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1

Stress management  

MedlinePLUS

... routine. You do not have to join a gym, 20 minutes of brisk walking outdoors is enough. ... Take up a hobby. RESOURCES If these stress management techniques do not work for you, professionals, such ...

2

Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.  

PubMed

Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

2014-07-01

3

Manage Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... blood pressure, and depression. You can prevent or reduce stress by: Planning ahead Deciding which tasks need to ... walk. Check out these tips for dealing with stress . Talk to a friend or loved one about how you are feeling. ... Map Contact Us Subscribe to E-News Developers A Federal ...

4

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility by Clain Jones, Soil Chemist" as well as offer the potential for credits for CCAs in Nutrient Management (within the "Plant Nutrition, the reader should: 1. Know the 17 elements essential for plant nutrition 2. Know the macronutrients

Lawrence, Rick L.

5

How Coaches Manage Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents stress management strategies for coaches, focusing on what stress is, how it affects the body, and what to do to minimize the effects of stress on health. The article explains on- and off-the-job stress factors so coaches can recognize potential stress situations and handle them as they occur. (SM)

Ruder, M. Karen

1991-01-01

6

this issue: Managing Stress  

E-print Network

's economic health. It's no wonder that Americans as a whole are feeling additional stress and anxiety about1 Inside this issue: page 2 Managing Stress page 4 Interviewing for High Impact page 5 Kelly sources of stress for 80 percent of Americans. If you add in the plethora of headlines about closing

Rollins, Andrew M.

7

Nutritional management of children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Children with severe cerebral palsy and particularly those with oropharyngeal dysfunction are at risk of poor nutritional status. Determining the need and the mode of nutritional intervention is multifactorial and requires multiple methodologies. First-line treatment typically involves oral nutritional support for those children who are safe to consume an oral diet. Enteral tube feeding may need to be considered in children with undernutrition where poor weight gain continues despite oral nutritional support, or in those with oropharyngeal dysphagia and an unsafe swallow. Estimates for energy and protein requirements provide a starting point only, and ongoing assessment and monitoring is essential to ensure nutritional needs are being met, that complications are adequately managed and to avoid over or under feeding. PMID:24301003

Bell, K L; Samson-Fang, L

2013-12-01

8

Nutritionally mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.  

PubMed

There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NF ? B. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF- ? and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1 ? , CCL4/MIP-1 ? , CXCL2/MIP-2 ? , and CXCL3/MIP-2 ? is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF ? , IL-1 ? , and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation. PMID:23844276

Muńoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

9

Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical activity is recommended). Participation in a support group could help you stick with new habits. It’s also important to keep follow-up medical appointments to monitor the effects of surgery. endocrine and nutritional Management After Bariatric surgery Image credit: Walter Pories, ...

10

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition' - Duration: 12:10.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."?ť T...

11

Stress Management in Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography was designed to examine the nature and effects of stress, with particular emphasis on gifted students. Following a brief glossary of 33 terms, 53 citations are presented in three major sections: a general overview of stress, stress and the gifted child, and selected stress management techniques (relaxation, imagery, and…

Smith, Kim Stevens

12

Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.  

PubMed

Abstract Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

2015-01-01

13

Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population. PMID:24350206

Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

2013-01-01

14

Child Nutrition Management System: An Interview with Rich Connell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the second in a continuing series highlighting exemplary information technology (IT) practices, recounts an interview with the project manager of New York State's Child Nutrition Management System (CNMS). CNMS is a Web-based system for claim processing and program management for the Child Nutrition Program administered by the New…

Benson, Gregory M., Ed.

2001-01-01

15

Ms Sylvia Stephen, MSc. Human Nutrition Unit Manager  

E-print Network

Ms Sylvia Stephen, MSc. Human Nutrition Unit Manager 01224 438607 sylvia.stephen@abdn.ac.uk Contact us: The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health offers a bespoke service to the food industry We also offer guidance and advice on when a nutritional claim can be made on your product Back of pack

Levi, Ran

16

Neuroimmunomodulation, Stress–Nutrition Interactions and Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system requires a constant supply of nutrients for its optimal function and performance. Under stress conditions,\\u000a the immune response may be suppressed and is modulated by the central nervous system through a complex network of signals.\\u000a Communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems has been well established, and there is ample evidence to indicate\\u000a that stress-associated immune dysregulation

Javier Romeo Marin; Julia Wärnberg; E. Nova; S Sonia Gómez-Martínez; Ligia Esperanza Díaz; A. Veses; Ascansión Marcos

17

The self-care series: Part II, stress management.  

PubMed

Inmates have special needs in terms of their emotional and physical health and this second in a series is designed to give inmates living with HIV/AIDS practical advice on handling stress. Stress is a major problem for all who are diagnosed with HIV, particularly for inmates who may have limited access to drugs or health care providers. Several stress management techniques are described, including meditation. The importance of proper nutrition and exercise is addressed. Progressive relaxation and visualization techniques may also be useful in managing the stress associated with HIV diagnoses. PMID:11365548

1998-01-01

18

Nutritional Management of Hypertension: Cost Versus Benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension is increasing in both developed and developing countries with\\u000a major impacts on morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nutritional management of high blood pressure is an important intervention that is safe, sustainable and cost-effective.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary modifications that decrease BP include: reduced sodium and increased potassium intake; increased fruit and vegetable\\u000a intake; low-moderate

Angelique Mavrodaris; Saverio Stranges

19

Nutrition in the management of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The role of nutrition in the management of HIV infection and AIDS is now widely recognized. To highlight the influence of nutrition on the progress of HIV/AIDS and the role and importance of good nutrition in the management of the disease, literature selected from local and international scientific books and journals on the subject of nutrition and HIV/AIDS were reviewed and synthesized in this article. As an intervention, it should begin in the early stages of HIV infection and should include nutrition counseling, and in the later stages of the disease, using more advanced nutrition support methods including enteral and parenteral support. These would enable HIV/AIDS patients to achieve an adequate nutrient intake and energy for as long as possible, thus enhancing the quality of their lives and minimizing the symptoms of the disease. PMID:10685321

Thuita, F M; Mirie, W

1999-09-01

20

Nutrition assessment and management in advanced liver disease.  

PubMed

Malnutrition commonly complicates the course of patients with cirrhosis and has a multifactorial etiology. Despite the important role that nutrition plays in the prognosis of those with cirrhosis, the nutrition assessment process can be challenging in this setting. A number of tools are available to aid in the nutrition assessment of the cirrhotic patient; however, none are without limitations. Although the assessment process can be difficult, the ability to properly manage the nutrient needs of the patient presents an additional set of challenges because of the catabolic nature of the disease process and common occurrence of anorexia and other symptoms leading to poor oral intake. In this review, the nutrition assessment tools and general guidelines for nutrition management in patients with advanced liver disease are discussed to promote recognition of the nutrition issues affecting this patient population and lead to their improved survival and reduced morbidity. PMID:23319353

Johnson, Tammy M; Overgard, Erin B; Cohen, Ashley E; DiBaise, John K

2013-02-01

21

Rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia with disability: a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management.  

PubMed

Malnutrition and sarcopenia often occur in rehabilitation settings. The prevalence of malnutrition and sarcopenia in older patients undergoing rehabilitation is 49-67 % and 40-46.5 %, respectively. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with poorer rehabilitation outcome and physical function. Therefore, a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management may improve outcome in disabled elderly with malnutrition and sarcopenia. The concept of rehabilitation nutrition as a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health guidelines are used to evaluate nutrition status and to maximize functionality in the elderly and other people with disability. Assessment of the multifactorial causes of primary and secondary sarcopenia is important because rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia differs depending on its etiology. Treatment of age-related sarcopenia should include resistance training and dietary supplements of amino acids. Therapy for activity-related sarcopenia includes reduced bed rest time and early mobilization and physical activity. Treatment for disease-related sarcopenia requires therapies for advanced organ failure, inflammatory disease, malignancy, or endocrine disease, while therapy for nutrition-related sarcopenia involves appropriate nutrition management to increase muscle mass. Because primary and secondary sarcopenia often coexist in people with disability, the concept of rehabilitation nutrition is useful for their treatment. Stroke, hip fracture, and hospital-associated deconditioning are major causes of disability, and inpatients of rehabilitation facilities often have malnutrition and sarcopenia. We review the concept of rehabilitation nutrition, the rehabilitation nutrition options for stroke, hip fracture, hospital-associated deconditioning, sarcopenic dysphagia, and then evaluate the amount of research interest in rehabilitation nutrition. PMID:25223471

Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

2014-12-01

22

Efficient Nutrition Screening in an Inpatient Substance Abuse\\/Stress Recovery Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe an efficient nutrition screening tool for use by the admitting practitioner on a substance abuse\\/stress recovery unit.The 1996 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAHO) requires that nutrition screening be completed within 24 hours of admission. At the medical center, the routine nutrition screening was completed by a dietetic technician within 48 hours of admission on

B. Harrington; E. Notz

1996-01-01

23

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... about meeting with a nutritionist to create a nutrition plan designed just for you. Not only will they help with meal planning, but you'll also have someone supporting and monitoring your progress. NEXT: ... to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email ...

24

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES (APIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 **Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients. PMID:24966599

Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

2014-01-01

26

Natural malaria infection reduces starvation resistance of nutritionally stressed mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In disease ecology, there is growing evidence that environmental quality interacts with parasite and host to determine host susceptibility to an infection. Most studies of malaria parasites have focused on the infection costs incurred by the hosts, and few have investigated the costs on mosquito vectors. The interplay between the environment, the vector and the parasite has therefore mostly been ignored and often relied on unnatural or allopatric Plasmodium/vector associations. Here, we investigated the effects of natural avian malaria infection on both fecundity and survival of field-caught female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, individually maintained in laboratory conditions. We manipulated environmental quality by providing mosquitoes with different concentrations of glucose-feeding solution prior to submitting them to a starvation challenge. We used molecular-based methods to assess mosquitoes' infection status. We found that mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium had lower starvation resistance than uninfected ones only under low nutritional conditions. The effect of nutritional stress varied with time, with the difference of starvation resistance between optimally and suboptimally fed mosquitoes increasing from spring to summer, as shown by a significant interaction between diet treatment and months of capture. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes had similar clutch size, indicating no effect of infection on fecundity. Overall, this study suggests that avian malaria vectors may suffer Plasmodium infection costs in their natural habitat, under certain environmental conditions. This may have major implications for disease transmission in the wild. PMID:24286465

Lalubin, Fabrice; Delédevant, Aline; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

2013-11-29

27

The management of conditioned nutritional requirements in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients suffering from congestive heart failure exhibit impaired myocardial energy production, myocyte calcium overload and\\u000a increased oxidative stress. Nutritional factors known to be important for myocardial energy production, calcium homeostasis\\u000a and the reduction of oxidative stress, such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, creatine and taurine\\u000a are reduced in this patient population. Furthermore, deficiencies of taurine, carnitine, and thiamine

Marc L. Allard; Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy; Michael J. Sole

2006-01-01

28

Nutritional management in chyle leaks and chylous effusions.  

PubMed

Chyle leaks occur when there is interruption to the lymphatic ducts that transport chyle around the body. The loss of this protein-rich, calorie-rich fluid can cause serious complications including dehydration, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Treatment of chyle leaks depends on the underlying cause, which may be surgical, secondary to malignant invasion or the result of a medical condition. Nutritional support is vital and leads to spontaneous leak closure in many cases. Nutritional management options include total bowel rest with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding with specialized formula, or oral diet with supplementation. At present there is no consensus regarding which approach is superior. In reality, most patients with chyle leaks are managed with a combination or oral and enteral feeding, but further work is needed to clarify the optimum management strategy. PMID:25381927

Bibby, Anna C; Maskell, Nick A

2014-10-01

29

Nutritional management in chyle leaks and chylous effusions.  

PubMed

Chyle leaks occur when there is interruption to the lymphatic ducts that transport chyle around the body. The loss of this protein-rich, calorie-rich fluid can cause serious complications including dehydration, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Treatment of chyle leaks depends on the underlying cause, which may be surgical, secondary to malignant invasion or the result of a medical condition. Nutritional support is vital and leads to spontaneous leak closure in many cases. Nutritional management options include total bowel rest with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding with specialized formula, or oral diet with supplementation. At present there is no consensus regarding which approach is superior. In reality, most patients with chyle leaks are managed with a combination or oral and enteral feeding, but further work is needed to clarify the optimum management strategy. PMID:25299666

Bibby, Anna C; Maskell, Nick A

2014-10-01

30

Focus on nutrition: dietary management of gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays a key role in the management of gastrointestinal disease, and some patients may be managed by dietary therapy alone. Dietary ingredients can have a negative or positive effect on the bowel. Negative factors in a diet may include toxins, allergens, toxic dietary excesses, or nutritional deficiencies. Diet also has a direct effect on intestinal physiology, affecting motility, cell renewal rate, intestinal microbiome, enzyme production, ammonia production, and volatile fatty acid content. This article discusses dietary therapy of acute gastroenteritis, chronic gastroenteropathies, and feline constipation. PMID:23677820

Chandler, Marge

2013-06-01

31

Stress Management Training for Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of dental students participated in a stress management program that included instruction in self-relaxation and time management, exercise and leisure planning, and cognitive modification techniques. The importance of stress-management training for dental students and suggestions for future research are discussed. (MLW)

Tisdelle, Debra A.; And Others

1984-01-01

32

UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

absence, loss of productivity and general absenteeism. The Health and Safety Executive* views stress awareness of stress and the methods available to combat it · to initiate appropriate action to manage

Sussex, University of

33

Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

34

Energy and protein nutrition management of transition dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aims of this article are to briefly review some of the underlying physiology of changes that occur around calving, examine the potential to control the risk of disease in this period, increase milk production, and improve reproductive performance through better nutritional management. Practical guidelines for veterinarians and advisors are provided. PMID:23809895

Lean, Ian J; Van Saun, Robert; Degaris, Peter J

2013-07-01

35

A nutrition support service web application to manage patients receiving parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a complex therapy that requires expertise and experience to avoid errors in prescribing and management. Because of care coordination issues, one medical center has developed and implemented a Web-based application to manage PN patients. PN orders have already been programmed into the physician order entry system, but the nutrition support service (NSS) consult and daily PN management have been performed using paper forms. The Web system is developed for ease of use by clinicians and accessibility at any computer within the medical center. The database consists of 12 tables interrelated by the patient medical record number, admission number, or location. The NSS consult is the main table used to navigate to the other tables. Update of the laboratory and PN formula table must be done through the consult table. The system is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act guidelines, and has been developed so that the forms that are required to be placed in the patient's permanent record can be printed. Demographic information and laboratory data are automatically populated via a link to the medical center's medication management system. At present, there are 1393 patients in the database and 21,000 pages are viewed each month during daily PN management by clinicians. Data can be easily retrieved for management reports. Data elements can be exported directly from the database to worksheets. This function has been used for projects designed to improve the efficiency of this PN system. PMID:19605799

Mirtallo, Jay M; Hawksworth, Kim; Payne, Brett

2009-01-01

36

Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review.  

PubMed

Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), or slow emptying of the stomach, is a well-established complication of diabetes mellitus and is typically considered to occur in individuals with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical consequences of DGP include induction of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (early satiety, abdominal distension, reflux, stomach spasm, postprandial nausea, vomiting), alteration in drug absorption, and destabilization of glycemic control (due to mismatched postprandial glycemic and insulin peaks). Effective nutritional management not only helps in alleviating the symptoms, but also in facilitating better glycemic control. Although there have been no evidence-based guidelines pertaining to the nutrition care process of the DGP, the current dietary recommendations are based on expert opinions or observational studies. The dietary management of gastroparesis needs to be tailored according to the severity of malnutrition and kind of upper GI symptom by changing the volume, consistency, frequency, fiber, fat, and carbohydrates in the meal. Small frequent meals, using more liquid calories, reducing high fat or high fiber, consuming bezoar forming foods, and adjusting meal carbohydrates based on medications or insulin helps in improving the upper GI symptoms and glycemic control. Enteral nutrition can be an option for patients who fail to stabilize their weight loss, or for those who cannot gain weight with oral feedings, while total parenteral nutrition is rarely necessary for the patient with gastroparesis. PMID:23055757

Sadiya, Amena

2012-01-01

37

[Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms].  

PubMed

Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure that sometimes has to be maintained for long time, even forever, except for technique-related complications or unfavorable clinical course that would lead to extreme surgical alternatives such as intestinal transplantation. Hormonal therapy with trophism-stimulating factors opens new alternatives that are already being tried in humans. PMID:17679297

Pérez de la Cruz, A J; Moreno-Torres Herrera, R; Pérez Roca, C

2007-05-01

38

Leaf number, water stress and carbon nutrition effects on poplar leaf growth  

E-print Network

Leaf number, water stress and carbon nutrition effects on poplar leaf growth J.P. Gaudillère area of a leaf is described by the number and the mean size of epidermal cells. Water stress, nitrogen at different levels in the process of leaf production. The main susceptible physio- logical mechanisms are cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

2014-01-01

40

Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Genet Med 16 2, 121–131. PMID:24385075

Singh, Rani H.; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L.; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C.

2014-01-01

41

Helping Young Children Manage Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

Texas Child Care, 2002

2002-01-01

42

[Management models in clinical nutrition: weaknesses and strengths].  

PubMed

At the 6th Abbott-SENPE Debate Forum a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional discussion was established in order to seek for the model or the models of clinical management most appropriate for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units (CNAD) in Spain. The weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for the current systems were assessed concluding that a certain degree of disparity was observed not only due to regional differences but also to different hospital types. It was proposed, from SENPE, the creation of a working group helping to standardize the models and promote the culture of Integral Control and Change Management. PMID:19593481

García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Burgos, R; Cabrerizo, L; Farrer, K; García Almeida, J M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; Llano, J Del; Planas, M; Pińeiro, G

2009-01-01

43

Life-History Consequences of Chronic Nutritional Stress in an Outbreaking Insect Defoliator  

PubMed Central

Food shortage is a common situation in nature but little is known about the strategies animals use to overcome it. This lack of knowledge is especially true for outbreaking insects, which commonly experience nutritional stress for several successive generations when they reach high population densities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the life history consequences of chronic nutritional stress in the outbreaking moth Choristoneura fumiferana. Larvae were reared on two different artificial diets that emulate nutritional conditions larvae face during their natural population density cycle (low and medium quality artificial diets). After four generations, a subset of larvae was fed on the same diet as their parents, and another on the opposite diet. We explored larval life-history strategies to cope with nutritional stress, its associated costs and the influence of nutritional conditions experienced in the parental generation. We found no evidence of nutritional stress in the parental generation increasing offspring ability to feed on low quality diet, but the contrary: compared to offspring from parents that were fed a medium quality diet, larvae from parents fed a low quality diet had increased mortality, reduced growth rate and reduced female reproductive output. Our results support a simple stress hypothesis because the negative effects of malnutrition accumulated over successive generations. Density-dependent deterioration in plant quality is thought to be an important factor governing the population dynamics of outbreaking insects and we hypothesize that chronic nutritional stress can be a driver of outbreak declines of C. fumiferana, and of forest insects in general. PMID:24505368

Frago, Enric; Bauce, Éric

2014-01-01

44

Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

Shea, Gordon F.

1980-01-01

45

Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

Angus, Samuel F.

1989-01-01

46

Stress Management Techniques for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…

Piper, Francesca M.

47

Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the tremendous public interest in the recent large honeybee losses attributed to colony collapse disorder, there is still no definitive explanation for the phenomenon. With the hypothesis that nutritional stress due to habitat loss has played an important role in honeybee colony collapse, I analyze the land use data in United States to show that the colony

Dhruba Naug

2009-01-01

48

Variation in morphological traits of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) under nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nutritional stress on phenotypical and genetic variation was examined for five morphological traits (thorax length, wing length, sternopleural chaeta number, abdominal chaeta number and arista branch number) in 30 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypical variation of all traits except sternopleural chaeta number and fluctuating asymmetry of all bilateral traits were significantly higher in flies reared under

Alexandra G Imasheva; Dmitri V Bosenko; Oleg A Bubli

1999-01-01

49

How Can I Manage Stress?  

MedlinePLUS

... constant (chronic) and your body remains in high gear, off and on, for days or weeks at ... What is Carotid Endarterectomy? Healthy Lifestyle and Risk Reduction How Can I Manage My Weight? How Can ...

50

MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

51

Use of regular milking records versus daily records for nutrition and other kinds of management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular monthly milking record is mainly used as a tool for breeding, but is also used for nutrition and management decisions. Since the type of records have different purposes, it can be questioned if monthly regular records are optimal for nutrition and management decisions on herd level. The most optimal registration frequency is at every milking, but this is only

K. Svennersten-Sjaunja; L.-O. Sjaunja; J. Bertilsson; H. Wiktorsson

1997-01-01

52

The role of the general practitioner and the dietitian in patient nutrition management.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence that nutrition plays an important role in the aetiology and management of many diseases affecting Australians. Nutrition counselling provides a strategy for not only reducing patient suffering, but also for reducing the health care costs associated with these illnesses. At the forefront of providing nutrition counselling to Australians are General Practitioners (GPs) and Dietitians. Australian data shows that GPs encounter many patients with the chronic diseases that have nutrition in their aetiology and management. Although this presents opportunities to provide nutrition counselling, overseas literature suggests that often nutrition counselling opportunities are not taken up. At present, there is little evidence to support whether this problem exists in Australia, or the magnitude of the problem. Whilst evidence suggests there are barriers for GPs in providing nutrition counselling, there is conflicting evidence on how these influence the GP's decision to provide such counselling. Overseas studies have also identified barriers for GPs to refer to dietitians to provide nutrition counselling, however there is no evidence to identify whether these barriers exist in Australia. Whilst various strategies have been implemented to aid in the provision of effective nutrition management to the Australian public, there is little evidence on the efficacy of these. Research is needed in the above areas if effective patient nutrition management is to be implemented in Australia. PMID:12737005

Nicholas, Lisa; Roberts, David C K; Pond, Dimity

2003-01-01

53

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Mrs. Huish

2009-11-02

54

Stress Management Therapy for Chemotherapy Patients  

Cancer.gov

In this study, patients with newly diagnosed cancer and scheduled to undergo chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group will receive standard psychosocial care along with stress management training, while the other will receive standard psychosocial care alone.

55

Effects of nutritional stress during different developmental periods on song and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in zebra finches.  

PubMed

In songbirds, developmental stress affects song learning and production. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function resulting in elevated corticosterone (CORT) may contribute to this effect. We examined whether developmental conditions affected the association between adult song and HPA axis function, and whether nutritional stress before and after nutritional independence has distinct effects on song learning and/or vocal performance. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were raised in consistently high (HH) or low (LL) food conditions until post-hatch day (PHD) 62, or were switched from high to low conditions (HL) or vice versa (LH) at PHD 34. Song was recorded in adulthood. We assessed the response of CORT to handling during development and to dexamethasone (DEX) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges during adulthood. Song learning and vocal performance were not affected by nutritional stress at either developmental stage. Nutritional stress elevated baseline CORT during development. Nutritional stress also increased rate of CORT secretion in birds that experienced stress only in the juvenile phase (HL group). Birds in the LL group had lower CORT levels after injection of ACTH compared to the other groups, however there was no effect of nutritional stress on the response to DEX. Thus, our findings indicate that developmental stress can affect HPA function without concurrently affecting song. PMID:24417905

Kriengwatana, B; Wada, H; Schmidt, K L; Taves, M D; Soma, K K; MacDougall-Shackleton, S A

2014-03-01

56

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental health ...

57

[Nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis: when the past is present].  

PubMed

Patients with acute pancreatitis usually present nutritional status impairment. In alcoholic pancreatitis this impairment is usually presented before hospital admission. In patients with long-term complicated pancreatitis, malnutrition develops during the course of the disease. Besides, these patients present an increased stress and protein hypercatabolism. Treatment of acute pancreatitis usually maintains patients in a short period of starvation. In mild pancreatitis, starvation is needed for a few days, beginning progressively oral feeding. These patients don't need special nutritional support, unless they were previously malnourished. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis should always receive artificial nutritional support in order to preserve the nutritional status as starvation will be maintained for more than one week. In this paper, we review the nutritional treatment in these situations, trying to answer some different questions: type of nutritional support, when it should be started and when it is indicated to withdraw. PMID:18714411

García Almansa, A; García Peris, P

2008-05-01

58

Stress resistance and aging: Influence of genes and nutrition  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that dermal fibroblast cell lines derived from young adult mice of the long-lived Snell dwarf (dw/dw), Ames dwarf (df/df) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) mouse stocks are resistant, in vitro, to the cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide, cadmium, ultraviolet light, paraquat, and heat. Here we show that, in contrast, fibroblasts from mice on low-calorie (CR) or low methionine (Meth-R) diets are not stress resistant in culture, despite the longevity induced by both dietary regimes. A second approach, involving induction of liver cell death in live animals using acetaminophen (APAP), documented hepatotoxin resistance in the CR and Meth-R mice, but dw/dw and GHR-KO mutant mice were not resistant to this agent, and were in fact more susceptible than littermate controls to the toxic effects of APAP. These data thus suggest that while resistance to stress is a common characteristic of experimental life span extension in mice, the cell types showing resistance may differ among the various models of delayed or decelerated aging. PMID:16713617

Harper, James M.; Salmon, Adam B.; Chang, Yayi; Bonkowski, Michael; Bartke, Andrzej; Miller, Richard A.

2010-01-01

59

Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

2014-09-01

60

Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

2014-01-01

61

Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes: metacyclogenesis and adhesion to substrate are triggered by nutritional stress.  

PubMed

Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to metacyclic trypomastigotes occurs in the insect rectum, after adhesion of the epimastigotes to the intestinal wall. We investigated the effect of the nutritional stress on the metacyclogenesis process in vitro by incubating epimastigotes in the chemically defined TAU3AAG medium supplemented with different nutrients. Addition of fetal bovine serum induced epimastigote growth but inhibited metacyclogenesis. In this medium, few parasites attached to the substrate. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated reservosomes at the posterior end of the epimastigotes. Incubation of the cells in TAU3AAG medium containing gold-labeled transferrin resulted in high endocytosis of the marker by both adhered and free-swimming epimastigotes. No intracellular gold particles could be detected in trypomastigotes. Addition of transferrin gold complexes to adhered epimastigotes cultivated for 4 days in TAU3AAG medium resulted in decrease of both metacyclogenesis and adhesion to the substrate, as compared with parasites maintained in transferrin-free medium. Adhesion to the substrate is triggered by nutritional stress, and proteins accumulated in reservosomes are used as energy source during the differentiation. A close relationship exists among nutritional stress, endocytosis of nutrients, adhesion to the substrate, and cell differentiation in T. cruzi epimastigotes. PMID:11191893

Figueiredo, R C; Rosa, D S; Soares, M J

2000-12-01

62

From Classroom to Cafeteria: A Nutrition Guide for Teachers and Managers. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to encourage and stimulate school nutrition managers to cooperate with classroom teachers in an active nutrition education program. The suggestions in the guide have been experienced and tested in the Fulton County Schools of Atlanta, Georgia. Contents of the chapters cover the following: (1) an outline of the roles of…

Sloan, Sara

63

Clinical risk management and nutritional therapy in the near future: What are the prospects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is a valuable tool that supports decision-making in lowering mor- bidity and mortality due to medical errors through a systematic approach based on evidence. Since nutrition is considered a medical treatment and not just a physiological support, it is subject to adverse events and therefore to risk management. Artificial nutrition is also strictly connected to a sentinel event:

L. CALLIGARIS; R. QUATTRIN; C. LONDERO; F. FARNETI; M. PANARITI; S. BRUSAFERRO

2007-01-01

64

Dietary Management in Hypertension. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

65

A Review of Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) in China Using a Nutritional Approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...

66

Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

67

Dietary Management for Alcoholic Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

68

Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

69

Management of rowers with rib stress fractures.  

PubMed

Stress fractures of the ribs in rowers occur mostly along the anterior axillary line, but also anteriorly and posteriorly. Management has previously consisted of rest, but symptoms can recur on return to training. Earlier return to rowing can be achieved with management that includes ice and TENS for pain relief, pulsed magnetic field therapy and passive mobilisation of the thoracic spine and costovertebral joints. Aerobic fitness is maintained with stationary cycling. Rowing is progressively introduced according to symptoms and strapping is used to support the ribs during training. Posture and technique is reviewed with the coach to eliminate unusual movements of the shoulder girdle. PMID:11676647

Wajswelner, Henry

1996-01-01

70

Stress management strategies for women doctoral students.  

PubMed

When women return to school part-time for the doctorate while continuing to work full-time, they face many changes in their lives. Adding the role of doctoral student to existing roles at work and home can be challenging for women. By using stress-reducing strategies aimed at managing role changes, time pressures, and education issues, women can successfully integrate the student role into their daily lives. PMID:16646205

Kenty, J R

2000-01-01

71

Isotopic segregation between sympatric seabird species increases with nutritional stress  

PubMed Central

Dietary segregation is essential for the coexistence of closely related species of animals. However, little is known about how changes in availability of food resources might affect trophic interactions of wild animals breeding in sympatry. Here, we examined how interannual variations in relative food availability (as reflected in blood levels of stress hormone corticosterone, CORT) affect food partitioning (assessed via a comparison of stable isotope ?15N and ?13C ratios of blood) between the common murre (Uria aalge) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), breeding on a single colony in the Bering Sea. During a 6-year study, CORT varied among years but not between species, whereas stable isotope ratios varied among years and between species. Isotopic distance between species increased with increasing CORT. These results indicate that, when food was not limiting, both species relied on similar food resources. As foraging conditions deteriorated, murres diverged in their diets. We conclude that the degree of dietary segregation between Uria spp. varies with changes in the availability of food and is greatest during food shortages. PMID:22171022

Barger, Christopher P.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

2012-01-01

72

Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. ERIC Digest #E488.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in a question-and-answer format, this digest offers guidelines to help gifted students manage stress effectively. The following questions are considered: What is stress? How can a youngster experience stress when nothing bad is happening? Is a gifted student more likely to feel stress than others? What are some stresses on a gifted…

Kaplan, Leslie S.

73

Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.  

PubMed

Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

2014-10-01

74

BASELINE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS LEVELS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO A TWO DAY STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of work site stress management programs for a symptomatic employee populations remain to be established. The present study evaluated the physiological changes of a yoga based stress management program for 26 a symptomatic, male, middle managers. The Occupational Stress index (OSI) and autonomic parameters were measured. Data of subjects with OSI greater or less than the median ware

R. P. Vempati; Shirley Telles

75

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

76

Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

2013-01-01

77

Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy. PMID:23267362

Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

2012-01-01

78

Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-?B/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-?B, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-?B and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-?B expression (1, p?0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p?0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-?B/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta. PMID:23772281

Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chávez, Araceli Amaya; Alanís, Adriana Garduńo; Ferreyra, María del Carmen Colín; Benítez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán; Castańeda, Violeta Saraí Morales; García, Ma. Victoria Domínguez

2013-01-01

79

Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of Resource-Activating Stress Management Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The stress-induced release of cortisol has been linked to detrimental health outcomes. Therefore, strategies to attenuate cortisol stress responses are of interest for prevention and treatment of stress-related symptoms and problems. Previous studies have found protective effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management training—which focuses on the modification of stress-inducing cognitions—on cortisol stress responses; however, the effects of resource-oriented interventions on

Maja Storch; Jens Gaab; Yvonne Küttel; Ann-Christin Stüssi; Helmut Fend

2007-01-01

80

Management of stress and stress-related diseases: Emerging computer-based technologies and the rationale for clinical laboratory assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the years, the issue of stress management in mental health has been discussed without reference to the clinical laboratory perspectives. Translational research and the vast array of emerging diagnostic technologies in alternative medical practice are now bridging the gap. While it would be scientific arrogance for the clinical practitioner and scientist to ignore the trend, the new technologies seeking clinical acceptability necessarily require expatiation of the scientific aspects of their products. Aims: This commentary builds on a comparative critical review to further our hypothesis that oxidative stress is the biochemical basis of the emerging computer-based diagnostic technologies. Materials & Method: The available information on Computer Meridian Diagnostics, Neuropattern and Virtual Scanning technologies were critically reviewed. The differences and similarities were articulated. Results: The technologies seem different, but have similarities that have not been articulated before. The seemingly different theories are traceable to Russian scientists and are based upon stress-induced adrenal secretions and the associated effect on glucose metabolism. The therapeutic effects of antioxidant nutrition, exercise or relaxation that are inherent in the technologies are highlighted. Conclusion: This commentary furthers explanation of the alterations in antioxidant activities as a result of biofeedback, oxidative stress and/or physiological effects as the biochemical basis of the technologies. The place for antioxidant indices and whole blood viscosity are also highlighted. This provides a rationale for the evaluation of available clinical diagnostic tests both to validate the technologies and as clinical laboratory correlates in stress management. PMID:22666709

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

2009-01-01

81

A Stress-Management Guide for Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a comprehensive guide to help young people understand and cope with stress, pressure, and anxiety. Adolescent readers are introduced to the concept of stress, the ways that stress can affect them, and the skills and techniques needed to help them learn effective ways to reduce and manage stress. The guide begins by defining…

Youngs, Bettie B.

82

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. 2005. 123 Management of Ponderosa Pine Nutrition  

E-print Network

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. 2005. 123 Management of Ponderosa Pine Nutrition. Lawson) nutrition. Ponderosa pine nitrogen (N) status was often better than the N-status of other Inland) Lindl.), often showed a better growth response to fertilization than ponderosa pine. The nutritional

Standiford, Richard B.

83

Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

2009-01-01

84

Stress management in dental students: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226

Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

2014-01-01

85

Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition services in managed care.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that medical nutrition therapy is an essential component of disease management and healthcare provided by managed care organizations, and that such care must be provided by qualified nutrition professionals. Compared with traditional fee-for-service reimbursement systems, managed care presents new opportunities for dietetics professionals. Until recently, the lack of billing infrastructure has handicapped nutrition providers who wish to bill for their services and has made it difficult to track the outcomes of nutrition care. With the publication of current procedure terminology codes for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and the implementation of MNT benefits in Medicare part B for diabetes and nondialysis kidney disease, commercial payers, including managed care organizations (MCOs) are likely to implement or expand their coverage of MNT. A large body of evidence supports the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of MNT coverage within managed care plans. This evidence includes cost analyses of conditions treated by MNT, and clinical trial data confirming the efficacy of MNT in improving patient outcomes. MNT is also an important part of national standards of care for many chronic disease conditions. Based on evidence supporting the role of MNT in improving patient outcomes, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that MNT services be reimbursed by Medicare when patients are referred by a physician. Provision of appropriate MNT can also help MCOs meet accreditation and quality standards established by entities such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance and the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. Much of the work required to secure a place for MNT in MCOs will be done at the practitioner level, by nutrition professionals themselves. Registered dietitians must market MNT to their customers in managed care by addressing the needs of each player. By emphasizing the importance of MNT and other cost-effective forms of preventive care and disease management, MCOs will be well positioned to improve population health at modest cost. PMID:12396170

Chima, Cinda S; Pollack, Harold A

2002-10-01

86

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.  

PubMed

Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

2014-07-01

87

Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

88

Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.  

PubMed

The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life. PMID:22021812

Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

2012-07-01

89

Stress and Time Management for Educators. Georgia Comprehensive Guidance Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to stress and time management for educators defines stress as a physiological response to the pressures of daily living and differentiates between stress as a motivator and a debilitator. The guide presents stressor inventories for teachers, administrators, and counselors, and outlines a personal behavior contract for implementing…

Daly, Michael J.; Moore, Earl J.

90

Stress Management Training in Health Psychology Practice: Critical Clinical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress management training interventions have become one of the most popular treatment programs in health psychology practice. Although numerous clinical approaches are available, limited attention is given to the matching of intervention with the clinical needs of individuals. As a result, stress management programs are more frequently marketed in clinical and community settings as palliative techniques without sufficient exploration of

J. Bruce Hillenberg; Thomas M. DiLorenzo

1987-01-01

91

Dysphagia in the elderly: management and nutritional considerations  

PubMed Central

Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia. PMID:22956864

Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A

2012-01-01

92

Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective.  

PubMed

Iron is abundantly present on earth, essential for most microorganisms and crucial for human health. Human iron deficiency that is nevertheless highly prevalent in developing regions of the world can be effectively treated by oral iron administration. Accumulating evidence indicates that excess of unabsorbed iron that enters the colonic lumen causes unwanted side effects at the intestinal host-microbiota interface. The chemical properties of iron, the luminal environment and host iron withdrawal mechanisms, especially during inflammation, can turn the intestine in a rather stressful milieu. Certain pathogenic enteric bacteria can, however, deal with this stress at the expense of other members of the gut microbiota, while their virulence also seems to be stimulated in an iron-rich intestinal environment. This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health. We aim to present an unpreceded view on the dynamic effects and impact of oral iron administration on intestinal host-microbiota interactions to provide leads for future research and other applications. PMID:25205464

Kortman, Guus A M; Raffatellu, Manuela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Tjalsma, Harold

2014-11-01

93

The influence of phosphorus nutrition and water stress on the osmotic adjustment and growth of loblolly pine  

E-print Network

(Lahiri 1980). Phosphorus can often have a profound effect on root growth especially if other soil nutrients are not in limiting amounts. Neagher and Armson (1963) reported that phosphorus enhanced the growth of white spruce roots when fertilizer... and osmotic adjustment of seedlings. Water stress significantly decreased shoot dry mass and the incremental height growth while phosphorus nutrition had no measureable effect. Root dry mass decreased as water stress increased but phosphorus had...

Wilson, Alan Byron

2012-06-07

94

Stress-busters Tips and techniques for managing stress and  

E-print Network

helps us all to function better, keep ourselves safe from threatening things, and to get things done or difficulty breathing. ** Fatigue or exhaustion ** Lack of interest, boredom ** Engaging in destructive and that give you an outlet for thinking about other things besides your stress. Find your own optimal stress

California at Santa Cruz, University of

95

Growth, nutrition and response to water stress of Pinus pinaster inoculated with ten dikaryotic strains of Pisolithus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reconstituted dikaryons of Pisolithus sp. (Pers.) Coker & Couch from South Africa influenced growth parameters (shoot length, shoot\\/root ratio and leaf area), nutrition and physiological indicators (transpi- ration rate, stomatal conductance and xylem water potential) of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings during drought and recovery from drought. Seedlings colonized with certain dikaryons were more sensitive to water stress

MOHAMMED S. LAMHAMEDI; PIERRE Y. BERNIER; J. ANDRE FORTIN

96

An evaluation of total parenteral nutrition in the management of inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Claims of its effectiveness are conflicting, and most reports have been limited to short-term assessments. We undertook a nonrandomized prospective study of the effects of TPN on the course of IBD in 30 patients whose disease was refractory to medical therapy, 20 with Crohn's disease

Charles O. Elson; Thomas J. Layden; Bernard A. Nemchausky; James L. Rosenberg; Irwin H. Rosenberg

1980-01-01

97

Study of Food Service Management Companies in School Nutrition Programs. Contract Review Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with Price Waterhouse to complete a study of the use of food-service management companies (FSMCs) by school districts that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the Tentative findings include: (1) contracts between school…

Price Waterhouse, Washington, DC. Office of Government Services.

98

Perceptions of School Nutrition Directors and Managers Regarding Their Role in School Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the perceptions of school nutrition (SN) directors and managers regarding their role in school wellness, the responsibility of SN professionals for serving as positive role models, and factors contributing to greater involvement in school wellness. Methods: A survey assessing the…

Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Lofton, Kristi

2009-01-01

99

IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

100

Smart stress management system for media and arts employees.  

PubMed

As the tempo of contemporary life quickens along with the increasing rates of competition on the art and media market, uncertainty about the future and continual demands for greater competency, the risk of experiencing stress unavoidably rises. Stress is the physiological and psychological state of tension in a person caused by external and internal irritants called stressors. Stress is a natural reaction of an organism to internal as well as external, positive as well as negative stimuli. Stress frequently manifests in our lives and it stimulates action, inventiveness and creativity. However, long-lasting, uncontrolled stress exhausts the psyche and the immune system of an organism and it can cause various illnesses. To manage stress, a Smart Stress Management System for Media and Arts Employees was developed by the authors of this paper. PMID:25488234

Kaklauskas, Arturas; Kovachec, Ludmil; Safonov, Andrej; Paliskiene, Rasa; Bartkiene, Lina; Jackute, Ieva

2014-01-01

101

Different colors reveal different information: how nutritional stress affects the expression of melanin- and structurally based ornamental plumage.  

PubMed

Avian plumage colors have emerged recently as model systems for investigating the types of information that can be signaled by showy sexual displays in animals. In many species, the brightness of carotenoid-based plumage reflects the health and condition of individuals and is used in mate selection. The information contained in melanin-based and structurally based ornamental colors in birds is less well resolved, however. We subjected male house sparrows Passer domesticus and brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater to stressful nutritional conditions during molt to test the hypothesis that melanin- and structurally based plumage colors are nutritionally condition-dependent. We restricted food access for treatment males during randomized 6 h periods on 4 days per week, while allowing control birds access to food ad libitum throughout the course of the molt. We found that the size and brightness of the melanin-based throat badges in male house sparrows were not affected by nutritional stress. Similarly, there were no differences between treatment and control male cowbirds in the size or brightness of the melanin-based brown hood. However, the structurally based iridescent plumage of cowbirds was indicative of the nutritional condition of males during molt. Nutritionally stressed cowbirds grew significantly less colorful plumage than did males with access to food ad libitum. These results are consistent with observations in other avian species that different types of plumage color communicate different sets of information. Melanin ornaments are less sensitive to nutritional conditions during molt and instead may reflect the hormonal status and/or competitive ability of males, whereas structural coloration appears to be an accurate signal of health and condition. PMID:12409501

McGraw, Kevin J; Mackillop, Emiko A; Dale, James; Hauber, Mark E

2002-12-01

102

Major intestinal complications of radiotherapy. Management and nutrition  

SciTech Connect

Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome.

Deitel, M.; To, T.B.

1987-12-01

103

Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed ?15N and ?13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities  

PubMed Central

Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W ? B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS ? B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45?kg·ha?1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W ? B, WS + B, and WS ? B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS ? B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed ?15N and ?13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

2015-01-01

104

Laughter and stress management in the OR.  

PubMed

1. The United States spends approximately $23 billion per year treating stress-related illnesses. Stress-related injuries comprise 15% of all occupational stress-related illnesses. 2. When stress is relieved, workers may use less sick time, OR departments may stem the tide of staff turnover, and nurses may improve interpersonal relations with other staff members and surgeons. 3. Humor shifts perspective, diffuses tensions/confrontations, conveys a complicated message concisely, increases flexibility, raises energy levels, wards off criticism, and builds a cohesive team unit. PMID:8291071

Paquet, J B

1993-01-01

105

Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three lifestyle/behavioral maternal factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical activity during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how physical activity and physical fitness can be an effective buffer against chronic/stress-related disease. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying mechanisms of protection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25451133

Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjřrke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio; Silverman, Marni N

2014-11-01

106

A cost management model for hospital food and nutrition in a public hospital.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn Chile, the use of costing systems in the public sector is limited. The Ministry of Health requires hospitals to manage themselves with the aim of decentralizing health care services and increasing their quality. However, self-management with a lack of accounting information is almost impossible. On the other hand, nutrition department costs have barely been studied before, and there are no studies specifically for activity based costing (ABC) systems. ABC focuses on the process and traces health care activities to gain a more accurate measurement of the object costs and the financial performance of an organization.MethodThis paper uses ABC in a nutrition unit of a public hospital of high complexity to determine costs associated with the different meals for inpatients. The paper also provides an activity based management (ABM) analysis for this unit.ResultsThe results show positive effects on the reduction of costs for the nutrition department after implementing ABC/ABM. Therefore, there are opportunities to improve the profitability of the area and the results could also be replicated to other areas in the hospital. ABC shed light on the amount of nutritionist time devoted to completing paperwork, and as a result, system changes were introduced to reduce this burden and allow them to focus on more relevant activities. Additional efficiencies were achieved through the elimination of non-value adding activities and automation of reports. ABC reduced the cost of the nutrition department and could produce similar results in other areas of the hospital.ConclusionsThis is a practical application of a financial management tool, ABC, which would be useful for hospital managers to reduce costs and improve the management of the unit. This paper takes ABC and examines its use in an area, which has had little exposure to the benefits of this tool. PMID:25391844

Neriz, Liliana; Núńez, Alicia; Ramis, Francisco

2014-11-13

107

Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.  

PubMed

Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

2011-01-01

108

Work-related Stress Management by Finnish Enterprises  

PubMed Central

Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees’ risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its’ great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective. PMID:24583512

KINNUNEN-AMOROSO, Maritta; LIIRA, Juha

2014-01-01

109

Parenteral nutrition in the management of a dog with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis and severe protein-losing enteropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis in a dog with whipworm infestation, hypoproteinemia, and ascites is described. Short-term parenteral nutrition hastened normalization of serum proteins, resolution of diarrhea, and weight gain. A description of the potential benefits, limitations, and possible complications of parenteral nutrition in refractory inflammatory bowel disease is given.

E Miller; DC Twedt

1999-01-01

110

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

111

What is the relationship between mineral nutrition and disease management?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pecan disease management potentially influences efficient use of fertilizer and other expensive orchard inputs. Optimization of tree nutrient element physiology is key to the expression of a cultivar’s full potential to express resistance to disease. This is especially important in cultivars posse...

112

Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naďve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD. The recent advance of methodologies and techniques for early diagnosis of AD facilitates the investigation of strategies to reduce the risk for AD progression in the earliest stages of the disease. Nutrition-based approaches deserve further investigation as an integral part of such strategies due to their low risk for side effects and their potential to affect pathological processes of very early AD. PMID:23756280

Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

2013-09-01

113

Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

2012-01-01

114

Stress Reduction for Family Caregivers in Chronic Mental Illness: Implications of a Work Stress Management Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several studies involving a total of 291 family caregivers for schizophrenia sufferers, the stressors that arise from caregiving were identified. Also identified were the outcomes for caregivers, which often include psychological distress. Caregivers develop various stress-reduction techniques, but this article explores the utility of applying the principles of work stress management to caregiver well-being. An organizational psychology perspective suggests

Helen R. Winefield

2000-01-01

115

Proteomic Analysis of the Function of Sigma Factor ?54 in Helicobacter pylori Survival with Nutrition Deficiency Stress In Vitro  

PubMed Central

H. pylori can survive under a nutrition-deficient environment. During infection and transmission, H. pylori is confronted with nutrient limitation and the bacterium requires rapid alteration in gene expression for survival under stress conditions. However, the mechanism underlining this regulation remains unknown. A previous study showed that ?54 is an important regulation factor for H. pylori survival in the nutrition-deficient environment. Our results show that the expression of ?54 (rpoN) is significantly induced in the stationary phase (nutrition deficiency) and the rpoN mutant showed a significantly lower viability than wild-type H. pylori in the late stationary phase. Thus, ?54 is involved in H. pylori survival during nutrient limitation. We used comparative proteomics to analyze the protein differentiation between wild-type and rpoN mutant during the stationary phase. With depleted nutrients, ?54 can slow the process of proliferation by negatively regulating genes involved in energy metabolism and biosynthesis and enhance stress-resistant ability by positively regulating genes involved in protein fate and redox reaction. Especially, NapA positively regulated by ?54 plays an important function in H. pylori survival both in the stationary phase and in water, and the latter situation would be beneficial for bacterial in vitro transmission. Our investigations give new light on the adaptive regulation of H. pylori under stress conditions. PMID:24015282

Li, Wen; Shan, Yuqun; Li, Xinpeng; Lu, Xingxiao; Li, Yan; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Yabin; Jia, Jihui

2013-01-01

116

Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

2010-11-01

117

Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI (n?=?7; control), GII (n?=?7; thermal stress), GIII (n?=?7; nutritional stress) and GIV (n?=?7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T(4), T(3), and insulin. Combined stress significantly (P?stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep. PMID:20607306

Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P; Naqvi, Sayeed M K

2010-11-01

118

New developments in managing job related stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We spend over ten hours a day at work or on work related issues. We not only have to deal with work pressures but also juggle, personal relationships, personal finances, information technology, personal fears and changes. All these aspects of modern-day-living can be incredibly stressful, which imposes high physical demands on our bodies and emotional costs on our lives (Cohen,

Sandy Ornelas; Brian H. Kleiner

2003-01-01

119

Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:25053754

Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

2014-10-01

120

COPD - managing stress and your mood  

MedlinePLUS

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vancouver (WA): Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD); ...

121

The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function  

PubMed Central

Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

2015-01-01

122

Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

2006-01-01

123

Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate  

PubMed Central

This statement is intended for health care professionals caring for neonates (preterm to one month of age). The objectives of this statement are to: increase awareness that neonates experience pain; provide a physiological basis for neonatal pain and stress assessment and management by health care professionals; make recommendations for reduced exposure of the neonate to noxious stimuli and to minimize associated adverse outcomes; and recommend effective and safe interventions that relieve pain and stress. PMID:20107594

2000-01-01

124

Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

2011-07-01

125

The Surgical Management of Bleeding Stress Ulcers  

PubMed Central

The series included 52 patients with acute bleeding stress ulcers of the stomach and duodenum seen at the Mayo Clinic during a 25-year period. All patients underwent operation for control of massive bleeding that was unresponsive to intensive medical therapy. All ulcers were superficial and occurred during clinically stressful circumstances. No patient had a history or findings suggestive of pre-existing peptic ulcer disease or imbibation of ulcerogenic substances. Overall operative mortality was 54%, and this rate seemed to be related to multiple factors acting together; patients with multiple predisposing stress factors and those requiring large transfusion volumes (greater than 17 total units) were at greatest risk of death. Fifty-two patients underwent 60 operative procedures for control of hemorrhage. Of the 60 procedures, 23 (38%) failed to prevent rebleeding. Of the 28 patients who died, six (21%) died of hemorrhage and five (18%) died of hemorrhage as one of many contributing factors. Of eight different procedures performed, near-total to total gastrectomy was the single procedure that was most effective in controlling hemorrhage. The authors support the selection of rapid intervention and generous extirpative surgery once intensive medical measures fail to control hemorrhage. PMID:7387229

Hubert, John P.; Kiernan, Paul D.; Welch, John S.; ReMine, William H.; Beahrs, Oliver H.

1980-01-01

126

Immune system function, stress, exercise and nutrition profile can affect pregnancy outcome: Lessons from a Mediterranean cohort  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is associated with major physiological and future psychosocial changes, and maternal adaptation to these changes is crucial for normal foetal development. Psychological stress in pregnancy predicts an earlier birth and lower birth weight. Pregnancy-specific stress contributes directly to preterm delivery. The importance of nutrition and exercise during pregnancy with regard to pregnancy outcome has long been acknowledged. This importance has only been further emphasized by the recent changes in food quality and availability, lifestyle changes and a new understanding of foetal programming’s effects on adult outcomes. We hypothesised that for a successful pregnancy certain events at a nutritional, immune, psycho-emotional and genetic level should be tightly linked. Therefore, in this study we followed an ‘integrative’ approach to investigate how maternal stress, nutrition, pregnancy planning and exercise influence pregnancy outcome. A key finding of our study is that there was a significant reduction in the intake of alcohol, caffeine-containing and sugary drinks during pregnancy. However, passive smoking in the household remained unchanged. In terms of immune profile, a significant inverse correlation was noted between difficulty to ‘fight’ an infection and number of colds (r=?0.289, P=0.003) as well as the number of infections (r=?0.446, P<0.0001) during pregnancy. The vast majority of the pregnant women acquired a more sedentary lifestyle in the third trimester. In planned, but not in unplanned, pregnancies stress predicted infant weight, independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Notably, in mothers with negative attitudes towards the pregnancy, those with an unplanned pregnancy gave birth to infants with significantly higher weights than those with planned pregnancies. Collectively these data suggest that there is a higher order of complexity, possibly involving gene-environment interactions that work together to ensure a positive outcome for the mother as well as the foetus. PMID:23404257

MPARMPAKAS, D.; GOUMENOU, A.; ZACHARIADES, E.; PADOS, G.; GIDRON, Y.; KARTERIS, E.

2013-01-01

127

Student's Stress: It's Real and Manageable  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have been a dental hygiene professor at a Community College from the last seven years as well as a 2001 alumna from the same dental hygiene program. The dental hygiene curriculum is demanding, and it can be overwhelming to manage the heavy work load. My goal as a teacher is to help the dental hygiene students find their own

Mary F. McGurn

2011-01-01

128

Acid stress management by Cronobacter sakazakii.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogenic microorganism associated with sporadic cases of neonatal meningitis, necrotising enterocolitis, septicaemia, bloody diarrhoea and brain abscesses acquired through the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). This study aimed to investigate the growth of C. sakazakii DPC6529, a particularly stress tolerant clinical isolate, in acidified laboratory media and PIF. The possibility of a stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) was also investigated. C. sakazakii DPC6529 grew in LB broth acidified to pH4.2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and was capable of relatively fast growth in PIF acidified to pH5.0 with HCl, representing the stomach pH reported for newborns and infants. Moreover, bacterial growth in LB broth supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose gave rise to a stationary-phase ATR which resulted in enhanced survival against a subsequent acid challenge at pH3.0. A transposon mutagenesis approach was used to shed light on some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response C. sakazakii DPC6529 to normally lethal acid exposures. The data suggests that repairing damage in proteins and nucleic acids, posttranscriptional modification of tRNA molecules and maintenance of the integrity of the cellular envelope are key processes in the defence against acid stress. Clones carrying transposon insertions in genes encoding the envelope stress response regulators CpxR and OmpR were identified as acid-sensitive mutants. Further analyses of the ompR defective mutant and its complemented counterpart evidenced that OmpR is a key player in the response of C. sakazakii to acid stress, although it was not essential to mount an active stationary-phase ATR, at least under the tested conditions. The ability of C. sakazakii DPC6529 to grow in acid environments and to develop an adaptive stationary-phase ATR may allow for its survival or even proliferation within the infant gastrointestinal tract after consumption of contaminated milk formulae. PMID:24667315

Alvarez-Ordóńez, Avelino; Cummins, Conor; Deasy, Thérčse; Clifford, Tanya; Begley, Máire; Hill, Colin

2014-05-16

129

Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII

Veerasamy Sejian; Vijai P. Maurya; Sayeed M. K. Naqvi

2010-01-01

130

Identifying and managing posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in an estimated 8% of men and 20% of women who are exposed to traumatic events. PTSD is a trauma- and stress-related disorder associated with significant psychosocial morbidity, substance abuse, and other negative physical health outcomes. The hallmarks of PTSD include exposure to a traumatic event; reexperiencing the event or intrusion symptoms; avoidance of people, places, or things that serve as a reminder of the trauma; negative mood and thoughts associated with the trauma; and chronic hyperarousal symptoms. Self-report questionnaires can assist clinicians in identifying anxiety problems associated with traumatic events. For patients who meet criteria for PTSD, trauma-focused psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy improve symptoms. Benzodiazepines and atypical antipsychotics are not recommended because studies have shown that adverse effects outweigh potential health benefits. Primary care physicians should monitor patients with PTSD for comorbid conditions such as substance abuse, mood disorders, and suicidality, and should refer patients to behavioral health specialists and support groups when appropriate. PMID:24364547

Warner, Christopher H; Warner, Carolynn M; Appenzeller, George N; Hoge, Charles W

2013-12-15

131

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

132

The ABCs of Stress Management: A Little Stress Is Good For You, If You Know How To Handle It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to manage stress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…

Kelehear, Zach

2005-01-01

133

Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.  

PubMed

A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required. PMID:22576135

Guenthner, Daniel H

2012-01-01

134

Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967

Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

2013-01-01

135

Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management  

PubMed Central

Background: The main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. Results: A third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. Conclusion: Hospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention. PMID:24596858

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2013-01-01

136

Employee Assistance Programmes: The Emperor's New Clothes of Stress Management?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the employee assistance program (EAP), a benefit increasingly provided by United Kingdom employers that claims to reduce the effects of stress on individuals and organizations, provide a management tool to improve workplace performance and productivity, and respond to critical incidents. Describes EAPs, their history, development and…

Arthur, Andrew R.

2000-01-01

137

Stress Management Training for Hospice Personnel: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is very little published research specifically addressing the stress management skills of hospice caregivers. In order to ascertain if breathing exercises, biofeedback training, relaxation exercises, and cognitive therapy would be beneficial, pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and six 30-minute treatment sessions were administered to…

Clark, Susan; And Others

138

Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

2008-08-01

139

The Involvement of Glutamate Metabolism in the Resistance to Thermal, Nutritional, and Oxidative Stress in Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

The inhibition of some glutamate metabolic pathways could lead to diminished parasite survival. In this study, the effects of L-methionine sulfoximine (MS), DL-methionine sulfone (MSO), and DL-methionine sulfoxide (MSE), three glutamate analogs, on several biological processes were evaluated. We found that these analogs inhibited the growth of epimastigotes cells and showed a synergistic effect with stress conditions such as temperature, nutritional starvation, and oxidative stress. The specific activity for the reductive amination of ?-ketoglutaric acid, catalyzed by the NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, showed an increase in the NADP+ levels, when MS, MSE, and MSO were added. It suggests an eventual conversion of the compounds tested by the T. cruzi cells. The fact that trypomastigote bursting was not significantly inhibited when infected cells were treated with these compounds, remarks the existence of relevant metabolic differences among the different life-cycle stages. It must be considered when proposing a new therapeutic drug. PMID:21629861

Magdaleno, Anahí; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Rocha, Sandra C.; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Silber, Ariel M.

2011-01-01

140

Evaluating an Online Stress Management Intervention for College Students.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a theory-based online intervention designed to improve stress management in undergraduate students. The intervention focused on present control because it has been found to be associated with a range of positive outcomes, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, controlling for a range of other variables (e.g., Frazier et al., 2011, 2012). Two pilot studies were first conducted to confirm that our intervention could increase present control. We then randomly assigned psychology students (n = 292) who were prescreened to have lower scores on the present control subscale of the Perceived Control Over Stressful Events Scale (Frazier et al., 2011) to 1 of 3 conditions: the present control intervention, the present control intervention plus feedback, and stress-information only. Seventy-six percent (n = 223) began the intervention, and 87% (n = 195) of those completed the posttest and 3-week follow-up. The 2 present control intervention groups had lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms (on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and perceived stress (on the Perceived Stress Scale; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) relative to the stress-information-only group at posttest and 3-week follow-up (mean between group d at follow-up = .35, mean within group d for intervention groups at follow-up = -.46). Further, mediation analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by changes in present control. Our intervention represents a potentially valuable tool for college mental health services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24635586

Hintz, Samuel; Frazier, Patricia A; Meredith, Liza

2014-03-17

141

Stress and Reproductive Hormones in Grizzly Bears Reflect Nutritional Benefits and Social Consequences of a Salmon Foraging Niche  

PubMed Central

Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n?=?75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n?=?42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

2013-01-01

142

Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement  

PubMed Central

Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

2014-01-01

143

Trait Anxiety Reductions in a Substance Abuse Population Trained in Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…

Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George

1982-01-01

144

Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.  

PubMed

Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r?=?0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling performance under xeric outplanting conditions. However, fertilization increased growth under mesic conditions, whereas drought hardening decreased growth. We conclude that drought hardening and N fertilization applied under typical container nursery operational conditions exert opposite effects on the physiological stress tolerance of P. pinea seedlings. While drought hardening increases overall stress tolerance, N nutrition reduces it and yet has no effect on the drought acclimation capacity of seedlings. PMID:23370549

Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peńuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

2013-02-01

145

Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.  

PubMed

A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

2013-08-01

146

Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism?  

PubMed Central

A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States’ funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

Camp, Kathryn M.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C.; Parisi, Melissa A.; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M.; Ershow, Abby G.; Frazier, Dianne M.; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R. Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M.

2014-01-01

147

Glycyrrhizin Represses Total Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Acute Liver Injury in Rats by Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

PubMed Central

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress. PMID:23771023

Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

148

Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either:

Stéphane Bouchard; François Bernier; Éric Boivin; Brian Morin; Genevičve Robillard

2012-01-01

149

Evaluating physical and nutritional stress during mycelial growth as inducers of tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation in Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.  

PubMed

Elevated tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat may be induced in conidia produced on fungi exposed during mycelial growth to sublethal stresses other than heat or UV-B. This is due to a phenomenon referred to as 'cross-protection'. Several mechanisms are associated with this increased conidial tolerance, one of which is the accumulation of trehalose and mannitol within conidia. In the present study, conidia of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were produced on mycelium subjected to nutritive, heat-shock, osmotic, or oxidative stress. The tolerance levels to UV-B radiation and heat of the conidia from stressed mycelium were evaluated, and the amounts of trehalose and mannitol accumulated in conidia were quantified. Conidia produced under nutritive stress (carbon and nitrogen starvation) were two-times more heat and UV-B tolerant than conidia produced under rich (non-stress) nutrient conditions [potato-dextrose agar with yeast extract (PDAY)], and they also accumulated the highest concentrations of trehalose and mannitol. Conidia produced on heat-shock stressed PDAY cultures had higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat than conidia produced without heat shock; however, both the UV-B tolerance and trehalose/mannitol concentrations in conidia produced on heat-shocked mycelium were less than those of conidia produced under nutritive stress. Conidia produced under osmotic stress (sodium or potassium chloride added to PDAY) had elevated heat and UV-B tolerances similar to those of conidia produced under nutritive stress; however, they had the lowest levels of mannitol and trehalose, which indicates that accumulation of these compounds is not the only mechanism used by M. anisopliae for protection from heat and UV-B radiation. Oxidative stress from UV-A irradiation or hydrogen peroxide did not produce conidia with elevated UV-B or heat tolerances. Conidia produced under oxidative stress generated by menadione had increased or unchanged tolerances to heat or UV-B, respectively. The levels of mannitol or trehalose in conidia were similar to those in the unstressed controls. Conidial yield was reduced, in some cases severely, by nutritive and osmotic stress; whereas oxidative and heat-shock stress did not alter levels of spore production. PMID:18938068

Rangel, Drauzio E N; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

2008-11-01

150

Laboratory evaluations to optimize outcomes of antioxidant nutrition therapy in diabetes management  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) guidelines acknowledge the need to identify deficiencies of antioxidant vitamins. However, the guidelines contain that such identification is difficult. Thus, there is evidence that available clinical laboratory tests for antioxidant vitamins C and E are not in perspective in clinical practice. Coenzyme-Q10 and glutathione tests are also available in research laboratories. These indices are invaluable tools for discrete recommendation and monitoring of antioxidant nutrition therapies. This commentary addresses biomarker insight to what the MNT guidelines consider difficult. The importance and limits of the various dietary antioxidants is overviewed. It puts in perspective how clinical laboratory monitoring of vitamins C and E levels can be used to optimize the outcomes of dietary evaluations for diabetes management. Insight to how to interpret the laboratory results is presented. The importance of this commentary is hinged on the premise that the outcome of dietary therapy can be counter-productive when laboratory evaluation or limitations of the antioxidant nutrients are undermined. PMID:22666686

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

2009-01-01

151

Esophago-gastric motility and nutritional management in a child with ATR-X syndrome.  

PubMed

X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder that often involves gastrointestinal symptoms. Aspiration pneumonia related to gastroesophageal reflux has been reported as the major cause of death, but gastrointestinal function has not been well investigated. The present report describes a child with ATR-X syndrome who suffered from periodical episodes of refractory vomiting. We investigated the function of upper alimentary tract and found that esophago-gastric dysmotility and severe gastric volvulus were the major causes of gastrointestinal symptoms. This child was surgically treated with anterior gastropexy and jejunal alimentation through gastrostomy, and the symptoms were relieved with good weight gain. This report may provide insight into the gastrointestinal function and nutritional management in children with ATR-X syndrome. PMID:25252072

Watanabe, Toshihiko; Arai, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Masataka; Ohno, Michinobu; Sato, Kaori; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Wada, Takahiko; Ida, Shinobu; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kanamori, Yutaka

2014-08-01

152

Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

2011-01-01

153

The economic value of enteral medical nutrition in the management of disease-related malnutrition: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations for medical nutrition, such as oral nutritional supplements (ONS), are relatively uncommon compared with other health technologies, and represent an area that has not been reviewed so far. In this systematic review, economic evaluations of enteral medical nutrition in the management of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) were reviewed and qualified to estimate the economic value. Initially, 481 studies were found, of which 37 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and were rated on their quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. The final review focused on the high QHES quality economic evaluation studies. As both the studied medical nutrition intervention and the form of the economic evaluation varied, a quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) was not attempted but a critical analysis and comparison of the individual study results were performed. ONS was the most studied intervention, covering several patient populations and different health care settings. Outcomes included cost savings (n = 3), no significant extra costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement (n = 1), or significantly higher costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement but still cost-effective for the used threshold (n = 4). This review shows that the use of enteral medical nutrition in the management of DRM can be efficient from a health economic perspective. PMID:24239013

Freijer, Karen; Bours, Martijn J L; Nuijten, Mark J C; Poley, Marten J; Meijers, Judith M M; Halfens, Ruud J G; Schols, Jos M G A

2014-01-01

154

Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency in winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of gas exchange and water use efficiency to nitrogen nutrition for winter wheat were investigated under well-watered and drought conditions. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters of winter wheat are remarkably improved by water and nitrogen nutrition and the regulative capability of nitrogen nutrition is influenced by water status. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on photosynthetic characteristics and on

Z. P. Shangguan; M. A. Shao; J. Dyckmans

2000-01-01

155

Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.  

PubMed

The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

2014-11-26

156

Nutrition, management and other environmental influences on the quality and production of mohair and cashmere: A review with particular reference to mediterranean and annual temperate climatic zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat fibre production is affected by genetic and environmental influences. Environmental influences which are the subject of this review include bio–geophysical factors (photoperiod, climate–herbage system and soil–plant trace nutrient composition), nutrition factors and management factors. Nutrition and management influences discussed include rate of stocking, supplementary feeding of energy and protein, liveweight change, parturition and management during shearing. While experimental data

B. A McGregor

1998-01-01

157

A Portable, Self-Instructional Stress Management Program for College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a needs assessment of University of Maryland students, a portable, modular self-instructional stress management program was developed. Its five instructional stations are: Assessment; The Nature of Stress and the Skill of Cognitive Restructuring; The Effects and Consequences of Stress and Time Management Skills; Relaxation Skills; and…

Greenberg, Jerrold S.; And Others

1987-01-01

158

Stress Gym: Feasibility of deploying a web-enhanced behavioral self-management program for stress in a military setting.  

PubMed

Stress and depression can adversely impact the performance of military personnel. Cognitive-behavioral (CBT) interventions for managing stress are efficacious in traditional face-to-face formats, but the Internet supports a broader reach of these programs. This study reports on the feasibility of using an Internet-based self-help stress-management intervention in military personnel. There were 142 officers/enlisted sailors at a Naval Medical Center who completed the program. Evaluation of the program titled "Stress Gym" was positive for the user interface, content, feasibility, and satisfaction. Positive evaluation was not influenced by rank/status, sex, or previous deployment. Stress ratings also decreased significantly while using the program. These data support Stress Gym as being an online CBT-based self-help intervention that is feasible to deploy, accepted by the intended end users, and demonstrates the intended goal of reducing stress. PMID:20684452

Williams, Arthur; Hagerty, Bonnie M; Brasington, Steve J; Clem, Joseph B; Williams, David A

2010-07-01

159

Counseling Youngsters for Stress Management. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet focuses on stress, stress in children and adolescents, and stress management in the schools. Relaxation training for young people is discussed and elements in the implementation of a relaxation training program are considered, including personnel, inservice, time, materials, and basic relaxation procedures. A sample stress

Herbert, Deborah

160

Gender-Based Analyses of Stress Among Professional Managers: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of stress among both female and male managers, using a series of single-sex and mixed focus groups. In addition to substantial similarities between female and male participants' descriptions about their experiences of stress (e.g., negative and positive aspects of stress, different levels of stress, lack of sleep, pressure, financial stressors,

Yoshi Iwasaki; Kelly J. MacKay; Janice Ristock

2004-01-01

161

Nutrition Management of School Age Children with Special Needs: A Resource Manual for School Personnel, Families, and Health Professionals. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the introduction,…

Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White

162

Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

163

Risk management of sediment stress: a framework for sediment risk management research.  

PubMed

Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk management research program relies heavily on model development and verification, and should be applied under an adaptive management approach. The framework is centered on using best management practices (BMPs), including eco-restoration. It is designed to encourage the development of numerical representations of the performance of these management options, the integration of this information into sediment transport simulation models that account for uncertainty in both input and output, and would use strategic environmental monitoring to guide sediment-related risk management decisions for mixed land use watersheds. The goal of this project was to provide a sound scientific framework based on recent state of the practice in sediment-related risk assessment and management for research and regulatory activities. As a result, shortcomings in the extant data and measurement and modeling tools were identified that can help determine future research direction. The compilation of information is beneficial to the coordination of related work being conducted within and across entities responsible for managing watershed-scale risks to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:16027999

Nietch, Christopher T; Borst, Michail; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P

2005-08-01

164

Effects of previous grazing nutrition and management on feedlot performance of cattle.  

PubMed

Management strategies designed to improve grazing animal performance can influence feedlot performance and carcass traits both positively and negatively. In spite of the economic relevance of potential interactions between grazing and finishing performance, controlled experiments evaluating integrated production systems are limited in number. Effects of grazing treatments can result from, or be overshadowed by, changes in gut fill, thus making it difficult to assign precise costs to different phases of production. Published reports have considered the effects of stocking rate, duration of grazing, forage characteristics, supplementation, and growth-promoting implants on subsequent finishing performance. Improvements in cattle performance attributed to changes in stocking rate generally have been neutral to positive with respect to effects on finishing performance. Comparisons among forages have led to the suggestion that forage species may contribute to differences in gastrointestinal fill of grazing cattle, thereby influencing gain and efficiency during the subsequent finishing phase. Creep-feeding suckling calves generally has increased preweaning performance but has had relatively little influence on performance during the subsequent finishing phase. Grain supplementation of stocker cattle during the grazing period has improved grazing performance, but effects on subsequent feedlot performance have been inconsistent. Potential carryover effects from protein and mineral supplementation also have been inconclusive. Lack of congruence among studies is puzzling but may be the consequence of highly varied production systems, differences in experimental procedures, and changes in gut fill or mass of internal organs. Based on the studies reviewed, the expression or absence of compensatory growth during the finishing phase appears to be related to the nutritional quality of forages utilized in the grazing period, with higher quality forages tending to yield greater compensatory effects. The bulk of evidence with suckling cattle and stocker implants suggests that effects on subsequent finishing performance are minimal. Attention is drawn to the noticeable lack of research pertaining to integrated production systems. A more thorough understanding of the interactions among grazing nutrition and management, finishing performance, and carcass traits is needed to facilitate greater economic exploitation of these relationships. PMID:15526788

Drouillard, J S; Kuhl, G L

1999-01-01

165

Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

2014-01-01

166

Managing oral health related nutrition issues of high risk infants and children.  

PubMed

Dental professionals are in an ideal position to recognize children at high nutritional and oral health risk and provide early intervention. Some of the children at highest risk for nutritional and oral health problems include those born prematurely, children with failure to thrive, those on multiple medications, special needs children with developmental delays, children with gastroesophageal reflux, and those with lactose intolerance. Nutrition and oral health guidelines are provided to aid the dental practitioner in providing preventive nutrition intervention to these high risk children. PMID:10023231

Boyd, L D; Palmer, C; Dwyer, J T

1998-01-01

167

The assessment of oxidative stress in clinical practice and its importance in nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased production of oxidative chemical species (OCS) and\\/or a decreased effi- cacy of antioxidant systems (AOS) can lead to the breakdown of the oxidative balance, thus gener- ating the so-called oxidative stress, which is generally recognized as playing a relevant pathogenic role in early aging and in several inflammatory and\\/or degenerative diseases including atheroscle- rosis and hypertension (and their

N. REGANO; E. L. IORIO; A. GUGLIELMI; S. MAZZUOLI; A. FRANCAVILLA; S. FREGNAN; G. LEOGRANDE; F. W. GUGLIELMI

2008-01-01

168

Providing Consultation Services for Wellness Issues Related to Excercise, Weight Management, and Nutritional Support: Key Lifestyle Modifications for Healthier Aging.  

PubMed

This article discusses the importance of compounding pharmacies offering consultation services to patients, specifically in the areas of exercise, weight management, and nutritional support. With approximately two-thirds of the adult U.S. population falling into the overweight category and almost one-third falling into the obese category, most of which are also underactive, clearly weight management is an area of great concern. Included in this article are some brief literature reviews; important information for those looking for statistics on the benefits of exercise and nutritional support. Vitamin D and Omega 3 fatty acid research information is provided, highlighting the broad-based benefits of these important supplements. Having a private, inviting space for your patients to discuss their concerns and prescription needs, encourages patients to use consulting services and having fact-based information can help educate your patients about the topics discussed in this article, as well as other healthcare needs. PMID:23965367

Biundo, Bruce

169

Impact of a high-dependency care area on the nutritional management of patients with acute uremia.  

PubMed

At this institution, all non-intensive care unit (ICU)-based patients with acute uremia were previously managed on the general nephrology ward, and there were concerns that these patients may not have been benefiting from optimal management, particularly with regard to nutrition. In 1998, a renal high-dependency care (RHDC) unit was established within the ward, providing opportunity to compare the clinical management and outcomes of acutely uremic patients in 2 annual cohorts that were admitted both before and after implementation of the RHDC unit. Retrospective case reviews complemented data collected prospectively on the unit since 1995. There were 108 patients included from 1995 to 1996 and 86 patients included from 1998 to 1999; no patients were excluded, but a few case records were unobtainable. Both patient groups were demographically similar (median age, 68 years pre-RHDC, 62.5 years with the RHDC unit), and initial illness severity/comorbidity showed no significant differences. Nutritional support increased significantly (P <.05) from 22.4% in 1995 to 1996 to 38.4% of patients in 1998 to 1999, reflecting increased oral supplementation. Dialysis requirements were similar (60.2% v 63.5%). The proportion of patients requiring admission to the ICU (17.6% v 8.1%) and the total number of ICU bed days used (195 v 86) was reduced in 1998 to 1999. Cost analysis showed little overall difference between the 2 cohorts; the actual cost of improved nutritional management was negligible. The RHDC area and its nurse-based protocols have increased nutritional support for acutely uremic patients, allowing a reduction in ICU usage without any worsening in outcomes. PMID:11953927

Maredia, Neil; Green, Diane; Jayasekera, Heather; Robinson, Hilary; Jones, Anne; Wright, Julian; O'Donoghue, Donal J; Waldek, Stephen; Kalra, Philip A

2002-04-01

170

Long-term total parenteral nutrition and cholecystostomy tube in a rabbit model surgical procedure: management and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rabbit model for long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN), specially provided with cholecystostomy tube, was designed\\u000a to investigate further aspects of TPN-associated cholestasis (TPN-AC). Modified surgical procedures concerning vascular access,\\u000a cholecystostomy tube implantation and authors' original modalities for prolonged infusion management in the rabbit were used.\\u000a Continuous TPN was performed in 30 young rabbits. Five animals died during the experiment

D. Zovko; S. Loff; A. Dzakovic; B. Kränzlin; H.-P. Hohl; S. Grün; K.-L. Waag

1996-01-01

171

Effects of organizational attributes on adoption of technology for supply chain management in large school nutrition programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

School operators are looking for ways to improve efficiency by reducing costs. One approach is to examine costs along the supply chain using technology to reduce identified costs. The purpose of this study was to identify key attributes that affect a school nutrition program's willingness to adopt technology for supply chain management (SCM).\\u000aA survey design was used to gather

Julie Ann Boettger

2009-01-01

172

Nutritional management of very low birthweight infants: effects of different feeding regimens on calcium absorption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who have health problems that require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings. The effects of these changes on growth, calcium ...

173

CURRENT ISSUES IN NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infants less than 1,500 g birth weight (very low birth weight, VLBW) are at risk for significant nutritional deficiencies. Enhancing nutritional care of these infants during their first months of life may have important short and long-term benefits. In this article we will consider several areas of ...

174

Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus)  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. We also investigated whether seasonal changes in host behaviour, physiology and demography affect host–pathogen dynamics. Data showed that pregnant and lactating females had significantly higher risk of infection, which may explain previously observed temporal associations between HeV outbreaks and flying fox birthing periods. Age-specific seroprevalence curves generated from field data imply that HeV is transmitted horizontally via faeces, urine or saliva. Rapidly declining seroprevalence between two field seasons suggests that immunity wanes faster in LRFF than in other flying fox species, and highlights the potentially critical role of this species in interspecific viral persistence. The highest seroprevalence was observed when animals showed evidence of nutritional stress, suggesting that environmental processes that alter flying fox food sources, such as habitat loss and climate change, may increase HeV infection and transmission. These insights into the ecology of HeV in flying fox populations suggest causal links between anthropogenic environmental change and HeV emergence. PMID:18198149

Plowright, Raina K; Field, Hume E; Smith, Craig; Divljan, Anja; Palmer, Carol; Tabor, Gary; Daszak, Peter; Foley, Janet E

2008-01-01

175

Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n=48, 43±4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (P<0.05) in HS compared with TN pigs, while jejunum TER decreased 30% (P<0.05) and LPS APP increased 2-fold (P<0.01). Furthermore, d 7 HS pigs tended (P=0.06) to have increased LPS APP (41%) compared with PFTN controls. Lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased (46 and 59%, respectively; P<0.05) over time in HS pigs, while the immune cell marker, myeloperoxidase activity, was increased (P<0.05) in the jejunum at d 3 and 7. These results indicate that both HS and reduced feed intake decrease intestinal integrity and increase endotoxin permeability. We hypothesize that these events may lead to increased inflammation, which might contribute to reduced pig performance during warm summer months. PMID:23989867

Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

2013-11-01

176

The effect of a biofeedback-based stress management tool on physician stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians often experience work-related stress that may lead to personal harm and impaired professional performance. Biofeedback has been used to manage stress in various populations. Objective To determine whether a biofeedback-based stress management tool, consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device, reduces physician stress. Design Randomized controlled trial measuring efficacy of a stress-reduction intervention over 28 days, with a 28-day open-label trial extension to assess effectiveness. Setting Urban tertiary care hospital. Participants Forty staff physicians (23 men and 17 women) from various medical practices (1 from primary care, 30 from a medical specialty and 9 from a surgical specialty) were recruited by means of electronic mail, regular mail and posters placed in the physicians’ lounge and throughout the hospital. Intervention Physicians in the intervention group were instructed to use a biofeedback-based stress management tool three times daily. Participants in both the control and intervention groups received twice-weekly support visits from the research team over 28 days, with the intervention group also receiving re-inforcement in the use of the stress management tool during these support visits. During the 28-day extension period, both the control and the intervention groups received the intervention, but without intensive support from the research team. Main outcome measure Stress was measured with a scale developed to capture short-term changes in global perceptions of stress for physicians (maximum score 200). Results During the randomized controlled trial (days 0 to 28), the mean stress score declined significantly for the intervention group (change –14.7, standard deviation [SD] 23.8; p = 0.013) but not for the control group (change –2.2, SD 8.4; p = 0.30). The difference in mean score change between the groups was 12.5 (p = 0.048). The lower mean stress scores in the intervention group were maintained during the trial extension to day 56. The mean stress score for the control group changed significantly during the 28-day extension period (change –8.5, SD 7.6; p < 0.001). Conclusion A biofeedback-based stress management tool may be a simple and effective stress-reduction strategy for physicians. PMID:22567069

Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E; Lewin, Adriane M; de Grood, Jill; Schaefer, Jeffrey P

2011-01-01

177

Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone.  

PubMed

The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated dairy production systems. Whether sustainable production methods will be implemented also depends on macro-economic conditions and awareness of regional and global environmental concerns. PMID:23031652

van Vuuren, A M; Chilibroste, P

2013-03-01

178

Nutrition Behavior Change among EFNEP Participants Is Higher at Sites That Are Well Managed and Whose Front-Line Nutrition Educators Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective programs to promote improved dietary practices among low-income families depend on the motivation and performance of front-line nutrition educators, yet little is known about the work context experienced by nutrition workers or how their perceptions of work context relate to program effectiveness. This research examined the perceived work context of nutrition educators, a multidimensional construct developed through formative research,

Katherine L. Dickin; Jamie S. Dollahite; Jean-Pierre Habicht

179

Stress and Coping among Owners and Managers of Residential Care Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress and burnout are common in the caregiving professions. Stress negatively affects both the caregivers and patients. In order to help caregivers deal with stress effectively and to improve the care in residential care facilities, it is essential to learn more about the particular stressors that managers of such facilities experience. In this…

Walker, Hollie; And Others

180

A New Dimension: The Leader's Role in Identifying and Managing Stress in the Work Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a conceptual framework for identifying high-stress, negative community college work environments and offers suggestions for managers who are willing to make the changes necessary to turn a stress-laden environment into a positive, more productive one. The paper begins with a discussion of workplace stress and the conditions,…

Mitchell, Regene L.

181

Theoretical Foundations of Yoga Meditation: A Contribution to Self-Actualization and Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stress management techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…

Janowiak, John J.

182

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition  

E-print Network

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table Improving Nutrition in Ethiopia Through Plant Breeding and Soil Management Health Sciences Project Update ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5

Saskatchewan, University of

183

Endogenous factors regulating poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering in pharbitis: The involvement of metabolic pathways regulated by aminooxyacetic acid.  

PubMed

The short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory), Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil), was induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress. This stress-induced flowering was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), which is a known inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocycropropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and thus regulates endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA), IAA and polyamine (PA). Stress treatment increased PAL activity in cotyledons, and AOA suppressed this increase. The observed PAL activity and flowering response correlate positively, indicating that AOA functions as a PAL inhibitor. The inhibition of stress-induced flowering by AOA was also overcome by IAA. An antiauxin, 4-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid, inhibited stress-induced flowering. Both SA and IAA promoted flowering induced by stress. PA also promoted flowering, and the effective PA was found to be putrescine (Put). These results suggest that all of the pathways leading to the synthesis of SA, IAA and Put are responsive to the flowering inhibition by AOA and that these endogenous factors may be involved in the regulation of stress-induced flowering. However, as none of them induced flowering under non-stress conditions, they may function cooperatively to promote flowering. PMID:25462081

Koshio, Aya; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Okada, Rieko; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

2014-09-26

184

Nutritional management of infants and children with specific diseases or other conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis is characterized by progressive deterioration of pulmonary and pancreatic function. The former may increase nutrient requirements somewhat, but probably affects nutrition more by adversely affecting intake, particularly during acute exacerbations and in older children with severe pul...

185

The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163

Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

2014-01-01

186

Management of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Nutrition in the Geriatric Surgical Patient.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with physiological changes in the gut and with physical and psychosocial risk factors that predispose to malnutrition, particularly in the presence of disease states. The geriatric faction of the surgical population is increasing, and malnourished, critically ill geriatric surgical patients have worse outcomes. The authors discuss the assessment of nutritional risk, recognition of risk factors, statement of dietary goals, and appropriate nutritional interventions in critically ill geriatric surgical patients. PMID:25459544

Nohra, Eden; Bochicchio, Grant V

2015-02-01

187

Group Training of Stress Management vs. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Positive Men  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group training of stress management with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depression, anxiety and stress perceived among HIV-positive men. Methods:Inthis semi-experimental study, three groups of HIV-positive men (CBT group, stress management group, and control group) including 15 patients in each group were compared regarding depression, anxiety, and stress using pre-test and post-test tools. Results: Both interventions (CBT and stress management) were effective in reducing depression, anxiety and perceived stress. Evaluating adjustedmean showed the more effectivenessofthe group stressmanagementtraining than CBT. Conclusion: Group stress management training is more effective than group CBT in HIV-positive mentodecreasedepression, anxiety and stress management. Declaration of interest: None. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://.irct.ir. Unique identifier: 2012121711782N1 PMID:24644493

Hemmati Sabet, Akbar; Khalatbari, Javad; Abbas Ghorbani, Maryam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

2013-01-01

188

Pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

Greco, Deborah S

2014-03-01

189

Differential Responses of Bacillus subtilis rRNA Promoters to Nutritional Stress? †  

PubMed Central

The in vivo expression levels of four rRNA promoter pairs (rrnp1p2) of Bacillus subtilis were determined by employing single-copy lacZ fusions integrated at the amyE locus. The rrnO, rrnJ, rrnD, and rrnB promoters displayed unique growth rate regulation and stringent responses. Both lacZ activity and mRNA levels were highest for rrnO under all growth conditions tested, while rrnJ, rrnB, and rrnD showed decreasing levels of activity. During amino acid starvation induced by serine hydroxamate (SHX), only the strong rrnO and rrnJ promoters demonstrated stringent responses. Under the growth conditions used, the rrn promoters showed responses similar to the responses to carbon source limitation induced by ?-methyl glucoside (?-MG). The ratio of P2 to P1 transcripts, determined by primer extension analysis, was high for the strong rrnO and rrnJ promoters, while only P2 transcripts were detected for the weak rrnD and rrnB promoters. Cloned P1 or P2 promoter fragments of rrnO or rrnJ were differentially regulated. In wild-type (relA+) and suppressor [relA(S)] strains under the conditions tested, only P2 responded to carbon source limitation by a decrease in RNA synthesis, correlating with an increase in (p)ppGpp levels and a decrease in the GTP concentration. The weak P1 promoter elements remain relaxed in the three genetic backgrounds [relA+, relA, relA(S)] in the presence of ?-MG. During amino acid starvation, P2 was stringently regulated in relA+ and relA(S) cells, while only rrnJp1 was also regulated, but to a lesser extent. Both the relA+ and relA(S) strains showed (p)ppGpp accumulation after ?-MG treatment but not after SHX treatment. These data reveal the complex nature of B. subtilis rrn promoter regulation in response to stress, and they suggest that the P2 promoters may play a more prominent role in the stringent response. PMID:21097612

Samarrai, Walied; Liu, David X.; White, Ann-Marie; Studamire, Barbara; Edelstein, Jacob; Srivastava, Anita; Widom, Russell L.; Rudner, Rivka

2011-01-01

190

Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Genevičve

2012-01-01

191

Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management skills in soldiers.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Eric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Genevičve

2012-01-01

192

Does interactive media enhance the management of stress? Suggestions from a controlled study.  

PubMed

The relationship between interactive media and stress has gained wide interest in the mental health area. In our research, we found that interactive experiences helped people manage their stress. By combining different techniques, which may produce more significant outcomes than single-strategy programs, we developed a stress management protocol to increase self-awareness, to control and relax oneself, induce positive emotions, and substitute negative emotions. Our stress management protocol was tested in a controlled study comparing three interactive experiences (virtual reality [VR], video, and audio). Results showed the efficacy of all three interactive experiences in inducing positive emotions and integrating different approaches to manage stress. In particular, VR showed better improvements related to the psycho-physiological changes. Implications of the results for worldwide healthcare services will be discussed. PMID:22032797

Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

193

NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management. PMID:20126376

Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

2008-01-01

194

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

195

Nutritional surveillance*  

PubMed Central

The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups. Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional “status” indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate. Data come from two main types of source: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be disaggregated to village level, but are of unknown representativeness and often cannot be linked with other variables of interest; sample surveys provide integrated data of more or less known representativeness, but sample sizes usually do not allow disaggregation to, for example, specific villages. A combination of these sources, with a capability for ad hoc surveys (formal or informal) is often the best solution. Finally, much depends on adequate facilities for data analysis, even though simple, comprehensible data outputs are what is required. Intersectoral cooperation is needed to provide realistic options for the decision-making process. PMID:6606498

Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

1983-01-01

196

Role of Nutrition in the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy in End-Stage Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, and is considered a significant prognostic factor affecting quality of life, outcome, and survival. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of nutrition by trafficking the metabolism of nutrients, their distribution and appropriate use by the body. Nutritional consequences with the potential to cause nervous system dysfunction occur in liver failure, and many factors contribute to malnutrition in hepatic failure. Among them are inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased protein losses, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, inflammation/infection, and hyponatremia. Patients at risk of malnutrition are relatively difficult to identify since liver disease may interfere with biomarkers of malnutrition. The supplementation of the diet with amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins as well as probiotics in addition to meeting energy and protein requirements may improve nutritional status, liver function, and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver failure. PMID:21234351

Bémeur, Chantal; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.

2010-01-01

197

Menorrhagia: A synopsis of management focusing on herbal and nutritional supplements, and chiropractic.  

PubMed Central

Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice. PMID:18060009

Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.

2007-01-01

198

Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency in winter wheat.  

PubMed

The responses of gas exchange and water use efficiency to nitrogen nutrition for winter wheat were investigated under well-watered and drought conditions. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters of winter wheat are remarkably improved by water and nitrogen nutrition and the regulative capability of nitrogen nutrition is influenced by water status. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on photosynthetic characteristics and on the limited factors to photosynthesis are not identical under different water status. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) of the plants at the high-N nutrition was decreased by a larger value than that of the plants in the low-N treatment due to a larger decrease in photosynthetic rate than in transpiration rate. Carbon isotope composition of plant material (delta(p)) is increased by the increase of drought intensity. The delta(p) at a given level of C(i)/C(a) is reduced by nitrogen deficiency. Leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) is increased by the increase of nitrogen nutrition and decreased by the increase of drought intensity. Transpirational water use efficiency (WUE(t)) is negatively correlated with Delta in both nitrogen supply treatments and increased with the nitrogen supply. PMID:10996367

Shangguan; Shao; Dyckmans

2000-10-01

199

Is space management of female meadow voles ( Microtus pennsylvanicus ) related to nutritive quality of plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is thought by many (see Ims 1987 for review; Desy and Batzli 1989) that high quality food regulate population processes, territoriality and mating systems among small herbivores like meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). We thought that comparisons of nutritive components from selected plants eaten by sexually active and inactive voles, as well as between territorial and non territorial sexually active

Jean-Marie Bergeron; Richard Brunet; Louise Jodoin

1990-01-01

200

Dairy nutrition management: Assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitioners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a team-based educational program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based, nutrition information to dairy veterinarians. A comprehensive dairy cattle nutrition curriculum was developed and participants from 11 veterinary practices located in 5 states (IN, NY, PA, NM, and OH), serving an estimated 186,150 dairy cattle in 469 herds, attended the 2 advanced nutrition modules (?2.5 d each and ?40 h of learning) held in 2009. Nutrients, feeding transition cows, calves, and heifers, dry matter intake, feed storage, metabolic diseases, evaluating cows (scoring body condition, manure, and lameness), metabolic blood profiles, and feeding behavior were discussed. Educational materials were delivered through in-class lectures, followed by case-based learning and group discussions. A farm visit and out-of-class assignments were also implemented. Attendees were assessed using pre- and post-tests of knowledge to determine the level of knowledge gained in both nutrition modules. Participants evaluated the program and provided feedback at the conclusion of each module. Veterinarians (100%) reported that the overall program, presentations, and discussions were useful. Attendees found the presented information relevant for their work (agree=60% and strongly agree=40%) and of great immediate use to them (neutral=6.5%, agree=56%, and strongly agree=37.5%). The presented materials and the implemented educational delivery methods substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (16.9% points increase from pre-test to post-test scores). Importance of feed particle size, ration evaluation, interpreting feed analysis, balancing carbohydrate components, and metabolic profiling in fresh cows were listed as learned concepts that participants could apply in their practices. Results suggested that both nutrition modules were relevant and effective, offering new information with immediate field application. This program has important implications for dairy veterinarians because they serve as a vital source of information for dairy producers. PMID:21524558

Schuenemann, G M; Eastridge, M L; Weiss, W P; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P

2011-05-01

201

[Nutrition therapy in enterocutaneous fistula; from physiology to individualized treatment].  

PubMed

Enterocutaneous fistula is the most common of all intestinal fistulas. Is a condition that requires prolonged hospital stay due to complications such as electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, metabolic disorders and sepsis. Nutritional support is an essential part of the management; it favors intestinal and immune function, promotes wound healing and decreases catabolism. Despite the recognition of the importance of nutrition support, there is no strong evidence on its comprehensive management, which can be limiting when establishing specific strategies. The metabolic imbalance that a fistula causes is unknown. For low-output fistulas, energy needs should be based on resting energy expenditure, and provide 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/d of protein, while in high-output fistulas energy requirement may increase up to 1.5 times, and provide 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg of protein. It is suggested to provide twice the requirement of vitamins and trace elements, and between 5 and 10 times that of Vitamin C and Zinc, especially for high-output fistulas. A complete nutritional assessment, including type and location of the fistula, are factors to consider when selecting nutrition support, whether is enteral or parenteral nutrition. The enteral route should be preferred whenever possible, and combined with parenteral nutrition when the requirements cannot be met. Nutritional treatment strategies in fistulas may include the use of immunomodulators and even stress management. PMID:24483960

Rodríguez Cano, Ameyalli Mariana

2014-01-01

202

Job Stress in Disaster Case Managers Working with Hurricane Ike Recovery  

E-print Network

JOB STRESS IN DISASTER CASE MANAGERS WORKING WITH HURRICANE IKE RECOVERY A Thesis by MEGAN HAJECATE FORMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communications JOB STRESS IN DISASTER CASE MANAGERS WORKING WITH HURRICANE IKE RECOVERY A Thesis by MEGAN HAJECATE FORMAN Submitted to the Office...

Forman, Megan Hajecate

2011-10-21

203

Career stress and female managers' health in Taiwan's hospitals: A multilevel model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study investigates how perception-induced stress (barrier) and social capital (facilitator) affect the health of female managers. Methods and Measurement: On the basis of the responses of 229 valid questionnaires of middle- and high-level female managers in large-scale hospitals, using a multilevel data analysis approach, this study investigates how perception-induced stress and social capital influence self-reported poor health of

Duan-Rung Chen; Yeh-Yun Lin; Kuo-Piao Chung

2008-01-01

204

Mind the body!: designing a mobile stress management application encouraging personal reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a stress management biofeedback mobile service for everyday use, aiding users to reflect on both positive and negative patterns in their behavior. To do so, we embarked on a complex multidisciplinary design journey, learning that: detrimental stress results from complex processes related to e.g. the subjective experience of being able to cope (or not) and can therefore

Pedro Sanches; Kristina Höök; Elsa Kosmack Vaara; Claus Weymann; Markus Bylund; Pedro Ferreira; Nathalie Peira; Marie Sjölinder

2010-01-01

205

Relative Efficacy of Using Behavioral Consultation as an Approach to Teacher Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared two teacher stress management techniques, collaborative behavior consultation (CBC) and relaxation training. Analyses of perceived teacher stress levels before intervention, after intervention, and at the follow-up assessment period revealed greater maintenance of effectiveness for the CBC group than for a control group. Such an ongoing…

Tunnecliffe, Michael R.; And Others

1986-01-01

206

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

207

Managing Stress for College Success through Self-Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)

Carrese, Marie A.

1998-01-01

208

Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…

Allen, Roger J.

209

Stress management: corpus-based insights into vernacular interpretations of stress.  

PubMed

Examination of the term stress in naturally occurring vernacular prose provides evidence of three separate senses being conflated. A corpus analysis of 818 instances of stress from non-academic texts in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Corpus of American Discourses on Health (CADOH) shows a negative prosody for stress, which is portrayed variously as a source outside the body, a physical symptom within the body and an emotional state. The data show that contemporary speakers intermingle the three senses, making more difficult a discussion between doctors and patients of ways to 'reduce stress: when stress might be interpreted as a stressor, a symptom, or state of anxiety. This conflation of senses reinforces the impression that stress is pervasive and increasing. In addition, a semantic shift is also refining a new sense for stress, as post-traumatic stress develops as a specific subtype of emotional stress whose use has increased in circulation in the past 20 years. PMID:24851519

Stvan, Laurel Smith

2013-01-01

210

Nutrition: a promising route for prevention and management of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses - in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. PMID:25460293

Tarantino, Giovanni

2014-11-01

211

Long-term management of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy by a nutritional support team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) has become a commonly-performed procedure, to provide enteral nutrition for patients who are unable to eat. The aims of this study were to evaluate the long term efficacy, morbidity and mortality of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Material and methods: We analysed 144 patients who underwent a PEG procedure. Survival curves were done with the Kaplan–Meier

H. CORTEZ-PINTO; A. PINTO CORREIA; M. E. CAMILO; L. TAVARES; M. CARNEIRO DE MOURA

2002-01-01

212

Stress in Adults after a Disaster: Warning Signs and Management  

E-print Network

such as head- aches, fatigue and pain may request more sick leave from work. Some of these symptoms may be related to increased anxiety. High levels of stress can weaken the immune system, leading to increases in illness. Recurrent thoughts ? Adults may think.... An adult?s emotional reactions after a trauma can vary greatly, ranging from very little distress to extreme stress reactions. Although a person?s reaction to post-disaster stress may be troubling, remember that these are normal reac- tions to abnormal...

Warren, Judith L.

2005-09-30

213

Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management  

PubMed Central

Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations. PMID:21860667

Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

2011-01-01

214

Developing Entry-Level Competencies in School Health Educators: Evaluation of a Problem-Solving Curriculum for Stress Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 39 college students enrolled in health classes evaluated the efficacy of training preprofessionals in how to use problem solving to help youth cope with stress. Participants who were taught a model of problem solving to manage excessive stress scored higher on measures of social problem solving and stress management. (Author/CR)

Black, David R.; Frauenknecht, Marianne

1997-01-01

215

Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for stress management: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Stress has become a global public health problem. Yoga offers one possible way of reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from 2011 to May 2013 and examine whether yoga can be an efficacious approach for managing stress. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for quantitative articles involving all schools of yoga. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six of these were from the United States, 3 from India, 2 from the United Kingdom, and 1 each from Australia, Brazil, Germany, Iraq, Sweden, and Taiwan. Of the 17 studies, 12 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to stress. Despite the limitations, not all studies used a randomized controlled design, had smaller sample sizes, had different outcomes, had nonstandardized yoga intervention, and had varying lengths, yoga appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:24647380

Sharma, Manoj

2014-01-01

216

The evaluation of stress management strategies in general practice: an evidence-led approach.  

PubMed Central

Recent surveys have highlighted sources of stress for UK general practitioners (GPs). Interventions to reduce stress in general practice have been introduced at both an individual and an organizational level, but there is little published evidence of their effectiveness. This paper systematically reviews the literature and reports that the research evidence from stress management programmes employed with other workforces is equivocal. Results so far suggest that relaxation and cognitive behavioural skills are helpful and that group methods are both more cost-effective and more beneficial than individual counselling. It is important for scientific, practical, and financial reasons that stress management programmes be properly evaluated. This paper suggests possible avenues for future interventions to alleviate stress. PMID:9406495

Sims, J

1997-01-01

217

[MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-2: Operations and Activities of a Food Service Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on operations and activities of a food service operation is the second in a set of three modules on occupational education relating to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

Waskey, Frank

218

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B.S., and; Addiction

Raina, Ramesh

219

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Studies and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Raina, Ramesh

220

Factors Affecting Deer Diets and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...

Richardson, Calvin

2000-04-25

221

The management of sacral stress fractures: current concepts  

PubMed Central

Summary Sacral stress fractures are an unusual but curable cause of low-back pain that should be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in elderly osteoporotic patients. Rarely, they may occur in young women during the last trimester of pregnancy or a few weeks after delivery. Encompassing fatigue and insufficiency fractures, the occurrence of sacral stress fractures appears to be relatively under-reported, because of the general lack of awareness of this condition and the non-specificity of symptoms. Plain radiographs of the pelvis are the first exam performed but they are often inconclusive, whereas MRI and CT scans are the examinations of choice to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness of this condition so that clinicians may consider sacral stress fracture in the differential diagnosis of low-back and pelvic pain, particularly in elderly patients without a history of trauma. PMID:22461824

Longhino, Valentina; Bonora, Cristina; Sansone, Valerio

2011-01-01

222

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

223

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

224

Management of climatic heat stress risk in construction: a review of practices, methodologies, and future research.  

PubMed

Climatic heat stress leads to accidents on construction sites brought about by a range of human factors emanating from heat induced illness, and fatigue leading to impaired capability, physical and mental. It is an occupational characteristic of construction work in many climates and the authors take the approach of re-engineering the whole safety management system rather than focusing on incremental improvement, which is current management practice in the construction industry. From a scientific viewpoint, climatic heat stress is determined by six key factors: (1) air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) radiant heat, and (4) wind speed indicating the environment, (5) metabolic heat generated by physical activities, and (6) "clothing effect" that moderates the heat exchange between the body and the environment. By making use of existing heat stress indices and heat stress management processes, heat stress risk on construction sites can be managed in three ways: (1) control of environmental heat stress exposure through use of an action-triggering threshold system, (2) control of continuous work time (CWT, referred by maximum allowable exposure duration) with mandatory work-rest regimens, and (3) enabling self-paced working through empowerment of employees. Existing heat stress practices and methodologies are critically reviewed and the authors propose a three-level methodology for an action-triggering, localized, simplified threshold system to facilitate effective decisions by frontline supervisors. The authors point out the need for "regional based" heat stress management practices that reflect unique climatic conditions, working practices and acclimatization propensity by local workers indifferent geographic regions. The authors set out the case for regional, rather than international, standards that account for this uniqueness and which are derived from site-based rather than laboratory-based research. PMID:24079394

Rowlinson, Steve; Yunyanjia, Andrea; Li, Baizhan; Chuanjingju, Carrie

2014-05-01

225

Nutritional management of very low birth weight infants: effects of different feeding regimens on calcium absorption and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The effects of these nutritional c...

226

Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?  

PubMed

This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance. PMID:25373105

Deuster, Patricia

2014-11-01

227

Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated. PMID:24051941

Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

2013-08-01

228

Atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide enhances tolerance to salt stress and improves nutritional quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).  

PubMed

The increased salinity in greenhouses has become a problem of great concern. In this study, it was observed that the salt-induced oxidative damages (indicated by MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes, including POD, SOD and CAT) could be alleviated by application of NO gas. Consequently, although both photosynthesis and growth in plants were inhibited by NaCl stress, they were restored by NO gas application, and the fresh and dry biomasses of edible parts increased by 60% and 27% over NaCl stress treatment, respectively. Furthermore, gaseous NO application also significantly elevated the levels of several antioxidation-associated compounds such as proline, ascorbate, glutathione, total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (indicated by DPPH scavenging activity) in NaCl-treated plants. Keeping in mind all of the above, we concluded that atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide gas could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and nutrition quality in spinach under salt stress. PMID:25466105

Du, Shao-Ting; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ran-Ran

2015-04-15

229

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

230

Enhanced biofuel production potential with nutritional stress amelioration through optimization of carbon source and light intensity in Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.  

PubMed

Microalgal mixotrophic cultivation is one of the most potential ways to enhance biomass and biofuel production. In the present study, first of all ability of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 to utilize various carbon sources under mixotrophic growth condition was evaluated followed by optimization of glucose concentration and light intensity to obtain higher biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized condition i.e. 4g/L glucose and 150?molm(-2)s(-1) light intensity, Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 produced 1.2g/L dry cell weight containing 23.62% total lipid and 42.68% carbohydrate. Addition of glucose shown nutritional stress ameliorating effects and around 70% carbohydrate and 25% total lipid content was found with only 21% reduction in dry cell weight under nitrogen starved condition. This study shows potential application of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 for bioethanol and biodiesel production feed stock. PMID:25579231

Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mishra, Sandhya

2015-03-01

231

Nature-based stress management course for individuals at risk of adverse health effects from work-related stress-effects on stress related symptoms, workability and sick leave.  

PubMed

Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention. PMID:25003175

Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Matuszczyk, Josefa Vega; Grahn, Patrik

2014-06-01

232

Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (?2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (?1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

2013-01-01

233

The Endosymbiont Hamiltonella Increases the Growth Rate of Its Host Bemisia tabaci during Periods of Nutritional Stress  

PubMed Central

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci. PMID:24558462

Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

234

The endosymbiont Hamiltonella increases the growth rate of its host Bemisia tabaci during periods of nutritional stress.  

PubMed

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci. PMID:24558462

Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

235

Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (?-, ?-, ?-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For ?- and ?- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies. PMID:25028959

Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria Joăo; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

2014-01-01

236

Stress Management in the Health Care Setting: Matching Interventions with Patient Coping Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective preprosthetic oral surgery patients were presented with a problem-focused, emotion-focused, or mixed-focus stress management intervention. The mixed-focus intervention produced the best overall response to surgery; the emotion-focused intervention produced the lowest adjustment levels. Better adjustment and satisfaction and lower…

Martelli, Michael F.; And Others

1987-01-01

237

Anxiety buffer disruption theory: a terror management account of posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) and provide a review of current evidence regarding the theory. ABDT is an application of terror management theory to explain diverse reactions to traumatic events and the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It posits that PTSD results from a disruption in one's anxiety-buffering mechanisms, which normally provide protection against anxiety

Tom Pyszczynski; Pelin Kesebir

2011-01-01

238

The Frazzled Principal's Wellness Plan: Reclaiming Time, Managing Stress, and Creating a Healthy Lifestyle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This wellness guide for today's busy principals, school leaders, supervisors, and administrators has been custom crafted by the authors to address the stresses of managing workplace environments, juggling time and competing priorities, learning to delegate, balancing personal and professional agendas, and creating win-win situations. Special…

Queen, J. Allen; Queen, Patsy S.

2004-01-01

239

Stress Management and Anxiety Reduction Through EMG Biofeedback/Relaxation Training upon Junior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback/relaxation training on the stress management and anxiety levels of 18 eighth-grade students was tested. Chapter I serves as an introduction and presents information on the need for the study, hypotheses, limitations, and definition of terms. Chapter II contains a review of related…

Lang, Darrel

240

A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Interventions for Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study was to identify stress-management interventions used for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and systematically evaluate the efficacy of these interventions. Methods: Several strategies were used to search for studies reported in articles published up to 2013. Results: Our initial search retrieved 117 publications, of which 8 met our criteria for review. Of the eight studies, one provided Class I evidence, five provided Class III evidence, and two provided Class IV evidence for the efficacy of stress-management interventions according to the evidence classification established by the American Academy of Neurology. Most studies showed positive changes in outcomes assessed; however, the range of methodological quality among the published studies made it difficult to draw conclusions. Conclusions: The promising findings for stress-management interventions highlight the need for future studies. Additional large, prospective, multicenter studies will help to define the role of stress-management interventions in the treatment and course of MS. Furthermore, including outcome measures based on biological and clinical markers of disease will prove useful in understanding potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25337056

Reynard, Alison K.; Rae-Grant, Alexander

2014-01-01

241

Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Nonnutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada state that up to 10% of daily calories can be derived from sugars. However, individuals with diabetes may also be relying on alternative, low-calorie sweetening agents (providing little or no calories along with sweet taste) to con- trol carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, weight

Réjeanne Gougeon; Mark Spidel; Kristy Lee; Catherine J. Field

2004-01-01

242

Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. PMID:24251710

Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

2013-12-01

243

Yin Yang 1 and Adipogenic Gene Network Expression in Longissimus Muscle of Beef Cattle in Response to Nutritional Management  

PubMed Central

Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS. PMID:23700364

Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B.; Loor, Juan J.

2013-01-01

244

Four years of North American registry home parenteral nutrition outcome data and their implications for patient management  

SciTech Connect

The OASIS Registry started annual collection of longitudinal data on patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in 1984. This report describes outcome profiles on 1594 HPN patients in seven disease categories. Analysis showed clinical outcome was principally a reflection of the underlying diagnosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, ischemic bowel disease, motility disorders, radiation enteritis, and congenital bowel dysfunction all had a fairly long-term clinical outcome, whereas those with active cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a short-term outcome. The long-term group had a 3-year survival rate of 65 to 80%, they averaged 2.6 complications requiring hospitalization per year, and 49% experienced complete rehabilitation. The short-term group had a mean survival of 6 months; they averaged 4.6 complications per year and about 15% experienced complete rehabilitation. The registry data also indicated HPN was used for 19,700 patients in 1987 with therapy growth averaging about 8% per year. This growth was chiefly from new cancer patients. The number of new patients with long-term disorders in whom HPN was initiated appeared rather constant. The authors conclude that these clinical outcome assessments justify HPN for long-term patients, but the utility and appropriateness of HPN for the cancer and AIDS patients remains uncertain and requires further study. Medical, social, and fiscal aspects of HPN management in long-term and short-term patients appear to involve quite separate considerations.

Howard, L.; Heaphey, L.; Fleming, C.R.; Lininger, L.; Steiger, E. (Division of Clinical Nutrition, Albany Medical Center, New York (United States))

1991-07-01

245

Corticosterone in thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri chicks: diel rhythm, timing of fledging and nutritional stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) of the hypothalam– pituitary–adrenal axis play a role in association with both stressful events and daily life processes. However, relative- ly little is known,about the role of GCs in relation to daily and seasonal life processes in animals in the wild. In this paper, we present data on basal levels of plasma cortico- sterone CORT in chicks

Petra Quillfeldt; Maud Poisbleau; Olivier Chastel; Juan F. Masello

2007-01-01

246

Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

2014-05-01

247

Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.  

PubMed

Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which D-penicillamine is the most commonly used. D-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous D-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1 months (range, 5.9-39 months) after being effectively treated with D-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3±0.3 mg copper/1000 kcal and 64.3±5.9 mg zinc/1000 kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6 months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800 mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with D-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

2014-03-01

248

A Systematic Review of Biopsychosocial Training Programs for the Self-Management of Emotional Stress: Potential Applications for the Military  

PubMed Central

Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed. PMID:24174982

Clausen, Shawn S.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Walter, Joan A. G.

2013-01-01

249

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Mather, Patrick T.

250

Management of parenteral nutrition associated hyperglycaemia: a comparison of subcutaneous and intravenous insulin regimen.  

PubMed

PN is associated with significant hyperglycaemia, which may be detrimental to clinical outcome. There are few data on the management of this phenomenon outside of intensive care units. In our unit, we studied the efficacy of protocol-based intravenous insulin delivery as compared to subcutaneous insulin prescribed individually outside of the critical care setting. In a retrospective review over a two-year period, we compared patients with PN-associated hyperglycaemia who had received both modes of insulin therapy. A total of 122 who developed PN-associated hyperglycaemia were identified. Those on the intravenous insulin regimen were within glycaemic target for more time than those on the subcutaneous regimen (62% Vs 43%, p = 0.008). We therefore conclude that outside of the critical care setting, intravenous insulin delivers better glycaemic control and should therefore be considered optimum therapy for patients with PN-associated hyperglycaemia. PMID:24908857

Neff, K; Donegan, D; MacMahon, J; O'Hanlon, C; Keane, N; Agha, A; Thompson, C; Smith, D

2014-05-01

251

Nutrition support to patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional depletion has been demonstrated to be a major determinant of the development of post-operative complications. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at risk of nutritional depletion from inadequate nutritional intake, surgical stress and the subsequent increase in metabolic rate. Fears of postoperative ileus and the integrity of the newly constructed anastomosis have led to treatment typically entailing starvation with administration of

Nicola Ward

2003-01-01

252

Post-harvest quality risks by stress/ethylene: management to mitigate.  

PubMed

Fresh produce, in actual fact, is exposed to multiple stresses through entire post-harvest phase such as handling, storage and distribution. The biotic stresses are associated with various post-harvest diseases leading to massive produce loss. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and chilling cause cell weakening, membrane leakage, flavour loss, surface pitting, internal browning, textural changes, softening and mealiness of post-harvest produce. A burst in 'stress ethylene' formation makes post-harvest produce to be at high risk for over-ripening, decay, deterioration, pathogen attack and physiological disorders. The mutation study of genes and receptors involved in ethylene signal transduction shows reduced sensitivity to bind ethylene resulting in delayed ripening and longer shelf life of produce. This review is aimed to highlight the various detrimental effects of stress/ethylene on quality of post-harvest produce, primarily fruits, with special emphasize to its subsequent practical management involving the 'omics' tools. The outcome of the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of stress/ethylene which sustain fruit quality at post-harvest phase. PMID:25091877

Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Narendra

2015-01-01

253

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

254

Postoperative hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition with branched-chain-enriched amino acids provides no better clinical advantage than fluid management in nonmalnourished colorectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

To assess clinical efficacy of using postoperative branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-enriched nutritional support in lower gastrointestinal cancer patients, we conducted a retrospective observational study comparing this regimen with traditional fluid management. Sixty-one eligible colorectal cancer patients consecutively admitted in the Colorectal Surgery Ward to receive postoperative hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition (HPPN) were categorized into dextrose-only control group (n = 20), dextrose plus low-dose BCAA fat group (n = 20), and dextrose plus high-dose BCAA fat group (n = 21). Nutritional, clinical, and biochemical outcomes were collected on the day before and 7 days after surgery. Patients were nonmalnourished. Over the 7-day observation period, the control group had a significantly higher reduction in body mass index than the lower dose and the higher dose BCAA groups (P = 0.023 and P = 0.002, respectively). Compared to high-dose BCAA group, the control group also had a lower nitrogen excretion (P < 0.0001) and less reduction in nitrogen balance (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between study groups in biochemical measures, phlebitis, postoperative hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We found no better clinical advantage to the postoperative administration of BCAA-enriched HPPN than fluid management in nonmalnourished colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25298128

Huang, Hsiu-Hua; Wu, Pi-Chuan; Kang, Shiu-Ping; Wang, Jui-Ho; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Chwang, Leh-Chii; Chang, Sue-Joan

2014-01-01

255

Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Could Simultaneous Targeting of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress Be a Better Panacea?  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of the current management of diabetes mellitus is to achieve and/or maintain a glycated hemoglobin level of ?6.5%. However, recent evidence indicates that intensive treatment of hyperglycemia is characterized by increased weight gain, severe hypoglycemia and higher mortality. Besides, evidence suggests that it is difficult to achieve and/or maintain optimal glycemic control in many diabetic patients; and that the benefits of intensively-treated hyperglycemia are restricted to microvascular complications only. In view of these adverse effects and limitations of intensive treatment of hyperglycemia in preventing diabetic complications, which is linked to oxidative stress, this commentary proposes a hypothesis that “simultaneous targeting of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress” could be more effective than “intensive treatment of hyperglycemia” in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22489136

Erejuwa, Omotayo O.

2012-01-01

256

Food Products Made With Glycomacropeptide, a Low Phenylalanine Whey Protein, Provide a New Alternative to Amino Acid-Based Medical Foods for Nutrition Management of Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine (phe) metabolism, requires lifelong nutrition management with a low-phe diet, which includes a phe-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual’s protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet since it is naturally low in phe. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein utilization and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phe dietary protein for those with PKU. PMID:22818728

Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

2012-01-01

257

Nutritional Support  

MedlinePLUS

Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

258

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

259

Energy reallocation during and after periods of nutritional stress in Steller sea lions: low-quality diet reduces capacity for physiological adjustments.  

PubMed

Two groups of female Steller sea lions (groups H and P) were subjected to periods of energy restriction and subsequent refeeding during winter and summer to determine changes in energy partitioning among principal physiological functions and the potential consequences to their fitness. Both sea lion groups consumed high-quality fish (herring) before and after the energy restrictions. During restrictions, group H was fed a lower quantity of herring and group P a caloric equivalent of low-quality fish (pollock). Quantitative estimates of maintenance and production energies and qualitative estimates of thermoregulation, activity, and basal metabolic rate were measured. During summer, all animals compensated for the imposed energy deficit by releasing stored energy (production energy). Group H also optimized the energy allocation to seasonal conditions by increasing activity during summer, when fish are naturally abundant (foraging effort), and by decreasing thermoregulation capacity when waters are warmer. During winter, both groups decreased the energy allocated to overall maintenance functions (basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and activity together) in addition to releasing stored energy, but they preserved thermoregulatory capacity. Group H also decreased activity levels in winter, when foraging in the wild is less efficient, unlike group P. Overall, sea lions fed pollock did not change energy allocation to suit environmental conditions as readily as those fed herring. This implies that a low energy-density diet may further reduce fitness of animals in the wild during periods of nutritional stress. PMID:19637969

Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

2009-01-01

260

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

261

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1991-01-01

262

Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.  

PubMed

We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes. PMID:24875684

Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

263

Managing Stress  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... opportunities Advocacy in government For health professionals General health information I have personal experience with: Prematurity NICU experience Birth Defects High-risk pregnancy Loss Infertility Multiples None Of Above March ...

264

Managing Stress  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com hp060104 Last ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com hp060104 Last ...

265

A randomized trial of stress management for the prevention of new brain lesions in MS  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This trial examined the efficacy of a stress management program in reducing neuroimaging markers of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. Methods: A total of 121 patients with relapsing forms of MS were randomized to receive stress management therapy for MS (SMT-MS) or a wait-list control condition. SMT-MS provided 16 individual treatment sessions over 24 weeks, followed by a 24-week post-treatment follow-up. The primary outcome was the cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) brain lesions on MRI at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Secondary outcomes included new or enlarging T2 MRI lesions, brain volume change, clinical exacerbation, and stress. Results: SMT-MS resulted in a reduction in cumulative Gd+ lesions (p = 0.04) and greater numbers of participants remained free of Gd+ lesions during the treatment (76.8% vs 54.7%, p = 0.02), compared to participants receiving the control treatment. SMT-MS also resulted in significantly reduced numbers of cumulative new T2 lesions (p = 0.005) and a greater number of participants remaining free of new T2 lesions (69.5% vs 42.7%, p = 0.006). These effects were no longer detectable during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Conclusions: This trial indicates that SMT-MS may be useful in reducing the development of new MRI brain lesions while patients are in treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that SMT-MS, a manualized stress management therapy program, reduced the number of Gd+ lesions in patients with MS during a 24-week treatment period. This benefit was not sustained beyond 24 weeks, and there were no clinical benefits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00147446. PMID:22786596

Lovera, Jesus; Brown, Ted; Cohen, Bruce; Neylan, Thomas; Henry, Roland; Siddique, Juned; Jin, Ling; Daikh, David; Pelletier, Daniel

2012-01-01

266

Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training: Background, Methods, and Design for the ENHANCED study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training in Patients with Heart Disease (ENHANCED) is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by the NHLBI to evaluate the effects of stress management training (SMT) on changes in biomarkers of risk and quality of life for patients enrolled in traditional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). METHODS: One hundred fifty cardiac patients recruited from Duke University and the University of North Carolina will be evaluated and randomized to CR enhanced by SMT (including sessions devoted to relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or to standard exercise-based CR. Before and following 12 weeks of treatment, patients will undergo a battery of psychometric questionnaires and evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers including measures of flow-mediated dilation, heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, platelet function and inflammation, and ischemia during laboratory mental stress testing. The primary outcomes include a composite measure of stress (distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility and 24-hr urinary catecholamines and cortisol) and a composite measure of cardiac biomarkers of risk (vascular endothelial function, cardiac vagal control, inflammation, platelet function and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia). Secondary outcomes include measures of quality of life as well as clinical events including death, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, and revascularization procedures. RESULTS: This article reviews prior studies in the area and describes the design of the ENHANCED study. Several key methodological issues are discussed including the assessment of biomarkers of risk and barriers to the integration of SMT into traditional CR. CONCLUSIONS: The ENHANCED study will provide important information by determining the extent to which SMT combined with exercise-based CR may improve prognosis and quality of life in vulnerable cardiac patients. PMID:20216360

Blumenthal, James A.; Wang, Jenny T.; Babyak, Michael; Watkins, Lana; Kraus, William; Miller, Paula; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

2010-01-01

267

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing exercises at least once a day. Progressive relaxation therapy In this technique, which you can learn ... a new sport, it takes practice to learn relaxation. Dealing with Diabetes-Related Stress Some sources of ...

268

The Effectiveness of Self-Directed and Lecture/Discussion Stress Management Approaches and the Locus of Control of Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction effects of two stress management strategies, the directed lecture discussion versus self-directed, and locus of control of teachers were examined. Results indicated directed and self-directive programs were effective in reducing stress. Locus of control was not an important factor. (Author/DWH)

Friedman, Gail H.; And Others

1983-01-01

269

"Learn Young, Learn Fair", a Stress Management Program for Fifth and Sixth Graders: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…

Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens

2009-01-01

270

[Nutrition in intensive care].  

PubMed

Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924

Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W

2011-06-01

271

Effects of pre-competitional rapid weight loss on nutrition, vitamin status and oxidative stress in elite boxers.  

PubMed

Abstract Dietary intake, vitamin status and oxidative stress were evaluated in 17 elite male boxers. Ten of them frequently reduced body weight rapidly before competitions (Weight Loss Group) and 7 did not practice rapid weight loss (Control Group). Food record checklists, blood samples for determination of vitamin status and plasma glutathione levels were obtained during a week of weight maintenance, a pre-competition week and a post-competition week. The average dietary intakes in both groups were 33 ± 8 kcal·kg(-1), 3.7 ± 1.1 g·kg(-1) carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) protein, 1.2 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) fat and 2.2 ± 1.0 L water per day (excluding pre-competition week in Weight Loss Group). Energy (18 ± 7 kcal·kg(-1)), carbohydrate (2.2 ± 0.8 g·kg(-1)), protein (0.8 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1)), fat (0.6 ± 0.3 g·kg(-1)) and water (1.6 ± 0.6 L) consumption (P-values <0.001) and intakes of most vitamins (P-values < 0.05) were significantly reduced during the pre-competition week in the Weight Loss Group. In both groups, the intakes of vitamins A, E and folate were below recommended values throughout the three periods; however, blood vitamin and plasma glutathione levels did not change significantly. Our findings indicate a low-caloric and low-carbohydrate diet in elite boxers, regardless of participating in rapid weight loss or not. Apparently, the pre-competitional malnutitrition in the Weight Loss Group did not induce alterations in the vitamin and glutathione status. PMID:25259507

Reljic, Dejan; Jost, Joachim; Dickau, Kirsten; Kinscherf, Ralf; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

2015-03-01

272

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:20661345

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

273

Parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional insufficiency, leading to early growth deficits has long-lasting effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early enteral feeding is commonly limited by immaturity of gastrointestinal motor function in preterm neonates. To ensure that a stressed premature infant receives an adequate but not excessive amount of glucose, the amount of carbohydrate delivered in the form of dextrose is commonly initiated at the endogenous hepatic glucose production and utilization rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg/min; and 8 to 10 mg/kg/min in ELBW infants. The early provision of protein is critical to attain positive nitrogen balance and accretion as premature babies lose approximately 1% of their protein stores daily. Aminoacid can be used at concentrations of 3-3.5 g/kg/day and lipid at 3.5-4 g/kg/day as long as the fat intake remains less than 60% of nonprotein calories. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus need to be provided in PN solution as per their daily needs. Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major complication of PN. All efforts should be made to avoid it. PMID:18536894

Chawla, Deepak; Thukral, Anu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

2008-04-01

274

Hypo-osmotic stress-induced physiological and ion-osmoregulatory responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are modulated differentially by nutritional status.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of nutritional status on the physiological, metabolic and ion-osmoregulatory performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) when acclimated to seawater (32ppt), brackish water (20 and 10ppt) and hyposaline water (2.5ppt) for 2weeks. Following acclimation to different salinities, fish were either fed or fasted (unfed for 14days). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle water content were severely altered in fasted fish acclimated to 10 and 2.5ppt in comparison to normal seawater-acclimated fish, suggesting ion regulation and acid-base balance disturbances. In contrast to feed-deprived fish, fed fish were able to avoid osmotic perturbation more effectively. This was accompanied by an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression and activity, transitory activation of H(+)-ATPase (only at 2.5ppt) and down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) gene expression. Ammonia excretion rate was inhibited to a larger extent in fasted fish acclimated to low salinities while fed fish were able to excrete efficiently. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in the plasma of fed fish was relatively lower. Energy stores, especially glycogen and lipid, dropped in the fasted fish at low salinities and progression towards the anaerobic metabolic pathway became evident by an increase in plasma lactate level. Overall, the results indicate no osmotic stress in both feeding treatments within the salinity range of 32 to 20ppt. However, at lower salinities (10-2.5ppt) feed deprivation tends to reduce physiological, metabolic, ion-osmo-regulatory and molecular compensatory mechanisms and thus limits the fish's abilities to adapt to a hypo-osmotic environment. PMID:25483239

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

2015-03-01

275

This fact sheet was adapted from the Family Guide to Managing Holiday Stress, courtesy of the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)  

E-print Network

F012 This fact sheet was adapted from the Family Guide to Managing Holiday Stress, courtesy of the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) 2010The Holidays Are Here be stressful. To make this holiday season a happy and peaceful one, look for healthy ways to manage stress

Oliver, Douglas L.

276

The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Social Skills and Stress Management Skills Among Automated Foodservice Industry Executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study revalidated three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI) and examined EI's contribution to social skills and stress management skills among members of the National Automatic Merchandising (NAMA), representing executives of the vending, coffee services, and foodservice management industries. After performing Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a sample of 191 was spilt into high EI and low EI groups, based on respondents'

Jaemin Cha; Ronald F. Cichy; Seung Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

277

Effects of short-term management stress and ACTH injections on plasma cortisol levels in cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

General management practices including capture, handling and transportation in fish hatcheries can induce a stress response indicated by a plasma cortisol increase in many species. However, this phenomenon is not well established in cultured white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). We determined resting levels of cortisol and the cortisol responses to two management stressors and to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH1–24) injections in

J. M Belanger; J. H Son; K. D Laugero; G. P Moberg; S. I Doroshov; S. E Lankford; J. J Cech

2001-01-01

278

Work Stress and Risk Factors For Health Management Trainees in Canakkale, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aims to investigate the general mental health situation, work-related stress and risk factors of health management trainees. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Health Management Musters students (N=96) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health Sciences Institute, May-June 2014. A total of 58 students who voluntarily participated in the study were reached (60.42%). Participants completed a 22-question sociodemographic survey form and a 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The average age of participants was 36.4±6.2 (Min:24-Max:62) years. Thirty five of the participants were female (60.3%), 23 were male (39.7%). The number of people using cigarettes and alcohol were 23 (39.7%) and 9 (15.8%) respectively. In our study group according to GHQ scale 32 people (55.2%) were in the group at risk of depression. Eighty-six percent of participants reported experiencing work stress. The most frequently reported sources of stress were superiors (56.8%), work itself (41.3%), and work colleagues (25.8%). There was no significant difference between those at risk of depression and those not at risk in terms of gender, marital status, educational level, age, work-related factors (daily work, computer use, duration of sitting at desk), sleep duration, presence of chronic disease, substance use (cigarettes, alcohol), regular exercise, regular meals, fast-food consumption, sufficient family time and vacations (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study results indicated that majority of participants reported experiencing work stress with more than half at high risk of developing depression. The most reported risk factors were superiors, the work itself and colleagues in the present study. Psychosocial risk factors at work environment should be investigated in terms of psychological, sociological and ergonomics in more detail to reduce the risk of health management trainees experiencing work stress and mental health problems. PMID:25568633

Tan??man, Beyhan; Cevizci, Sibel; Çelik, Merve; Sevim, Sezgin

2014-01-01

279

[Clinical nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases].  

PubMed

The association between nutrition and intestinal function is based on facts. The main function of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal diseases commonly result in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function. Parenteral and enteral nutritions are effective therapeutic modalities in several diseases. In cases of gastrointestinal malfunctions, nutrition has a direct therapeutic role. The benefit of nutrition therapy is similar to medical treatment in patients with pancreatitis, Crohn disease, hepatic failure, and in those with gastrointestinal fistulas. Nutrition has both supportive and therapeutic roles in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases can be reduced. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(51), 2034-2040. PMID:25497153

Hamvas, József

2014-12-01

280

Managing Sales of Beverages in Schools to Preserve Profits and Improve Children's Nutrition Intake in 15 Mississippi Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

School environments that provide consistent and reliable nutrition information promote the development of healthful eating in children. High-energy, nutrient-poor beverages offered for sale to children during the school day compete with healthful choices. The primary objective of this prospective, quasiexperimental study was to encourage children to choose more healthful beverages during the school day without adversely affecting the profits realized

Denise M. Brown; Suresh K. Tammineni

2009-01-01

281

Management Effects on Biomass and Foliar Nutritive Value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis in Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The browse potential of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and thornless honey locust [Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis (L.) Zabel] has not been adequately tested. Our objective was to determine effects of fertilization and pollarding on biomass and foliar nutritive value in separate studies of black locust and thornless honey locust in Arkansas, USA. Shoots were sampled monthly for two consecutive

D. M. Burner; D. H. Pote; A. Ares

2005-01-01

282

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

283

[Enteral nutrition in cancer patients].  

PubMed

The significance of nutritional management in patients with malignant tumors is under-recognized due to the lack of clear evidence of a direct link with survival rate. However, for cancer patients, with markedly reduced food intake continuing for?7 days or intake of under 60% of estimated energy expenditure for?10 days, as referred to in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, rapid implementation of nutritional support constitutes a clinically appropriate intervention. With regard to route of administration, as with other conditions, enteral nutritional management is recommended if the gastrointestinal tract is available. The utility of enteral immunonutrition formulae containing eicosapentaenoic acid and other forms of nutritional management has also recently been reported and further studies are anticipated. However, the principles of nutritional management for cancer patients comprise not simply weight increase or improvement in nutritional markers but the maintenance of patient QOL in ways that include alleviation of symptoms and antitumor therapy side-effects, and decreased risk of infection. Administration routes such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should therefore also be discussed from this perspective. PMID:25335700

Suzuki, Yutaka

2014-10-01

284

The importance of perceived stress management skills for patients with prostate cancer in active surveillance.  

PubMed

Little is known about whether and how stress management skills may improve adjustment for men diagnosed with prostate cancer who opt for active surveillance. This study examined whether two types of perceived stress management skills, specifically the ability to relax and confidence in coping, moderated the relationship between prostate cancer (PC) concerns and psychological distress. Participants were 71 ethnically diverse men in active surveillance. Coping confidence moderated the relationship between PC concerns and intrusive thoughts (p < .01). At low levels of coping confidence, PC concerns was positively related to intrusive thoughts, ? = .95, p < .001, but not when coping confidence was high, ? = .19, p > .05. Coping confidence also moderated the relationship between PC treatment concerns (a subscale of PC concerns) and intrusive thoughts. At low levels of coping confidence, PC treatment concerns was positively associated with intrusive thoughts, ? = .73, p < .001, but not when coping confidence was high, ? = .20, p > .05. Findings underscore the importance of interventions aimed at improving coping in men undergoing active surveillance. PMID:25234859

Yanez, Betina; Bustillo, Natalie E; Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne C; Dahn, Jason; Kava, Bruce; Penedo, Frank J

2014-09-19

285

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) in complex systems: cultural adaptation and safety impacts in healthcare.  

PubMed

In complex systems, such as hospitals or air traffic control operations, critical incidents (CIs) are unavoidable. These incidents can not only become critical for victims but also for professionals working at the "sharp end" who may have to deal with critical incident stress (CIS) reactions that may be severe and impede emotional, physical, cognitive and social functioning. These CIS reactions may occur not only under exceptional conditions but also during every-day work and become an important safety issue. In contrast to air traffic management (ATM) operations in Europe, which have readily adopted critical incident stress management (CISM), most hospitals have not yet implemented comprehensive peer support programs. This survey was conducted in 2010 at the only European general hospital setting which implemented CISM program since 2004. The aim of the article is to describe possible contribution of CISM in hospital settings framed from the perspective of organizational safety and individual health for healthcare professionals. Findings affirm that daily work related incidents also can become critical for healthcare professionals. Program efficiency appears to be influenced by the professional culture, as well as organizational structure and policies. Overall, findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the CISM program in general hospitals takes time but, once established, it may serve as a mechanism for changing professional culture, thereby permitting the framing of even small incidents or near misses as an opportunity to provide valuable feedback to the system. PMID:24491831

Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Mitchell, Shannon G; Vogt, Joachim; Schürmann, Tim

2014-07-01

286

7 CFR 246.24 - Procurement and property management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Miscellaneous Provisions § 246.24 Procurement and property management. (a)...

2010-01-01

287

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

288

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

289

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

290

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

291

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout

Jornsten, Rebecka

292

Quantification of plant stress using remote sensing observations and crop models: the case of nitrogen management.  

PubMed

Remote sensing techniques offer a unique solution for mapping stress and monitoring its time-course. This article reviews the main issues to be addressed for quantifying stress level from remote sensing observations, and to mitigate its impact on crop production by managing cultural practices. The case of nitrogen fertilization is used here as a paradigm. The derivation of canopy state variables such as the leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (C(ab)) is first addressed. It is demonstrated that the inversion of radiative transfer models leads to useful estimates of these variables. However, because of the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem, better accuracy is achieved when using prior information on the distribution of the variables and when multiplying LAI by C(ab) to get canopy level chlorophyll content. This variable, LAIxC(ab) is well suited for quantifying canopy level nitrogen content. It is used for nitrogen stress evaluation by comparison with a reference unstressed situation which is, however, not easy to get in practice. The combination of remote sensing observations with crop models provides an elegant solution for stress quantification through assimilation approaches. It fuses several sources of information within our knowledge of the processes involved and accounts for the environmental budget which can be integrated when making decisions about cultural practices. Conclusions are drawn on the issues related to the retrieval of canopy state variables from remote sensing data, to the link between these observables and crop models, and to the assimilation approaches. Avenues for further research are finally discussed along with the required observation system. PMID:17220515

Baret, F; Houlčs, V; Guérif, M

2007-01-01

293

Effects of short duration stress management training on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

To examine the effects of short duration stress management training (SMT) on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers, 118 male automotive workers from Pekan, Pahang (n = 60, mean age = 40.0 years, SD = 6.67) and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (n = 58, mean age = 38.1 years, SD = 5.86) were assigned to experimental and control group, respectively. A SMT program consisting of aerobic exercise, stress management manual, video session, lecture, question and answer session, and pamphlet and poster session were conducted in the experimental group. A validated short-form Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered before and after the intervention program in the experimental and control group and their time and group interaction effects were examined using the repeated measure ANOVA test. Results indicated that the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Depression (p = 0.036) and DASS-Anxiety (p = 0.011) were significantly decreased, respectively, after the intervention program in the experimental group as compared to the control group (significant time-group interaction effects). No similar effect was observed for the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Stress (p = 0.104). However, the mean (SD) scores for subscales of DASS-Depression (Dysphoria, p = 0.01), DASS-Anxiety (Subjective Anxiety, p = 0.007, Situational Anxiety, p = 0.048), and DASS-Stress (Nervous Arousal, p = 0.018, Easily Upset, p = 0.047) showed significant time and group interaction effects. These findings suggest that short duration SMT is effective in reducing some aspects of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive workers. PMID:19021918

Edimansyah, BA; Rusli, BN; Naing, L

2008-01-01

294

Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop mana...

295

Graduate Procedures Master of Science in Food and Nutrition Services and Coordinated Program  

E-print Network

addressed in the department include child nutrition, diet/nutrient assessment, food safety, food policy1 Graduate Procedures Master of Science in Food and Nutrition Services and Coordinated Program Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management The Department

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

296

Management of ischiopubic stress fracture in patients with anorexia nervosa and excessive compulsive exercising.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 28-year-old non-athlete female patient with anorexia nervosa who was diagnosed with an ischiopubic ramus stress fracture and treated successfully as an inpatient with a cognitive behaviour-based therapy. The patient's clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described, and a brief review of the relevant literature is included. The importance of this case report stems from the rarity of descriptions of this kind of injury in such patients, despite their inherent risk, and the originality of the treatment applied. This, in addition to the usual approach to medical management, exploited specific cognitive and behavioural procedures and strategies to address the patient's excessive compulsive exercising, promoting rest and movement avoidance in order to allow the fracture to heal, while simultaneously addressing the underlying psychopathology. PMID:25301426

El Ghoch, Marwan; Bazzani, Paola; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

2014-01-01

297

Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2011-01-01

298

Non-surgical management of stress urinary incontinence: ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Non-surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is recommended as first-line therapy, yet few prospective studies and no randomized trials compare the most common non-surgical treatments for SUI.Purpose To present the design and methodology of the ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial, a randomized clinical trial comparing three interventions for predominant SUI in women: intravaginal continence

Holly E Richter; Kathryn L Burgio; Patricia S Goode; Diane Borello-France; Catherine S Bradley; Linda Brubaker; Victoria L Handa; Paul M Fine; Anthony G Visco; Halina M Zyczynski; John T Wei; Anne M Weber

2007-01-01

299

Nutritional Science  

Cancer.gov

This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.

300

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

301

Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... such as Fosamax®), calcitonin, and fluoride. What is nutritional support? Because IBD, especially Crohn's disease, may improve with nutritional support, it may be necessary to provide nutrition by ...

302

Managing posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression in women veterans during the perinatal period.  

PubMed

The recent surge in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) era women Veterans, most of whom are younger compared to other women Veterans, presenting with mental health issues is expected to pose new clinical challenges. Treatment of mental health conditions in women Veterans is not considered comprehensive without adequate examination of the impact of reproductive events across the life span, such as their menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum period, and menopausal transition. The overarching aim of this article is to discuss emerging clinical issues in managing common psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression during pregnancy and postpartum period in the VA healthcare system and secondly, to identify steps to advance the knowledge and understanding of these complex issues. Information to be gained in this area has immediate clinical application in the overall management of major psychiatric conditions in women Veterans during pregnancy and postpartum, and implications for policy-making decisions. PMID:25560190

Shivakumar, Geetha; Anderson, Elizabeth H; Surís, Alina M

2015-01-01

303

Fat Intake and Deprivation Induced Hyperactivity as a Measure of Stress Management in HiS and LoS Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to stress, those with bulimia nervosa tend to binge on high fat food. Women who suffer from bulimia nervosa have been shown to manage stress poorly. Binge eating may become an unhealthy coping strategy as comfort food can provide emotional relief and therefore teach that eating can alleviate stress and boredom. This may negatively reinforce binge eating as

Leslie Chow

2010-01-01

304

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

305

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in total parenteral nutrition dependent children: description of 5 cases and practical tips for management.  

PubMed

Although total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is mandatory in children with intestinal failure, this treatment is not risk free. The main complications of TPN include catheter-related sepsis, thrombosis, hepatic cholestasis and cirrhosis, metabolic bone disease, and, rarely, reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The pathogenesis of HLH in patients with TPN is not known, although some authors hypothesized that it can result from the activation of macrophages because of "fat overload." We reported 5 cases of HLH that occurred in patients with 4 different underlying disorders, all requiring TPN for a long term. In our series, an underlying immunological defect or a serious infection (sepsis) can have triggered HLH. Therefore, it could be reasonable to hypothesize that besides TPN in itself, minor immune defects and infections may act together by overcoming a threshold of immune stimulation, which ultimately leads to HLH. PMID:23823121

Pastore, Serena; Barbieri, Francesca; Di Leo, Grazia; Valencic, Erica; Tommasini, Alberto; Ventura, Alessandro

2014-10-01

306

Nutritional Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

307

Nutritional carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Human beings are often being exposed to carcinogenic factors during their life, some of which are the nutritional factors. From the mechanistic view, nutritional factors are classified into genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Genotoxic agent begins their action at the DNA level, causing DNA damage through several mechanisms, e.g. gene point mutations, deletions and insertions, recombinations, rearrangements and amplifications, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Most genotoxic agents are micro components of nutrition, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) or heterocyclic amines (HCAs), aflatoxin, and N-nitrosamine. Non-genotoxic agents are less defined in their modes of action, but they are presumed to indirectly affect the cell through tumor promoters. These agents are generally macro components, e.g. high fat. Moreover, epigenetic factors, including changes in the DNA methylation pattern, and peroxidation process resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS), are also known to cause cancer. On the other hand, it is also well recognized that diet and nutrition contain components that can reduce the risk of cancer, in some cases by decreasing the effects of food mutagens, or through carcinogen detoxification, or protection of DNA from electrophilic carcinogen. Thus nutritionally related cancer ultimately develops from an imbalance of carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis process. PMID:20305331

Sutandyo, Noorwati

2010-01-01

308

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): Group Crisis Intervention, 4th June 2006, International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Inc.  

E-print Network

to complicate this with a substance abuse problem. · Reach out; people do care · Maintain as normal a schedule experienced a traumatic event or a critical incident (any event that causes unusually strong emotional of the traumatic event. The understanding and the support of loved ones usually causes the stress reactions to pass

Oliver, Douglas L.

309

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications for Public Relations Professionals FriedmanSchoolofNutritionScienceandPolicy #12;Students entering

Tufts University

310

Development of relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Monitoring and Management of Dry Deciduous Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gir wildlife sanctuary located between 20 r 57 to 21 r 20 N and 70 r 28 to 71 r 13 E is the last home of Asiatic lions Its biodiversity comprises of 450 recorded flowering plant species 32 species of mammals 26 species of reptiles about 300 species of birds and more than 2000 species of insects As per 1995 census it has 304 lions and 268 leopards The movement of wildlife to thermally comfortable zones to reduce stress conditions forces the changes in management plan with reference to change in localized water demand This necessitates the use of space based thermal data available from AVHRR MODIS etc to monitor temperature of Gir-ecosystem for meso-scale level operational utility As the time scale of the variability of NDVI parameter is much higher than that for lower boundary temperature LBT the dense patch in riverine forest having highest NDVI value would not experience change in its vigour with the change in the season NDVI value of such patch would be near invariant over the year and temperature of this pixel could serve as reference temperature for developing the concept of relative thermal stress index RTSI which is defined as RTSI T p -T r T max -T r wherein T r T max and T p refer to LBT over the maximum NDVI reference point maximum LBT observed in the Gir ecosystem and the temperature of the pixel in the image respectively RTSI images were computed from AVHRR images for post-monsoon leaf-shedded and summer seasons Scatter plot between RTSI and NDVI for summer seasons

Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.

311

Efficacy of the virtual reality-based stress management program on stress-related variables in people with mood disorders: the feasibility study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a VR-based stress management program on people with mood disorders. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Singapore, and a convenience sample of 22 was recruited. The program comprised three daily 1-hour sessions incorporating psychoeducation and VR-based relaxation practice. Participants who completed the program had significantly lowered subjective stress (t=6.91, p<0.001), depression (t=5.62, p<0.001), and anxiety (t=5.54, p<0.001); and increased skin temperature (F=17.71, p<0.001), perceived relaxation (F=26.20, p<0.001) and knowledge (F=13.77, p<0.001). Participants' feedback on the program was positive. Findings from this study contribute to improving clinical practice and serve as preliminary data to conduct more rigorous research in the future. PMID:25634868

Shah, Lubna Bte Iskhandar; Torres, Samantha; Kannusamy, Premarani; Chng, Cecilia Mui Lee; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

2015-02-01

312

Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health  

PubMed Central

Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

313

Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis seeds: molecular evidence for successive processing of seed proteins and its implication in the stress response to sulfur nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seed storage proteins are synthesized as sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur for the next generation of plants. Their composition changes according to nutritional conditions. Here, we report the precise molecular identification of seed proteins by proteomic analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and methionine-over- accumulating mutant mto1-1 plants. The identities of 50 protein spots were determined in the protein

Yasuhiro Higashi; Masami Yokota Hirai; Toru Fujiwara; Satoshi Naito; Masaaki Noji; Kazuki Saito

2006-01-01

314

Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional supplement foods containing antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA,\\u000a C22:6n-3), referred to as capsules, were administered to seven smokers every day for 34 days. Concentrations of antioxidant\\u000a vitamins and minerals in serum, activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and the concentration of 8-isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin\\u000a F2\\u000a ?) in the urine showed an increase or a

H. Nitta; M. Kinoyama; A. Watanabe; K. Shirao; H. Kihara; M. Arai

2007-01-01

315

Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). Methods The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations—teachers and nurses—that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs CG=0.5%) in chronic “trait” anxiety. A similar pattern was found for coping skills: both treatments were able to significantly increase most coping skills, but only EG participants reported a significant increase (EG=14% vs CG=0.3%) in the Emotional Support skill. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence that the Interreality protocol yields better outcomes than the traditionally accepted gold standard for psychological stress treatment: CBT. Consequently, these findings constitute a sound foundation and rationale for the importance of continuing future research in technology-enhanced protocols for psychological stress management. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01683617; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01683617 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QnziHv3h). PMID:25004803

Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

316

Nutritional management of the low birth weight/preterm infant in community settings: a perspective from the developing world.  

PubMed

Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 weeks) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Maternal nutrition status is one of the most important risk factors for LBW/IUGR. Providing balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements to pregnant women will reduce incidence of IUGR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in developing countries. Exclusive breastfeeding is protective for a mother and her infant and has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in infancy. Kangaroo mother care for preterm infants will reduce severe morbidity and mortality as well. Community-based intervention packages are among the most effective methods of reducing morbidity and mortality in mothers and children. Future research should focus on improving triage of preterm and IUGR infants. Exclusive breastfeeding should be promoted, and appropriate alternative food supplements should be provided when breastfeeding is not possible. PMID:23445841

Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-03-01

317

Growth, physiology, and nutrition of loblolly pine seedlings stressed by ozone and acidic precipitation: A summary of the ropis-south project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously published results from a multidisciplinary research program, Response of Plants to Interacting Stress (ROPIS), initiated by the Electric Power Research Insitute are summarized here. The overall objective of the ROPIS program was to develop a general mechanistic theory of plant response to air pollutants and other stresses. Direct and indirect phytotoxic impacts of O3 combined with induced deficiencies of

J. M. Kelly; G. E. Taylor; N. T. Edwards; M. B. Adams; G. S. Edwards; A. L. Friend

1993-01-01

318

Nutrition for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

Smith, Scott M.

2005-01-01

319

Nutrition marketing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

320

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

321

Nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

322

Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.  

PubMed

Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. PMID:25540862

Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

2015-01-01

323

Effectiveness of anxiety management training in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of anxiety management training (AMT), a coping skills treatment similar to systematic desensitization, in comparison to implosive therapy (IT), an exposure-based treatment, for treating six Vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Clinician Administered PTSD Interview Scale (CAPS; Blake et al. (1988), The Behaviour Therapist, 18, 187-188) and a self-monitoring measure (Weathers et al., 1991) were used as dependent measures. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, crossover design (ABC/ACB) was employed. A new statistic for such designs (Mueser et al. (1991), Behaviour Modification, 15, 134-155), based on classical test theory, was used to assess treatment effects on intrusive war memories and avoidance of stimuli reminiscent of war. Within-subject results indicated that AMT and IT were similarly effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of intrusions and avoidance. This preliminary report therefore suggests that it may be productive to investigate multidimensional approaches (combining coping skills, exposure-based, and other approaches) to the treatment of combat-related PTSD as Foa et al. (1991), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715-723 and Nishith et al. (1995), Behaviour Therapy, 26, 319-335 have for rape-related PTSD. PMID:9627822

Pantalon, M V; Motta, R W

1998-03-01

324

Differential Effectiveness of Coping in Managing Stress and Burnout in Oncology Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High levels of stress experienced by primary care oncology nursing staff, and the competency impairment which results from such stress, has become a matter of much concern in health care settings. This study was conducted to identify the coping strategies employed by oncology nurses, and to relate these strategies to differential indices of stress

Rounds, James B., Jr.; Zevon, Michael A.

325

Teacher Burnout/Stress Management Research: Implications for Teacher Preparation/Personnel Selection/ Staff Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between occupational stress and general stress and possible relationship among selected teacher personal and situational variables and the two types of stress was investigated. Subjects of the study were teachers in Huntsville, Alabama, a city of 145,000 with an industrial and agricultural economy. There was a return of 41 percent…

Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

326

A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A PRIVATE SECTOR UNIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study in SRF limited a technical textile business organization studies the stress factors for the employees and recommends the solution for minimizing the stress effects. High stress jobs refer to work, which involves hectic schedule and complex job responsibilities that result into imbalance between personal and work life. This study is limited within the Low level of employees.

C. Vijaya Banu; N. Santhosh; Y. B. Venkatakrishnan

2010-01-01

327

Nutrition and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare neoplasms that characteristically synthesize and secrete an excess of a variety of regulatory peptides, hormones, and neuroamines, which regulate gut and pancreatic function. This excess can lead to distinct clinical syndromes. Therapeutic strategies include surgery, radiofrequency ablation, chemotherapy, chemoembolization, and biotherapy using somatostatin analogs. The clinical syndromes and the various management strategies can lead to altered gut and pancreatic function with nutritional consequences. Diet and nutritional management is critical for GEP NET patients and is the focus of this article. PMID:21095548

Go, Vay Liang W; Srihari, Priya; Kamerman Burns, Leigh Anne

2010-12-01

328

Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden  

PubMed Central

Background The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as “illness burden”). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. Methods A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Results Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Conclusions Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills. PMID:24278791

Lattie, Emily G.; Antoni, Michael H.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J.; Klimas, Nancy

2013-01-01

329

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder noted for its unique intensity of vomiting, repeated emergency department visits and hospitalizations, and reduced quality of life. It is often misdiagnosed due to the unappreciated pattern of recurrence and lack of confirmatory testing. Because no accepted approach to management has been established, the task force was charged to develop a report on

B UK Li; Frank Lefevre; Gisela G Chelimsky; Richard G Boles; Susanne P Nelson; Donald W Lewis; Steven L Linder; Robert M Issenman; Colin D Rudolph

2008-01-01

330

Z .Forest Ecology and Management 105 1998 197207 The effect of Kalmia angustifolia on the growth, nutrition, and  

E-print Network

Z .Forest Ecology and Management 105 1998 197­207 The effect of Kalmia angustifolia on the growth laboratory research has suggested that allelochemicals of K. angustifolia affect the Z .growth and development of black spruce as well as the growth of certain ectomycorrhizal ECM fungi associated with black Z

Egger, Keith N.

331

Nutrition in Africa.  

PubMed

Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

Murray-lee, M

1989-07-01

332

Nutritional assessment in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optimal nutrition, including consuming 35–40% of calories (kcal) as fat, is a vital part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), and involves accurate assessment of dietary intake. We compared 3 methods of nutritional assessment in 8– to 14-year-old children (n=20) with CF: 1) a 24-h Dietary Reca...

333

Nutritional development and the target weight debate.  

PubMed

Postnatal nutrition has immediate and long-lasting effects on beef heifer reproductive efficiency, longevity, and productivity. This article reviews the effects of nutrients and nutritional management on reproduction in developing heifers. In addition, the current debate on the preferred target weight for heifers at breeding is discussed. PMID:24182433

Hall, John B

2013-11-01

334

A Public Health Nutrition Collateral within the  

E-print Network

): NUTR 6160 - Weight Management and Disordered Eating NUTR 6270 - Nutrition and Exercise Physiology NUTR with Rutgers School of Health Related Profession's (SHRP) Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition. Public credits) QNME 0611 - Design of Epidemiologic Studies and Clinical Trials QNME 0612 - Linear Models

Garfunkel, Eric

335

Construction challenges and solutions in TAMU3, a 14 T stress-managed Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A and M University is nearing completion of a Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole that incorporates stress management directly in its windings. The windings utilize graded-cross-section cable made from 54/61 (54 out of a 61 subelement hexagonal pattern) Restacked Rod Processed® Nb{sub 3}Sn/Cu conductor and fine-filament S-2 glass fabric insulation. Coil heat treatment and associated differential expansions have brought about some tin leakage, highresistance electrical shorts, and coil gaps. TAMU3b impregnation successfully increased the coil-to-ground resistance. Quench protection in TAMU3 was simulated using QUENCH. The tests of TAMU3 should provide the first examination of stress management at field intensities greater than 12 T.

Holik, E. F.; Garrison, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Jaisle, A.; McInturff, A. D.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A. [Texas A and M University 3380 University Drive East College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

2014-01-29

336

Cognitive–Behavioral Stress Management Increases Free Testosterone and Decreases Psychological Distress in HIV-Seropositive Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a 10-week group-based itive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on psychological distress and plasma free testosterone in symptomatic, HIV-seropositive men were examined. Participants were randomized to either CBSM (n = 42) or a wait-list control group (n = 23). Men in the CBSM intervention showed significant increases in testosterone, whereas control participants showed significant decreases. Those participating in

Dean G. Cruess; Michael H. Antoni; Neil Schneiderman; Gail Ironson; Philip McCabe; Jesus B. Fernandez; Stacy E. Cruess; Nancy Klimas; Mahendra Kumar

2000-01-01

337

Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.  

PubMed

Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485

Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

2014-10-01

338

Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: Can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?  

PubMed

Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and ?-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. PMID:25449633

Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

2015-03-01

339

Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

Stewart, Lyn

2003-01-01

340

Roadmap: Nutrition Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-NUTR  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Nutrition ­ Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-NUTR] College of Education, Health and Human Communication 3 Fulfills Kent Core Additional NUTR 23511 Science of Human Nutrition 3 Fulfills Kent Core of Management 3 BSCI 30030 Human Physiology 4 NUTR 43016 Cultural Aspects of Food, Nutrition and Health 3

Sheridan, Scott

341

Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

342

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair  

E-print Network

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair S-221 ESC, (801) 422-3912 College Some degree programs in the Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science carry special Programs and Degrees BS Dietetics BS Food Industry Management BS Food Science BS Nutritional Science Minors

Hart, Gus

343

Discovering Vegetables: The Nutrition Education Guidebook for School Food Service Managers and Cooperators for use with Children Ages 5 through 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to help school food service personnel to familiarize young school children with a variety of cooked and raw vegetables. The nutritional importance of vegetables in children's diets is emphasized. Learning activities which focus on the visual qualities, nutritional value, and taste characteristics of different vegetables…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

344

Effects of stress inoculation on the anger and aggression management skills of institutionalized juvenile delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight institutionalized male delinquents evidencing verbal and physical aggression in response to anger provocations were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: stress inoculation training, a treatment elements condition (which left out certain ingredients of stress inoculation), or a no-treatment control condition. Both active treatments reduced anger and aggression on three self-report scales. Only stress inoculation lowered verbal aggression

K. Jeffrey Schlichter; John J. Horan

1981-01-01

345

Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce

Joseph Maina; Tim R. McClanahan; Valentijn Venus; Mebrahtu Ateweberhan; Joshua Madin

2011-01-01

346

Influence of nitrogen nutrition management on biomass partitioning and nitrogen use efficiency indices in hydroponically grown potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting controlled environment research with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT)-hydroponic systems as a human life support component during long-duration spaceflight. Standard nutrient solution management approaches include constant pH regulation with nitric acid (HNO3) and daily adjustment of electrical conductivity (EC) equivalent to half-strength modified Hoagland's solution, where nitrate (NO3-) is the sole nitrogen (N) source. Although tuber yields have been excellent with such an approach, N use efficiency indices are expected to be low relative to tuber biomass production. Furthermore, the high amount of N used in NFT-hydroponics, typically results in high inedible biomass, which conflicts with the need to minimize system mass, volume, and expenditure of resources for long-duration missions. More effective strategies of N fertilization need to be developed to more closely match N supply with demand of the crop. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to identify the optimal N management regime and plant N requirement to achieve high yields and to avoid inefficient use of N and excess inedible biomass production. In separate 84-day cropping experiments, three N management protocols were tested. Treatments which decreased NO3(-)-N supply indirectly through lowering nutrient solution EC (Expt. I), or disabling pH control, and/or supplying NH4(+)-N (Expt. III) did not significantly benefit tuber yield, but did influence N use efficiency indices. When supplied with an external 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N for the first 42 days after planting (DAP), lowered to 1.0 mM NO3(-)-N during the final 42 days (Expt. II), plants were able to achieve yields on par with plants which received constant 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N (control). By abruptly decreasing N supply at tuber initiation in Expt. II, less N was taken up and accumulated by plants compared to those which received high constant N (control). However, proportionately more plant accumulated N was used (N use efficiency) to produce tuber biomass when N supply was abruptly lowered at tuber initiation in Expt. II. Hence, a hydroponic nutrient solution N management system may be modified to elicit greater plant N-use while maintaining overall high tuber yield as opposed to achieving high tuber yields through excess N supply and shoot growth.

Goins, Gregory D.; Yorio, Neil C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

2004-01-01

347

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640

Teich, N; Mössner, J

2010-10-01

348

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

349

Advances in Perioperative Nutrition: Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of perioperative nutritional support in the manage- ment of cancer patients remains controversial. The benefit of supplemen- tal calories is not the only current issue: in fact, the route of delivery, composition of basic nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat), and the role of supplemental additives (arginine, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids, nucle- otides) in improving immune status and ultimate outcome

2000-01-01

350

Nutritional Considerations After Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy for Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  This article reviews various methods of assessing and managing post-gastrectomy or esophagectomy patients from a nutritional\\u000a standpoint, by examining recent research focusing on assessment models, components of enteral feeding, timing of feeding,\\u000a safety of enteral nutrition (EN) vs total parenteral nutrition (TPN), appetite stimulants, alternative treatments, and long-term\\u000a care. Pre-, peri-, and post-operative nutrition represent a major prognostic indicator

Amelia Baker; Leigh-Anne Wooten; Michele Malloy

2011-01-01

351

An Academic Approach to Stress Management for College Students in a Conventional Classroom Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the identification of stress and the relationship of individual stress responses to physical and mental health, medical and behavioral professionals have been training individuals in coping strategies. To investigate the possibility of teaching cognitive coping skills to a nonclinical population in an academic setting, 41 college students…

Carnahan, Robert E.; And Others

352

Self-Efficacy and Stress of Staff Managing Challenging Behaviours of People with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…

Cudre-Mauroux, Annick

2011-01-01

353

Teacher Burnout/Stress Management: An Exploratory Look in an Urban School System in Alabama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have indicated that teacher stress is a major occupational hazard of teaching. Little system research attention, however, has been focused upon concern to this point in Alabama. Through use of questionnaires, an effort was made to document the current status of the teacher stress/burnout phenomena in an Alabama setting and explore the…

Saunders, Robert Ronald; Watkins, J. Foster

354

Relax for Success: An Educator's Guide to Stress Management. [With CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a practical, concise, easy-to-read guide for relieving stress. It is written specifically for educators, with examples and anecdotes that relate to professional educators' experiences. It assumes a holistic approach to stress relief that incorporates thought, verbal and action strategies and techniques. The harm that…

Glanz, Jeffrey

355

Assessing and Managing Caregiver Stress: Development of a Teaching Tool for Medical Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty medical residents from major teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, participated in small group teaching sessions about caregiver stress. A teaching tool was developed that included a teaching handout, interactive cases, standard instruments for assessing caregiver stress, peer-reviewed articles about caregiving, and a list of…

Famakinwa, Abisola; Fabiny, Anne

2008-01-01

356

Effects of Computer-based Stress Management Training on Psychological Well-being and Work Performance in Japanese Employees: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees’ psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires assessing psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and knowledge about stress management as secondary outcomes at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1), and 2 months after the intervention (T2). The group?×?time interaction was tested using a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed a group?×?time interaction for “knowledge about stress management” in the entire sample. Among participants who had more than 3 d of training, a significant group?×?time interaction was observed for “problem-solving” and “avoidance and suppression” as well as “knowledge about stress management.” Our computer-based stress management program was effective for improving knowledge about stress management. It was also effective for improving coping skills in instances where participants had enough time (at least 3 d) to complete all sessions. PMID:25055847

UMANODAN, Rino; SHIMAZU, Akihito; MINAMI, Masahide; KAWAKAMI, Norito

2014-01-01

357

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

358

Nutrition.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...

359

Lead impact on nutrition, energy reserves, respiration and stress protein (hsp 70) level in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) populations differently preconditioned in their habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of lead on food consumption, energy metabolism and the stress protein (hsp 70) level was investigated in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), a common representative of the saprophagous soil macrofauna. To examine possible acclimation or tolerance to lead in woodlice from a contaminated habitat, animals of two populations, one deriving from a lead-contaminated artillery range and one from

T Knigge; H.-R Köhler

2000-01-01

360

Supra-nutritional dietary intake of selenite and selenium yeast in normal and stressed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications on selenium status and health responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial salmonid diets are not typically supplemented with selenium (Se) as they naturally contain relatively high levels of this essential trace element; however supplementation may be necessary to meet requirements during physical stress. Adopting an integrated approach by simultaneously determining Se status, various health parameters and interactions with other trace elements, this study aimed to determine the role of supra-supplemented

Sebastien A. Rider; Simon J. Davies; Awadhesh N. Jha; Andrew A. Fisher; Jan Knight; John W. Sweetman

2009-01-01

361

Combination of Wearable Multi-Biosensor Platform and Resonance Frequency Training for Stress Management of the Unemployed Population  

PubMed Central

Currently considerable research is being directed toward developing methodologies for controlling emotion or releasing stress. An applied branch of the basic field of psychophysiology, known as biofeedback, has been developed to fulfill clinical and non-clinical needs related to such control. Wearable medical devices have permitted unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. With the global recession, unemployment has become one of the most serious social problems; therefore, the combination of biofeedback techniques with wearable technology for stress management of unemployed population is undoubtedly meaningful. This article describes a wearable biofeedback system based on combining integrated multi-biosensor platform with resonance frequency training (RFT) biofeedback strategy for stress management of unemployed population. Compared to commercial system, in situ experiments with multiple subjects indicated that our biofeedback system was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering ambulatory RFT biofeedback.Moreover, the comparative studies on the altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation before and after three week RFT biofeedback training was performed in unemployed population with the aid of our wearable biofeedback system. The achieved results suggested that RFT biofeedback in combination with wearable technology was capable of significantly increasingoverall HRV, which indicated by decreasing sympathetic activities, increasing parasympathetic activities, and increasing ANS synchronization. After 3-week RFT-based respiration training, the ANS's regulating function and coping ability of unemployed population have doubled, and tended toward a dynamic balance. PMID:23201994

Wu, Wanqing; Gil, Yeongjoon; Lee, Jungtae

2012-01-01

362

Nutrition support in the critically ill patient.  

PubMed

Despite an absence of well-controlled studies demonstrating a clear mortality benefit, providing nutrition support in the critically ill patient has become routine in most ICU settings. Unless clearly contraindicated, patients should be fed enterally, using conventional isotonic feedings employing gastric or postpyloric access. When to begin nutrition support varies, depending on baseline nutritional status, anticipated time until oral feedings are resumed, and the degree of stress. Energy and protein requirements should be assessed routinely with minimum goals of avoiding overfeeding and minimizing any net negative nitrogen balance. All patients receiving feedings require close surveillance to identify predictable complications and to tailor therapy to achieve nutritional goals. Adjunctive therapies should be employed as needed to help achieve nutritional goals, eg, insulin infusions to control serum glucose and prokinetic agents to improve gastric emptying. When feasible and safe, parenterally fed patients should be transitioned to enteral or oral feedings when appropriate. PMID:11852967

Case, K O; Cuddy, P G; Dooling McGurk, E P

2000-02-01

363

The role of anti-incontinence surgery in management of occult urinary stress incontinence.  

PubMed

Combining anti-incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery for patients with occult urinary stress incontinence is controversial. The concern is that some of these patients may remain continent after vaginal prolapse repair making the addition of anti-incontinence surgery unnecessary. However, this can be explained by the fact that the anterior vaginal repair has a curative effect on stress incontinence. Therefore, these patients are denied the more successful anti-incontinence surgery by treating their incontinence with vaginal repair. Once we are able to detect the true cases of occult urinary stress incontinence, all patients should be offered anti-incontinence surgery in combination of vaginal prolapse surgery. PMID:21927940

Malak, Mark

2012-07-01

364

Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery practice. Conclusions This study provides early indications that a compact nutrition, physical activity and weight management training package improves midwives self-reported knowledge and confidence. Cascading training across the midwifery service in the Health Board and conducting further studies to elicit longer term impact on midwifery practice and patient outcomes are recommended. PMID:24996422

2014-01-01

365

Review Article: Clinical Nutrition in Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with acute pancreatitis or an acuteflare of chronic pancreatitis, a discrepancy existsbetween increased protein\\/calorie requirements inducedby a hypermetabolic stress state and reducedingestion\\/assimilation of exogenous nutrients, which promotesprogressive nutritional deterioration. Patients withsevere pancreatitis (defined by =3 Ranson criteria,an APACHE II score of =10, development of major organfailure, and\\/or presence of pancreatic necrosis) aremore likely to require aggressive nutritional supportthan

Stephen A. Mcclave; Harvy Snider; Nancy Owens; Leslie K. Sexton

1997-01-01

366

Stress urinary incontinence as a rare presentation of large prostatic stones in neurogenic bladder: implications and management.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 38-year-old man with a background of a neglected neurogenic bladder, who presented with a recent onset history of stress urinary incontinence. He was diagnosed as having large prostatic stones along with a low-compliance, small capacity bladder and bilateral hydronephrosis with deranged renal functions. As self-catheterisation was not possible due to obstructing prostatic stones, holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy of prostatic stones was performed as initial procedure that resulted in complete resolution of stress incontinence as well. Successful gastrocystoplasty was performed as a second step to deal with the underlying condition of neurogenic poorly compliant bladder. The present case describes the successful endoscopic management of prostatic calculi using holmium-laser lithotripsy and draws attention to other important issues that need to be addressed in certain special situations like neurogenic bladder. PMID:23749833

Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

2013-01-01

367

Nutritional Care of Deteriorating Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

368

Appraisal of Nutritional Status. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

369

Nutrient Content of Foods, Nutritional Supplements, and Food Fallacies. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Stein, Joan Z.

370

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzymes activity and fruit yield of tomato grown under salinity stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Zhongzha105) plants were cultivated in soil with 0, 50 and 100mM NaCl. Mycorrhization alleviated salt induced reduction of root colonization, growth, leaf area, chlorophyll content, fruit fresh weight and fruit yield. The concentrations of

Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef; He Chaoxing

2011-01-01

371

Co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: Recommendations for Management and Implementation in the Department of Veterans Affairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently revised Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) offers guidance to treat co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorder. The release of the guideline occurred at a time of cultural shifts in recognizing and managing substance use disorders and when major changes were made in the

Nancy C. Bernardy; Jessica L. Hamblen; Matthew J. Friedman; Daniel R. Kivlahan

2011-01-01

372

Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis seeds: molecular evidence for successive processing of seed proteins and its implication in the stress response to sulfur nutrition.  

PubMed

Seed storage proteins are synthesized as sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur for the next generation of plants. Their composition changes according to nutritional conditions. Here, we report the precise molecular identification of seed proteins by proteomic analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and methionine-over-accumulating mutant mto1-1 plants. The identities of 50 protein spots were determined in the protein extract of mature Arabidopsis seeds by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Of these protein spots, 42 were identified as derived from 12S globulins or 2S albumins. These results indicate that approximately 84% of protein species in Arabidopsis seeds are derived from a few genes coding for 12S globulins and 2S albumins. Extensive mass spectrometric analysis of the 42 spots revealed that successive C-terminal degradation occurred on the 12S globulins. The feasibility of this C-terminal processing was rationalized by molecular modeling of the three-dimensional structure of 12S globulins. The C-terminal degradation at glutamic acid residues of the 12S globulin subunits was repressed under sulfur-deficient conditions. Transcriptome analysis was combined with proteomic analysis to elucidate the mechanism of changes in seed protein composition in response to sulfur deficiency. The results suggest that seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis undergo multi-layer regulation, with emphasis on post-translational modifications that enable the plant to respond to sulfur deficiency. PMID:17059406

Higashi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki

2006-11-01

373

Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM): Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) exercise  

PubMed Central

Aims To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). Methods An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS) and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA) was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs) and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs) in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman’s Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups’ research questions’ ranks. Results The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs) and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman’s ??=?0.35034, P?

Wazny, Kerri; Sadruddin, Salim; Zipursky, Alvin; Hamer, Davidson H.; Jacobs, Troy; Kallander, Karin; Pagnoni, Franco; Peterson, Stefan; Qazi, Shamim; Raharison, Serge; Ross, Kerry; Young, Mark; Marsh, David R.

2014-01-01

374

Biomarkers of Myocardial Stress and Systemic Inflammation in Patients Who Engage in Heart Failure Self-Care Management  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care is believed to improve heart failure (HF) outcomes, but the mechanisms by which such improvement occurs remain unclear. Methods We completed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected on adults with symptomatic HF to test our hypothesis that effective self-care is associated with less myocardial stress and systemic inflammation. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to determine if better HF self-care reduced the odds of having serum levels of NT proBNP and soluble TNF? receptor type 1 at or above the sample median. HF self-care was measured using the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index. Results The sample (n=168) was predominantly male (65.5%) and most (50.6%) had NYHA III HF (mean LVEF= 34.9%±14.0%); mean age was 58.8±11.5 years. Self-care management was an independent factor in the model (block ?2 =14.74, p=.005) after controlling for pertinent confounders (model ?2 =52.15, p<.001). Each one-point increase in self-care management score (range 15–100) was associated with a 12.7% reduction in the odds of having both biomarkers at or above the sample median (adjusted odds ratio =0.873, 95% CI=0.77–0.99, p=.03). Conclusion Better self-care management was associated with reduced odds of myocardial stress and systemic inflammation over and above pharmacologic therapy and other common confounding factors. Teaching HF patients early symptom recognition and self-care of symptoms may decrease myocardial stress and systemic inflammation. PMID:21263344

Lee, Christopher S.; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.; Tkacs, Nancy C.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Riegel, Barbara

2010-01-01

375

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

376

Biofeedback-based training for stress management in daily hassles: an intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background The day-to-day causes of stress are called daily hassles. Daily hassles are correlated with ill health. Biofeedback (BF) is one of the tools used for acquiring stress-coping skills. However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate this. Methods Participants were assigned randomly to two groups: the intervention group and the control group. Participants in the intervention group performed a biofeedback training (BFT) task (a combination task for heart rate and cerebral blood flow control) every day, for about 5 min once a day. The study outcomes included MRI, psychological tests (e.g., Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire), and a stress marker (salivary cortisol levels) before (day 0) and after (day 28) the intervention. Results We observed significant improvements in the psychological test scores and salivary cortisol levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. Furthermore, voxel-based morphometric analysis revealed that compared to the control group, the intervention group had significantly increased regional gray matter (GM) volume in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which is an anatomical cluster that includes mainly the left hippocampus, and the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. The GM regions are associated with the stress response, and, in general, these regions seem to be the most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that our BFT is effective against the GM structures vulnerable to stress. PMID:25161823

Kotozaki, Yuka; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Shinada, Takamitsu; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Kei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ogino, Takeshi; Kiguchi, Masashi; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

377

Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn  

PubMed Central

Both the successful development of healthy, long-term animal models to study fetal nutrition and metabolism and the improved survival of low-birth-weight, preterm infants have focused interest and research on fetal and neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Such a focus is important, given the recent emphasis on promoting neonatal growth in preterm infants at “normal” in utero growth rates. Estimates of nutrient requirements for growth in a human fetus remain ill defined, however. Body composition data appear biased toward thin infants. Animal data suggest that fetal nutrition proceeds according to species-specific growth rates, with variations in fat content largely dependent on placental fat permeability and on maternal nutrient supply as regulated by the placenta. After birth, neonatal nutrition is affected primarily by food intake and the functional integrity and capacity of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, muscle activity, thermoregulation and stresses of various kinds and degrees modify a neonate's nutritional requirements. Functional deficits of the gastrointestinal tract have been circumvented by a more aggressive use of intravenous nutrition. Both intravenous and enteral nutrient mixtures have been substantially improved in the quantity of all nutrients and have been modified qualitatively toward compositions that are closer to those of human milk. These nutrient mixtures now produce plasma nutrient concentrations that approximate those of a healthy, breast-fed infant. Although such efforts to improve the nutritional balance and growth of preterm infants have been successful, much remains to be learned about the nutritional requirements of sick infants. PMID:3318138

Kennaugh, Jan M.; Hay, William W.

1987-01-01

378

Sugar, stress, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.  

PubMed

The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns. PMID:23197136

Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane

2013-06-01

379

Essentials of nutrition in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

NUTRITION plays a key role in the management of gastrointestinal disease in dogs and cats, and it is possible to manage some cases by dietary therapy alone. Dietary components can have a negative or positive effect on the bowel. A diet may contain toxins, allergens, toxic dietary excesses or nutritional deficiencies. It has a direct effect on intestinal physiology, affecting

Marge Chandler

2002-01-01

380

Developing Research Programs in Clinical and Translational Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Most clinicians believe that nutrition support therapy improves outcome in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, few patients receive optimal nutrition management. A lack of strong, well-designed research studies may prevent the medical/surgical community from fully embracing the practice. More quality research is needed. This article discusses 3 potential strategies to improve research activity in clinical nutrition: increase funding of nutrition research, foster young physician training in nutrition and research, and attract nutrition researchers to our national nutrition society meetings. The best chance for this process to succeed is for the national nutrition societies to partner with medical and surgical subspecialty societies to develop larger scale clinical and translational research programs. PMID:21149841

Moore, Frederick A.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Heyland, Daren K.; Marik, Paul E.; Bistrian, Bruce R.

2011-01-01

381

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

382

Evaluation of different vitamin E recommendations and bioactivity of ?-tocopherol isomers in broiler nutrition by measuring oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of meat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare recommendations for vitamin E supplementation regarding high polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and to compare the bioactivity of RRR- and all-rac-?-tocopherol with respect to oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of broiler meat. Fifty male broilers were divided into 5 groups. All groups received diets with a high inclusion of fat (7.5%), one with palm fat and the others with linseed oil, which were either unsupplemented or supplemented with vitamin E to contain in total 85 or 200 IU of vitamin E as all-rac-?-tocopherol and 85 IU as RRR-?-tocopherol. Oxidative stress in vivo was studied by measuring the DNA damage; measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, liver, and breast muscle; and analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the lipid-soluble compounds, total antioxidant status of plasma, and antioxidant enzyme assays. The tocopherols in plasma, liver, and breast muscle were also analyzed. In vitro oxidative stability was studied by measuring MDA in fresh, stored, and heat-treated breast meat. Linseed oil, as opposed to palm fat, induced DNA fragmentation and MDA formation. Both forms and concentrations of vitamin E reduced DNA damage and breast muscle MDA. The groups receiving 200 IU of all-rac-?-tocopherol and 85 IU of RRR-?-tocopherol had much higher values for antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble compounds than did the controls. No differences were observed in the values of antioxidant enzymes. The ?-tocopherol levels in tissues and plasma were significantly influenced by the level of ?-tocopherol supplementation. Malondialdehyde formation in meat from the vitamin E-supplemented groups was decreased in comparison with that from the control linseed oil group. We conclude that both vitamin E concentrations were insufficient to prevent all harmful effects of lipid oxidation in vivo and that both were equally effective. On the contrary, to ensure good stability of meat lipids, higher vitamin E supplementation is needed, especially after heat treatment. The results of in vivo oxidative stress and meat lipid oxidation confirmed the currently accepted bioactivity of the RRR-?- to all-rac-?-tocopherol ratio of 1.39 in in vivo and in vitro systems. PMID:21673163

Voljc, M; Frankic, T; Levart, A; Nemec, M; Salobir, J

2011-07-01

383

Impact of Joint Forest Management (JFM) on Environmental Stress MigrationEvidence from Orissa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an attempt has been made to unravel the impact of forest protection committees (FPCs) under JFM on stress migration in four forest divisions of Orissa. In order to undertake this study, field investigations have been carried out in 12 villages of four forest divisions of the state. Our study has covered 318 households comprising of landless and

Naresh Chandra Sahu; Binayak Rath

2010-01-01

384

Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

2005-01-01

385

A fiber optics sensor for strain and stress management in superconducting accelerator magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel cryogenic interferometric fiber optics sensor for the measurement of strain and stress in the coil windings of superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The sensor can operate with two different readout sources, monochromatic laser light and white light respectively. The sensor head is built up as an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer formed with two cleaved fiber surfaces, and can be

J. M. van Oort; H. H. J. ten Kate

1993-01-01

386

Stressed triangular lattices on microsized spherical surfaces and their defect management  

E-print Network

,1,a W. J. Dong,1 L. Gao,2 and Z. X. Cao2 1 Faculty of Science and Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile of electrons in a semicon- ductor junction by a few orders of magnitude. However, stress also can be used solution for making foldable electronic devices.4 In recent years, we have suc- ceeded in producing

Zexian, Cao

387

Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM?+?CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM?+?CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM?+?CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM?+?CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p?nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM?+?CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet. PMID:24885742

2014-01-01

388

Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

2006-01-01

389

Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems  

MedlinePLUS

... tube with warm water. If you have a nasogastric tube, remove and replace the tube (you will need ... child coughs or gags when you insert the nasogastric tube: Pinch the tube, and pull it out. Comfort ...

390

Managing gut health through nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?To study gut health, a multi-pronged approach is necessary. It should be considered from the point of view of immunology, microbiology and nutrient supply.2.?The impact on gut health often comes from microbial imbalance in the gut, which will be exacerbated if antibiotics are withdrawn from feed.3.?Any gut damage caused by pathogens will lead to poor gut health, which will, in

M. Choct

2009-01-01

391

Hospitality Management Hospitality Management  

E-print Network

of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR Students pursuing programs in other areas of study may choose a minor Service Operations 4 OR NSD 225 Nutrition in Health 3 12 credits needed: HPM 300 Selected Topics: Advanced

McConnell, Terry

392

Perioperative nutritional therapy in liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition is frequently seen in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. This causes a deterioration of the patients' clinical condition and affects their post-transplantation survival. Accurate assessment of the nutritional status and adequate intervention are prerequisites for perioperative nutritional treatment. However, the metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure make the traditional assessment of the nutritional status difficult. The methods that were recently developed for accurately assessing the nutritional status by body bioelectrical impedance may be implemented in pre-transplant management. Because preoperative malnutrition and the loss of skeletal muscle mass, called sarcopenia, have a significant negative impact on the post-transplantation outcome, it is essential to provide adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the necessary caloric intake. We herein discuss both bioelectrical impedance and the latest findings in the current perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant patients regarding synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, the use of immune system modulating formulas, the fluid balance and the offering of nocturnal meals. PMID:24473669

Hammad, Ahmed; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

2015-03-01

393

Driving perioperative nutrition quality improvement processes forward!  

PubMed

Evidence supporting the important role of nutrition therapy in surgical patients has evolved, with several randomized trials and meta-analyses of randomized trials clearly demonstrating benefits. Despite this evidence, surgeons and anesthesiologists have been slow to adopt recommended practices, and the traditional dogma of delaying the initiation of and restricting the amount of nutrition during the postoperative period persists. Consequently, the nutrition therapy received by surgical patients remains suboptimal; thus, patients suffer worse clinical outcomes. Knowledge translation (KT) describes the process of moving evidence learned from clinical research, and summarized in clinical practice guidelines, to its incorporation into clinical and policy decision making. In this paper, we apply Graham et al's knowledge-to-action model to illuminate our understanding of the issues pertinent to KT in surgical nutrition. We illustrate various components of this model using empirically derived research, commentaries, and published studies from both critical care and surgical nutrition. Barriers to improving surgical nutrition practice may be related to (1) the nature of the underlying evidence and clinical practice guidelines; (2) guideline implementation factors; (3) characteristics of the health system, hospital, and surgical team; (4) provider attitudes and beliefs; and (5) patient factors (eg, type of surgery, underlying disease, and nutrition status). Interventions tailored to overcoming these barriers must be developed, evaluated, and implemented. A system of audit and feedback must guide this process and evaluate improvements over time so that every patient undergoing major surgery will have the opportunity to be optimally assessed and managed according to best nutrition practices. PMID:24009253

Heyland, Daren K; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Cahill, Naomi E; Carli, Franco; Flum, David; Ko, Clifford; Kozar, Rosemary; Drover, John W; McClave, Stephen A

2013-09-01

394

Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on mood, social support, and a marker of antiviral immunity are maintained up to 1 year in HIV-infected gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous herpesvirus infections are associated with clinically relevant outcomes as well as an accelerated HIV replication\\u000a rate and subsequent disease progression. Stress managementinterventionsmayimprovemarkersofcellularimmunecontroloverlatent\\u000a herpesvirus infections and these changes appear to be mediated by perceptions of increased social support availability. We\\u000a examined the effects ofagroup-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on distress, dysphoria, perceived\\u000a socialsupport,andherpesvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers

Adam W. Carrico; Michael H. Antoni; Deidre B. Pereira; Mary Ann Fletcher; Nancy Klimas; Suzanne C. Lechner; Neil Schneiderman

2005-01-01

395

Effects of short term management stress on the ability of GnRHa to induce gonadotropin secretion in male white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful breeding of captive white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) is dependent on the administration of exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) to induce spermiation in males and ovulation in females. Since in other species stress can diminish the effectiveness of GnRHa to induce gonadotropin (GtH) secretion, it is possible that stress, related to hatchery management practices used during GnRHa treatment, might

Iwalani N. Faulkner; Gary P. Moberg

1997-01-01

396

Job satisfaction, stress and burnout in anaesthesia: relevant topics for anaesthesiologists and healthcare managers?  

PubMed

Job satisfaction is defined as an employee's positive reaction towards his/her work. Changes in health policies, which are seen as a threat to the autonomy of health workers, are associated with a decrease in satisfaction levels, increase burnout among physicians, and may impair the quality and safety of care. The work environment of anaesthesiologists include stressful areas such as the operating theatre, the ICU, and the emergency setting, and this has been linked to higher levels of stress and lower satisfaction. We frequently lack feedback from patients and even our colleagues despite usually working within a team. Nevertheless, job satisfaction and burnout rates in anaesthesia are similar to other specialties. The most relevant factors in job satisfaction are worker autonomy, control of the working environment, recognition of our value, professional relationships, leadership and organisational justice. Although these can be manipulated for good or otherwise, there are additional, less malleable factors such as personality, expectations and motivation of the employee, that play a part. Within organisations there needs to be the will to evaluate employees' satisfaction, to improve their work environment and to develop strategies and coping mechanisms for professional stress. Personal wellness should also be nurtured, as a satisfactory work-life balance and an adequate social support network might act as a buffer for dissatisfaction and burnout. Improvement in satisfaction might create a positive work climate that would benefit both the safety of our patients and our profession. PMID:22472627

Rama-Maceiras, Pablo; Parente, Suzana; Kranke, Peter

2012-07-01

397

Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

1992-01-01

398

Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students  

PubMed Central

Background Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students. Methods A total of 288 students (mean age =?23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsř were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the ‘General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire’ and additional indices of compliance. Results Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges’g 0.65, CI =?.41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges’g 0.40, CI =?.27, .63) and the mindfulness facet ‘non-reacting’ (Hedges’g 0.33, CI =?.10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet ‘non-judging’. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed. Conclusion Female medical and psychology students experienced significant positive improvements in mental distress, study stress, subjective well-being and mindfulness after participating in the MBSR programme. Trial registration NCT00892138 PMID:23941053

2013-01-01

399

Plane of nutrition x tick burden interaction in cattle: effect on fecal composition.  

PubMed

Effective tick management on grazing animals is facilitated by accurate noninvasive detection methods. Fecal analysis provides information about animal health and nutrition. Diet affects fecal composition; stress may do likewise. The constituents in feces that may be affected by tick burdens and in turn affect near-infrared spectra have not been reported. Our objective was to examine the interaction between plane of nutrition and tick burden on fecal composition in cattle. Angus cross steers (n = 28; 194 ± 3.0 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n = 7 per group) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: moderate (14.0 ± 1.0% CP and 60 ± 1.5% TDN) vs. low (9.0 ± 1.0% CP and 58 ± 1.5% TDN) plane of nutrition and control (no tick) vs. tick treatment [infestation of 300 pair of adult Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) per treated animal]. Fecal samples were collected at approximately 0700 h on d -7, 0, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 relative to tick infestation. Fecal constituents measured were DM, OM, pH, Lactobacillus spp., Escherchia coli, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, IgA, and cortisol. Experimental day affected (P < 0.05) all constituents measured. Plane of nutrition affected (P < 0.05) DM, OM, VFA, and IgA. Tick treatment numerically (P = 0.13) reduced cortisol. A multivariate stepwise selection model containing cortisol and E. coli values on d 10 and d 14 accounted for 33% of the variation in daily adult female tick feeding counts across both planes of nutrition (P < 0.07). Within the moderate plane of nutrition, a model containing only cortisol on d 10 and d 14 described 59% of the variation in the number of feeding ticks (P < 0.02). Similarly, a model including cortisol, propionate, isovalerate, and DM at d 10 and d 14 d described 95% of the variation in total feeding ticks in the low plane of nutrition. Of the constituents measured, fecal cortisol offers the best possibility of noninvasively assessing stress by way of a single assay but the presence of ticks would still need to be confirmed visually. Although several constituents measured in this study should exist in sufficient quantity to directly affect near-infrared spectra, none stood out as a clear descriptor of prior observed differences in fecal spectra between tick-treated versus non-tick-treated animals. There were, however, groups of fecal constituents related to daily adult female tick feeding numbers (as a visual estimation of tick stress). PMID:23658354

Tolleson, D R; Prince, S D; Banik, K K; Welsh, T H; Carstens, G E; Strey, O F; Teel, P D; Willard, S T; Longnecker, M T

2013-08-01

400

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Nutrition-Related Management of Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency: Results of a Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a process of systematic review of evidence to inform the development of clinical care guidelines and encourage evidence-based practice. The Subcommittee on Growth and Nutrition reviewed the evidence in two areas: energy intake and dosing for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Evidence-based recommendations are presented here. Also, an ad hoc working group conducted a review of

Virginia A. Stallings; Lori J. Stark; Karen A. Robinson; Andrew P. Feranchak; Hebe Quinton

2008-01-01

401

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

402

Design and fabrication of a stress-managed Nb3Sn wind and react dipole  

E-print Network

.2 Calculation of the mechanical stresses in TAMU4…………………..…… 21 3.3 Fixtures for fabricating springs as well as two straight springs.………..… 22 3.4 Laminated titanium mandrel……………………………………………… 23 3.5 Vertical preload…………………………………………….………..…… 24 3.6 Three...……………………………………..……… 32 4.8 Torch cutting mica……….……………….…....…….….……….……….. 33 4.9 Mica plane installed on top of the outer coil on the left………………….. 33 4.10 Titanium mandrel just before winding………..……….....…..………..….. 34 4.11 Furnace base with the coffin set on top...

Noyes, Patrick Daniel

2007-09-17

403

Antioxidants in Photosynthesis and Human Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harnessing of solar energy by photosynthesis depends on a safety valve that effectively eliminates hazardous excess energy and prevents oxidative damage to the plant cells. Many of the compounds that protect plant cells also protect human cells. Improving plant resistance to stress may thus have the beneficial side effect of also improving the nutritional quality of plants in the

Barbara Demmig-Adams; William W. Adams

2002-01-01

404

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychological Services Social Services Outreach Sponsorship Provider List Support Groups Other organizations: Painted Turtle ICF Make-A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, due to hemolytic ...

405

Tailor-made circulatory management based on the stress-velocity relationship in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Preterm infants frequently experience pulmonary hemorrhage or cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage after birth. The immature myocardium of the left ventricle faces a high afterload after the baby is separated from the placenta. However, the preterm left ventricle has limited ability to respond to such an increase in afterload. This results in depressed cardiac function and a deterioration in hemodynamics. We speculated that the perinatal deterioration in cardiac performance would be closely related to serious hemorrhages. To prove our hypothesis, we studied the interrelationship between the perinatal changes in cardiac performance and the incidences of intraventricular and pulmonary hemorrhage. We obtained the stress-velocity relationship (rate-corrected mean fiber shortening velocity and end-systolic wall stress relationship) by M-mode echocardiography and arterial blood pressure measurement. We found that the incidences of intraventricular and/or pulmonary hemorrhages were higher in infants with an excessive afterload, which resulted in a decrease in the function of the left ventricle. We suggest that careful attention to keep the afterload at an acceptable level by vasodilator therapy and sedation may reduce or prevent these serious complications. In this review, we will discuss our data along with related literature. PMID:23685083

Toyoshima, Katsuaki; Kawataki, Motoyoshi; Ohyama, Makiko; Shibasaki, Jun; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Hoshino, Rikuo; Itani, Yasufumi; Nakazawa, Makoto

2013-09-01

406

Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based and mobile stress-management intervention for employees: design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related stress is associated with a variety of mental and emotional problems and can lead to substantial economic costs due to lost productivity, absenteeism or the inability to work. There is a considerable amount of evidence on the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face stress-management interventions for employees; however, they are often costly, time-consuming, and characterized by a high access threshold. Web-based interventions may overcome some of these problems yet the evidence in this field is scarce. This paper describes the protocol for a study that will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based guided stress-management training which is based on problem solving and emotion regulation and aimed at reducing stress in adult employees. Methods The study will target stressed employees aged 18 and older. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will be applied. Based on a power calculation of d=.35 (1-? of 80%, ? = .05), 264 participants will be recruited and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a six-month waitlist control group. Inclusion criteria include an elevated stress level (Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale-10 ? 22) and current employment. Exclusion criteria include risk of suicide or previously diagnosed psychosis or dissociative symptoms. The primary outcome will be perceived stress, and secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety. Data will be collected at baseline and seven weeks and six months after randomization. An extended follow up at 12 months is planned for the intervention group. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from a societal perspective and will include both direct and indirect health care costs. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. Discussion The substantial negative consequences of work-related stress emphasize the necessity for effective stress-management trainings. If the proposed internet intervention proves to be (cost-) effective, a preventative, economical stress-management tool will be conceivable. The strengths and limitations of the present study are discussed. Trial registration German Register of Clinical Studies (DRKS): DRKS00004749 PMID:23855376

2013-01-01

407

Managing Your Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Side Effects Manage Your Medications Nutrition Exercise Complementary Therapies Finding Support Staying Independent Caring in Parkinson's Navigating Employment, Insurance, Financial and Legal Matters PD ...

408

Understanding nutritional interventions and physical exercise in non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in adults and its prevalence is rising around the world. This pathology is characterized by accumulation of liver fat, which exceeds 5% of liver weight in absence of alcohol consumption, viral infection or other hepatic etiology. Since NAFLD has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or alteration of lipid profiles, it is considered as the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have not been clearly elucidated, but different events such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are involved. Modifications in lifestyle constitute the first line for the management of NAFLD. Nutritional interventions include low fat and carbohydrate diet with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion. Moreover, supplementation with antioxidant and cytoprotective agents could be useful to decrease oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Physical activity enables to reduce the expression of lipogenic genes, fat accumulation, or insulin resistance and improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Benefits have been found following both aerobic exercise and resistance training, and remain even after exercise cessation. However, more studies are required to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nutritional and physical intervention, and to define the volume of activity required and its association with weight loss. In this paper, we offer an updated overview of the mechanisms implicated in the progression of NAFLD, and analyze the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions and physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of this condition. PMID:25601465

Ordonez, R; Carbajo-Pescador, S; Mauriz, J L; Gonzalez-Gallego, J

2015-01-01

409

Nutrition And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result

Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley

410

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

411

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

412

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

413

Nutritional Assessment in Pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient’s response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should

Maria R. MASCARENHAS; Babette Zemel; Virginia A. Stallings

1998-01-01

414

[Total parenteral nutrition and the usefulness of CV ports].  

PubMed

Management of nutrition in cancer patients plays an important role in supporting anti-cancer treatment. Parenteral nutrition is considered to assist with nutrition in cancer patients. Central venous catheters(CVC)are useful for intravenous infusion of not only nutrients with high osmotic pressure but also chemotherapeutic drugs and other substances. Central venous access through CV ports reduces patient's burden and complications, and it contributes to maintaining a patient's quality of life(QOL). PMID:25335701

Washizawa, Naohiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Koike, Junichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Kaneko, Hironori

2014-10-01

415

Artificial intelligence analysis of hyperspectral remote sensing data for management of water, weed, and nitrogen stresses in corn fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the possibility of using ground-based remotely sensed hyperspectral observations with a special emphasis on detection of water, weed and nitrogen stresses contributing towards in-season decision support for precision crop management (PCM). A three factor split-split-plot experiment, with four randomized blocks as replicates, was established during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004. Corn (Zea mays L.) hybrid DKC42-22 was grown because this hybrid is a good performer on light soils in Quebec. There were twelve 12 x 12m plots in a block (one replication per treatment per block) and the total number of plots was 48. Water stress was the main factor in the experiment. A drip irrigation system was laid out and each block was split into irrigated and non-irrigated halves. The second main factor of the experiment was weeds with two levels i.e. full weed control and no weed control. Weed treatments were assigned randomly by further splitting the irrigated and non-irrigated sub-blocks into two halves. Each of the weed treatments was furthermore split into three equal sub-sub-plots for nitrogen treatments (third factor of the experiment). Nitrogen was applied at three levels i.e. 50, 150 and 250 kg N ha-1 (Quebec norm is between 120-160 kg N ha-1). The hyperspectral data were recorded (spectral resolution = 1 nm) mid-day (between 1000 and 1400 hours) with a FieldSpec FR spectroradiometer over a spectral range of 400-2500 run at three growth stages namely: early growth, tasseling and full maturity, in each of the growing season. There are two major original contributions in this thesis: First is the development of a hyperspectral data analysis procedure for separating visible (400-700 nm), near-infrared (700-1300 nm) and mid-infrared (1300-2500 nm) regions of the spectrum for use in discriminant analysis procedure. In addition, of all the spectral band-widths analyzed, seven waveband-aggregates were identified using STEPDISC procedure, which were the most effective for classifying combined water, weed, and nitrogen stress. The second contribution is the successful classification of hyperspectral observations acquired over an agricultural field, using three innovative artificial intelligence approaches; support vector machines (SVM), genetic algorithms (GA) and decision tree (DT) algorithms. These AI approaches were used to evaluate a combined effect of water, weed and nitrogen stresses in corn and of all the three AI approaches used, SVM produced the best results (overall accuracy ranging from 88% to 100%). The general conclusion is that the conventional statistical and artificial intelligence techniques used in this study are all useful for quickly mapping combined affects of irrigation, weed and nitrogen stresses (with overall accuracies ranging from 76% to 100%). These approaches have strong potential and are of great benefit to those investigating the in-season impact of irrigation, weed and nitrogen management for corn crop production and other environment related challenges.

Waheed, Tahir

416

CCA, Inc. 475 Park Avenue South 5th Floor New York, NY 10016 800.833.8707 www.myccaonline.com Managing Traumatic Stress  

E-print Network

.myccaonline.com Managing Traumatic Stress: After the Hurricane It is common for people to experience very strong emotional common responses to extreme events can help you to cope effectively with your feelings, thoughts scenarios. These may not be representative of your home or community. Ask for support from people who care

Qiu, Weigang

417

Nutrition-Minded Cell Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For decades, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been used as an excellent model with which to explore how cellular growth is coordinated with the division cycle, a yet-unanswered question in biology. New studies in this organism show that TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase and stress-responsive MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) form a signaling pathway that readjusts the timing of mitotic onset in response to poor nutrient conditions. Nutritional environment appears to be translated into graded activity of the protein kinases that influence the activation of Cdc2, a cyclin-dependent kinase driving cell-cycle progression.

Kazuhiro Shiozaki (Davis;University of California REV)

2009-11-10

418

Application of the predicted heat strain model in development of localized, threshold-based heat stress management guidelines for the construction industry.  

PubMed

Existing heat stress risk management guidelines recommended by international standards are not practical for the construction industry which needs site supervision staff to make instant managerial decisions to mitigate heat risks. The ability of the predicted heat strain (PHS) model [ISO 7933 (2004). Ergonomics of the thermal environment analytical determination and interpretation of heat stress using calculation of the predicted heat strain. Geneva: International Standard Organisation] to predict maximum allowable exposure time (D lim) has now enabled development of localized, action-triggering and threshold-based guidelines for implementation by lay frontline staff on construction sites. This article presents a protocol for development of two heat stress management tools by applying the PHS model to its full potential. One of the tools is developed to facilitate managerial decisions on an optimized work-rest regimen for paced work. The other tool is developed to enable workers' self-regulation during self-paced work. PMID:24371045

Rowlinson, Steve; Jia, Yunyan Andrea

2014-04-01

419

Health Consequences of Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is the naturally occurring mind-body response to demanding and\\/or emergency situations, either of a chronic or episodic nature. Properly monitored and managed, the stress response contributes to a state of optimum health and well being. When improperly managed, the stress response may lead to a variety of medical, psychological and behavioral health problems. These problems range from cigarette smoking,

Jonathan D Quick; Rebecca S Horn; James Campbell Quick

1987-01-01

420

Pain and stress management in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit — A national survey in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Neugeborene sind — entgegen langjähriger Meinung — zur Schmerzwahrnehmung fähig und zeigen eine Vulnerabilität für schmerzreaktive\\u000a Kurzzeit-und Langzeitkonsequenzen.\\u000a \\u000a Die Ursache eines inadäquaten analgetischen Managements ist zum einen begründet im mangelnden Bewusstsein, dass Neugeborene,\\u000a besonders Frühgeborene Schmerzen empfinden können, viel mehr jedoch im Respekt vor potentiellen Nebenwirkungen von zentral\\u000a wirksamen Medikamenten. Ziel der Studie ist die Erfassung gegenwärtigen Vorgehens zur Schmerzprävention,

Klaudia Rohrmeister; Veronika Kretzer; Angelika Berger; Nadja Haiden; Christina Kohlhauser; Arnold Pollak

2003-01-01

421

[Endoscopic and surgical procedures for enteral nutrition].  

PubMed

Standardized management of oncology patients necessarily includes screening for nutritional risk. Weight loss of >?5 kg within 3 months and diminished food intake are warning signals even in overweight patients. In case oral nutrition is neither adequate nor feasible even by fortification or oral nutritional supplements, the implantation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or fine needle catheter jejunostomy (FNCJ) offers enteral access for long-term nutritional support. Although the indications derive from fulfilling caloric needs, endoscopic or operative measures are not considered to be an urgent or even emergency measure. The endoscopist or surgeon should be fully aware and informed of the indications and make a personal assessment of the situation. The implantation of a feeding tube requires informed consent of the patient or legal surrogates. The review summarizes recent indications, technical problems and complications. PMID:23719727

Wallstabe, I; Tiedemann, A; Schiefke, I; Weimann, A

2013-07-01

422

[Hypnosis as an effective management of a child with posttraumatic stress disorder after perineal trauma].  

PubMed

Children and teenagers may face trauma that threatens their life, but also their psychological integrity. These injuries can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is the most common psychopathological consequence after a trauma. Age is not a protective factor and this disorder can be severe and may last over a long-term period. Effective therapies on PTSD are scarce and research on this topic is rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl affected by PTSD after a carousel accident at the age of 4 years. A therapy based on hypnosis and psychological support was rapidly effective. This psychotherapeutic option was chosen on the basis of common features shared by hypnosis and the posttraumatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of PTSD disappeared after 4 weeks of therapy and the patient remained symptom-free during a 1-year follow-up. Our report suggests that hypnosis could be an effective therapy for children with PTSD. Prospective studies on a larger number of patients are needed to validate this hypothesis. PMID:24815600

Mubiri, M-A; Peycelon, M; Audry, G; Auber, F

2014-06-01

423

Marketing analysis of a positive technology app for the self-management of psychological stress.  

PubMed

The INTERSTRESS project developed a completely new concept in the treatment of psychological stress: Interreality, a concept that combines cognitive behavioral therapy with a hybrid, closed-loop empowering experience bridging real and virtual worlds. This model provides the opportunity for individual citizens to become active participants in their own health and well-being. This article contains the results of the Marketing Trial and analysis of the opinions of individual consumers/end users of the INTERSTRESS product. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and user acceptance of a novel mobile-based relaxation training tool in combination with biofeedback exercises and wearable biosensors. Relaxation was aided through immersion in a mobile virtual scenario (a virtual island) featuring pre-recorded audio narratives guiding a series of relaxation exercises. During biofeedback exercises, a wearable biosensor system provided data which directly modified the virtual reality experience in real-time. Thirty-six participants evaluated the product and overall feedback from users was positive, with some variation seen based on participant gender. A larger market study is now underway to understand if there are cultural variations in acceptability of the device. PMID:24875696

Wiederhold, Brenda K; Boyd, Chelsie; Sulea, Camelia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

424

Decoding Fad Diets. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Crosser, Gail Hoddlebrink

425

Early nutritional intervention in oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional interventions are not routine in patients undergoing oropharyngeal radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of early nutritional intervention. Forty-five outpatients undergoing radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively managed by nutritionists (intervention group). In this group, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was inserted before radiotherapy in any patient in whom at least one of

Marie-Astrid Piquet; Mahmut Ozsahin; Isabelle Larpin; Abderrahim Zouhair; Pauline Coti; May Monney; Philippe Monnier; René-Olivier Mirimanoff; Michel Roulet

2002-01-01

426

Normal Diet: Geriatrics. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

427

Food, Nutrition and the Disabled: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography presents approximately 200 citations of printed and 25 citations of audiovisual materials on nutrition and its relation to disabilities. Citations are organized alphabetically by author within the following topics: general, child care, home management, nutrition, mealtime skills and behavior, aids and devices, and…

Furse, Alison, Comp.; Levine, Elyse, Comp.

428

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection

Haig Donabedian

2006-01-01

429

Normal Diet: Adolescence. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Tuckermanty, Elizabeth; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

430

Comprehensive Guide and Topical Index. Nutrition in Primary Care Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Battafarano, Annette M.

431

Metabolic Principles. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Allred, John B.

432

Lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

Under appropriate conditions, deficiencies of certain minerals and vitamins as well as high intakes of dietary fat increase the toxicity of a given dose of lead in experimental animals. The severity of lead poisoning can also be increased by the consumption of either deficient or excessive levels of protein. Mineral deficiencies appear to have some of the most profound effects on lead toxicity, since the consequences of plumbism can be exaggerated by feeding diets low in calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and in some cases, copper. Evidence for an antagonism between lead and nutritional levels of selenium is inconclusive. Vitamin E deficiency and lead poisoning interact to produce an anemia in rats that is more severe than that caused by either treatment alone. Lead apparently exerts a pro-oxidant stress on the red cell, thereby causing its accelerated destruction. One of the biochemical mechanisms of lead poisoning may be the disruption of normal membrane architecture, thereby leading to peroxidative damage. Epidemiological surveys have suggested a negative correlation between the poor nutritional status of children with regard to calcium and the concentration of lead in blood. Other examples of potential interactions of mineral status and lead poisoning in humans include the hypothesized hazards of soft water to public health in areas with lead plumbing and the possible role of mineral deficiencies in the etiology of pica. Experimental studies have shown that in some situations combined nutritional deficiencies can have an additive effect in potentiating lead toxicity. PMID:510231

Levander, O A

1979-01-01

433

Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.  

PubMed

Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke. PMID:21935631

Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

2012-04-01

434

An Office Strategy for Nutrition-Related Patient Education and Compliance. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

435

Surgical Nutrition Ching-Yao Yang, MD, PhD  

E-print Network

/day #12;Male: 1833.75 Kcal/day Female: 1435 Kcal/day #12;Metabolic needs relative to stress level Protein Synthesis Fractional Requirements of Total Daily Caloric Load Stress Level Total Body Hepati c;#12;#12;#12;General Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition · 70kg Male need; 70x30ml/kg/day= 2100 ml water · Energy= 1467

Wu, Yih-Min

436

Interactions of iron nutrition and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen fixation and Fe?deficiency stress response are two processes involving chemical reduction reactions in the root. It is possible that these processes could enhance one another in nodulated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of Fe nutritional stress, nodulation, and N2 fixation in peanuts. Plants were grown in solution culture which allowed

R. E. Terry; A. Hartzook; V. D. Jolley; J. C. Brown

1988-01-01

437

Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

Rasmussen, Henrik Hřjgaard; Irtun, Řivind; Olesen, Sřren Schou; Drewes, Asbjřrn Mohr; Holst, Mette

2013-01-01

438

Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals  

PubMed Central

Decompression sickness (DCS; ‘the bends’) is a disease associated with gas uptake at pressure. The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that reduce nitrogen gas (N2) loading during dives. However, recent observations have shown that gas bubbles may form and tissue injury may occur in marine mammals under certain circumstances. Gas kinetic models based on measured time-depth profiles further suggest the potential occurrence of high blood and tissue N2 tensions. We review evidence for gas-bubble incidence in marine mammal tissues and discuss the theory behind gas loading and bubble formation. We suggest that diving mammals vary their physiological responses according to multiple stressors, and that the perspective on marine mammal diving physiology should change from simply minimizing N2 loading to management of the N2 load. This suggests several avenues for further study, ranging from the effects of gas bubbles at molecular, cellular and organ function levels, to comparative studies relating the presence/absence of gas bubbles to diving behaviour. Technological advances in imaging and remote instrumentation are likely to advance this field in coming years. PMID:22189402

Hooker, S. K.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, M. J.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Bernaldo de Quirós, Y.; Brubakk, A. O.; Costa, D. P.; Costidis, A. M.; Dennison, S.; Falke, K. J.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrigno, M.; Fitz-Clarke, J. R.; Garner, M. M.; Houser, D. S.; Jepson, P. D.; Ketten, D. R.; Kvadsheim, P. H.; Madsen, P. T.; Pollock, N. W.; Rotstein, D. S.; Rowles, T. K.; Simmons, S. E.; Van Bonn, W.; Weathersby, P. K.; Weise, M. J.; Williams, T. M.; Tyack, P. L.

2012-01-01

439

BS in DIETETICS (284328) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

Microbiology Lab NDFS 100+ Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200+ Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 250 EssentialsBS in DIETETICS (284328) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science of nutrition, food science, and food service management in a variety of health care, institutional

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

440

BS in DIETETICS (284328) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

Microbiology MMBio 222**** General Microbiology Lab NDFS 100+ Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200+ NutrientBS in DIETETICS (284328) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science of nutrition, food science, and food service management in a variety of health care, institutional

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

441

Assessment of Nutrition Education Among Pediatric Gastroenterologists: A Survey of NASPGHAN Members  

PubMed Central

Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective. However, pediatric gastroenterology fellows feel that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of nutrition training among pediatric gastroenterologists, identify areas of need for additional education, and determine the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in obesity management. Methods A survey was sent to members and fellows of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to assess general nutrition education as well as obesity management and educational needs. Results A total of 272 responses were received, for an overall response rate of 15.2% (272/1,784). Most responders reported having average or above-average knowledge base in all nutritional topics. There was strong interest in additional resources and a continuing medical education (CME) module on several nutrition topics including: nutritional requirements in specific gastrointestinal (GI) disease, failure to thrive/growth failure, and parenteral nutrition support, with the format of CME dependent on the topic. There was also a strong interest in additional CME on the management of pediatric obesity (67%), as most responders felt that the management of obesity in children requires subspecialty care. However, the perceived role of the pediatric gastroenterologist was one of support to treat the gastrointestinal and hepatic co-morbidities of obesity rather than serve as the main provider of comprehensive obesity care. Conclusion Pediatric gastroenterologists identified gaps in their nutrition knowledge base that may be attributed to the current nutrition education training during fellowship. Multiple topics were identified for additional nutrition education, including obesity management. The nutrition management challenges of today necessitate improved baseline nutrition knowledge and this focus on nutrition should begin at the fellowship level. PMID:22699840

Lin, Henry C; Kahana, Doron; Vos, Miriam B; Black, Dennis; Port, Zack; Shulman, Robert; Scheimann, Ann; Mascarenhas, Maria R.

2012-01-01

442

Minister Peng Peiyun stresses improved management and services. Urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article gives a summary of the main points of an address by Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission at the National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program (December 1996). Minister Peng says that China made considerable progress in reducing fertility and increasing life expectancy in urban areas. The changes are attributed to the family planning (FP) program, urban socioeconomic development, improvements in education and medical and health care services, a sound social security system, effective IEC, and the contraceptive service network. Minister Peng characterizes the urban FP program as having a long-term, stable policy for promoting one child per couple. Units at all levels are required to practice family planning. Urban FP programs have effective IEC, a contraceptive service system, and scientific management within a community service system. The FP program targets the floating population of migrants. Urban populations pose may challenges that the FP program has partially met. The aim is population development balanced with socioeconomic development and sustainable development. There is a need to increase public awareness of public services. The FP program recognizes the need to implement the "two transitions" in urban areas: to shift to a policy of FP integrated with socioeconomic development and to shift to an interest-oriented program integrated with social constraints. The aim is to improve the quality of life for the urban population and to sustain low fertility levels. FP programs are still weak in dealing with the floating population, unplanned and unintended pregnancies, abortions, and maternal health. IEC should be strengthened and include topics on women's rights, reproductive health, sex education, environmental protection, and sustainable development. PMID:12320704

1997-02-01

443

Impact of a Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Low-Income Mothers and their Infants  

PubMed Central

Recent findings suggest that elevated stress levels during the pre- and postpartum period are related to poor maternal and infant health outcomes; yet, few studies have prospectively examined the efficacy of stress management interventions on regulating stress levels among mothers and their infants. The current study examined whether a prenatal cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention would be effective in regulating salivary cortisol (a biological marker of stress) and self-reported stress levels among mothers and their infants at six and 18 months postpartum, relative to two control groups. Our sample was comprised of predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income women (80%; mean age=25±5 years) who were screened for depression during their second trimester of pregnancy (M = 16±5 weeks of gestation). Women at high risk for depression [i.e., having either a past history of major depression or current elevated symptoms of depression (? 16 on CES-D)] were randomized to either a CBSM group (n=24) or a usual care (UC) group (n=33), while a low risk comparison (LRC) group (n=29) was comprised of women not meeting either depression criteria. ANCOVA analyses demonstrated that: 1) infants of women in the CBSM and LRC groups had significantly lower cortisol levels than infants of women in the UC group at six months postpartum (p < .001); and 2) women in the CBSM group had lower cortisol levels than women in the UC group at 18 months postpartum (p < .01). These results suggest that prenatal CBSM interventions may be efficacious in regulating biological markers of stress among mothers and their infants, thereby decreasing their risk for developing health complications over time. PMID:21641117

Urizar, Guido G.; Muńoz, Ricardo F.

2012-01-01

444

Consumer use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

445

Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

446

Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows  

E-print Network

Producers must be able to evaluate beef cows' body reserves and to relate the evaluation to reproductive and nutritional management. Topics discussed include the practical importance of body condition scoring and various BCS suggestions....

Herd, Dennis B.; Sprott, L. R.

1998-03-16

447

Nonsurgical Outpatient Therapies for the Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Long-Term Effectiveness and Durability  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate long-term effectiveness and safety of conservative and minimally invasive outpatient treatments for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) through a review of the literature. Methods. PubMed was searched for reports on prospective clinical trials with at least 12-month follow-up of minimally invasive treatments, pelvic floor rehabilitation, or pharmacotherapy in women with SUI. Each report was examined for long-term rates of effectiveness and safety. Results. Thirty-two clinical trial reports were included. Prospective long-term studies of pelvic floor rehabilitation were limited but indicated significant improvements with treatment adherence for at least 12 months. Poor initial tolerability with duloxetine resulted in substantial discontinuation. Most patients receiving transurethral radiofrequency collagen denaturation or urethral bulking agents reported significant long-term improvements, generally good tolerability, and safety. Conclusions. Conservative therapy is an appropriate initial approach for female SUI, but if therapy fails, radiofrequency collagen denaturation or bulking agents may be an attractive intermediate management step or alternative to surgery. PMID:21738529

Davila, G. Willy

2011-01-01

448

PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY Effect of Prey Composition on the Endocrine Response to Nutrient Restriction  

E-print Network

). #12;PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY 137 Composition of the diet can also influencePROCEEDINGS OF THE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY 136 Effect of Prey Composition on the Endocrine plausible hypotheses have been put forth, nutritional stress has not been eliminated. However, little

449

Good Nutritional Practice from Producer to Consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today we manage food safety through good practices at different levels of food production, distribution, and consumption. The paper analyses current good practices, parameters involved in the food safety circle along the food supply chain, and consumer dilemmas. As a result of the current situation the new approach called “Good Nutritional Practice” (GNP) is proposed to balance the food safety

P. Raspor; M. Jevšnik

2008-01-01

450

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoint