves generated from field data imply that HeV is transmitted horizontally via faeces, urine or saliva. Rapidly declining seroprevalence between two field seasons suggests that immunity wanes faster in LRFF than in other flying fox species, and highlights the potentially critical role of this species in interspecific viral persistence. The highest seroprevalence was observed when animals showed evidence of nutritional stress, suggesting that environmental processes that alter flying fox food sources, such as habitat loss and climate change, may increase HeV infection and transmission. These insights into the ecology of HeV in flying fox populations suggest causal links between anthropogenic environmental change and HeV emergence.

Plowright, Raina K; Field, Hume E; Smith, Craig; Divljan, Anja; Palmer, Carol; Tabor, Gary; Daszak, Peter; Foley, Janet E

2008-01-01

202

The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes pig health, reduces performance variables, and results in a fatter carcass. Whether HS directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) is responsible for the suboptimal production is not known. Crossbred gilts (n = 48; 35 ± 4 kg BW) were housed in constantly climate-controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal-neutral (TN) conditions (20°C; 35% to 50% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 18), 2) HS conditions (35°C; 20% to 35% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 24), or 3) pair-fed [PF in TN conditions (PFTN), n = 6, to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake (FI)]. Pigs in the TN and HS conditions were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure, whereas the PFTN pigs were sacrificed after 7 d of experimental conditions. Individual rectal temperature (Tr), skin temperature (Ts), respiration rates (RR), and FI were determined daily. Pigs exposed to HS had an increase (P < 0.01) in Tr (39.3°C vs. 40.8°C) and a doubling in RR (54 vs. 107 breaths per minute). Heat-stressed pigs had an immediate (d 1) decrease (47%; P < 0.05) in FI, and this magnitude of reduction continued through d 7; by design the nutrient intake pattern for the PFTN controls mirrored the HS group. By d 7, the TN and HS pigs gained 7.76 and 1.65 kg BW, respectively, whereas the PFTN pigs lost 2.47 kg BW. Plasma insulin was increased (49%; P < 0.05) in d 7 HS pigs compared with PFTN controls. Compared with TN and HS pigs, on d 7 PFTN pigs had increased plasma NEFA concentrations (110%; P < 0.05). Compared with TN and PFTN controls, on d 7 circulating N(?)-methylhistidine concentrations were increased (31%; P < 0.05) in HS pigs. In summary, despite similar nutrient intake, HS pigs gained more BW and had distinctly different postabsorptive bioenergetic variables compared with PFTN controls. Consequently, these heat-induced metabolic changes may in part explain the altered carcass phenotype observed in heat-stressed pigs. PMID:23463563

Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Ross, J W; Escobar, J; Patience, J F; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

2013-05-01

203

Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n=48, 43±4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (P<0.05) in HS compared with TN pigs, while jejunum TER decreased 30% (P<0.05) and LPS APP increased 2-fold (P<0.01). Furthermore, d 7 HS pigs tended (P=0.06) to have increased LPS APP (41%) compared with PFTN controls. Lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased (46 and 59%, respectively; P<0.05) over time in HS pigs, while the immune cell marker, myeloperoxidase activity, was increased (P<0.05) in the jejunum at d 3 and 7. These results indicate that both HS and reduced feed intake decrease intestinal integrity and increase endotoxin permeability. We hypothesize that these events may lead to increased inflammation, which might contribute to reduced pig performance during warm summer months. PMID:23989867

Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

2013-11-01

204

The World Trade Center Attack: Helping the helpers: the role of critical incident stress management  

PubMed Central

Healthcare and prehospital workers involved in disaster response are susceptible to a variety of stress-related psychological and physical sequelae. Critical incident stress management, of which critical incident stress debriefing is a component, can mitigate the response to these stressors. Critical incident stress debriefing is a peer-driven, therapist-guided, structured, group intervention designed to accelerate the recovery of personnel. The attack on the World Trade Center, and the impact it may have on rescue, prehospital, and healthcare workers, should urge us to incorporate critical incident stress management into disaster management plans.

Hammond, Jeffrey; Brooks, Jill

2001-01-01

205

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

206

Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan.

2014-01-01

207

Role of UV Irradiation and Oxidative Stress in Cataract Formation. Medical Prevention by Nutritional Antioxidants and Metabolic Agonists  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability with relatively high incidence. It has been proposed that such high incidence is related to oxidative stress induced by continued intraocular penetration of light and consequent photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and singlet oxygen and their derivatization to other oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. The latter two can also interact to generate singlet oxygen by Haber-Weis reaction. It has been proposed that in addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant enzymes, the process can be inhibited by many nutritional and metabolic oxyradical scavengers such as ascorbate, vitamin E, pyruvate and xanthine alkaloids such as caffeine. Methods Initial verification of the hypothesis has been done primarily by rat and mouse lens organ culture studies under ambient as well as UV light irradiation and determining the effect of such irradiation on its physiology in terms of its efficiency of active membrane transport activity and the levels of certain metabolites such as GSH and ATP as well as in terms of apoptotic cell death. In vivo studies on the possible prevention of oxidative stress and cataract formation has been done by administering pyruvate and caffeine orally in drinking water as well as by their topical application using diabetic and galactosemic animal models. Results Photosensitized damage to lens has been found to be significantly prevented by ascorbate and pyruvate caused by exposure to visible as well as UVA. Caffeine has been found be effective against UVA as well as UVB. Oral or topical application of pyruvate has been found to inhibit the formation of cataracts induced by diabetes as well as galactosemia. Caffeine has also been found to inhibit cataract induced by sodium selenite as well as high levels of galactose. Studies with diabetes are in progress. Conclusion Various in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in the review strongly support the hypothesis that the light penetration into the eye is a significant contributory factor in the genesis of cataracts. The major effect is through photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species and consequent oxidative stress to the tissue. The results demonstrate that this can be averted by use of various antioxidants administered preferably by topical route. That they will be so effective is strongly suggested by the effectiveness of pyruvate and caffeine administered topically to diabetic and galactosemic animals.

Varma, Shambhu Dayal; Kovtun, Svitlana; Hegde, Kavita Rajeev

2011-01-01

208

Management of recurrent stress incontinence following a sling.  

PubMed

Management of recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence (RSI) following primary insertion of a synthetic midurethral sling (MUS) remains a challenge for the urologist since no consensus is available to favor one treatment over another. Complete workup should be carried out, including cystoscopy, urodynamics and potentially a pelvic floor ultrasound as a diagnostic adjunct. Various surgical options have been described for RSI, apart from another MUS, including tightening of or shortening a previously placed MUS, a mini-sling, a salvage spiral sling, a colposuspension, the ACT® system, an artificial urinary sphincter or ultimately a urinary diversion. Treatment depends ultimately on the experience and the expertise of the surgeon but it appears most reasonable to offer a repeat MUS (retropubic or transobturator), a pubovaginal sling or bulking agents to women with RSI. Appropriate counseling of patients to set realistic outcomes is key as it may be more practical to aim more for symptomatic improvement than cure. PMID:24930033

Nadeau, Genevičve; Herschorn, Sender

2014-08-01

209

The role of exercise and nutrition in type II diabetes mellitus management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Type II diabetes mellitus is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries which has increased alarmingly, giving the disease the dimension of an epidemic. The etiology of diabetes is multifactorial involving genetic, environmental, and behavioral origins. The aim of present study was to review the role of exercise and nutrition in type II diabetes mellitus. Method and

Maria Polikandrioti; Helen Dokoutsidou

2009-01-01

210

Nutritional and other postoperative management of neonates with short bowel syndrome correlates with clinical outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine correlates of clinical outcomes in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Methods: Retrospective medical record review of neonates treated between 1986 and 1998 who met our criteria for SBS: dependence on parenteral nutrition (PN) for at least 90 days after surgical therapy for congenital or acquired intestinal diseases. Results: Thirty subjects with complete data were identified; 13

David J. Andorsky; Dennis P. Lund; Craig W. Lillehei; Tom Jaksic; James DiCanzio; Denise S. Richardson; Sharon B. Collier; Clifford Lo; Christopher Duggan

2001-01-01

211

Understanding the benefits sought from grapevine nutrition management by Australian wine grape growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies regarding the need for viticultural research and extension in Australia have generally produced lists of research problems, without necessarily identifying why and for whom the research is important. In this study we used the Kaine Framework (2008) to identify opportunities and the target audience for research and extension in the field of wine grape nutrition. The framework uses

Megan Hill; Ben Rowbottom; Geoff Kaine

212

Access to Nutrition Services Under Managed Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Connections Project, a federally funded Maternal and Child Health demonstration project (MCJ # 06R005) conducted a comprehensive needs assessment survey in California (1995–96), to define the current status of preventive services (nutrition, oral and mental health, family support), as well as areas of potential concern, and to gain information regarding provider training needs. Project staff, in collaboration with

C Bujold; J Swan; M Taylor Baer

1998-01-01

213

Managing Exam Stress Using UMTS Phones: The advantage of Portable Audio\\/Video Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a

Giuseppe RIVA; Alessandra GRASSI; Daniela VILLANI; Andrea Gaggioli; Alessandra PREZIOSA

2007-01-01

214

Theoretical Foundations of Yoga Meditation: A Contribution to Self-Actualization and Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stress management techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…

Janowiak, John J.

215

Principals Responding to Constant Pressure: Finding a Source of Stress Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual article presents a review of the research concerning the stress level of principals over the past three decades, with emphasis on the occupational stress that principals encounter because of heightened accountability and expectations for student achievement. Mindfulness meditation, as a stress management intervention, provides the…

Wells, Caryn M.

2013-01-01

216

Nutritional evaluation of patients receiving dialysis for the management of protein-energy wasting: what is old and what is new?  

PubMed

Advances in the nutritional support of hospitalized patients in the early 1970s led to the recognition that tools were needed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients. The observation that malnutrition in patients receiving dialysis was associated with increased morbidity and mortality prompted many expert groups to develop nutritional scoring systems to be applied in these patients. Given the diverse and confusing terminologies that emerged from these publications, the International Society of Renal Nutritional and Metabolism convened an expert panel to recommend a new nomenclature and preferred methods to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The new and inclusive term protein-energy wasting (PEW) refers to a systematically defined condition based on certain criteria and reflects malnutrition and wasting caused not only by inadequate nutrient intake but also by depletion resulting from the inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions that prevail in this population. Serial assessment of nutritional status for detection and management of PEW is recommended using old and new scoring tools, including the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), and PEW definition criteria. These tools, which are reliable methods and predictors of outcomes, are reviewed in this article. PMID:23611546

Riella, Miguel C

2013-05-01

217

[Nutrition and fluid management in palliative medicine: do food and drink keep body and soul together?].  

PubMed

Induction, implementation and continuation of an invasive nutrition or fluid administration in patients with advanced, life-limiting illnesses is an often controversial but also very emotionally discussed topic. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge based mainly on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines and is intended as a simple guide for clinical practice. In the early phase of disease the induction of an invasive food and fluid administration may be indicated in order to prevent undernutrition and cachexia, to enhance compliance with anti-tumor treatment, to control some adverse effects of anti-tumor therapy and to improve the quality of life. If oral or enteral feeding is possible this should be preferred. Patients in the final stage of a disease rarely suffer from hunger or thirst. In this phase of the disease other things, such as monitoring of patients and relatives play a much more important role. PMID:22273825

Gaser, E; Meissner, W

2012-01-01

218

Effects of Nutrition and Nutrient Management on Plant and Human and Animal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of fertilizer is a nearly universal practice in the production of commercial crops. The association between levels and availability of macro- and microelements, and changes in disease severity, plant vigour, and yield have long been recognized. As well, the effects of mineral nutrition on pre-harvest toxin contamination in some host\\/pathogen interactions are well-documented (Wilson et al. 1989). Two

J. Gilbert; D. L. McLaren; C. A. Grant

219

The controversy continues: Nutritional management of the pregnancy complicated by diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current controversies for medical nutrition therapy in pregnancies complicated by diabetes include the composition and amount\\u000a of carbohydrates and fats as well as optimal gestational weight gain and energy restriction. Although carbohydrate is the\\u000a macronutrient with the greatest effect on glycemic control, there is little evidence for a recommended amount and type of\\u000a carbohydrate or its distribution. This lack of

Nadine Uplinger

2009-01-01

220

Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.  

PubMed

The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, ?-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility. PMID:24844127

Butler, S T

2014-05-01

221

An overview of the diagnosis and management of nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas, which results in fibrosis and the gradual loss of pancreatic function. The loss of islets and acinar cells results in diabetes and exocrine insufficiency, respectively. Exocrine insufficiency can result in maldigestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate as well as vitamins and minerals. Patients may present with variable severity of disease, from mild to severe. The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis can be challenging, especially in patients with early or mild disease who have few to no morphologic abnormalities on standard abdominal imaging studies. A number of imaging modalities and tests have evolved to aid in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis based on changes in structure or function. Clinicians typically focus on treating pain in chronic pancreatitis as opposed to exocrine insufficiency, despite the fact that maldigestion and malabsorption can result in nutrition deficiencies. The aims of this review are to describe the various modalities used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis, to illustrate the nutrition deficiencies associated with exocrine insufficiency, and to provide an overview of nutrition assessment and treatment in these patients. PMID:24743046

Afghani, Elham; Sinha, Amitasha; Singh, Vikesh K

2014-06-01

222

The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns.

Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

2014-01-01

223

Principals' Management Behavior, Personality Types and Physiological Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from portable heart-rate monitors and work diaries were used to relate Mintzberg's "nature of managerial work" to physiological stress in small number of working principals over three complete work days. Principals found to be working under extreme stress for long hours, and certain activities were more stressful than others. Implications are…

Cooper, Bruce S.; And Others

1988-01-01

224

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

225

Student Well-Being Interventions: The Effects of Stress Management Techniques and Gratitude Journaling in the Management Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…

Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.

2012-01-01

226

[Use of spirulina supplement for nutritional management of HIV-infected patients: study in Bangui, Central African Republic].  

PubMed

Treatment of HIV-infected persons including nutritional management is a major concern in Africa and in particular in the Central African Republic (CAR). This six-month randomized prospective longitudinal study was carried out at the Friends of Africa Center that was a facility for comprehensive management of persons infected and affected by HIV in Banqui, CAR. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of spirulina supplement on clinical and laboratory findings in HIV-infected patients who were not indications for ARV treatment. A total of 160 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 (n=79) received 10 grams of spirulina per day on a regular basis while patients in group 2 (n = 81) received a placebo. In addition patients in both groups received dietary products supplied by the World Food Program (WFP). Follow-up of the 160 patients at three and six months showed that 16 patients had been lost from follow-up and 16 had died, with no difference in distribution between the two groups. A significant improvement in the main follow-up criteria, i.e., weight, arm girth, number of infectious episodes, CD4 count, and protidemia, was observed in both groups. No difference was found between the two groups except with regard to protidemia and creatinemia that were higher in the group receiving spirulina supplement. From a clinical standpoint results were less clear-cut since the Karnofsky score was better in the group receiving spirulina than in the group receiving the placebo at 3 months but not at 6 months and fewer patients presented pneumonia at six months. Further study over a longer period will be needed to determine if spirulina is useful and to evaluate if higher doses can have beneficial nutritional and immunitary effects without adverse effects, in particular renal problems. PMID:19499738

Yamani, E; Kaba-Mebri, J; Mouala, C; Gresenguet, G; Rey, J L

2009-02-01

227

Stress Management Effects on Perceived Stress and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Low-Income HIV Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is greatly increased in women infected with sexually transmitted Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and who are co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Factors associated with promotion of HPV to CIN in these women include degree of immunosuppression and preventable behavioral factors such as tobacco smoking and psychological stress. Interventions such as cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) decrease stress and modulate disease activity in HIV-infected men though effects have not been established in HIV-infected women. This study examined the effects of CBSM on life stress and CIN in HIV+ minority women. Methods Participants were 39 HIV+ African American, Caribbean and Hispanic women with a recent history of an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Participants underwent colposcopic examination, psychosocial interview, and peripheral venous blood draw at study entry and 9 months after being randomly assigned to either a 10-week CBSM group intervention (n = 21) or a one-day CBSM workshop (n = 18). Results Women assigned to the 10-week CBSM intervention reported decreased perceived life stress and had significantly lower odds of CIN over a 9-month follow-up, independent of CIN at study entry, HPV type, CD4+CD3+ cell count, HIV viral load, and tobacco smoking. Women free of CIN at follow-up reported decreases in perceived stress over time while those with CIN reported increases in perceived stress over the same period. Conclusion Although preliminary these findings suggest that stress management decreases perceived life stress and may decrease the odds of CIN in women with HIV and HPV.

Antoni, Michael H.; Pereira, Deidre B.; Marion, Ilona; Ennis, Nicole; Peake, Michele; Rose, Rachel; McCalla, Judith; Simon, Trudi; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Lucci, Joseph; Efantis-Potter, Jonell; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo

2008-01-01

228

The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions.

Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bj?rke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

2013-01-01

229

Nutritional and management strategies on nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of lactating dairy cattle on commercial farms: an environmental perspective.  

PubMed

Dairy farm activities contribute to environmental pollution through the surplus N and P that they produce. Optimization of animal feeding and management has been described as a key strategy for decreasing N and P excretion in manure. Sixty-four commercial dairy farms were studied to assess the efficiency of N and P use in lactating herds and to identify dietary and management factors that may contribute to improving the efficiency of nutrient use for milk production, and decrease N and P excretion. The average ration was formulated to 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio with grass silage and corn silage as the main forage sources. Mean N and P intakes were 562 g/d [16.4% crude protein (CP)] and 84.8 g/d (0.40% P), respectively. Milk yield averaged 29.7 kg/d and contributed to 25.8% (standard deviation +/- 2.9) of N utilization efficiency (NUE) and 31.9% (standard deviation +/- 4.5) of P utilization efficiency (PUE). Dietary N manipulation through fitting the intake of CP to animal requirements showed a better response in terms of decreasing N excretion (R(2) = 0.70) than that estimated for P nutrition and excretion (R(2) = 0.30). Improvement in NUE helped increase PUE, despite the widespread use of feedstuffs with a high P content. Management strategies for lactating herds, such as the use of different feeding groups, periodical ration reformulation, and selection of feeding system did not show any consistent response in terms of improved NUE and PUE. The optimization of NUE and PUE contributed to decreasing the N and P excretion per unit of milk produced, and therefore, reductions in N and P excretion of between 17 and 35%, respectively, were estimated. Nevertheless, nutritional and herd management strategies were limited when N and P excretion were considered in relation to the whole lactating herd and farmland availability. Dietary CP manipulation was estimated to decrease herd N excretion by 11% per hectare, whereas dietary P manipulation would be decreased by no more than 17%. We conclude that the correct match between the ingested and required N and P, together with an increase in milk productivity, may be feasible strategies for decreasing N and P excretion by lactating herds on commercial farms. PMID:19109280

Arriaga, H; Pinto, M; Calsamiglia, S; Merino, P

2009-01-01

230

Modularized Stress Management for Reduction of Predicted Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a cost-effective modularized and self-paced learning method for reducing stress for beginning college students. Stress associated with entering collegiate programs significantly affects student adjustment and achievement. Many researchers report significant correlations between stress and serious physical and emotional illness.Two hundred ninty-nine students were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. All students

Lyda Hill; Nancy Smith; Sylvia Jasmin

1981-01-01

231

Navy Recruiting Comprehensive Stress Management Program: 1. The Stress of Recruiting Duty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Job stress has become a pervasive problem in Navy recruiting, affecting personnel at all levels of the organization. While stress has many positive aspects, excessive job stress or an inept response to it is inimical to quality of personal and family life...

H. G. Baker

1990-01-01

232

Successful management of congenital chylous ascites with early octreotide and total parenteral nutrition in a newborn.  

PubMed

Congenital chylous ascites (CCA) is a rare disease that results from maldevelopment of the intra-abdominal lymphatic system. Few cases have been described and no gold standard treatment has been defined so far. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used for the treatment of CCA, but always after a failed conservative approach with fasting, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or medium chain triglyceride (MCT) feeds. We report the case of a newborn with CCA treated by fasting, TPN and octreotide for a period of 15 days until the abdominal distension was successfully reduced at which point treatment was switched to an MCT formula. On day 25 the patient was breastfed and was discharged on day 33. No recurrence of chylous ascites was noted. Our experience highlights the successful treatment with TPN and octreotide as the first step for the conservative approach of CCA in a newborn, reducing the length of treatment and hospitalisation. PMID:23010459

Olivieri, Claudio; Nanni, Lorenzo; Masini, Lucia; Pintus, Claudio

2012-01-01

233

Cognitive-behavioral stress management for individuals with substance use disorders: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Stress-induced craving and stress reactivity may influence risk for substance use or relapse to use. Interventions designed to attenuate stress-induced craving and stress reactivity may serve as excellent adjuncts to more comprehensive treatment programs. The purpose of this study was to (1) tailor an existing, manualized, cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention for use in individuals with substance use disorders and (2) preliminarily evaluate the effects of the intervention using an experimental stress-induction paradigm. Twenty individuals were interviewed and then completed a psychological stress task, the Mental Arithmetic Task (MAT). After this, participants were assigned to either the CBSM intervention group or a nontreatment comparison group. Approximately 3 weeks later, participants completed a second MAT. In contrast to the comparison group, the CBSM group demonstrated significantly less stress-induced craving (p<.04) and stress (p<.02), and reported greater ability to resist urges to use (p<.02) after the second MAT. These findings are among the first to report on the use of an intervention to attenuate craving and stress reactivity among individuals with substance use disorders. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that systematic investigation of interventions specifically targeting stress management in individuals with substance use disorders should be undertaken. PMID:17700298

Back, Sudie E; Gentilin, Stephanie; Brady, Kathleen T

2007-08-01

234

Construction of a Mirror-Configuration Stress-Managed Block-Coil Dipole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second phase of development of a new high-field dipole technology has been completed. A model dipole employing wind\\/react Nb 3Sn cable and stress-managed block coil geometry was fabricated and will soon be tested at LBNL. The dipole features stress-strain management in its internal windings and metal-filled bladder preload. Pending validation of performance of these new features, the new technology

P. Noyes; R. Blackburn; N. Diaczenko; T. Elliott; W. Henchel; A. Jaisle; A. McInturff; P. McIntyre; A. Sattarov

2006-01-01

235

Stress Management Consultation to Israeli Social Workers during the Gulf War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Stress Management Consultation (SMC), short-term group intervention designed to enable social workers in Israel during Persian Gulf War to work through stress reactions and model method workers could use with their own target populations. Presents qualitative feedback from participants and administrators indicating that SMC model was…

Cwikel, Julie C.; And Others

1993-01-01

236

Relative Efficacy of Using Behavioral Consultation as an Approach to Teacher Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared two teacher stress management techniques, collaborative behavior consultation (CBC) and relaxation training. Analyses of perceived teacher stress levels before intervention, after intervention, and at the follow-up assessment period revealed greater maintenance of effectiveness for the CBC group than for a control group. Such an ongoing…

Tunnecliffe, Michael R.; And Others

1986-01-01

237

An Experimental Evaluation of Stress-Management Training for the Airborne Soldier. Technical Report 550.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the stress-management training given to students in the jumpmaster training course at Fort Benning, Georgia. The course, which trains airborne personnel to conduct landings of men and equipment, features relatively stressful training programs during which instructors grade the performance of…

Burke, William P.

238

Job Interviewing: Stress-Management and Interpersonal-Skills Training for Welfare-Rehabilitation Clients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory group-treatment program using stress-management and interpersonal-skills training was developed to reduce job-interview stress and provide relevant skills to welfare-rehabilitation clients. Results yielded a significant relative superiority in interview assertiveness for treatment clients; however, no differential decrease in…

Arnold, Bill R.; Parrott, Ross

1978-01-01

239

Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

Martinak, M. Linda

2012-01-01

240

The Effects of a Stress Management Course on Counselors-in-Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a stress management course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent…

Abel, Holly; Abel, Annette; Smith, Robert L.

2012-01-01

241

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

242

A one-dimensional model for designing functionally graded materials to manage stress waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) for energy-absorbing applications requires understanding of stress wave propagation in these structures in order to optimize their resistance to failure. A simple, one-dimensional model is proposed to develop insight into stress wave management issues. This model is initially applied to FGMs with discrete layering, then extended to continuously graded architectures. From this model,

Hugh A. Bruck

2000-01-01

243

Coping with Mathematics Anxiety: Stress Management and Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to Introductory Statistics college students. A high mathematics anxiety was associated with lower performance on a statistics examination. Classroom stress-coping intervention reduced anxiety and physiological stress responses, but did not improve academic performance. (Author/KS)

Sime, Wesley E.; And Others

1987-01-01

244

Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…

Allen, Roger J.

245

Managing Stress for College Success through Self-Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)

Carrese, Marie A.

1998-01-01

246

The Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Training Program on Job Stress in Hospital Nurses: Applying PRECEDE Model.  

PubMed

Background: Nursing is one of the most stressful jobs. The present study aimed to determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioral stress management training program based on PRECEDE model on stress reduction among nurses. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, which was conducted in 2010, 58 female nurses in Hamadan, northwest Iran were enrolled in the study and were divided into two equal groups included 29 nurses from one Hospital and 29 nurses from the other as intervention and control groups respectively. The data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics and nursing stress scale (NSS). In addition, a questionnaire based on PRECEDE model was used in order to assess predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors. The intervention was a training program including five sessions during three weeks in which relaxation and problem-solving training was thought. A pre-test and a post-test were performed 1.5 months apart. The t-test, Mann Whitney and Willxocon statistical tests were used for data analysis at 95% significant level using SPSS 13. Results: The baseline score average of job stress was 113.0 and 109.8 for intervention and control groups respectively (P=0.250). After intervention, score average of job stress decreased to 94.0 in experimental group while that of control group remained relatively unchanged (109.2), (P<0.001). A significant difference was found in PRECEDE model constructs and stress management behaviors in intervention group compared to control group after training interventions (P<0.001). Conclusion: Training programs based on PRECEDE model might be effective on decreasing job stress in nurses. PMID:22911962

Moeini, Babak; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Zahra; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2011-01-01

247

State of nutrition support teams.  

PubMed

The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelley, Andrea True

2013-12-01

248

A comparative study of entrepreneurs and managers: stress, burnout, locus of control, and social support.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships of job stress to job burnout, of locus of control and social support to stress and burnout, and the moderating effects of locus of control and social support on the stress-burnout relationship. These relationships were tested with questionnaire data collected from a random sample of entrepreneurs (N = 238) and managers (N = 288). Results showed that entrepreneurs reported that they had higher internal locus of control, received less social support, and had less job burnout than managers. Hierarchical regression analyses found support for eight of the ten main effects and one of the four moderating effects. PMID:10152341

Rahim, M A

1995-01-01

249

Successful nutrition management of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome--a case report.  

PubMed

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS), a visceral myopathy causing intestinal obstruction in the newborn, is a generally fatal condition, with death being secondary either to sepsis or to malnutrition if long-term intravenous feeding is not provided. A patient with MMIHS is described who has been raised by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for seven years since her birth. Severe hepatic dysfunction was encountered in early infancy, which gradually cleared after the initiation of milk feeding by mouth, although the milk could not be absorbed because of the high-output jejunostomy. The patient also experienced a bone disease similar to scurvy but caused by copper deficiency at the age of 9 months. The central venous catheter now in situ is the 25th one for the patient. When these catheters were evaluated, the Broviac proved more efficacious than the traditional Silastic for use in long-term TPN. The patient does not yet have normal bowel function and still requires TPN. PMID:2520338

Yokoyama, S; Fujimoto, T; Tokuda, Y; Mitomi, T

1989-01-01

250

Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members

Reg A. Williams; Gary Gatien; Bonnie Hagerty

2011-01-01

251

Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management  

PubMed Central

Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations.

Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

2011-01-01

252

Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty acid composition of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.  

PubMed

In birds, fatty acids (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their composition affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA composition of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA composition of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA composition of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA composition of triglycerides, but not the composition of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA composition in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic acid (18:1) and arachidonic acid (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822

Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

2013-10-01

253

Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (?-, ?-, ?-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For ?- and ?- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.

Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria Joao; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

2014-01-01

254

Management, productivity and livelihood effects on Kenyan smallholder dairy farms from interventions addressing animal health and nutrition and milk quality.  

PubMed

We aimed to describe the management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya at the beginning of an intervention program and to document relevant observed changes in the 3rd year of the intervention. A 3-year intervention program, focused on management of animal health and nutrition, and milk quality, was implemented by one Kenyan and two Canadian non-governmental organizations (one university based) to help improve the milk production and livelihoods of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers (primarily women). Thirty farmers were enrolled and completed questionnaires at the start and end of the project. Focus groups were also conducted to obtain qualitative information on livelihood effects from the program. In 2004, 70% of the eligible youngstock (more than 15 months of age) were pregnant, and cows had a long average days-in-milk of 240 days. External parasites, poor hygiene, and long claws were not uncommon among cows, and 37% and 20% of the farms reported clinical intestinal parasitism and diarrhea in youngstock. In 2006, there were significant improvements in the proportion of farms planting high-protein forages, farms using better milking procedures, and on-farm milk storage methods. The reported mastitis incidence rate fell from 0.55 to 0.20 cases/cow-year (p < 0.01), and the average number of cows and youngstock significantly increased from 1.5 and 0.9 to 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. There were reported improvements in the livelihoods among the member families. The partnership-based intervention program significantly improved management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in rural Kenya, leading to reported livelihood benefits. PMID:22081318

VanLeeuwen, John A; Mellish, Teresa; Walton, Colleen; Kaniaru, Ayub; Gitau, Regina; Mellish, Ken; Maina, Bernard; Wichtel, Jeff

2012-02-01

255

An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: A pilot randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

2014-09-01

256

The evaluation of stress management strategies in general practice: an evidence-led approach.  

PubMed Central

Recent surveys have highlighted sources of stress for UK general practitioners (GPs). Interventions to reduce stress in general practice have been introduced at both an individual and an organizational level, but there is little published evidence of their effectiveness. This paper systematically reviews the literature and reports that the research evidence from stress management programmes employed with other workforces is equivocal. Results so far suggest that relaxation and cognitive behavioural skills are helpful and that group methods are both more cost-effective and more beneficial than individual counselling. It is important for scientific, practical, and financial reasons that stress management programmes be properly evaluated. This paper suggests possible avenues for future interventions to alleviate stress.

Sims, J

1997-01-01

257

Review: managing posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Military deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq have been associated with elevated prevalence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among combat veterans. The diagnosis and management of PTSD when a comorbid TBI may also exist presents a challenge to interdisciplinary care teams at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and civilian medical facilities, particularly when the patient reports a history of blast exposure. Treatment recommendations from VA and Department of Defense's (DOD) recently updated VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress are considered from the perspective of simultaneously managing comorbid TBI. PMID:23015586

Capehart, Bruce; Bass, Dale

2012-01-01

258

Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. PMID:24251710

Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

2013-12-01

259

Trait anxiety reductions in a substance abuse population trained in stress management.  

PubMed

Investigated a 2-week (eight-session) stress management training program into an ongoing psychotherapy group for 11 hospitalized polydrug-abusing patients. These patients were compared to a control group of 14 similar patients on the same ward, who were participating in different psychotherapy groups. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety on the STAI (p less than .005) and TMAS (p less than .01). The control group's reduction was not significant, and the difference between the two groups was significant (p less than .05). Subjective reports suggested that treatment Ss used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia associated with withdrawal, to manage anger, and to reduce situational anxiety. PMID:7174809

Charlesworth, E A; Dempsey, G

1982-10-01

260

'People-Work': Emotion Management, Stress and Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers whilst perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be…

Mann, Sandi

2004-01-01

261

Virtual Learning Environments for Time-Stressed and Peripatetic Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper argues that virtual situated learning environments (VSLE), designed as authentic learning experiences, can provide managers with broader learning opportunities while also cater for the learning needs of the increasing number of peripatetic managers. Design/methodology/approach: An action learning methodology, using first person…

Jones, Sandra; Mccann, Jackie

2005-01-01

262

The management of sacral stress fractures: current concepts  

PubMed Central

Summary Sacral stress fractures are an unusual but curable cause of low-back pain that should be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in elderly osteoporotic patients. Rarely, they may occur in young women during the last trimester of pregnancy or a few weeks after delivery. Encompassing fatigue and insufficiency fractures, the occurrence of sacral stress fractures appears to be relatively under-reported, because of the general lack of awareness of this condition and the non-specificity of symptoms. Plain radiographs of the pelvis are the first exam performed but they are often inconclusive, whereas MRI and CT scans are the examinations of choice to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness of this condition so that clinicians may consider sacral stress fracture in the differential diagnosis of low-back and pelvic pain, particularly in elderly patients without a history of trauma.

Longhino, Valentina; Bonora, Cristina; Sansone, Valerio

2011-01-01

263

Improvement in A1C Levels and Diabetes Self-Management Activities Following a Nutrition and Diabetes Education Program in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a nutrition and diabetes education intervention on improving hemoglobin A1C levels, diabetes self-management activities, and A1C knowledge in congregate meal recipients in senior centers in north Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample and completed a pre-test, an educational intervention, and a post-test (N = 91, mean age = 73 years, 60% Caucasian, and 40%

Elizabeth H. Redmond; Sarah M. Burnett; Mary Ann Johnson; Joan G. Fischer; Tommy Johnson

2007-01-01

264

Management of climatic heat stress risk in construction: a review of practices, methodologies, and future research.  

PubMed

Climatic heat stress leads to accidents on construction sites brought about by a range of human factors emanating from heat induced illness, and fatigue leading to impaired capability, physical and mental. It is an occupational characteristic of construction work in many climates and the authors take the approach of re-engineering the whole safety management system rather than focusing on incremental improvement, which is current management practice in the construction industry. From a scientific viewpoint, climatic heat stress is determined by six key factors: (1) air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) radiant heat, and (4) wind speed indicating the environment, (5) metabolic heat generated by physical activities, and (6) "clothing effect" that moderates the heat exchange between the body and the environment. By making use of existing heat stress indices and heat stress management processes, heat stress risk on construction sites can be managed in three ways: (1) control of environmental heat stress exposure through use of an action-triggering threshold system, (2) control of continuous work time (CWT, referred by maximum allowable exposure duration) with mandatory work-rest regimens, and (3) enabling self-paced working through empowerment of employees. Existing heat stress practices and methodologies are critically reviewed and the authors propose a three-level methodology for an action-triggering, localized, simplified threshold system to facilitate effective decisions by frontline supervisors. The authors point out the need for "regional based" heat stress management practices that reflect unique climatic conditions, working practices and acclimatization propensity by local workers indifferent geographic regions. The authors set out the case for regional, rather than international, standards that account for this uniqueness and which are derived from site-based rather than laboratory-based research. PMID:24079394

Rowlinson, Steve; Yunyanjia, Andrea; Li, Baizhan; Chuanjingju, Carrie

2014-05-01

265

Aerobic conditioning and stress inoculation: A comparison of stress-management interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of a jogging program [aerobic conditioning (AC)] with stress-inoculation training (SI) and a waiting list control (WL) in the treatment of chronic intermittent stress. The participants were community residents; 48 were females and 25 were males. Therapy sessions were conducted over a 10-week period with subjects meeting in small groups for 1 1\\/2 hours per

Bonita C. Long

1984-01-01

266

Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

2014-05-01

267

Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.  

PubMed

Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which d-penicillamine is the most commonly used. d-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous d-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1months (range, 5.9-39months) after being effectively treated with d-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3±0.3mgcopper/1000kcal and 64.3±5.9mgzinc/1000kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with d-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

2014-03-01

268

The endosymbiont Hamiltonella increases the growth rate of its host Bemisia tabaci during periods of nutritional stress.  

PubMed

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci. PMID:24558462

Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

269

The Endosymbiont Hamiltonella Increases the Growth Rate of Its Host Bemisia tabaci during Periods of Nutritional Stress  

PubMed Central

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci.

Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

270

Nutritional Factors that Influence Change in Bone Density and Stress Fracture Risk Among Young Female Cross-County Runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stress fractures are common among young female competitive athletes, especially among those participating in track and field.\\u000a There are limited data that suggest that disordered eating, low calcium and dairy product intake, and low dietary fat intake\\u000a may be related to stress fracture incidence.1–10 Numerous dietary factors have been hypothesized to relate to BMD including calcium, vitamin D, phosphorous, potassium,

Jeri W. Nieves; Kathryn Melsop; Meredith Curtis; Kristin L. Cobb; Jennifer L. Kelsey; Laura K. Bachrach; Gail Greendale; MaryFran Sowers

271

Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (?2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (?1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.

Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

2013-01-01

272

Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women: Diagnosis and Medical Management  

PubMed Central

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most common form of urinary incontinence in women and is associated with high financial, social, and emotional costs. The history and physical examination can identify most patients with a significant stress incontinence component without the need for urodynamic testing. A variety of pharmacologic agents have been used off-label, but an evidence-based pharmacologic treatment has not been readily available. The development of a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor will add a potentially useful drug to the primary care physician's practice for treating female patients with SUI. In August 2004, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine, became the first medication approved for the treatment of women with moderate to severe SUI throughout the European Union. As of November 2005, however, duloxetine has not been approved for the treatment of SUI in the United States.

Deutchman, Mark; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan

2005-01-01

273

Managing Complications after Midurethral Sling for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Ulmsten and Petros's original description of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in 1995, the midurethral sling (MUS) has become first-line therapy for correction of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Cure rates are high for TVT and the recent tension-free trans-obturator tape (TOT) procedures, and the incidence of side effects is low. In the past few years although several

Elisabetta Costantini; Massimo Lazzeri; Massimo Porena

2007-01-01

274

Transobturator tapes are preferable over transvaginal tapes for the management of female stress urinary incontinence: For  

PubMed Central

Tension-free midurethral slings have proven to have low morbidity and high success rates in the management of female stress urinary incontinence. Among midurethal slings, the transobtuator tapes has comparable success and satisfaction rates as the transvaginal tapes but with reduced risk of intra-operative bladder injury, shorter operating time and quicker return to activities. Thus, the transobturator tapes may be recommended as the primary choice for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

Rajamaheshwari, N.; Varghese, Lilly

2009-01-01

275

Energy manager stresses accounting. [Grede Foundaries, Inc. , Milwaukee, WI  

SciTech Connect

Plant managers need energy-use data that allows them to identify opportunities for energy conservation. Grede Foundaries Inc. mails detailed consumption data to each of its five plants to help them plan cost studies for conservation projects. Plant energy use is divided into four categories: baseline energy, non-productive energy, seasonal energy, and variable production energy. The last two categories offer the best opportunities to conserve. The company oversees regular maintenance, internal and utility reports, and coordinates regular meetings involving plant managers. Energy consumption has dropped 21% since 1976 at a saving of $6 million. (DCK)

Galvin, C.

1982-09-13

276

Subjective effects of several stress management strategies: with reference to attention.  

PubMed

This study assessed variations in reported attentional experience associated with several stress management techniques (hypnosis, progressive relaxation, deep abdominal breathing) and baseline (eyes closed) as a function of hypnotic susceptibility. Three hundred nursing students experienced the stress management conditions and afterward completed a self-report inventory, the Dimensions of Attention Questionnaire (DAQ), in reference to each condition. The DAQ quantifies 12 aspects of attentional experience in a reliable and valid manner. The results demonstrated that progressive relaxation, hypnosis, and deep abdominal breathing are characterized by differences in reported attentional experience that are further moderated by an individual's hypnotic susceptibility. The clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:2182141

Pekala, R J; Forbes, E J

1990-01-01

277

Skilled Work in an Era of Management-by-Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the labor movement is to survive technological change and lean-work reorganization schemes, it must address the issues of skilled work, particularly training; how management organizes work; and the relationship between skilled workers and the rest of the labor movement. (Author)

Parker, Mike

1998-01-01

278

Stop Occupational Stress (S.O.S.): An Occupational Stress Management Program for Youth Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum was designed to address the declining morale and the elevated job-related stress among the staff of a multiproblem human service agency. The participants were over 90 youth counselors and supervisors. Their educational experience ranged from some college to doctoral-level course work and their work experience varied from .5 years to…

Powers, Catherine A.

279

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

280

Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

2013-01-01

281

Weight loss resistance: a further consideration for the nutritional management of obese Equidae.  

PubMed

Evidence-based, weight loss management advice is required to address equine obesity. Changes in body mass (BM), body condition score (BCS), heart (HG) and belly circumference (BG), direct (ultrasonographic) and indirect (D(2)O dilution, bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA]) measures of body fat as well as indices of insulin resistance (IR) were monitored in 12 overweight (BCS ? 7/9) horses and ponies of mixed breed and gender for 16 weeks. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups (Group 1, n=6, BCS 7.6/9 ± 0.6, 489 ± 184.6 kg; Group 2, n=6, BCS 8.1/9 ± 0.6, 479 ± 191.5 kg). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted to 1.25% BM as one of two, near-isocaloric (DE ?0.115 MJ/kg BM/day), forage-based diets (Group 1, 0.8% BM chaff-based feed: 0.45% BM hay; Group 2, 1.15% BM hay: 0.1% BM nutrient-balancer). Statistical modelling revealed considerable between-animal heterogeneity in proportional weight losses (0.16-0.55% of Week 1 BM weekly). The magnitude of weight loss resistance (WLR) or sensitivity to dietary restriction was independent of diet or any measured outset variable and was largely (65%) attributed to animal identity. Predicted rates of weight loss decreased over time. BCS and BIA were poor estimates of D(2)O-derived body fat%. Reciprocal changes in depths of retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were evident. Changes in BG were associated with losses in retroperitoneal fat and BM (r(2), 0.67 and 0.79). Indices of IR improved for 9/12 animals by Week 16. For obese animals, weight loss should be initiated by restricting forage DMI to 1.25% BM. Subsequent restriction to 1% BM may be warranted for WLR animals. PMID:23117030

Argo, Caroline McG; Curtis, Gemma C; Grove-White, Dai; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; Barfoot, Clare F; Harris, Patricia A

2012-11-01

282

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

283

Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

Swinward

2010-04-12

284

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

285

Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta

2003-01-01

286

Redox regulation of heat shock protein expression in aging and neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress: A nutritional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Oxidative stress has been implicated in mechanisms leading to neuronal cell injury in various pathological states of the brain. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disorder with cognitive and memory decline, speech loss, personality changes and synapse loss. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand AD, but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the

V. Calabrese; G. Scapagnini; C. Colombrita; A. Ravagna; G. Pennisi; A. M. Giuffrida Stella; F. Galli; D. A. Butterfield

2003-01-01

287

Pre-weaning nutritional management and dry season nutritional supplementation on intake, growth and onset of puberty of improved Zebu heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two succeeding studies on the same heifers were conducted to investigate the effects of various methods of pre-weaning management during the wet season and feeding regime on the post-weaning performance during succeeding dry season (experiment 1) and the following wet season (experiment 2) of improved Zebu (pure Mpwapwa and Mpwapwa crossbred) heifers. The pre-weaning management systems were: Artificial rearing (R1)

J. M. N Bwire; H. Wiktorsson

1996-01-01

288

Nature-Based Stress Management Course for Individuals at Risk of Adverse Health Effects from Work-Related Stress--Effects on Stress Related Symptoms, Workability and Sick Leave  

PubMed Central

Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention.

Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa; Grahn, Patrik

2014-01-01

289

Nature-based stress management course for individuals at risk of adverse health effects from work-related stress-effects on stress related symptoms, workability and sick leave.  

PubMed

Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention. PMID:24960219

Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Matuszczyk, Josefa Vega; Grahn, Patrik

2014-01-01

290

A nutrition support team quality assurance plan.  

PubMed

The Nutrition Support Team at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center is responsible for the development of guidelines related to the provision of both total parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition support. A Quality Assurance plan which was approved by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of HealthCare Organizations was implemented by the Nutrition Support Team. This plan addresses: nutritional assessment and consultation, indications for enteral and parenteral nutrition support, provision of optimal nutrition support including attainment of nutritional goals, and the prevention, detection, and management of complications. The indicators and criteria for each aspect of care are described. This program has provided documentation of the activities of the Nutrition Support Team as well as data defining the patient population requiring specialized nutrition support, and has helped identify areas where improvement is required. PMID:1775109

Powers, T; Deckard, M; Stark, N; Cowan, G S

1991-08-01

291

Trends in the Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the rates of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery from 2000-2009 by type of procedure, year, age, and region of the country. Methods We utilized data between 2000 and 2009 from a database containing healthcare claims data from employer-based plans in the United States. We analyzed data for all women aged 18-64 years, identifying all SUI procedures in this population. Rates per 100,000 person-years and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated each year by procedure type, age and region. Results The study population included 32.9 million women aged 18-64 years observed for 74,007,937 person-years between 2000 and 2009. During that time, there were 182,110 SUI procedures for a rate of 246.1 per 1100,000 person-years (95%CI: 239.7, 252.6). The most common SUI surgery was sling (198.3 per 1100,000 person-years, 95%CI: 192.8, 203.9) followed by Burch (25.9 per 100,000 person-years, 95%CI 24.8, 27.2). There was a dramatic increase in slings with a corresponding decrease in Burch procedures from 2000-2009. Other SUI surgeries had lower rates. Although this trend was evident across all regions, the Northeast had the lowest rate of SUI surgery, while rates in the West, Midwest and South were 1.44, 1.76, and 2.09 times higher, respectively. Conclusions In a dramatic shift over the last decade, slings have become the dominant procedure for stress urinary incontinence among women aged 18-64 years. Although this trend was seen across the U.S., considerable variability exists in the SUI surgery rates by region.

Funk, Michele Jonsson; Levin, Pamela J.; Wu, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

292

School Programs Targeting Stress Management in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods: Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) between baseline…

Kraag, Gerda; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

2006-01-01

293

Effect of management strategies on reducing heat stress of feedlot cattle: Feed and water intake1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate management strategies designed to decrease heat stress of cattle finished during the summer. In Exp. 1, 144 Angus crossbred yearling steers were as- signed to three treatments: 1) ad libitum access to feed at 0800 (ADLIB); 2) fed at 1600 with feed amount ad- justed so that no feed was available at 0800 (BKMGT);

T. L. Mader; M. S. Davis

294

Cognitive-Adaptation Training for Improving Performance and Stress Management of Air Force Pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N?=?21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a

Marie-Pierre Fornette; Marie-Héloļse Bardel; Camille Lefranēois; Jacques Fradin; Farid El Massioui; René Amalberti

2012-01-01

295

Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

1998-01-01

296

Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

1994-01-01

297

Stress Management and Anxiety Reduction Through EMG Biofeedback/Relaxation Training upon Junior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback/relaxation training on the stress management and anxiety levels of 18 eighth-grade students was tested. Chapter I serves as an introduction and presents information on the need for the study, hypotheses, limitations, and definition of terms. Chapter II contains a review of related…

Lang, Darrel

298

The Efficacy of a Three-Week Stress Management Unit for High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used psychometric information to determine the efficacy of a stress management unit in a high school health class. Students who took the unit showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and the ability to relax, as demonstrated on tests of heart rate and muscular tension. (PP)

Richardson, Glenn E.; And Others

1983-01-01

299

Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

1985-01-01

300

Anxiety buffer disruption theory: a terror management account of posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) and provide a review of current evidence regarding the theory. ABDT is an application of terror management theory to explain diverse reactions to traumatic events and the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It posits that PTSD results from a disruption in one's anxiety-buffering mechanisms, which normally provide protection against anxiety

Tom Pyszczynski; Pelin Kesebir

2011-01-01

301

Management Characteristics and Employee Stress and Burnout as Reported in the Periodical Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a content analysis of 106 articles in business journals that attempted to determine the role and responsibility of management as it relates to employee stress or burnout. Results are compared to those of an earlier study of the literature of reference librarianship, and suggestions for future research are included. (Author/LRW)

Parrish, Darlene Ann; Blazek, Ron

1997-01-01

302

On the Horizon. Biofeedback and Self-Management of Stress in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of biofeedback in the self management of stress in school children is discussed. Educational research on biofeedback suggests that biofeedback training can help children to learn relaxation skills, reduce school-related anxiety, and gain a measure of self-discipline and confidence. (PHR)

Schultz, Edward W.; Walton, Wilbur T.

1979-01-01

303

Stress Management in the Health Care Setting: Matching Interventions with Patient Coping Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective preprosthetic oral surgery patients were presented with a problem-focused, emotion-focused, or mixed-focus stress management intervention. The mixed-focus intervention produced the best overall response to surgery; the emotion-focused intervention produced the lowest adjustment levels. Better adjustment and satisfaction and lower…

Martelli, Michael F.; And Others

1987-01-01

304

Promoting Stress Management: The Role of Comprehensive School Health Programs. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest examines how Comprehensive School Health Programs (CSHPs) may promote stress management in children and adolescents. CSHPs contain four key elements. The first element, community participation and focus, can be achieved through school health newsletters, health fairs, local newspaper, radio, and television promotions, and guest…

Massey, Marilyn S.

305

ANALYSIS OF WORKPLACE STRESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS OF PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today main issue in management and organization is corporate sustainability which includes organizational performance. Organizational performance is one of the strategic issues for any management. The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and organizational performance; and mediational affect of employees' health issues between workplace stress and organizational performance. Both primary and secondary data were

Muhammad Iqbal; Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

2014-01-01

306

Effects of nutritional antioxidants on AAPH- or AGEs-induced oxidative stress in human SW872 liposarcoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of oxidative stress were reported in obesity-linked type 2 diabetes and were associated with elevated formation\\u000a of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Many studies have focused on the effect of antioxidants on vascular and circulating\\u000a cells such as macrophages. However, despite the major role of adipocytes in the etiology of diabetes, little is known about\\u000a the effect of

Marjolaine Roche; Evelyne Tarnus; Philippe Rondeau; Emmanuel Bourdon

2009-01-01

307

Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

2013-01-01

308

Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

2013-04-26

309

Nutrition advice in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny

2013-10-01

310

Effects of short duration stress management training on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers: a quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of short duration stress management training (SMT) on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers, 118 male automotive workers from Pekan, Pahang (n = 60, mean age = 40.0 years, SD = 6.67) and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (n = 58, mean age = 38.1 years, SD = 5.86) were assigned to experimental and

BA Edimansyah; BN Rusli; L Naing

2008-01-01

311

Occupational stress management programmes: a practical overview of published effect studies.  

PubMed

There are many occupational stress management programmes available which are designed to prevent and cure the negative aspects of job-stress. The focus of the programmes can be directed towards the individual worker, the working group, the organization of the work or the organization as a whole. Moreover, programmes show a considerable variation with respect to the type of interventions they promote and their underlying assumptions, as well as their duration and costs. In this paper, effect studies of occupational stress programmes published between 1987 and 1994 are reviewed. The aim is to give a practical overview of the variety in occupational stress programmes, their scope, applicability and the evidence of their effectiveness. The paper updates the review by DeFrank and Cooper published in 1989. PMID:9156467

van der Hek, H; Plomp, H N

1997-04-01

312

Job stress and burnout among Canadian managers and nurses: an empirical examination.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship of job stress with burnout and its three dimensions (emotional exhaustion, lack of accomplishment and depersonalization), job satisfaction, organizational commitment and psychosomatic health problems. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from Canadian managers (N = 67) and nurses (N = 173). Pearson correlation and moderated multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Job stress was significantly correlated with overall burnout and its three dimensions and job satisfaction in both samples. In the nursing sample, job stress was also significantly correlated with psychosomatic health problems and organizational commitment. Moderated multiple regression only marginally supported the role of gender as a moderator of stress-burnout relationship. PMID:11200738

Jamal, M; Baba, V V

2000-01-01

313

[Nutrition in intensive care].  

PubMed

Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924

Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W

2011-06-01

314

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

315

Tinnitus school: an educational approach to tinnitus management based on a stress-reaction tinnitus model.  

PubMed

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. The auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of various stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and to different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different responses to treatment, despite similar audiological and etiological factors. A model based on individual reactions to stress factors (stress-reaction tinnitus model, or SRTM) could explain tinnitus as an alarm signal. In each patient, stressors have to be identified during the alarm phase to prevent an evolution toward the resistance and exhaustion phases. In the exhaustion phase, chronic tinnitus is due to the organization of a paradoxical auditory memory and a pathologically shifted attention to tinnitus. The aim of our study is to describe a therapeutic proposal based on the SRTM by taking an educational approach to management of chronic tinnitus. The educational aspect is emphasized; thus, we named our approach tinnitus school. Selection of appropriate patients and follow-up is based on psychometrics of tinnitus and stress questionnaires, including a tinnitus reaction questionnaire, a tinnitus cognitive questionnaire, and a 20-item perceived stress questionnaire. Tinnitus school is a three-phase program: counseling, training, and home training. Training is based on a tinnitus-fitted physiotherapeutic protocol. PMID:17691666

Alpini, Dario; Cesarani, Antonio; Hahn, Ales

2007-01-01

316

Stress  

PubMed Central

The concept of stress is often mistaken. Its correct usage stems from the meaning in physical medicine, and many facets of stress are missed because this is not generally realized. This paper defines a psychiatric model of stress and describes a method by which stress can be quantified in various individuals.

Pearce, K. I.

1973-01-01

317

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

318

Dietary counselling with or without oral nutritional supplements in the management of malnourished patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.  

PubMed

Dietary counselling and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are recommended for managing malnutrition. A recent systematic review demonstrated (in separate analyses) that dietary counselling and dietary counselling with ONS improved energy intake, weight and some indices of body composition, although there was considerable heterogeneity. The present analysis aimed to examine the effects on mortality and nutritional indices of dietary counselling given with or without ONS and to explore the heterogeneity in the meta-analyses aiming to characterise the groups most likely to benefit from these interventions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane methodology. Twenty-six studies were included in the analysis: 12 comparing dietary counselling with usual care and 14 comparing dietary counselling and ONS if required with usual care (2123 participants). Quality of studies varied. Dietary counselling given with or without ONS had no effect on mortality [relative risk (fixed) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46] but was associated with significant but heterogeneous benefits to weight [mean difference (random) = 1.7 kg; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.55], energy intake and some aspects of body composition. Subgroup analyses taking into account clinical background, age, nutritional status, type and length of intervention failed to reveal any differences in mortality, weight change and energy intake between groups. There were insufficient data on functional outcomes to explore these findings. Dietary counselling given with or without ONS is effective at increasing nutritional intake and weight but adequately-powered studies in similar patient populations and standardised for factors that might account for variations in response are required. PMID:22672102

Baldwin, C; Weekes, C E

2012-10-01

319

Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies are unrecognized in approximately 50% of patients who undergo gastric bypass surgery. The authors present some of the more common nutritional deficiencies and related complications that can occur in this patient population. Greater awareness of the potential effects of nutritional deficiency after gastric bypass surgery may help physicians better recognize and manage these challenging conditions. PMID:19948694

John, Seeniann; Hoegerl, Carl

2009-11-01

320

A Systematic Review of Biopsychosocial Training Programs for the Self-Management of Emotional Stress: Potential Applications for the Military  

PubMed Central

Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.

Clausen, Shawn S.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Walter, Joan A. G.

2013-01-01

321

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

322

Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.

Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

2009-01-01

323

Effect of some management and nutritional factors on the fertility of milking cows under traditional husbandry system in Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six farms (A, B, C, D, E and F) of the intensive system type were selected. They were located 50 km south of Khartoum. Nutritional parameters with respect to metabolizable energy intake (MEI)and crude protein (CP) concentration of the diet were investigat...

H. S. E. Ahmed

1998-01-01

324

The use of nutritional management after weaning for the production of heavier lamb carcasses from Greek dairy breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate whether nutritional treatments can influence the carcass composition, potential consumer acceptability and cost of rearing, at any defined liveweight (LW) or proportion of breed mature weight (MW), in male lambs of three indigenous Greek dairy breeds of sheep. Two trials were carried out each with 30 weaned lambs (about 42 days) of the

D Zygoyiannis; N Katsaounis; C Stamataris; G Arsenos; L Tsaras; J Doney

1999-01-01

325

Evergreen Action Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evergreen Action is a nutrition education program for seniors living in the community. Based in a seniors recreation center, this pilot program uses a community organization approach for program planning. This article describes the steps used for designing and managing the program development. Preliminary results demonstrate benefits of this approach. After 18 months of the program, participation rates and satisfaction

Margaret R. Hedley; Heather H. Keller; Patricia D. Vanderkooy; Sharon I. Kirkpatrick

2002-01-01

326

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

327

Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief section describes some areas of possible military interest in studies of stress--selection, classification, training, human factors and systems research and, of course, stress as related to the combat situation, among others. Since there is diffic...

J. Weitz

1966-01-01

328

Interactions between Glomus species and Rhizobium strains affect the nutritional physiology of drought-stressed legume hosts.  

PubMed

The growth of legume plants is usually enhanced by the dual symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Rhizobium bacteria. However, most reports on this topic have been carried out under optimal water regime conditions. Here, four Phaseolus vulgaris varieties were single or dual inoculated with two different AM fungus and/or two different Rhizobium strains. All plants were grown under moderate drought conditions. Surprisingly, most of the biological treatments involving one fungus and one Rhizobium together caused a deleterious effect on plant growth. However, these negative effects were dependent on the P. vulgaris variety used as well as on the symbionts implicated. The results showed that AM symbiosis inhibited nodule development and N(2) fixation, causing diminution of plant growth. Therefore, under moderate drought conditions, the dual symbiosis formed by AM fungi and Rhizobium can be deleterious to P. vulgaris growth depending on the plant variety and the symbionts involved. Thus, under these common stress conditions, selection for the appropriated symbionts to each P. vulgaris variety is needed. PMID:20044167

Franzini, Vinicius Ide; Azcón, Rosario; Mendes, Fernanda Latanze; Aroca, Ricardo

2010-05-15

329

Comparing brief stress management courses in a community sample: mindfulness skills and progressive muscle relaxation.  

PubMed

This study sought to compare a five-week mindfulness meditation (MM) course to a five-week course that taught progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Forty-three adults from the community were randomly assigned to either MM (n = 19) or PMR (n = 24) courses after responding to flyers and other advertisements for a free stress management course. Mindfulness meditation participants practiced meditation significantly more often than PMR participants practiced relaxation during the intervention period (F[1, 43] = 7.42; P < .05). Interestingly, the two conditions did not differ significantly in their posttreatment levels of relaxation or mindfulness. Although there were no differences between groups on any of the primary outcome measures, across both treatment conditions there were statistically significant reductions from pretreatment to posttreatment in general psychological distress. Thus, although MM did not emerge as clearly superior to PMR, results of this study suggest that a brief mindfulness skills course may be effective for stress management. PMID:19272581

Agee, John D; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Grant, Christoffer A

2009-01-01

330

The effectiveness and practicality of occupational stress management interventions: a survey of subject matter expert opinions.  

PubMed

Stress management (SM) subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 6 widely used occupational SM interventions (relaxation, physical fitness, cognitive restructuring, meditation, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation) on the basis of 10 practicality criteria and 7 effectiveness objectives. Relaxation was evaluated overall as the most practical intervention, while meditation and stress inoculation were judged as the least practical. Physical fitness was chosen to be the most effective intervention, while both meditation and assertiveness training were rated overall as the least effective. The findings also revealed that the SMEs considered history of success and duration of effect, rather than "relevance to program objectives," as the most important factors when selecting SM interventions. Incongruence between effectiveness ratings and actual choices of interventions are discussed. PMID:9552295

Bellarosa, C; Chen, P Y

1997-07-01

331

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made.

Mimura, C; Griffiths, P

2003-01-01

332

Nutrition and health of aquaculture fish.  

PubMed

Under intensive culture conditions, fish are subject to increased stress owing to environmental (water quality and hypoxia) and health conditions (parasites and infectious diseases). All these factors have negative impacts on fish well-being and overall performance, with consequent economic losses. Though good management practices contribute to reduce stressor effects, stress susceptibility is always high under crowded conditions. Adequate nutrition is essential to avoid deficiency signs, maintain adequate animal performance and sustain normal health. Further, it is becoming evident that diets overfortified with specific nutrients [amino acids, essential fatty acids (FAs), vitamins or minerals] at levels above requirement may improve health condition and disease resistance. Diet supplements are also being evaluated for their antioxidant potential, as fish are potentially at risk of peroxidative attack because of the large quantities of highly unsaturated FAs in both fish tissues and diets. Functional constituents other than essential nutrients (such as probiotics, prebiotics and immunostimulants) are also currently being considered in fish nutrition aiming to improve fish growth and/or feed efficiency, health status, stress tolerance and resistance to diseases. Such products are becoming more and more important for reducing antibiotic utilization in aquafarms, as these have environmental impacts, may accumulate in animal tissues and increase bacterial resistance. This study reviews knowledge of the effect of diet nutrients on health, welfare and improvement of disease resistance in fish. PMID:22233511

Oliva-Teles, A

2012-02-01

333

Air Force Critical Incident Stress Management outreach with Pentagon staff after the terrorist attack.  

PubMed

This article describes the Critical Incident Stress Management outreach to Pentagon staff conducted after the terrorist attack by a team of Air Force mental health and chaplain personnel. Also discussed are lessons learned from the author's experience while leading the mental health component and working in a larger tri-service outreach. Finally, the observed impacts of the outreach effort are examined along with recommendations for future postcritical incident outreach efforts. PMID:12363137

Rowan, Anderson B

2002-09-01

334

Pilot study of a self-administered stress management and exercise intervention during chemotherapy for cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  This pilot project explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a self-administered exercise and stress management intervention for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.Patients and methods  Thirty-nine of 56 eligible patients (acceptance =69%) with a variety of solid tumors volunteered for the study. Participants were advised to exercise 20–40 min at 50–75% estimated heart rate reserve 3–5 times per week. In addition,

Rick W. Wilson; Lindsay A. Taliaferro; Paul B. Jacobsen

2006-01-01

335

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

336

Effect of self-management intervention on cortisol and daily stress levels in irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Self-management programs that include cognitive behavioral strategies have been shown to improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life (QoL) in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, less is known about the physiological impact of such a change. As part of a randomized controlled trial using a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention (n = 126) compared to usual care (UC; n = 62), cortisol levels were measured in 4 weekly first morning urine samples at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In addition, diary (28 days) ratings of stress were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The omnibus test of all three outcome times showed no differences in urine cortisol levels between the CSM and UC groups (p = .400); however, at 3 months the CSM group had significantly higher cortisol levels than the UC group (p = .012). The CSM group reported lower daily stress levels (p = .046 from the omnibus test of all 3 time points) than the UC group, with the effect getting stronger over time. Despite marked improvements in reported stress and previously reported GI and psychological distress symptoms at later follow-ups, the CSM program did not reduce urine cortisol levels in adults with IBS. These results suggest that the first-void urine cortisol levels are not reflective of self-reported daily stress in this patient population. PMID:21765120

Deechakawan, Wimon; Cain, Kevin C; Jarrett, Monica E; Burr, Robert L; Heitkemper, Margaret M

2013-01-01

337

Management of protein-energy wasting in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: reconciling low protein intake with nutritional therapy1234  

PubMed Central

Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ?20–25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients’ biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in patients with PEW, and highlights areas in need of further research.

Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-01-01

338

Management of protein-energy wasting in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: reconciling low protein intake with nutritional therapy.  

PubMed

Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ?20-25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients' biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in patients with PEW, and highlights areas in need of further research. PMID:23636234

Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-06-01

339

Maternal nutritional knowledge and the nutritional status of preschool children in a Nairobi slum.  

PubMed

Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge of their mothers assessed. Makina village was randomly selected as the study site and all consenting households were involved in the study. The study established that most mothers (97.5%) have access to nutrition education. Prevalence of stunting (86.2%) and underweight (58.4%) was high but that of wasting (1.9%) was low. There was no significant relationship between the nutritional status of children and overall nutritional knowledge. Unexpectedly, a negative relationship was found between nutritional status and mothers' ability to recognise clinical signs of malnutrition, knowledge in the weaning process and dietary management during sickness. Knowledge on frequency of feeding was, however, positively related to nutritional states. In conclusion, nutritional knowledge alone is inadequate in ensuring young children's nutrition security and, hence, for nutrition education programmes to have a positive impact, facilitational strategies must be incorporated. PMID:8918000

Waihenya, E W; Kogi-Makau, W; Muita, J W

1996-07-01

340

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

341

Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.  

PubMed

We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes. PMID:24875684

Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

342

Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training: Background, Methods, and Design for the ENHANCED study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training in Patients with Heart Disease (ENHANCED) is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by the NHLBI to evaluate the effects of stress management training (SMT) on changes in biomarkers of risk and quality of life for patients enrolled in traditional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). METHODS: One hundred fifty cardiac patients recruited from Duke University and the University of North Carolina will be evaluated and randomized to CR enhanced by SMT (including sessions devoted to relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or to standard exercise-based CR. Before and following 12 weeks of treatment, patients will undergo a battery of psychometric questionnaires and evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers including measures of flow-mediated dilation, heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, platelet function and inflammation, and ischemia during laboratory mental stress testing. The primary outcomes include a composite measure of stress (distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility and 24-hr urinary catecholamines and cortisol) and a composite measure of cardiac biomarkers of risk (vascular endothelial function, cardiac vagal control, inflammation, platelet function and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia). Secondary outcomes include measures of quality of life as well as clinical events including death, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, and revascularization procedures. RESULTS: This article reviews prior studies in the area and describes the design of the ENHANCED study. Several key methodological issues are discussed including the assessment of biomarkers of risk and barriers to the integration of SMT into traditional CR. CONCLUSIONS: The ENHANCED study will provide important information by determining the extent to which SMT combined with exercise-based CR may improve prognosis and quality of life in vulnerable cardiac patients.

Blumenthal, James A.; Wang, Jenny T.; Babyak, Michael; Watkins, Lana; Kraus, William; Miller, Paula; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

2010-01-01

343

Receipt and Rated Adequacy of Stress Management Training is Related to PTSD and Other Outcomes among Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the relationship between receipt of stress management training, ratings of the adequacy of the training, and several outcome variables of interest to the military, including physical symptoms, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), morale, leadership, retention intentions, and marital functioning. Results indicate that soldiers receiving training and rating the training as adequate also reported fewer negative

Eric S. McKibben; Thomas W. Britt; COL Charles W. Hoge; COL Carl Andrew Castro

2009-01-01

344

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

345

Differences in nutritional care in pressure ulcer patients whether or not using nutritional guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMalnutrition, characterized by a loss of lean body mass, enhances the risk of pressure ulcers (PUs). Because the intrinsic risk factor nutritional status in PU development can be influenced by practitioners’ interventions, the use of clinical guidelines might be a satisfactory management approach. This study investigated the influence of using nutritional guidelines in daily practice on the actual nutritional care

Judith M. M. Meijers; Jos M. G. A. Schols; Pam A. Jackson; Gero Langer; Michael Clark; Ruud J. G. Halfens

2008-01-01

346

Stress management-augmented behavioral weight loss intervention for African American women: a pilot, randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Balance intervention augmented with stress management strategies (Lifestyle + Stress) or Lifestyle Alone. A trend toward greater percentage of baseline weight loss at 3-month data collection was observed in Lifestyle + Stress (-2.7 ± 3.6%) compared with Lifestyle Alone (-1.4 ± 2.3%; p = .17) and a greater reduction in salivary cortisol (Lifestyle + Stress: -0.2461 ± 0.3985 ng/mL; Lifestyle Alone: -0.0002 ± 0.6275 ng/mL; p = .20). These promising results suggest that augmenting a behavioral weight control intervention with stress management components may be beneficial for overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels and merit further investigation with an adequately powered trial. PMID:22505570

Cox, Tiffany L; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, Sharhonda J; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y; Prewitt, T Elaine; West, Delia Smith

2013-02-01

347

Prescribing optimal nutrition and physical activity as "first-line" interventions for best practice management of chronic low-grade inflammation associated with osteoarthritis: evidence synthesis.  

PubMed

Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into "first-line" osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients' overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient's risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis. PMID:23346399

Dean, Elizabeth; Gormsen Hansen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

348

Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as "First-Line" Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients' overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient's risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

Dean, Elizabeth; Gormsen Hansen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

349

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

350

Nutritional hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hormesis, the biological and toxicological concept that small quantities have opposite effects from large quantities, is reviewed with emphasis on its relevance to nutrition.Results:Hormetic and other dose–response relationships are categorized, depicted, and discussed. Evidence for nutritional hormesis is presented for essential vitamin and mineral nutrients, dietary restriction, alcohol (ethanol), natural dietary and some synthetic pesticides, some herbicides, and acrylamide. Some

D P Hayes

2007-01-01

351

Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition becomes necessary when the gastrointestinal tract has insufficient function as to afford sufficient fluid,\\u000a electrolyte and nutrient absorption. Indications for this therapy include prolonged postoperative ileus, prolonged intestinal\\u000a obstruction, short bowel syndrome, various malabsorptive disorders, proximal enteric fistulas for which an enteral feeding\\u000a tube cannot be placed distal to, severe acute pancreatitis and severe mucositis\\/esophagitis. Parenteral nutrition, although

Christian S. Jackson; Alan L. Buchman

352

Caring capacity in the management of the nutrition crisis in infants, young children and women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria's nutrition crisis has been shown to have a considerable negative impact on infants, young children and women. Available evidence suggests that 'caring capacity' when properly planned and targeted at the most-at-risk can help. Strategies that can achieve this care are increasing women's income and control over income, increasing investment in women's education and improving access to credit facilities. Others are the aggressive promotion of gender-biased labour saving technology, increasing women's access to basic health and family planning services and implementing reforms in land ownership while instituting social security for women. PMID:8738875

Igbedioh, S O

1996-01-01

353

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

354

[MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module I-C-1: Technological, Sociological, Ecological, and Environmental Factors Related to Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on technological, sociological, ecological, and environmental factors related to food is the first in a set of five modules on consumer education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

Newsome, Ratana

355

Career Education: Learning with a Purpose. Secondary Guide-Vol. 4. Home Economics, Family/Community Relations, Home Management, Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Field Trip Sites and Guest Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide offers a compilation of teacher-developed career education materials which may be integrated with secondary level curriculum in home economics. Suggested activities and ideas are presented as unit plans in the following areas of home economics: family relations/family living, home management, child development, foods and nutrition,…

Atkinson, Marilyn; And Others

356

Management of neobladder-vaginal fistula and stress incontinence following radical cystectomy in women: a review.  

PubMed

Contemporary literature regarding the management of neobladder-vaginal fistula and stress urinary incontinence following radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction in women is reviewed in this article. Neobladder-vaginal fistula is uncommon but mandates meticulous repair. Compared to the native bladder, the wall of the neobladder is much thinner that may render it vulnerable to fistulization. Preservation of the anterior vaginal wall during radical cystectomy decreases the likelihood of pouch-vaginal fistula. Omental flap interposition between the vaginal stump and neobladder at cystectomy may not always prevent fistulization if anterior vaginal wall is violated or overlapping suture lines are not avoided. Surgery for intractable stress incontinence following neobladder reconstruction is fraught with severe complications and requires judicious use of allograft pubovaginal slingplasty possibly with bone anchors. Martius flap interposition appears to play a crucial role in improving the outcome following transvaginal repair of the neobladder-vaginal fistula in multiple non-overlapping layers. PMID:16160880

Tunuguntla, Hari S G R; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gousse, Angelo E

2005-09-01

357

The Food and Nutrition Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) of the National Agricultural Library (USDA) maintains a variety of electronic access points for the full texts of its bibliographies, resource lists, and fact sheets. Topics include Food Labeling Educational Materials, Food and Nutrition Software and Multimedia, and educational materials covering Foodborne Illness and the Food Guide Pyramid. Additional information is available on human nutrition, nutrition education, food service management, and other topics. Gopher to: gopher.nalusda.gov select: NAL Information Centers/Food and Nutrition Information Center

1996-01-01

358

How nutritional risk is assessed and managed in European hospitals: A survey of 21,007 patients findings from the 2007–2008 cross-sectional nutritionDay survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: Recognition and treatment of undernutrition in hospitalized patients are not often a priority in clinical practice. Objectives: We investigated how the nutritional risk of patients is determined and whether such assessment influences daily nutritional care across Europe and in Israeli hospitals. Methods: 1217 units from 325 hospitals in 25 countries with 21,007 patients participated in a longitudinal

Karin Schindler; Elisabeth Pernicka; Alessandro Laviano; Pat Howard; Tatjana Schütz; Peter Bauer; Irina Grecu; Cora Jonkers; Jens Kondrup; Olle Ljungqvist; Mohamed Mouhieddine; Claude Pichard; Pierre Singer; Stéphane Schneider; Christian Schuh; Michael Hiesmayr

2010-01-01

359

Addressing Cultural Contexts in the Management of Stress via Narrative and Mobile Technology.  

PubMed

In developing applications for stress management and mental health, developers have largely ignored cultural context in design, opting instead to produce apps for a general audience. However, apps designed without a specific population in mind actually have limited reach. Generally stress trackers and socalled "therapists in your pocket", tend to be lost among a jungle of other generic apps that appeal only to the quantified self population and those already predisposed to help-seeking behavior. To reach a broader audience, designing for a specific population may have appeal. The AppHappy Project's Journey to the West is a mobile app being developed by a multidisciplinary group of students at the University of Pennsylvania. The objective is to promote better stress management and mental health among Asian international college students and facilitate their social integration with the general student population. With a prevalence of depression twice that of domestic college students, a reluctance to engage in help-seeking behavior due to stigma, and the challenge of cultural integration, creating interventions for this population requires a different approach to app-mediated therapy. Journey to the West packages bite-sized pieces of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy techniques within the framework of a role-playing game. Every element of its design-from its characters to its art style, from its narrative to its mechanics to its approach to community features-is rooted in a culturally appropriate context. An avatar serves as a surrogate of self while experiencing externalized stressors. Each quest blends therapeutic elements into gameplay with the goal of building resilience towards stressful events. PMID:24875715

Lee, Matthew D; Kang, Xiao; Hanrahan, Nancy

2014-01-01

360

Stress Management Interventions for HIV+ Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, 1989 to 2006  

PubMed Central

Objective: Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. Design This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults (N = 3,077). Main Outcome Measures Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Results Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s = 0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Conclusion Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week post-intervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and Caucasian participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration.

Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.; Fielder, Robyn L.

2008-01-01

361

Nutritional issues in treating phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet is the mainstay of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment, and, in recent years, the nutritional\\u000a management of PKU has become more complex in order to optimize patients’ growth, development and diet compliance. Dietary\\u000a restriction of Phe creates a diet similar to a vegan diet, and many of the nutritional concerns and questions applicable to\\u000a vegans who wish to

Franēois Feillet; Carlo Agostoni

2010-01-01

362

Assessment and management of nutritional challenges in children’s cancer care: A survey of current practice in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe maintenance of an adequate nutritional intake is vital for the child or young person undergoing treatment for cancer. Inability to maintain nutrition can lead to poor tolerance of treatment, increased risk of infectious complications and a potential poorer overall outcome. Good nutritional support is vital however there does not appear to be a national or consistent approach to either

Karen Selwood; Evelyn Ward; Faith Gibson

2010-01-01

363

Mechanisms for the effects of fish oil lipid emulsions in the management of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) can be life saving for infants unable to adequately absorb enteral nutrients due to intestinal failure from inadequate bowel length or function. However, long-term PN carries significant morbidity and mortality, with 30 to 60% of patients developing progressive liver dysfunction. The etiology of PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) is poorly understood, however the involvement of lipid emulsions in its pathogenesis has been clearly established, with new emphasis emerging on the role of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recent studies evaluating the use of parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions instead of soybean oil lipid emulsions have demonstrated marked improvements in cholestasis, morbidity, and mortality in patients with PNALD treated with fish oil. This review provides an overview of the role of lipid emulsions in the pathogenesis of PNALD and the proposed mechanisms by which parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions may be exerting their beneficial effects. PMID:23602846

Nandivada, P; Cowan, E; Carlson, S J; Chang, M; Gura, K M; Puder, M

2013-09-01

364

[Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management].  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chronic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption. PMID:22470044

Domķnguez-López, M E; Gonzįlez-molero, I; Ramķrez-Plaza, C P; Soriguer, F; Olveira, G

2011-01-01

365

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

366

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) in complex systems: cultural adaptation and safety impacts in healthcare.  

PubMed

In complex systems, such as hospitals or air traffic control operations, critical incidents (CIs) are unavoidable. These incidents can not only become critical for victims but also for professionals working at the "sharp end" who may have to deal with critical incident stress (CIS) reactions that may be severe and impede emotional, physical, cognitive and social functioning. These CIS reactions may occur not only under exceptional conditions but also during every-day work and become an important safety issue. In contrast to air traffic management (ATM) operations in Europe, which have readily adopted critical incident stress management (CISM), most hospitals have not yet implemented comprehensive peer support programs. This survey was conducted in 2010 at the only European general hospital setting which implemented CISM program since 2004. The aim of the article is to describe possible contribution of CISM in hospital settings framed from the perspective of organizational safety and individual health for healthcare professionals. Findings affirm that daily work related incidents also can become critical for healthcare professionals. Program efficiency appears to be influenced by the professional culture, as well as organizational structure and policies. Overall, findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the CISM program in general hospitals takes time but, once established, it may serve as a mechanism for changing professional culture, thereby permitting the framing of even small incidents or near misses as an opportunity to provide valuable feedback to the system. PMID:24491831

Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Mitchell, Shannon G; Vogt, Joachim; Schürmann, Tim

2014-07-01

367

Coping strategies to manage stress related to vision loss and fluctuations in retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Background Vision loss in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a slowly progressive and inexorable threat to patients’ independence. It is not surprising that RP patients, many of whom are young when diagnosed, are at high risk for stress related to their vision loss. To address these issues, eye care providers need to be aware of what coping strategies RP patients use to successfully manage their vision loss. Methods We held focus groups with eight legally blind RP patients to help us better understand how they cope with the stress that is generated from their progressive vision loss and fluctuations in vision. Focus group sessions were audiotaped and resulting notes were coded using conventional qualitative analytic techniques. Results Two themes were identified: 1) “kicking and screaming” captured the ways in which RP patients fight to maintain their independence in the face of worsening vision; and 2) “there are so many worse things” describes how RP patients keep their vision loss in perspective. These RP patients demonstrated high levels of resiliency. In particular, they often used humor as a coping mechanism. Conclusions Understanding the ways in which RP patients manage their gradual, impending vision loss may lead to improved quality of care for this patient population.

Bittner, Ava K.; Edwards, Lori; George, Maureen

2010-01-01

368

Family caregivers of older adults on home enteral nutrition have multiple unmet task-related training needs and low overall preparedness for caregiving  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe used stress process theory to identify family caregiving variables that are salient to the experience of managing older adults’ home enteral nutrition. In this article, we describe the specific tasks family caregivers performed and their unique training needs in the context of caregiver preparedness, competence, effectiveness, and health care use.

Heidi J. Silver; Nancy S. Wellman; Daisy Galindo-Ciocon; Paulette Johnson

2004-01-01

369

The biological stress of early weaned piglets  

PubMed Central

Pigs experience biological stress such as physiological, environmental, and social challenges when weaned from the sow. The process of weaning is one of the most stressful events in the pig’s life that can contribute to intestinal and immune system dysfunctions that result in reduced pig health, growth, and feed intake, particularly during the first week after weaning. Technological improvements in housing, nutrition, health, and management have been used to minimize some of the adverse effects of weaning stress, but a greater understanding of the biological impact of stress is needed to improve strategies to overcome weaning stress. The focus of this review paper is to briefly describe how the biological stress associated with weaning impacts intestinal morphology, structure, physiology, and intestinal immune responses that can impact subsequent production efficiencies such as growth, intake, morbidity, and mortality.

2013-01-01

370

Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in Scotland and Wales: a questionnaire study.  

PubMed

Urodynamic stress incontinence is a common complaint. There have been over two hundred procedures described for treatment. In 2003, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in London published a guideline highlighting the evidence for different surgical approaches. These guidelines are intended to guide practice in the United Kingdom, including the two countries that were surveyed. It was our impression however that more sub-urethral tape type procedures were taking place than was recommended. We therefore undertook a postal survey of the consultant gynaecologists in Scotland and Wales, to compare current practice with the evidence base, and also to assess practice from a clinical and manpower perspective. Two hundred and forty consultants were identified in Scotland (161) and Wales (79). About two-thirds of those who saw patients with stress incontinence would always arrange pre-operative physiotherapy, and the majority of consultants would always organise urodynamics preoperatively. There were several different choices of primary procedure, with Tension Free Vaginal Tape (TVT Gynecare- Johnson & Johnson) the most common option. More than half of the respondents in both countries would refer a patient with recurrent stress incontinence to a specialist. TVT was also the most common choice of procedure for recurrent stress incontinence. The procedures that have a grade A recommendation in the RCOG guideline are Burch colposuspension and TVT, and 72% in Scotland and 63% in Wales would perform one of these procedures as first choice. Clinical practice moves on and there are several new sub-urethral tape procedures available on the market. It is important to balance the available evidence base with new developments in order to optimise the management of this common condition. PMID:17509497

Lim, Min Yu; Perera, Mahesh; Ramsay, Ian; Tierney, John; Hardwick, Chris

2007-06-01

371

Nutrition in palliative care.  

PubMed

Nutrition in palliative care and at the end of life should be one of the goals for improving quality of life. It is important to address issues of food and feeding at this time to assist in the management of troublesome symptoms as well as to enhance the remaining life. While this paper focuses upon the nutritional aspects of cancer in palliative care, the sentiments are applicable to other serious chronic illnesses such as advanced cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia. Cancer and its treatments exert a major impact upon physical and psychological reserves and at the end of life problems with appetite and the ability to eat and drink compound such impact. The aims of nutritional care minimize food-related discomfort and maximize food enjoyment. Identification of any nutritional problems can facilitate the employment of strategies which need to be discussed with the patient and their families and reviewed regularly as conditions change. Ethical questions will be raised concerning the provision of food and fluids to a person nearing the end of their life. Nurses need to acknowledge that food has greater significance than the provision of nutrients. PMID:19966682

Acreman, Sue

2009-10-01

372

Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health  

PubMed Central

Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting.

Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

373

Effects of short duration stress management training on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers: a quasi-experimental study.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of short duration stress management training (SMT) on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers, 118 male automotive workers from Pekan, Pahang (n = 60, mean age = 40.0 years, SD = 6.67) and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (n = 58, mean age = 38.1 years, SD = 5.86) were assigned to experimental and control group, respectively. A SMT program consisting of aerobic exercise, stress management manual, video session, lecture, question and answer session, and pamphlet and poster session were conducted in the experimental group. A validated short-form Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered before and after the intervention program in the experimental and control group and their time and group interaction effects were examined using the repeated measure ANOVA test. Results indicated that the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Depression (p = 0.036) and DASS-Anxiety (p = 0.011) were significantly decreased, respectively, after the intervention program in the experimental group as compared to the control group (significant time-group interaction effects). No similar effect was observed for the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Stress (p = 0.104). However, the mean (SD) scores for subscales of DASS-Depression (Dysphoria, p = 0.01), DASS-Anxiety (Subjective Anxiety, p = 0.007, Situational Anxiety, p = 0.048), and DASS-Stress (Nervous Arousal, p = 0.018, Easily Upset, p = 0.047) showed significant time and group interaction effects. These findings suggest that short duration SMT is effective in reducing some aspects of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive workers. PMID:19021918

Edimansyah, Ba; Rusli, Bn; Naing, L

2008-01-01

374

Effect of management strategies on reducing heat stress of feedlot cattle: feed and water intake.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate management strategies designed to decrease heat stress of cattle finished during the summer. In Exp. 1, 144 Angus crossbred yearling steers were assigned to three treatments: 1) ad libitum access to feed at 0800 (ADLIB); 2) fed at 1600 with feed amount adjusted so that no feed was available at 0800 (BKMGT); and 3) fed at 1600 at 85% of predicted ad libitum levels (LIMFD). Treatments were imposed for 23 d of an 82-d study, after which all steers were fed ad libitum at 0800. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.10) overall DMI, although ADLIB cattle tended to consume less feed. Overall water intake was decreased (P < 0.05) by 6.8 L x animal(-1) x d(-1) for LIMFD vs. ADLIB steers. In Exp. 2, 96 Angus crossbred yearling steers were assigned to three treatments: 1) control, no water application; 2) water applied to the pen surfaces between 1000 and 1200 (AM); and 3) water applied to pen surfaces between 1400 and 1600 (PM). Water intake and DMI did not differ among treatments; however, feed efficiency of AM steers was superior (P = 0.06) to that of PM steers. Conversely, marbling scores of PM steers were higher (P = 0.06) than those of AM steers. In Exp. 3, 192 crossbred steers were used to determine the effects of feeding time (0800 [AMF] vs. 1400 [PMF]), with (WET) and without (DRY) sprinkling (20 min every 1.5 h between 1000 and 1750). Feed DMI did not differ among treatments; however, water intake and marbling scores were highest (P < 0.05) for AMF/DRY steers. During these experiments, bunk scores (0 = <10% of feed delivered remaining; 1 = 10 to 50% of feed remaining; 2 = >50% of feed remaining) were assigned to each pen at various times during the day. In Exp. 1, bunk scores of BKMGT pens remained similar (P > 0.20) under varying environmental conditions, whereas LIMFD steers had lower scores (P < 0.05) as days on feed increased, even under hot environmental conditions. In Exp. 3, bunk scores of PMF/WET steers tended to be lower (P < 0.10) at 1700 and 2000 compared with PMF/ DRY pens under mild heat stress but not under severe heat stress. Alternative feeding regimens and sprinkling can alter the feed intake pattern of steers. Heat stress management strategies imposed in these experiments had minimal effects on cattle performance. Such strategies would be most useful for decreasing the susceptibility of cattle to hyperthermia and reducing related feedlot cattle deaths without adversely affecting performance. PMID:15484961

Mader, T L; Davis, M S

2004-10-01

375

Nutritional management of the low birth weight/preterm infant in community settings: a perspective from the developing world.  

PubMed

Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 weeks) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Maternal nutrition status is one of the most important risk factors for LBW/IUGR. Providing balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements to pregnant women will reduce incidence of IUGR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in developing countries. Exclusive breastfeeding is protective for a mother and her infant and has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in infancy. Kangaroo mother care for preterm infants will reduce severe morbidity and mortality as well. Community-based intervention packages are among the most effective methods of reducing morbidity and mortality in mothers and children. Future research should focus on improving triage of preterm and IUGR infants. Exclusive breastfeeding should be promoted, and appropriate alternative food supplements should be provided when breastfeeding is not possible. PMID:23445841

Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-03-01

376

Nutrition, growth and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Recommendations about the nutritional management of preterm infants, especially of extremely low gestational age (or extremely low birth weight) neonates, have been published by a number of pediatric and nutritional organizations. The objectives of these recommendations are to provide nutrients to approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age, to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients, and to achieve a satisfactory functional development. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the intrauterine growth rate to be targeted and of the nutrient requirements of preterm infants. Birth weight-based intrauterine curves should be used to monitor postnatal growth of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. Although primarily provided by observational studies or historic control studies, data demonstrate that growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes correlate with nutritional intake. The implementation of standardized feeding guidelines reduces nutritional practice variation and facilitates postnatal growth and improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24751619

Ehrenkranz, Richard A

2014-01-01

377

Management of recurrent stress urinary incontinence and urinary retention following midurethral sling insertion in women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Synthetic midurethral slings are the most common operations performed for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, there is only very scarce evidence regarding the management of complications from these operations. The aim of this survey was to canvass expert opinion regarding the management of recurrent SUI and urinary retention following insertion of these slings. METHODS Expert urologists and urogynaecologists in the UK with an interest in SUI were identified. Three clinical scenarios on recurrent SUI and one on urinary retention following midurethral sling placements were emailed twice to the experts. RESULTS The majority of the experts chose a repeat synthetic midurethral retropubic transvaginal tape (TVT) as the procedure of choice for recurrent SUI in patients who had had a previous TVT or midurethral transobturator tape inserted. In patients who continued to suffer SUI after a failed second TVT, there were mixed results with experts choosing fascial slings, colposuspension and bulking agents as their preferred method of treatment. In women who develop urinary retention following a TVT, tape pull-down within two weeks was the preferred method among the experts. However, division of the tape within two to six weeks following the procedure was also popular. CONCLUSIONS Based on expert opinion, it is difficult to make a recommendation as to the best method of treating recurrent SUI or urinary retention following tape insertion. There is an urgent requirement for well conducted, multicentre, randomised clinical trials to look at the management of these complications and also the tools used to assess the patient before salvage surgical management.

Hashim, H; Terry, TR

2012-01-01

378

Nutrition in the severely burned child.  

PubMed

Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric requirements are reduced accordingly. Assessment as to the success of the regime is made upon the results of daily weighing. Extra vitamins and elements are given and blood electrolytes and urine glucose and protein are regularly monitored. PMID:6784187

Solomon, J R

1981-01-01

379

A pharmacotherapeutic approach to the management of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Due to relatively recent and ongoing world events (eg, terrorist attacks, wars, and natural disasters), there has been a shift in attention from some of the more common psychiatric illnesses to one of the more elusive, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a severe, and often chronic, condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Although originally a condition seen primarily among war veterans, PTSD is now becoming more prevalent in the general community. PTSD often presents concurrently with other conditions, such as depression, bipolar, anxiety/panic disorders, and alcohol and drug abuse. Because of this, PTSD often goes unrecognized and is underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Thus, an opportunity for pharmacist intervention exists, both in the institution and in the community. With proper education and training, pharmacists can be efficient in screening for signs and symptoms of PTSD, triaging appropriate patients, and can play an integral role in managing the diverse array of drug therapy options for PTSD. PMID:22544623

Spaulding, Adam Michael

2012-10-01

380

An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

1982-01-01

381

Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2011-01-01

382

Mediators of change in emotion-focused and problem-focused worksite stress management interventions.  

PubMed

Ninety volunteers in a media organization were randomly allocated to an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, n = 30) group that sought to enhance people's ability to cope with work-related strain, an Innovation Promotion Program (IPP, n = 30) that helped individuals to identify and then innovatively change causes of occupational strain, or a waitlist control group (n = 30). Both interventions lasted 9 hr, spread over 3 months. Improvements in mental health and work-related variables were found following both interventions. As hypothesized, changes in outcome variables in the ACT condition were mediated only by the acceptance of undesirable thoughts and feelings. In the IPP condition, outcome change was mediated only by attempts to modify stressors. Discussion focused on the importance of understanding the mechanisms underpinning change in occupational stress management interventions. PMID:10658893

Bond, F W; Bunce, D

2000-01-01

383

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder noted for its unique intensity of vomiting, repeated emergency department visits and hospitalizations, and reduced quality of life. It is often misdiagnosed due to the unappreciated pattern of recurrence and lack of confirmatory testing. Because no accepted approach to management has been established, the task force was charged to develop a report on

B UK Li; Frank Lefevre; Gisela G Chelimsky; Richard G Boles; Susanne P Nelson; Donald W Lewis; Steven L Linder; Robert M Issenman; Colin D Rudolph

2008-01-01

384

Nutritional and management strategies on nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of lactating dairy cattle on commercial farms: An environmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy farm activities contribute to environmental pol- lution through the surplus N and P that they produce. Optimization of animal feeding and management has been described as a key strategy for decreasing N and P excretion in manure. Sixty-four commercial dairy farms were studied to assess the efficiency of N and P use in lactating herds and to identify dietary

H. Arriaga; M. Pinto; S. Calsamiglia; P. Merino

2009-01-01

385

[Perioperative management of the pancreaticoduoden-ectomy: fluid administration and nutritional support based on complication prevention and treatment].  

PubMed

Pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) has been widely accepted as one of the most complicated operation in abdominal surgery. The patients who receive PD operation always have other concurrent conditions, such as jaundice, diabetes, liver dysfunction, and malnutrition. Pancreatic fistula, biliary fistula and gastrointestinal dysfunction are common complications after PD. Proper perioperative management and fluid administration can reduce postoperative complications and the mortality. PMID:24277393

Peng, Jun-sheng; Chen, Shi

2013-11-01

386

Nutrition.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is designed to serve as a portal to resources and information on nutrition, healthy eating, and food safety available across government Websites. These resources are organized by category on the main page, including food facts, food safety, lifecycle issues, research, and health management, among others. Each of these is further divided by topic pages which offer links to related resources, some of which are annotated. While the organization of these varied sources of government information on one site is appreciated, Nutrition.gov does have a few minor drawbacks. The site's method of displaying links is more visually appealing than a standard metapage site listing, but it slows down the site unnecessarily. Some direct links are provided to selected reports and publications, but the press releases section just sends users to the appropriate pages at various agencies. Finally, the keyword search engine indexes all of FirstGov, producing a majority of irrelevant returns.

387

Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera

2012-01-01

388

Displaced femoral neck stress fractures in Royal Marine recruits--management and results of operative treatment.  

PubMed

Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSF) represent 3.5%-8% of stress fractures in military recruits; potentially resulting in medical discharge and/or complications. The incidence of displaced FNSF in the British Army has been reported as 1.8 in 10,000 recruits. We aimed to review the incidence and outcome of displaced FNSF in Royal Marine recruits. Retrospective review identified 6 recruits who sustained a displaced FNSF from 2001 to 2011 representing an incidence of 9.3 in 10,000 recruits. All were treated urgently by internal fixation. There were no cases of avascular necrosis, no surgical complications and no further procedures required. All united with a mean time to union of 11 months. 50% had a union time greater than 1 year. These fractures are slow to unite but with urgent surgical intervention and stable fixation 100% union was achieved. Awareness of this guides the management and rehabilitation whilst avoiding the risks of unnecessary secondary surgical interventions. PMID:22970637

Evans, J T; Guyver, P M; Kassam, A M; Hubble, M J W

2012-01-01

389

Nutrition Principles and Recommendations in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

edical nutrition therapy is an inte- gral component of diabetes man- agement and of diabetes self- management e ducation. Y et m any misconceptions exist concerning nutri- tion and diabetes. Moreover, in clinical practice, nutrition recommendations that have little or no supporting evidence have been and are still being given to persons with diabetes. Accordingly, this position statement provides evidence-based

390

Nutrition Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

391

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

Carol J. Boushey

392

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

393

Maple syrup urine disease: Nutritional management by intravenous hyperalimentation and uneventful course after surgical repair of dislocation of the hip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; McKusick 248600, 248610), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by a de—ciency of the branched-chain a-ketoacid dehy- drogenase. We report a patient with MSUD complicated by incomplete dislocation of the hip joint caused by spastic diplegia of the legs. She was successfully managed with dietary control in the perioperative period to prevent ketoacidotic attack after

Y. Koga; T. Iwanaga; I. Yoshida; M. Yoshino; S. Kaneko; H. Kato

1998-01-01

394

Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

2013-01-01

395

Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

2007-01-01

396

Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention Buffers Distress Responses and Immunologic Changes Following Notification of HIV-1 Seropositivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Randomly assigned 47 asymptomatic, healthy gay men to cognitive-behavioral stress management condition or assessment-only control group 5 weeks before notification of human immunodeficiency virus antibody status. Individual difference analyses suggest that psychological buffering and immunomodulating effects of treatment may be attributable, in…

Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

1991-01-01

397

Coping with Life: Building Self-Esteem, Managing Stress, Handling Peer Pressure. Family Living and Parenthood. Instructor Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is designed for use in the Family Living and Parenthood course and other home economics courses. Using this guide, teachers can help students review and learn daily living skills. Following acknowledgments, a foreword, and a subcompetency list are three units: (1) building self-esteem; (2) managing stress; and (3) handling peer…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

398

Trends in the Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence Among Female Medicare Beneficiaries, 2002-2007  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe trends in the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the United States from 2002 to 2007. METHODS As part of the Urologic Diseases of America Project, we analyzed data from a 5% national random sample of female Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older. Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services carrier and outpatient files from 2002 to 2007. Women who were diagnosed with urinary incontinence identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and who underwent surgical management identified by Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition (CPT-4) procedure codes were included in the analysis. Trends were analyzed over the 6-year period. Unweighted procedure counts were multiplied by 20 to estimate the rate among all female Medicare beneficiaries. RESULTS The total number of surgical procedures remained stable during the study period, from 49,340 in 2002 to 49,900 in 2007. Slings were the most common procedure across all years, which increased from 25,840 procedures in 2002 to 33,880 procedures in 2007. Injectable bulking agents were the second most common procedure, which accounted for 14,100 procedures in 2002 but decreased to 11,320 in 2007. Procedures performed in ambulatory surgery centers and physician offices increased, although those performed in inpatient settings declined. Hospital outpatient procedures remained stable. CONCLUSION The surgical management of women with SUI shifted toward a dominance of procedures performed in ambulatory surgery centers from 2002 to 2007, although the overall number of procedures remained stable. Slings remained the dominant surgical procedure, followed by injectable bulking agents, both of which are easily performed in outpatient settings.

Rogo-Gupta, Lisa; Litwin, Mark S.; Saigal, Christopher S.; Anger, Jennifer T.

2013-01-01

399

Nutrition in the pediatric population in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Nutrition is an essential component of patient management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Poor nutrition status accompanies many childhood chronic illnesses. A thorough assessment of the critically ill child is required to inform the plan for nutrition support. Accurate and clinically relevant nutritional assessment, including growth measurements, provides important guidance. Indirect calorimetry provides the most accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure, but is too often unavailable in the PICU. To prevent inappropriate caloric intake, reassessment of the child's nutrition status is imperative. Enteral nutrition is the recommended route of intake. Human milk is preferred for infants. PMID:24878206

Verger, Judy

2014-06-01

400

A case study in R and D productivity: Helping the program manager cope with job stress and improve communication effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain structural changes in the Naval Material Command which resulted from a comparison of its operations to those of selected large-scale private sector companies are described. Central to the change was a reduction in the number of formal reports from systems commands to headquarters, and the provision of Program Management Assistance Teams (at the request of the program manager) to help resolve project problems. It is believed that these changes improved communication and information-processing, reduced program manager stress, and resulted in improved productivity.

Bodensteiner, W. D.; Gerloff, E. A.

1985-01-01

401

Influence of nitrogen nutrition management on biomass partitioning and nitrogen use efficiency indices in hydroponically grown potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting controlled environment research with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT)-hydroponic systems as a human life support component during long-duration spaceflight. Standard nutrient solution management approaches include constant pH regulation with nitric acid (HNO3) and daily adjustment of electrical conductivity (EC) equivalent to half-strength modified Hoagland's solution, where nitrate (NO3-) is the sole nitrogen (N) source. Although tuber yields have been excellent with such an approach, N use efficiency indices are expected to be low relative to tuber biomass production. Furthermore, the high amount of N used in NFT-hydroponics, typically results in high inedible biomass, which conflicts with the need to minimize system mass, volume, and expenditure of resources for long-duration missions. More effective strategies of N fertilization need to be developed to more closely match N supply with demand of the crop. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to identify the optimal N management regime and plant N requirement to achieve high yields and to avoid inefficient use of N and excess inedible biomass production. In separate 84-day cropping experiments, three N management protocols were tested. Treatments which decreased NO3(-)-N supply indirectly through lowering nutrient solution EC (Expt. I), or disabling pH control, and/or supplying NH4(+)-N (Expt. III) did not significantly benefit tuber yield, but did influence N use efficiency indices. When supplied with an external 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N for the first 42 days after planting (DAP), lowered to 1.0 mM NO3(-)-N during the final 42 days (Expt. II), plants were able to achieve yields on par with plants which received constant 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N (control). By abruptly decreasing N supply at tuber initiation in Expt. II, less N was taken up and accumulated by plants compared to those which received high constant N (control). However, proportionately more plant accumulated N was used (N use efficiency) to produce tuber biomass when N supply was abruptly lowered at tuber initiation in Expt. II. Hence, a hydroponic nutrient solution N management system may be modified to elicit greater plant N-use while maintaining overall high tuber yield as opposed to achieving high tuber yields through excess N supply and shoot growth.

Goins, Gregory D.; Yorio, Neil C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

2004-01-01

402

Guideline clinical nutrition in patients with stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is regularly accompanied by dysphagia and other factors associated with decreased nutritional intake. Dysphagia with aspiration pneumonia and insufficient nutritional intake lead to worse outcome after stroke.This guideline is the first chapter of the guideline "Clinical Nutrition in Neurology" of the German Society for Clinical Nutrition (DGEM) which itself is one part of a comprehensive guideline about all areas of Clinical Nutrition. The thirty-one recommendations of the guideline are based on a systematic literature search and review, last updated December 31, 2011. All recommendations were discussed and consented at several consensus conferences with the entire DGEM guideline group. The recommendations underline the importance of an early screening and assessment of dysphagia and give advice for an evidence based and comprehensive nutritional management to avoid aspiration, malnutrition and dehydration. PMID:24289189

Wirth, Rainer; Smoliner, Christine; Jäger, Martin; Warnecke, Tobias; Leischker, Andreas H; Dziewas, Rainer

2013-01-01

403

Expanding Health Educators' Roles to Meet Critical Needs in Stress Management and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the association between stress and maladaptive coping and stress-related mental disorders; the severity of problems due to stress and stress-related mental disorders; and the need for primary prevention that teaches coping skills. Recommendations are given for providing cognitive-behavioral coping-skills training and educating consumers…

Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Spalding, Thomas W.; Hoffard, Craig W.

1998-01-01

404

Socially Supportive Transformational Leaders: Paradigm and Prescription for Organizational Stress Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizational leaders find themselves in a quandary. By trying to grow followers the actual result may be increased stress. However, transformational leaders have the potential to mediate the destructive effects of workplace stress. Writings on transformational and transactional leaders are reviewed revealing several important characteristics relating to the leaders ability to mediate stress. Organizational stress theory is also explored

C. B. Crawford

1995-01-01

405

Introducing Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant increase in nutrition knowledge followed a short-term nutrition education series among junior high school students. Nutrition education should be instituted in early childhood rather than be delayed until adolescence. (JN)

Mangham, Donna Burnett; Vickery, Connie E.

1981-01-01

406

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

407

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

408

Development of relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Monitoring and Management of Dry Deciduous Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gir wildlife sanctuary located between 20 r 57 to 21 r 20 N and 70 r 28 to 71 r 13 E is the last home of Asiatic lions Its biodiversity comprises of 450 recorded flowering plant species 32 species of mammals 26 species of reptiles about 300 species of birds and more than 2000 species of insects As per 1995 census it has 304 lions and 268 leopards The movement of wildlife to thermally comfortable zones to reduce stress conditions forces the changes in management plan with reference to change in localized water demand This necessitates the use of space based thermal data available from AVHRR MODIS etc to monitor temperature of Gir-ecosystem for meso-scale level operational utility As the time scale of the variability of NDVI parameter is much higher than that for lower boundary temperature LBT the dense patch in riverine forest having highest NDVI value would not experience change in its vigour with the change in the season NDVI value of such patch would be near invariant over the year and temperature of this pixel could serve as reference temperature for developing the concept of relative thermal stress index RTSI which is defined as RTSI T p -T r T max -T r wherein T r T max and T p refer to LBT over the maximum NDVI reference point maximum LBT observed in the Gir ecosystem and the temperature of the pixel in the image respectively RTSI images were computed from AVHRR images for post-monsoon leaf-shedded and summer seasons Scatter plot between RTSI and NDVI for summer seasons

Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.

409

Stress management for essential hypertension: comparison with a minimally effective treatment, predictors of response to treatment, and effects on reactivity.  

PubMed

Few studies of psychological interventions for essential hypertension have incorporated comprehensive coping skills treatment programs, evaluated the efficacy of such programs against credible, minimally effective controls, examined the effects of these interventions on pressor responses, or clarified the nature of person by treatment interactions. The present study examined the relative effectiveness of multimodal stress management training and a minimally effective treatment control (i.e. GSR biofeedback training) in the treatment of essential hypertensives' blood pressure at rest and in response to simulated stressful interpersonal situations. At the conclusion of an 8 week training period, stress management participants exhibited reliably lower resting diastolic blood pressure and tended to exhibit lower systolic pressure than controls. The former condition maintained their lower pressures through a 6-month follow-up period, but decreases in controls over follow-up rendered the conditions equivalent in blood pressure. No differences between conditions emerged in analyses on pressor responses. Stress management training was somewhat more effective for individuals scoring low rather than high on measures of trait anxiety and irritability. PMID:3668883

Zurawski, R M; Smith, T W; Houston, B K

1987-01-01

410

Parenting stress and psychosocial health in mothers with twin-twin transfusion syndrome managed with laser surgery: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of twin pregnancies with high risk for perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. This cross-sectional cohort study aimed to determine parenting stress and psychosocial health in mothers with a pregnancy complicated by TTTS that had been managed with laser ablation of communicating placental vessels. Questionnaires were sent to the mothers for completion: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a semi-structured questionnaire related to mental health problems and support received from health professionals. Thirty-seven mothers were sent questionnaires with 32 being returned. The results showed that 47% of women had total scores equal to or greater than the 85th percentile on the PSI, which is considered abnormally high. Twenty-six per cent of mothers had evidence of depression on the EPDS. Mothers of children with prolonged medical conditions or neurological problems had significantly higher scores (p =.011). Parenting stress was not associated with high scores on the EPDS. Medical and midwifery staff were considered to provide high levels of support, with social work providing none or low levels of support. In conclusion, women whose TTTS pregnancy was managed by laser surgery have high levels of parenting stress. As the results showed that parenting stress cannot be predicted at the time of hospitalization, it is suggested that more support should be provided in hospital with further follow-up after discharge. PMID:17564533

Edwards, Dawn M; Gray, Peter H; Soong, Barbara; Chan, Fung-Yee; Cincotta, Robert

2007-04-01

411

Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). Methods The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations—teachers and nurses—that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs CG=0.5%) in chronic “trait” anxiety. A similar pattern was found for coping skills: both treatments were able to significantly increase most coping skills, but only EG participants reported a significant increase (EG=14% vs CG=0.3%) in the Emotional Support skill. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence that the Interreality protocol yields better outcomes than the traditionally accepted gold standard for psychological stress treatment: CBT. Consequently, these findings constitute a sound foundation and rationale for the importance of continuing future research in technology-enhanced protocols for psychological stress management. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01683617; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01683617 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QnziHv3h).

Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

412

A problem solving approach to nutrition education and counseling.  

PubMed

This report applies problem-solving principles to the design and implementation of nutrition education and counseling programs. A framework is proposed that builds on an extensive body of research in mental health and health education that has demonstrated the efficacy of a problem-solving approach to helping people cope with stressful life events. Our framework uses problem-solving principles in helping participants in nutrition education or counseling programs to overcome obstacles they experience in changing their nutrition behaviors. Both research and clinical experience suggest that incorporating problem-solving techniques in nutrition education and counseling will increase long term change in nutrition behaviors. PMID:16785096

Peter, Houts; Shankar, Sharada; Sharada, Shankar; Klassen, Ann C; Robinson, Ellen B; McCarthy, Marline

2006-01-01

413

Novel endoscopic management of a late complication following TVT insertion for stress urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Bladder erosion Symptoms: Haematuria • irritative bladder symptoms • recurrent UTI Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endoscopic tape resection Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Since 1995 over 1 million tension free vaginal slings have been utilized to treat stress incontinence. The 10 year success rates range from 84–93%. Complication rates are low by comparision. Bladder perforation occurring during the time of surgery and is managed effectively if diagnosed and treated intraoperatively. However bladder erosion occuring post-operatively predominantly occur within the first 2 years. The risk of erosion increases with body mass index and previous vaginal surgery. Case Report: We report the case of a bladder erosion occurring 5 years following the original surgery. The symptoms included recurrent urinary tract infections, frequency and haematuria. A novel technique was employed using the transurethral approach to initially disintegrate the calculus and then using an endoshears to excise the mesh below the level of the epithelium. Continence was maintained postoperatively. Conclusions: This approach provides a safe alternative to both the transvaginal and transabdominal approach to excising intravesical mesh.

O'Sullivan, Orfhlaith E.; Martyn, Fiona; O'Connor, Rory; Jaffery, Syed

2013-01-01

414

Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of stress management interventions in occupational settings. Thirty-six experimental studies were included, representing 55 interventions. Total sample size was 2,847. Of the participants, 59% were female, mean age was 35.4, and average length of intervention was 7.4 weeks. The overall weighted effect size (Cohen's d) for all studies was 0.526 (95% confidence interval = 0.364, 0.687), a significant medium to large effect. Interventions were coded as cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, organizational, multimodal, or alternative. Analyses based on these subgroups suggested that intervention type played a moderating role. Cognitive-behavioral programs consistently produced larger effects than other types of interventions, but if additional treatment components were added the effect was reduced. Within the sample of studies, relaxation interventions were most frequently used, and organizational interventions continued to be scarce. Effects were based mainly on psychological outcome variables, as opposed to physiological or organizational measures. The examination of additional moderators such as treatment length, outcome variable, and occupation did not reveal significant variations in effect size by intervention type. PMID:18211170

Richardson, Katherine M; Rothstein, Hannah R

2008-01-01

415

Nutrition and Physical Activity. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Allred, John B.

416

Nutrient Content of Foods, Nutritional Supplements, and Food Fallacies. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Stein, Joan Z.

417

Intelligent Signal Analysis Using Case-Based Reasoning for Decision Support in Stress Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern daily life triggers stress for many people in different everyday situations. Consequently many people live with increased\\u000a stress levels under long durations. It is recognized that increased exposure to stress may cause serious health problems if\\u000a undiagnosed and untreated. One of the physiological parameters for quantifying stress levels is finger temperature, which\\u000a helps clinicians with the diagnosis and treatment

Shahina Begum; Mobyen Uddin Ahmed; Peter Funk; Ning Xiong

418

Differential Effectiveness of Coping in Managing Stress and Burnout in Oncology Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High levels of stress experienced by primary care oncology nursing staff, and the competency impairment which results from such stress, has become a matter of much concern in health care settings. This study was conducted to identify the coping strategies employed by oncology nurses, and to relate these strategies to differential indices of stress

Rounds, James B., Jr.; Zevon, Michael A.

419

Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

2012-01-01

420

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

421

Comparative analysis of the hspA mutant and wild-type Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 under salt stress: evaluation of the role of hspA in salt-stress management  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microarray analysis has previously revealed that hspA, which encodes a small heat-shock protein, is the second most highly expressed gene under salt stress in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Consequently, an hspA deletion mutant was studied under various salt stresses in order to identify a potential role of HspA in salt stress management. The mutant had a growth disadvantage

Asadulghani; Koji Nitta; Yasuko Kaneko; Kouji Kojima; Hideya Fukuzawa; Hideo Kosaka; Hitoshi Nakamoto

2004-01-01

422

[Parenteral nutrition strategies].  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition is a fundamental part of any therapeutic concept in critically ill patients. Just recently some international prospective randomized controlled trials were investigating the correct indication, optimal timing and dosage of parenteral nutrition regimens. Despite a controversial discussion newer strategies recommend the parenteral nutrition as a very important supplemental component to an early enteral nutrition therapy. PMID:24568856

Adolph, Michael

2014-03-01

423

LabNotes - Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2006-10-15

424

Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn  

PubMed Central

Both the successful development of healthy, long-term animal models to study fetal nutrition and metabolism and the improved survival of low-birth-weight, preterm infants have focused interest and research on fetal and neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Such a focus is important, given the recent emphasis on promoting neonatal growth in preterm infants at “normal” in utero growth rates. Estimates of nutrient requirements for growth in a human fetus remain ill defined, however. Body composition data appear biased toward thin infants. Animal data suggest that fetal nutrition proceeds according to species-specific growth rates, with variations in fat content largely dependent on placental fat permeability and on maternal nutrient supply as regulated by the placenta. After birth, neonatal nutrition is affected primarily by food intake and the functional integrity and capacity of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, muscle activity, thermoregulation and stresses of various kinds and degrees modify a neonate's nutritional requirements. Functional deficits of the gastrointestinal tract have been circumvented by a more aggressive use of intravenous nutrition. Both intravenous and enteral nutrient mixtures have been substantially improved in the quantity of all nutrients and have been modified qualitatively toward compositions that are closer to those of human milk. These nutrient mixtures now produce plasma nutrient concentrations that approximate those of a healthy, breast-fed infant. Although such efforts to improve the nutritional balance and growth of preterm infants have been successful, much remains to be learned about the nutritional requirements of sick infants.

Kennaugh, Jan M.; Hay, William W.

1987-01-01

425

Basic nutritional investigation Efficiency of apples, strawberries, and tomatoes for reduction of oxidative stress in pigs as a model for humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the potency of apples, strawberries, and tomatoes in decreasing oxidative stress in pigs as a model for humans. Methods: Forty-eight growing pigs were individually penned in metabolic cages and divided into six groups. All groups received isocaloric daily rations composed of a basal diet supplemented with starch, linseed oil, linseed oil and apples, linseed oil

Tanja Pajk; Vida Rezar; Alenka Levart; Janez Salobir

426

Nutrition and ageing.  

PubMed

The reviewed literature indicates that, even in industrialised countries, the nutrition of mature and aged subjects is often inadequate (because of deficiency or excess), which may lead to premature or pathological senescence. Recent nutritional research on ageing laboratory animals shows that dietary restriction may be the most effective procedure to achieve a long and disease-free life span, probably owing to a better protection against mitochondria-linked oxygen stress. Likewise, the experimental and clinical work from many laboratories, including our own, indicates that age-dependent changes in the cardiovascular and immune systems are linked to oxygen stress and that an adequate intake of dietary antioxidants may protect those systems against chronic degenerative syndromes in the physiopathology of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role. The extant data indicate that the antioxidant vitamins C and E are centrally involved in defending the above two systems against ROS attack. Moreover, recent research suggests that the glutathione-related thiolic antioxidants, thiazolidine carboxylic acid (thioproline) and N-acetylcysteine, as well as the phenolic liposoluble 'co-antioxidants' of Curcuma longa, may have a significant protective effect against age-related atherogenesis and immune dysfunction. Key messages from this paper are the following. (1) It is generally accepted that oxygen free radicals released in metabolic reactions play a key role in the physiopathology of 'normal ageing' and of many age-related degenerative diseases. (2) Consumption of adequate levels of antioxidants in the diet is essential in order to preserve health in old age. (3) A certain degree of protection against atherogenesis and immune dysfunction may be achieved by preventing vitamin E deficiency and an excessive oxidation of the glutathione-supported thiol pool. PMID:11918486

Miquel, J

2001-12-01

427

Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM?+?CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM?+?CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM?+?CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM?+?CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p?nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM?+?CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet.

2014-01-01

428

Knockout of Multiple Arabidopsis Cation/H+ Exchangers Suggests Isoform-Specific Roles in Metal Stress Response, Germination and Seed Mineral Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Cation/H+ exchangers encoded by CAX genes play an important role in the vacuolar accumulation of metals including Ca2+ and Mn2+. Arabidopsis thaliana CAX1 and CAX3 have been previously shown to differ phylogenetically from CAX2 but the physiological roles of these different transporters are still unclear. To examine the functions and the potential of redundancy between these three cation transporters, cax1/cax2 and cax2/cax3 double knockout mutants were generated and compared with wild type and cax single knockouts. These double mutants had equivalent metal stress responses to single cax mutants. Both cax1 and cax1/cax2 had increased tolerance to Mg stress, while cax2 and cax2/cax3 both had increased sensitivity to Mn stress. The cax1/cax2 and cax2/cax3 mutants did not exhibit the deleterious developmental phenotypes previously seen with the cax1/cax3 mutant. However, these new double mutants did show alterations in seed germination, specifically a delay in germination time. These alterations correlated with changes in nutrient content within the seeds of the mutants, particularly the cax1/cax2 mutant which had significantly higher seed content of Ca and Mn. This study indicates that the presence of these Arabidopsis CAX transporters is important for normal germination and infers a role for CAX proteins in metal homeostasis within the seed.

Connorton, James M.; Webster, Rachel E.; Cheng, Ninghui; Pittman, Jon K.

2012-01-01

429

Development of brief stress management support groups for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment 1 1 This project was not supported by any external funding sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop and assess the efficacy of couples stress management groups offered concurrently with IVF treatment.Design: Couples in IVF treatment were given the option of participating in a biweekly stress management group.Setting: The IVF treatment clinic at Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas.Patient(s): One or both members of 17 couples participated in the program in one of four

Mary Ellen McNaughton-Cassill; Michael Bostwick; Sara E Vanscoy; Nancy J Arthur; Timothy N Hickman; Randal D Robinson; Greg S Neal

2000-01-01

430

Setting Up the Next Generation Biofeedback Program for Stress and Anxiety Management for College Students: A Simple and Cost-Effective Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing prevalence of stress and anxiety on college campuses along with limited resources and budget reductions for many campuses has prompted the need for innovative approaches to help students effectively manage their stress and anxiety. With college students becoming more and more technology-savvy, the authors present an innovative…

Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Hayashino, Diane; Prince, Judy

2010-01-01

431

Strategies for Managing Reproduction in the Heat-Stressed Dairy Cow1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy is difficult in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress because of reductions in estrous detection rate and the proportion of inseminated cows that maintain pregnancy. The most common approach to ameliorate heat stress in developed countries has been to alter the cow's environment through provision of shade, fans, sprinklers, and so on. Nonetheless, seasonal

P. J. Hansen; C. F. Arechiga

1999-01-01

432

An Academic Approach to Stress Management for College Students in a Conventional Classroom Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the identification of stress and the relationship of individual stress responses to physical and mental health, medical and behavioral professionals have been training individuals in coping strategies. To investigate the possibility of teaching cognitive coping skills to a nonclinical population in an academic setting, 41 college students…

Carnahan, Robert E.; And Others

433

Relax for Success: An Educator's Guide to Stress Management. [With CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a practical, concise, easy-to-read guide for relieving stress. It is written specifically for educators, with examples and anecdotes that relate to professional educators' experiences. It assumes a holistic approach to stress relief that incorporates thought, verbal and action strategies and techniques. The harm that…

Glanz, Jeffrey

434

Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast.  

PubMed

In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects the cell from stresses. Here, we find that a constitutive activation of the HSR could increase ER stress resistance in both wild-type and UPR-deficient cells. Activation of HSR decreased UPR activation in the WT (as shown by the decreased HAC1 mRNA splicing). We analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional response in order to propose regulatory mechanisms that govern the interplay between UPR and HSR and followed up for the hypotheses by experiments in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the regulation of ER stress response via HSR is (1) only partially dependent on over-expression of Kar2p (ER resident chaperone induced by ER stress); (2) does not involve the increase in protein turnover via the proteasome activity; (3) is related to the oxidative stress response. From the transcription data, we also propose that HSR enhances ER stress resistance mainly through facilitation of protein folding and secretion. We also find that HSR coordinates multiple stress-response pathways, including the repression of the overall transcription and translation. PMID:24237754

Hou, Jin; Tang, Hongting; Liu, Zihe; Österlund, Tobias; Nielsen, Jens; Petranovic, Dina

2014-05-01

435

Chronic work stress, sickness absence, and hypertension in middle managers: General or specific sociological explanations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of differential prediction of health outcomes by sociological models of work stress has received little attention so far. This paper argues, both on theoretical and empirical grounds, that active coping with the experience of chronic work stress is more likely to be associated with physical health consequences of sustained autonomic arousal such as hypertension, whereas passive coping may

Richard Peter; Johannes Siegrist

1997-01-01

436

Nitrogen stress response and stringent response are coupled in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Assimilation of nitrogen is an essential process in bacteria. The nitrogen regulation stress response is an adaptive mechanism used by nitrogen-starved Escherichia coli to scavenge for alternative nitrogen sources and requires the global transcriptional regulator NtrC. In addition, nitrogen-starved E. coli cells synthesize a signal molecule, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which serves as an effector molecule of many processes including transcription to initiate global physiological changes, collectively termed the stringent response. The regulatory mechanisms leading to elevated ppGpp levels during nutritional stresses remain elusive. Here, we show that transcription of relA, a key gene responsible for the synthesis of ppGpp, is activated by NtrC during nitrogen starvation. The results reveal that NtrC couples these two