Sample records for nutrition stress management

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  2. Stress Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa Volkavichyute; Rebecca Denton; Susan Van Schoonhoven

    2004-01-01

    The content of this training revolves around stress management, the attitudes towards it, and the skills and knowledge required on individual bases, to manage it. In this training, the personal definitions of stress are addressed, as well as the coping skills that the participants currently use. In addition, new ways of coping, managing or dealing with stress are brought into

  3. Stress Management for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Stress management for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stress management should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…

  4. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  5. Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869

  6. Managing Stress

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

  7. Inbreeding depression across a nutritional stress continuum.

    PubMed

    Schou, M F; Loeschcke, V; Kristensen, T N

    2015-07-01

    Many natural populations experience inbreeding and genetic drift as a consequence of nonrandom mating or low population size. Furthermore, they face environmental challenges that may interact synergistically with deleterious consequences of increased homozygosity and further decrease fitness. Most studies on inbreeding-environment (I-E) interactions use one or two stress levels, whereby the resolution of the possible stress and inbreeding depression interaction is low. Here we produced Drosophila melanogaster replicate populations, maintained at three different population sizes (10, 50 and a control size of 500) for 25 generations. A nutritional stress gradient was imposed on the replicate populations by exposing them to 11 different concentrations of yeast in the developmental medium. We assessed the consequences of nutritional stress by scoring egg-to-adult viability and body mass of emerged flies. We found: (1) unequivocal evidence for I-E interactions in egg-to-adult viability and to a lesser extent in dry body mass, with inbreeding depression being more severe under higher levels of nutritional stress; (2) a steeper increase in inbreeding depression for replicate populations of size 10 with increasing nutritional stress than for replicate populations of size 50; (3) a nonlinear norm of reaction between inbreeding depression and nutritional stress; and (4) a faster increase in number of lethal equivalents in replicate populations of size 10 compared with replicate populations of size 50 with increasing nutritional stress levels. Our data provide novel and strong evidence that deleterious fitness consequences of I-E interactions are more pronounced at higher nutritional stress and at higher inbreeding levels. PMID:26059969

  8. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  9. Nutritional Management of Metabolic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOE D. PAGAN

    2009-01-01

    I N T R O D U C T I O N Several metabolic disorders are common in modern breeds of horses. Many of these disorders such as equine Cushing's disease (ECD), equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), recur- rent equine rhabdomyolysis (RER), and polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) can be managed nutritionally by careful regulation of caloric intake with

  10. Nutritional management of hepatic disease.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J E; Schenck, P A

    1989-05-01

    The successful management of hepatic diseases of dogs and cats requires an understanding of hepatic metabolism and nutritional processes. General aspects of dietary therapy for hepatic diseases are described, along with specific recommendations for the promotion of tissue regeneration. Special considerations, including the role of diet in encephalopathy, hepatic lipidosis, and copper-associated hepatic toxicosis, are also discussed. PMID:2658288

  11. Manage Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small problems in the same day, like a traffic jam or running late Getting lost Having an ... managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services healthfinder.gov is sponsored by the National ...

  12. How Coaches Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, M. Karen

    1991-01-01

    Presents stress management strategies for coaches, focusing on what stress is, how it affects the body, and what to do to minimize the effects of stress on health. The article explains on- and off-the-job stress factors so coaches can recognize potential stress situations and handle them as they occur. (SM)

  13. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  14. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  15. Critical Incident Stress Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey T. Mitchell

    Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is a comprehensive, integrated, systematic and multi- component crisis intervention program. It was developed to help manage traumatic experiences within organizations and communities. CISM is a \\

  16. Oxidative Stress and Nutritional Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Niraj; Baral, Nirmal; Shrestha, Shrijana; Dhakal, Subodh Sagar; Bhatta, Narendra; Dubey, Raju Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and malnutrition are shown to have pathogenic effect in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Aim: This study was done to assess the burden of oxidative stress in COPD and to determine its relation to their nutritional status. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 COPD cases from emergency and medical ward and meeting inclusion criteria, along with age, sex and occupation (mainly farmers, housewives and drivers) matched 100 controls without COPD and meeting inclusion criteria were enrolled. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation product, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants, like Vitamin C, E and Red Blood Cell Catalase (RBCC). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used to assess nutritional status. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was applied for categorical variable. Student t-test was applied for comparison of means. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between groups followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Pearson correlation method was used for quantitative variables. Statistical significance was defined as p< 0.05 (two tailed). Results: COPD cases had significantly high MDA level with low level of Vitamin E and catalase as compared to controls (p < 0.001). Most of the COPD cases were underweight (BMI ? 18.5 Kg/m2) and malnourished (MNA score less than 7). Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, showed significantly high burden of oxidative stress in underweight and malnourished cases as compared to normal weight (p < 0.05) among COPD cases. Highly significant correlation was seen between BMI and plasma MDA level (r = ?0.27, p = 0.008) in COPD cases. Conclusion: This study shows impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance along with malnutrition and underweight in COPD, which signals for considering antioxidant therapy along with nutritional management. PMID:25859442

  17. Nutritional issues in cancer management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

  18. Correlations among Stress, Physical Activity and Nutrition: School Employee Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie; Zannis, Marie; Bowers, Ashley; Brewer, Julie; Russell, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Employee health promotion programs increase work productivity and effectively reduce employer costs related to health care and absenteeism, and enhance worker productivity. Components of an effective worksite health program include stress management, exercise and nutrition and/or weight management classes or counseling. Few studies have documented…

  19. Influence of stress and nutrition on cattle immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have known for decades that "stress" and inadequate nutrition can have detrimental effects on the immune system. However, what had not been distinguished until recently are the divergent effects of "acute" stress compared to long-term or "chronic" stress. As scientists expanded their scop...

  20. Peri-operative nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2011-08-01

    The metabolic response to surgical trauma is mainly characterised by an increase in BMR, a negative N balance, increased gluconeogenesis and increased synthesis of acute-phase proteins. These reactions aim at ensuring the availability of endogenous substrates for healing wounds while the synthesis of acute-phase proteins enhances the scavenging process and helps repair. However, if this process is excessive or continues for too long, it leads to a progressive depletion of body compartment with a consequent adverse outcome. Obviously, the severity of such depletion is magnified if the patient is starving or is already malnourished and the consumption of lean body mass is not compensated by an exogenous supply of nutrients. The nutritional control of this metabolic reaction represents the traditional rationale for nutritional support of surgical patients. Subsequent data have shown that the negative effects of starvation are not simply due to the starvation per se but due to the starving gut, and peri-operative enteral nutrition has proven successful in blunting the metabolic response after injury and improving protein kinetics, net balance and amino acid flux across peripheral tissue and consequently in decreasing the complications. Finally, further clinical research has shown that many post-operative infections may result from immune suppression and that such state might be reversed to some degree by modulation of the immune response through specialised nutritional support in surgical patients, regardless of their nutritional status. This paper will focus on the updated evidence-based research on peri-operative nutrition (parenteral, enteral and immune-enhancing) in patients undergoing major surgery. PMID:21781357

  1. Evolution of nutritional management of acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Golden, Michael H

    2010-08-01

    Wasting, kwashiorkor and stunting are not usually due to either protein or energy deficiency. Treatment based upon this concept results in high mortality rates, and failure of treated children to return physiologically to normal. They become relatively obese with insufficient lean tissue. Preventive strategies have also failed. Wasting and stunting are primarily due to deficiency of type II nutrients and kwashiorkor probably due to deficiency of several type I nutrients that confer resistance to oxidative stress. Modern dietary treatments are based upon the F75 formula whilst the child is sick without an appetite, followed by F100 for rapid gain of weight. Derivative, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) allow treatment of large numbers of children at home, are preferred by mothers and dramatically improve coverage. Children are indentified by screening in the community and treated before complications arise, using simple protocols. Successful treatment of the sick children with severe malnutrition not only depends upon these products, but appropriate management of complications. The physiology of the malnourished child is completely different from the normal child and many drugs and treatments that are safe in children with normal physiology are fatal for the malnourished child. In particular, the diagnosis and management of diarrhea and dehydration is different in the malnourished child. Giving standard treatment frequently leads to circulatory overload and death from heart failure. The challenge now is to find successful local ways to prevent malnutrition and achieve nutritional security. Until prevention works, we have to rely on fortified foods for treatment and convalescence from illness. PMID:20972284

  2. ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition' - Duration: 12 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."?ť T...

  3. Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

  4. How Can I Manage Stress?

    MedlinePLUS

    How Can I Manage Stress? Updated:Feb 8,2013 It’s important to learn how to recognize how stress affects you, learn how to deal with it, and develop healthy habits to ease your stress. What is stressful to one person may not ...

  5. ROOT PLASTICITY TO NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN MEDITERRANEAN SEA BEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of root adaptive responses to nutritional stress is required to improve yield stability of sugarbeet. The aim of this research was a comparative study of the root morpho-physiological plasticity among two sea beet populations collected on poor- and nutrient-rich habitats of the Adriatic co...

  6. PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY 2004 Searching for Stress: Hematologic Indicators of Nutritional Inadequacies in

    E-print Network

    . Trites Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia, 6248 Biological Sciences Road parameters to experimentally induced nutritional stress in a group of captive Steller sea lions. The goal wild Steller sea lions. Methods The experiments were conducted with four captive female Steller sea

  7. Neuroimmunomodulation, Stress–Nutrition Interactions and Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Romeo Marin; Julia Wärnberg; E. Nova; S Sonia Gómez-Martínez; Ligia Esperanza Díaz; A. Veses; Ascansión Marcos

    \\u000a The immune system requires a constant supply of nutrients for its optimal function and performance. Under stress conditions,\\u000a the immune response may be suppressed and is modulated by the central nervous system through a complex network of signals.\\u000a Communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems has been well established, and there is ample evidence to indicate\\u000a that stress-associated immune dysregulation

  8. INCREASING SAFETY BY STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOACHIM VOGT; JÖRG LEONHARDT

    Psychosocial factors play an important role in occupational health and safety. Stress is probably the most prevalent psychosocial problem and hence stress management ranks among the most promising health and safety promoters. This contribution deals with the stress of air traffic controllers (ATCOs) which results from workload on the one hand and the responsibility for air traffic safety on the

  9. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Rinwa, Puneet; Kaur, Gurleen; Machawal, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management. PMID:23833514

  10. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Rinwa, Puneet; Kaur, Gurleen; Machawal, Lalit

    2013-04-01

    Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management. PMID:23833514

  11. Ms Sylvia Stephen, MSc. Human Nutrition Unit Manager

    E-print Network

    Levi, Ran

    Ms Sylvia Stephen, MSc. Human Nutrition Unit Manager 01224 438607 sylvia.stephen@abdn.ac.uk Contact us: The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health offers a bespoke service to the food industry We also offer guidance and advice on when a nutritional claim can be made on your product Back of pack

  12. Experimental Evidence for Nutrition Regulated Stress Resistance in Drosophila ananassae

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, Seema; Singh, Bashisth N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The amount and quality of nutrients consumed by organisms have a strong impact on stress resistance, life-history traits and reproduction. The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is crucial to the survival and reproductive success of animals. The ability of organisms to adjust their development, physiology or behavior in response to environmental conditions, called phenotypic plasticity, is a defining property of life. One of the most familiar and important examples of phenotypic plasticity is the response of stress tolerance and reproduction to changes in developmental nutrition. Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life-history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult. Principal Findings Here we investigate the effect of larval nutrition on desiccation, starvation, chill-coma recovery, heat resistance as well as egg to adult viability, egg production and ovariole number in Drosophila ananassae. We raised larvae on either protein rich diet or carbohydrate rich diet. We found that flies consuming protein rich diet have higher desiccation and heat shock resistance whereas flies developed on carbohydrate rich diet have higher starvation and cold resistance. Egg production was higher in females developed on protein rich diet and we also found trade-off between egg production and Egg to adult viability of the flies. Viability was higher in carbohydrate rich diet. However, sex specific viability was found in different nutritional regimes. Higher Egg production might be due to higher ovariole number in females of protein rich diet. Conclusion Thus, Drosophila ananassae adapts different stress tolerance and life-history strategies according to the quality of the available diet, which are correlated with phenotypic adjustment at anatomical and physiological levels. PMID:23049693

  13. Stress-busters Tips and techniques for managing stress and

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Stress-busters Tips and techniques for managing stress and introducing relaxation into your life UCSC Counseling & Psychological Services What is stress? Stress is the physiological and psychological semester or new job can bring on stress. We are all under stress every day. A certain amount of stress

  14. Adaptation of an outbreaking insect defoliator to chronic nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Quezada García, R; Seehausen, M L; Bauce, É

    2015-02-01

    During insect outbreaks, the high number of individuals feeding on its host plant causes a depletion of the food source. Reduced availability and decreased quality of nutrients negatively influence life-history traits of insects driving them to develop adaptive strategies to persist in the environment. In a laboratory experiment with three repetitions, we tested the effect of chronic nutritional stress on spruce budworm performance during three generations to determine the adaptive strategies employed by the insect to deal with a selection pressure produced by low-quality diet. Our results show that all tested life-history traits (mortality, developmental time, pupal mass, growth rate and female fecundity) but female fertility were negatively influenced by the low-quality diet simulating food depletion during outbreak conditions. However, especially females in the third generation under chronic nutritional stress show an adaptive response in life-history traits when compared to those reared only one generation on low-quality diet. Larval developmental time significantly decreased and pupal mass, growth rate and fecundity significantly increased. The study demonstrates the capacity of spruce budworm to react to chronic nutritional stress with adaptations that may be caused by epigenetic parental effects. This information can help to understand the course of an outbreak especially at peak densities and during the collapse. PMID:25510541

  15. Association between oxidative stress and nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Priscila Lucelia; Villas Boas, Paulo Jose Fortes; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a dynamic and progressive process that is characterized by the occurrence of morphological, biochemical, functional and psychological changes in the organism. The aim of the present article is to provide updated concepts on oxidative stress, covering its importance in aging, as well as nutritional status and supplementation with antioxidants (substances that prevent or attenuate oxidation of oxidizable substrates, such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and deoxyribonucleic acid) in the geriatric population. Evidence suggests that there is an inverse relationship between oxidative stress and nutritional status in elderly individuals. Although an increase in oxidative stress in chronic diseases associated with aging has been proven, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, up to now there has been no consistent clinical evidence proving the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidants against oxidative stress. In this context, supplementation is not recommended. On the other hand, the elderly should be encouraged to eat antioxidant foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a normal weight (body mass index between 23 and 28 Kg/m(2)) should also be stimulated. PMID:24918857

  16. UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introductory note 1.2 Note on terminology 2. STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY 2.1 Policy statement 2.2 Stress in the workplace 2: Appendix 1: Recognising Stress and Its Sources Appendix 2: The Manager's Role in Staff Care Appendix 3

  17. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  18. Critical incident stress management (Cism)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George S Everly; Raymond B Flannery; Jeffrey T Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    Critical incident stress management (CISM) comprises a range of crisis intervention services that usually include precrisis training, individual crisis counseling, group debriefing, and postincident referral for primary and secondary victims. CISM is utilized to address the aftermath of violent acts, and has evolved from earlier crisis intervention and group psychological debriefing procedures. These approaches have been used throughout the world,

  19. Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus and nutritional stress: evidence from captive studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. S. ROSEN

    Numbers of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in the North Pacific have declined. According to the nutritional stress hypothesis, this decline is due to reduced food availability. Data from studies conducted on pinnipeds in the laboratory are used here to test if the nutritional stress hypothesis can explain the decline of Steller sea lions. 2. Overall, there is strong evidence

  20. Nutritional management of the breastfeeding dyad.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Christina J; Wagner, Carol L

    2013-02-01

    Milk is successfully produced by mothers regardless of their nutritional status. Nevertheless, the concentrations of some nutrients, specifically vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12, fatty acids, and iodine, in human milk depend on or are influenced by maternal diet. A healthy and varied diet during lactation ensures adequate maternal nutrition and optimal concentration of some nutrients in human milk. Exclusive breastfeeding meets the nutritional needs of infants for 6 months of life with the exception of vitamins D and K, which should be given to breastfed infants as supplements. PMID:23178069

  1. Nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Groetch, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the latest information on the nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), focusing on the foods implicated and how to avoid these whilst maintaining a nutritionally sound diet. Recent findings A number of foods are implicated in FPIES such as milk, soy and grains, particularly rice. The number of foods implicated in FPIES per individual differs, but the majority of reported cases have two or fewer food triggers involved. Summary FPIES is a complex presentation of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Dietary management is complicated as both common food allergens as well as atypical food allergens can trigger FPIES. Sound nutritional advice is required to ensure appropriate food avoidance, adequate consumption of other foods and sufficient nutritional intake to maintain and ensure growth and development. PMID:24699338

  2. Surgical and nutritional management of postoperative duodenal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. James Garden; Evelyn H. Dykes; David C. Carter

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with postoperative external duodenal fistulas were managed in general surgical units over a six-year period. Management included aggressive nutritional support, localization and drainage of intraabdominal sepsis, and definitive surgical closure for those fistulas which did not close spontaneously. Spontaneous closure occurred in 92% of cases. All but one patient survived admission to hospital, and one patient died following

  3. Dietary Ingredients and Nutritional Management Impact Fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Eduardo; P. Santos

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle. Inadequate energy intake has a detrimental effect on reproductive activity of female bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have lowered plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-I, reduced peak frequency of LH pulses, lowered plasma progesterone, and impaired ovarian

  4. MANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS

    E-print Network

    MANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS a Personal and Family Guide CENTER ON THE FAMILY #12;2 Managing Job Loss and Financial Stress The issues associated with losing one's job or having hours cut of income can be stressful and traumatic. If you find yourself in this situation, you should know

  5. Introduction: Occupational Stress and Its Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianna T. Kenny; Cary L. Cooper

    2003-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, the current key issues in the area of occupational stress and its management are summarized. These include the link between stress and ill health, job stressors and strain outcomes, work-life balance and individual worker characteristics and the experience of occupational stress. The editors argue that the concept of occupational stress and its corollary,

  6. Effect of Nutritional Stress on the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in the Growing Male Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia V. Compagnucci; Gabriela E. Compagnucci; Alejandro Lomniczi; Claudia Mohn; Irene Vacas; Elisa Cebral; Juan C. Elverdin; Silvia M. Friedman; Valeria Rettori; Patricia M. Boyer

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Objective: Nutritional dwarfing (ND) consists of a decrease in weight and height gain and delayed onset of puberty. The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifications induced in male rats by the nutritional stress of a mere 20% reduction in food intake which, however, started immediately after weaning. Materials and Methods: At weaning, male Wistar rats were

  7. Nutritional stress in Picea sitchensis plantations in coastal British columbia: The effects of Gaultheria shallon and declining site fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Messier; J. P. Kimmins

    1990-01-01

    Examples of nutritional stress in conifer seedlings caused by competing ericaceous species (e. g. Calluna andKalmia), have been reported in several parts of the world. Nutritional stress (primarily N deficiency) has been reported in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations growing in association with an ericaceous species, salal (Gaultheria shallon), in coastal British Columbia. Nutritional interference by salal was investigated on

  8. Nutritional stress in ficea sitchensis plantations in coastal British columbia: The effects of gaultheria shallon and declining site fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Messier; J. P. Kimmins

    1990-01-01

    Examples of nutritional stress in conifer seedlings caused by competing ericaceous species (e.g. Calluna and Kalmia), have been reported in several parts of the world. Nutritional stress (primarily N deficiency) has been reported in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations growing in association with an ericaceous species, salal (Gaultheria shallon), in coastal British Columbia. Nutritional interference by salal was investigated on

  9. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chances of regaining weight and to ensure good management of other obesity-related health problems. Care after ... immediately after surgery, as well as long-term management to prevent complications and weight regain. How does ...

  10. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  11. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  12. Energy and protein nutrition management of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Van Saun, Robert; Degaris, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this article are to briefly review some of the underlying physiology of changes that occur around calving, examine the potential to control the risk of disease in this period, increase milk production, and improve reproductive performance through better nutritional management. Practical guidelines for veterinarians and advisors are provided. PMID:23809895

  13. Nutrition Management of Cystic Fibrosis in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Teresa; Michel, Suzanne; Wilson, Alexandra W M

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements made in life expectancy over the past century, cystic fibrosis remains a life-threatening genetic disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract, and it has significant impact on the nutrition status of those with the disease. Nutrition management includes a high-calorie/high-fat diet, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, vitamin and mineral replacement, and enteral support as needed. As patients are living longer, clinicians may encounter patients with cystic fibrosis in obstetrician offices, endocrine clinics, or hospital settings, owing to lung transplantation or for treatment for distal intestinal obstruction syndrome. PMID:26113561

  14. Occupational stress among managers: a Malaysian survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amat Taap Manshor; Rodrigue Fontaine; Chong Siong Choy

    2003-01-01

    This paper examined the sources of occupational stress among Malaysian managers working in multinational companies (MNCs). A total of 440 managers participated in this survey. Data is collected through a questionnaire distributed to managers in 34 multinational companies operating in Malaysia. It was found that workloads, working conditions and relationship at work were the main concern of the managers that

  15. The risk management of occupational stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon G. Clarke; Cary L. Cooper

    2000-01-01

    In Europe, occupational stress is considered as a risk-assessable disease. Recent high-profile litigation cases have raised awareness of the risk posed by workplace stress. Whilst legislation provides guidelines for the risk assessment of physical hazards, there remains little guidance for employers concerning occupational stress. This article proposes a risk management methodology that might be used to identify hazards and assess

  16. Stress Management and Innovation Interventions at Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bunce; Michael A. West

    1996-01-01

    A study among health-care workers is reported where a traditional stress management program (n = 66) was compared with an intervention promoting innovation at work as a form of stress management (n = 52), and a control group (n = 84). Measures relating to both the process of participation in the respective interventions, and outcome in terms of psychological well-being

  17. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  18. Leaf number, water stress and carbon nutrition effects on poplar leaf growth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Leaf number, water stress and carbon nutrition effects on poplar leaf growth J.P. Gaudillčre area of a leaf is described by the number and the mean size of epidermal cells. Water stress, nitrogen at different levels in the process of leaf production. The main susceptible physio- logical mechanisms are cell

  19. Stress Management as a Pacifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Wylie, Mary Lou

    While numerous studies have identified economic, social, and environmental conditions related to stress, greater stress has been found to be related to poverty, unemployment, assembly line work, crowding, and chronic exposure to noise. These stressful situations most frequently confront people with little personal, economic, or political resources…

  20. Consultation Stressors and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Sandy Kosub

    A high incidence of occupational stress has been demonstrated in the mental health and social service professions and appears to be a major factor contributing to low worker morale, absenteeism, high job turnover, and other indices of job stress. A study was conducted to examine the issue of occupational stress among psychological consultants.…

  1. Accident reduction through stress management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence R. Murphy; David DuBois; Joseph J. Hurrell

    1986-01-01

    The deleterious effects of occupational stress on worker health and well-being have been described in numerous reports for a wide range of work groups. Work overload (and underload), deadline pressures, role Stressors, underutilization of abilities, and physical discomfort have been identified as work factors associated with increased stress symptom reporting. The relationship between work stress and accident\\/injury occurrences is less

  2. STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress occurs in everyone's life. How stressful something is depends on how we perceive it. Stress is not

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress occurs in everyone's life. How stressful something is depends on how we perceive it. Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. It can help to motivate and drive us toward our goals levels of stress can have a negative impact. Medical school is demanding and can cause both prolonged

  3. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated.

  4. Managing the patient journey through enteral nutritional care.

    PubMed

    Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed. PMID:16697502

  5. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  6. Stress Management. A Challenge for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trollan, Constance

    The goal for the adult educator in modern society is to help individuals gain the competencies to function adequately with perpetual change. Adult education should plan and implement stress management programs as an educational activity that is a basis upon which people can learn to adapt to societal stress and rapid social evolution. The health…

  7. Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…

  8. Worksite stress management: A comparison of programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Sallis; Tracy R. Trevorrow; Carolyn C. Johnson; Melbourne F. Hovell; Robert M. Kaplan

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of commonly used approaches to stress management, delivered at worksites. Seventy-six volunteer employees were randomized to a relaxation training group, a multicomponent stress management group, or an education\\/social support group. Measures were collected at baseline, after the eight-week intervention, and at a three-month follow-up. There were significant reductions in anxiety,

  9. Recommended Biometric Stress Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kaklauskas; E. K. Zavadskas; V. Pruskus; A. Vlasenko; L. Bartkiene; R. Paliskiene; L. Zemeckyte; V. Gerstein; G. Dzemyda; G. Tamulevicius

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of undergoing economic crises attest that the loss of employment prompts an outbreak of mental illnesses and suicides, increases the numbers of heart attacks and strokes and negatively affects other illnesses suffered by individuals under stress. Negative stress can devastate a person, cause depression, lower productivity on the job and the competitiveness of businesses and damage the quality

  10. The How, What and Why of Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Michael T.; Ivancevich, John M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors state that employers need to adopt a preventive orientation with respect to stress management and stress training. They examine the costs of stress, the stressed employee, the structure of a stress management program, training objectives, skill acquisition, sources of stress, learning new skills, feedback, and program evaluation. (CT)

  11. Pea responses to saline stress is affected by the source of nitrogen nutrition (ammonium or nitrate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Frechilla; Berta Lasa; Leire Ibarretxe; Carmen Lamsfus; Pedro Aparicio-Tejo

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the source of nitrogen nutrition (ammonium or nitrate), onthe response of pea plants to a moderate saline stress (30 mMNaCl)was studied. Growth declined under saline stress but nitrate-fed plants wereless sensitive to salinity than ammonium-fed plants. This different sensitivitywas due mainly to a better maintenance of root growth in nitrate-fed plants.Organic nitrogen content decreased significantly in roots

  12. DEAF HEALTH TALKS: Stress Management

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    · Diarrhea · Frequent urination #12;Long Term Symptoms · Sleep problems - insomnia · Change in appetite problems · Angry outbursts #12;Did You Realize? Many addictions are linked to a stressful lifestyle, like

  13. Teaching Stress Management in an Online Format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randi L. Sims

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the development and process of teaching the undergraduate course Stress Management in an online format. The course has been designed to be Web based, so the course requirements, assignments, and student participation are located on the World Wide Web. Recommendations for developing other management courses in an online format are provided.

  14. Nutritional Management of Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Leite Faria; Emily de Oliveira Kelly; Renato Diniz Lins; Orlando Pereira Faria

    2010-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to propose dietetic guidelines for the nutritional management of weight regain in Roux-en-Y gastric\\u000a bypass (RYGB) patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty patients more than 2 years after RYGB surgery were followed up once every 15 days for at least 3 months. We collected\\u000a from the medical records weight before surgery, excess weight, minimum weight reached 2 years after surgery, and percent

  15. Nutritional stress and body condition in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) during winter irruptive

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Nutritional stress and body condition in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) during winter Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa), carbon, nitrogen, C/N, fasting, Minnesota, reversed sexual size dimorphism lapone (Strix nebulosa), carbone, azote, C/N, jeűne, Minnesota, dimorphisme sexuel inversé de la taille

  16. INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations of morphometric analysis : samples of very young bees (less than 1 min post emergence) were more variable with average worker cell diameters of 4.8- 4.9 mm versus 5.2-5.3 mm for European bees (RINDERERet al., 1982

  17. Managing stress and change during service reviews.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    Service reviews occur throughout the National Health Service from time to time, and changes in commissioning policies have recently led many Primary Care Trusts to hold reviews of the community health services. Although reviews can provide opportunities for fresh thinking, the process can be a time of considerable stress and apprehension for many staff as current systems and ways of working are challenged and possibly changed. If this stress is not managed appropriately, staff may suffer ill health leading to possible staff absences and pressure on services. Leaders and managers are ideally placed to manage this time of stress, if they have the necessary skills and qualities. Self-help measures are also beneficial and recommended as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article discusses how change can affect people in different stages of their life and how it can be managed more positively in the workplace. PMID:19517944

  18. Disaster stress: an emergency management perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Paton; Rhona Flin

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of stress likely to be encountered by emergency managers when responding to a disaster. Stressors relating to environmental (e.g. time pressure, level of risk, heat), organisational (e.g. bureaucracy, appropriateness of information, decision support and management systems) and operational (e.g. incident command, decision making, interagency liaison, team and media management) demands are considered. The mediating role

  19. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  20. Nutrition management for the patient requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Doley, Jennifer; Mallampalli, Antara; Sandberg, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation are often medically complex and present with a wide range of pulmonary conditions, including neuromuscular diseases, chronic pulmonary diseases, and chronic critical illness. These patients present the nutrition support professional with many challenges. However, accurate nutrition assessment, timely and effective nutrition interventions, and careful monitoring will help patients meet their medical and nutrition goals. PMID:21586408

  1. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Huish

    2009-11-02

    Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

  2. Oral habits--part 1: the dental effects and management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mihiri; Manton, David

    2015-01-01

    Nutritive sucking and non-nutritive sucking are among the most commonly reported oral habits in children. These habits generally cease around four years of age as interaction with other children increases. However, prolonged habits may alter dento-skeletal development, leading to orthodontic problems, which may persist into the permanent dentition. Rewards, reminder therapy, and appliance therapy have been described for the management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. Reminder therapy includes the use of gloves, thumb-guards, mittens, and tastants applied to fingers. When other modes of treatment have failed, appliance therapy, such as palatal cribs or Bluegrass appliances, may be necessary to prevent the placement of the digit in its sucking position. These tools are very effective and are associated with few adverse effects; however, they must be used with the cooperation of the child and never as punishment. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians about nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits in children and their impact on dental/skeletal development, and management options. PMID:25514257

  3. Stress management: An exploratory study of chiropractic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R Jamison

    2000-01-01

    Background: Stress is a recognized variable in the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of musculoskeletal conditions; chiropractic care is reputed to be successful in the management of stress-related visceral conditions. It may be useful for chiropractors to include stress management as a clinical care option.Objective: To explore screening tools to aid stress self-assessment, investigate patients' perceptions of stress management as a

  4. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals. PMID:25700740

  5. Management ofWork Related Stress Policy 1. Introduction 3

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    Management ofWork Related Stress Policy June 2010 #12;Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Policy www.surrey.ac.uk2 Management ofWork Related Stress Policy #12; www.surrey.ac.uk 3 Management of; ·Informstaffandmanagersoftheirresponsibilitiesinrespectofthepolicy. Management ofWork Related Stress Policy #12; www.surrey.ac.uk 5 4. Application

  6. Tips for Managing Stress Key to managing stress is to remember that stress not inherent in any event; it lies in how we

    E-print Network

    Westfall, Peter H.

    1 Tips for Managing Stress Key to managing stress is to remember that stress not inherent in any. If the problem is beyond your control now, try to let go of it until you can change it. 9. When you feel stress stress signals, the easier it is to change your behavior and stop the progress of the stress. 10. When

  7. Cadmium effects on mineral nutrition and stress in Potamogeton crispus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Yang; G. X. Shi; Q. S. Xu; H. X. Wang

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of plant tolerance to cadmium stress were studied by short-term exposure of Potamogeton crispus L. to various concentrations of Cd ranging from 0 to 0.09 mM. The accumulation of Cd and its influence on nutrient elements,\\u000a chlorophyll pigments, ultrastructure, proline and MDA contents, and free radical production, as well as the activities of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD),

  8. Stress Management in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dennis T.; And Others

    This paper on designing and implementing a stress management program in the workplace begins by defining stress. A brief overview of the relationship of stress to health and personal style follows. The subsequent discussion of the relationship between stress and work focuses on these topics: work contributes to stress; stress affects work…

  9. Lung cancer: what are the links with oxidative stress, physical activity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Dupuis, Carmen; Galvaing, Géraud; Aubreton, Sylvie; Laurent, Hélčne; Richard, Ruddy; Filaire, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play an essential role as a secondary messenger in the normal regulation of a variety of physiological processes, such as apoptosis, survival, and proliferative signaling pathways. Oxidative stress also plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging, degenerative disease, and cancer. Among cancers, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the Western world. Lung cancer is the commonest fatal cancer whose risk is dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the number of years smoking, some components of cigarette smoke inducing oxidative stress by transmitting or generating oxidative stress. It can be subdivided into two broad categories, small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, the latter is the most common type. Distinct measures of primary and secondary prevention have been investigated to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by lung cancer. Among them, it seems that physical activity and nutrition have some beneficial effects. However, physical activity can have different influences on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply, strength and frequency of exercise loads as well as the degree of exercise-mediated oxidative stress. Micronutrient supplementation seems to have a positive impact in lung surgery, particularly as an antioxidant, even if the role of micronutrients in lung cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine lung cancer in relation to oxidative stress, physical activity, and nutrition. PMID:24161719

  10. Women's strategies to alleviate nutritional stress in a rural African society.

    PubMed

    Bentley, G R; Aunger, R; Harrigan, A M; Jenike, M; Bailey, R C; Ellison, P T

    1999-01-01

    Many agricultural populations are subject to chronic or seasonal undernutrition, reproductive women and children often being most vulnerable. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data on food consumption, food distribution practices, food taboos, garden sizes and work effort to show how Lese horticulturalist women living in the Ituri Forest of northeast Democratic Republic of Congo attempt to alleviate nutritional stress. The Lese experience an annual hunger season when approximately one quarter of the population suffer from energy deficiency. Nutritional intake is also compromised by a complex system of food taboos against meat from wild forest animals. Anthropometric data collected over several years suggest that Lese women suffer from nutritional stress more than men during the hunger season. They also have more food taboos particularly during pregnancy and lactation. Their low fertility is compounded by nutritional stress. Despite these inequities, Lese women use several strategies to improve their food intake. Since they are responsible for all household cooking, they manipulate food portions. During the hunger season, they snack frequently, and increase their consumption of palliative foods. Women with more food taboos plant larger gardens to supplement their diet with vegetable foods. Although this results in their consumption of more daily protein, they work harder compared to women with smaller gardens. Women cheat in their adherence to specific food taboos by actively discounting them, or by eating prophylactic plants that supposedly prevent the consequences (usually illness) of eating tabooed foods. In addition, women resort to subterfuge to access desirable resources. Lese women do not reduce work effort during the hunger season, but adapt physiologically by reducing resting metabolic rates during periods of weight loss. These results point to the ability of Lese women to minimize the ecological and cultural constraints on their nutrition. More data, however, are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of these strategies. PMID:10048774

  11. Stress management in high-field dipoles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Diaczenko; T. Elliott; A. Jaisle; D. Latypov; P. McIntyre; P. McJunkins; L. Richards; W. Shen; R. Soika; D. Wendt; R. Gaedke

    1997-01-01

    The management of Lorentz stress and preload forces is the biggest single challenge in the effort to develop collider dipoles with ever greater field strength. Were the Lorentz forces permitted to accumulate through a coil, they would exceed the limit for strain degradation for the A15 and high-temperature superconductors which are capable of sustaining such field strength. A strategy has

  12. Using Stress Management to Promote Critical Thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Schoenberg

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of distress upon critical thinking and offers a variety of stress management techniques to enhance critical thinking skills. A major theme throughout this paper is that one cannot think clearly when one is distressed. The harmful effects of distress upon critical thinking are discussed in the content of the works of several authors in the

  13. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  14. Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  15. The Nurturing Teacher: Managing the Stress of Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles the concerns of stressed teachers. Whether from nurturance suffering (stress related to caring for students) or from the piles of paperwork yet to be tackled, this text helps the reader sort through the causes of stress, the emotional, physical and social reactions to stress and how one can begin to plan a stress management plan.…

  16. BASELINE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS LEVELS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO A TWO DAY STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Vempati; Shirley Telles

    The benefits of work site stress management programs for a symptomatic employee populations remain to be established. The present study evaluated the physiological changes of a yoga based stress management program for 26 a symptomatic, male, middle managers. The Occupational Stress index (OSI) and autonomic parameters were measured. Data of subjects with OSI greater or less than the median ware

  17. Stress Perception, Stressful Experiences and Stress Management Strategies A Comparative Case Study of Swedish and Peruvian Teacher Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María del Pilar; González Vigil

    In modern life stress is a common problem. The negative effects of stress affect individuals' health and performance. As a result, individuals have their own stress perceptions and they develop different kinds of strategies in order to manage stressful situations. Culture is a relevant aspect that influences this process. Considering that stress is presented in different dimension of daily life,

  18. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  19. Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-?B/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chávez, Araceli Amaya; Alanís, Adriana Garduńo; Ferreyra, María del Carmen Colín; Benítez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán; Castańeda, Violeta Saraí Morales; García, Ma. Victoria Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-?B, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-?B and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-?B expression (1, p?0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p?0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-?B/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta. PMID:23772281

  20. Stress Management for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Shaw; E. D. Srivastava; M. Sadlier; P. Swann; J. Y. James; J. Rhodes

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with irritable bowel syndrome were randomised to receive treatment in a stress management programme or conventional therapy which included the antispasmodic Colpermin. The stress management programme involved a median of six 40-min sessions with a physiotherapist during which patients were helped to understand the nature of their symptoms, their relationship to stress and were taught relaxation exercises. Two

  1. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress

  2. General Information for Managing Trees Under Stress July 26, 2011

    E-print Network

    General Information for Managing Trees Under Stress July 26, 2011 Suggested Care of Trees Showing Signs of Stress: Good growing conditions and appropriate care to minimize stress will enable many trees showing signs of stress to recover and return to good health. Many trees have the capacity to recover

  3. Effect of stress management interventions on job stress among nurses working in critical care units.

    PubMed

    Light Irin, C; Bincy, R

    2012-01-01

    Stress in nurses affects their health and increases absenteeism, attrition rate, injury claims, infection rates and errors in treating patients. This in turn significantly increases the cost of employment in healthcare units. Proper management of stress ensures greater efficiency at work place and improved wellbeing of the employee. Therefore, a pre-experimental study was conducted among 30 Critical Care Unit nurses working inMedical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala) to assess the effect of stress management interventions such as Job Stress Awareness, Assertiveness Training, Time Management, andProgressive Muscle Relaxation on job stress. The results showed that caring for patients, general job requirements and workload were the major sources of stress for the nurses. The level of severe stress was reduced from 60 percent to 20 percent during post-test. The Stress Management Interventions were statistically effective in reducing the stress of nurses at p<0.001 level. PMID:23923598

  4. Stress, Food, and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology and Nutrition at the Cutting Edge

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would certainly be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can impact mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen NF-?B activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community. PMID:20410248

  5. Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P; Feakins, R; Domizio, P; Murphy, J; Bevins, C; Wilson, J; McPhail, G; Poulsom, R; Dhaliwal, W

    2004-02-01

    Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection. PMID:14738460

  6. Nutrition in the management of cirrhosis and its neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:25755550

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-1: Occupational Opportunities Related to Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Mary

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on occupational opportunities related to foods and nutrition is the first in a set of three modules on occupational education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  8. Lipidomic analysis of lipid droplets from murine hepatocytes reveals distinct signatures for nutritional stress[S

    PubMed Central

    Chitraju, Chandramohan; Trötzmüller, Martin; Hartler, Jürgen; Wolinski, Heimo; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Köfeler, Harald C.; Spener, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritional stress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritional stress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights. PMID:22872753

  9. Outwitting, controlling stress for a healthier lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Smereka, C M

    1990-03-01

    When managed effectively, stress can lead to more productive, creative, and successful lives at home and in the workplace. Through exercise, relaxation, and a network of social support, stress can be managed and channeled. Other attributes of a healthy, stress-managed lifestyle include good nutrition, a sense of humor, and strong communication and time management skills. PMID:10145225

  10. Mental health case management: Characteristics, job function, and occupational stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Hromco; John S. Lyons; Robert E. Nikkel

    1995-01-01

    Although case management is an important component of treatment for persons with major mental illnesses, little is known about who works in case management, what functions are performed and how much occupational stress case managers experience. Mental health case managers (CM's) throughout the state of Oregon (N=216) completed an inventory of case management functions and the job dissatisfaction and occupational

  11. Stress management in dental students: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226

  12. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

  13. MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF EATING DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Nikolic; Milos Pavlovi; Milica M. Vojinovic

    The treatment of eating disorders demands a comprehensive medical approach, where a dietitian has an important role, primarily due to numerous instances of malnutrition. The objective of this paper was to recapitulate the research findings and clinical evidence which show the importance of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of eating disorders; furthermore, they present significant guidelines for clinical practice.

  14. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  15. Beneficial Effects of a Q-ter® Based Nutritional Mixture on Functional Performance, Mitochondrial Function, and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinze Xu; Arnold Y. Seo; Darya A. Vorobyeva; Christy S. Carter; Stephen D. Anton; Angela M. S. Lezza; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh; Alejandro Lucia

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter® based

  16. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjřrke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying mechanisms of protection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25451133

  17. Stress and Time Management for Educators. Georgia Comprehensive Guidance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Michael J.; Moore, Earl J.

    This guide to stress and time management for educators defines stress as a physiological response to the pressures of daily living and differentiates between stress as a motivator and a debilitator. The guide presents stressor inventories for teachers, administrators, and counselors, and outlines a personal behavior contract for implementing…

  18. MODELLING THE COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK STRESS FOR PRECISION ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An individual animal’s stress level is the summation of stresses from three areas: the environment, animal, and management. A model is being developed to summarize components of each of these three areas to determine the overall stress on the animal. The purpose of the model will be three-fold. F...

  19. Measuring occupational stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Williams; Cary L. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome

  20. Measuring Occupational Stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Williams; Cary L. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome

  1. Capitalizing on Stress Management Techniques in Developmental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    Mastering stress management techniques can help college developmental class educators protect themselves from burnout. These techniques can also be taught to students in developmental classes to enable them to maximize the benefits from these classes. This paper outlines the causes of stress, identifies stressors, describes responses to stress,…

  2. rkfsbopfqv=lc=proobv= STRESS POLICY -MANAGERS GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    = = = rkfsbopfqv=lc=proobv= STRESS POLICY - MANAGERS GUIDELINES JUNE 2006 #12;= = = = = eo=abm^oqjbkq= 1/2 1. Introduction 1.1 Stress is something that affects everyone on occasions. It is a natural reaction we all have to excessive pressure. Stress is not a disease, but can lead to illness if excessive

  3. The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. TRITES; C. P. DONNELLY

    2003-01-01

    The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands between the late 1970s and 1990s may have been related to reduced availability of suitable prey. Many studies have shown that pinnipeds and other mammals suffering from nutritional stress typically exhibit reduced body size, reduced productivity, high mortality of pups and juveniles, altered blood

  4. Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato; Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira; Mariano Martinez Espinosa; Vanderley Salvador Bagnato; Maria A. A. M. Machado

    2011-01-01

    Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660

  5. Growth, nutrition and response to water stress of Pinus pinaster inoculated with ten dikaryotic strains of Pisolithus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMED S. LAMHAMEDI; PIERRE Y. BERNIER; J. ANDRE FORTIN

    Summary Reconstituted dikaryons of Pisolithus sp. (Pers.) Coker & Couch from South Africa influenced growth parameters (shoot length, shoot\\/root ratio and leaf area), nutrition and physiological indicators (transpi- ration rate, stomatal conductance and xylem water potential) of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings during drought and recovery from drought. Seedlings colonized with certain dikaryons were more sensitive to water stress

  6. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  7. Why aren't managers concerned about occupational stress?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Daniels

    1996-01-01

    To explain the rarity of workplace stress management interventions, it is thought that managers are not concerned with the risks of occupational stress to health and job performance. Some writers consider either (1) deficiencies in theory, and\\/or (2) deficiencies in methodology to be the cause of this apparent lack of concern. The aim of this paper is to illustrate another

  8. Occupational stress and health outcome among British and German managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Kirkcaldy; R. M. Trimpop; S. Williams

    2002-01-01

    A large sample of German and British managers selected from the private and public sectors completed the pressure management indicator (PMI). The PMI is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the occupational stress indicator (OSI). The PMI provides a global measure as well as differentiated profiles of occupational stress. Outcome measures include work satisfaction, organisational security, organisational satisfaction, and commitment,

  9. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  10. Stress Management: Evaluating a Preventive Approach for College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Archer Jr

    1986-01-01

    This study discusses a multidimensional stress management model for use as a preventive program for college students. The author describes a general model of stress management with three major parts (physical, cognitive, and lifestyle), and he reports on an evaluation of this model as presented in a course format. This evaluation included the use of a similar class as a

  11. A stress management course to prevent teacher distress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Neves de Jesus; Joseph Conboy

    2001-01-01

    The question of teacher motivation is of paramount concern for educational leaders and managers. Both the commonly observed deficiency in teacher motivation and the abundance of teacher stress are serious problems that can be mitigated through teacher education. This study describes a relational-training stress-management course that was prepared and implemented in an attempt to reduce teacher stress. The 30-hour programme

  12. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  13. Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. PMID:24491646

  14. Different colors reveal different information: how nutritional stress affects the expression of melanin- and structurally based ornamental plumage.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Kevin J; Mackillop, Emiko A; Dale, James; Hauber, Mark E

    2002-12-01

    Avian plumage colors have emerged recently as model systems for investigating the types of information that can be signaled by showy sexual displays in animals. In many species, the brightness of carotenoid-based plumage reflects the health and condition of individuals and is used in mate selection. The information contained in melanin-based and structurally based ornamental colors in birds is less well resolved, however. We subjected male house sparrows Passer domesticus and brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater to stressful nutritional conditions during molt to test the hypothesis that melanin- and structurally based plumage colors are nutritionally condition-dependent. We restricted food access for treatment males during randomized 6 h periods on 4 days per week, while allowing control birds access to food ad libitum throughout the course of the molt. We found that the size and brightness of the melanin-based throat badges in male house sparrows were not affected by nutritional stress. Similarly, there were no differences between treatment and control male cowbirds in the size or brightness of the melanin-based brown hood. However, the structurally based iridescent plumage of cowbirds was indicative of the nutritional condition of males during molt. Nutritionally stressed cowbirds grew significantly less colorful plumage than did males with access to food ad libitum. These results are consistent with observations in other avian species that different types of plumage color communicate different sets of information. Melanin ornaments are less sensitive to nutritional conditions during molt and instead may reflect the hormonal status and/or competitive ability of males, whereas structural coloration appears to be an accurate signal of health and condition. PMID:12409501

  15. Occupational stress, mental health status and stress management behaviors among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharron SK Leung; Yim Wah Mak; Ying Yu Chui; Vico CL Chiang; Angel CK Lee

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not.Design Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) II.Setting The

  16. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  17. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  18. Study of Food Service Management Companies in School Nutrition Programs. Contract Review Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price Waterhouse, Washington, DC. Office of Government Services.

    In fall 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with Price Waterhouse to complete a study of the use of food-service management companies (FSMCs) by school districts that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the Tentative findings include: (1) contracts between school…

  19. Rangeland Ecol Manage 59:267274 | May 2006 Nutritive Quality of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and

    E-print Network

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    Rangeland Ecol Manage 59:267­274 | May 2006 Nutritive Quality of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii-season grasses, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), were dactyloides L.) y ``Big bluestem'' (Andropogon gerardii Vitman). Las plantas fueron fumigadas con tres niveles

  20. IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

  1. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie. 

    E-print Network

    Knowles, Tim C.; Hipp, Billy W.; Marshall, David S.; Sutton, Russelll L.

    1995-01-01

    Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Edward A. Hiler, Director The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas B-1725 July 1995 Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie Tim C... .. ... ............ ....... ......... ..... ... ... ........ .............................. ................... .. .. .... ............. .. ..... ... .. ........ 2 Soil Nutrient Status ..... ......... .. .. ........ ... .......... ... ........ ... ....... .... .. ..................... .. ....... .... .. .... ...... .. .......... .. .......... ... ... ...... 2 Phosphorus Fertilization...

  2. Nutrition knowledge of rural older populations: can congregate meal site participants manage their own diets?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lionel; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Congregate meal sites were funded to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural older individuals in improving their health-related practices. Although the participants in the program are largely female, the meals are designed to meet one third of the daily caloric intake of a 70-year-old male, and to satisfy his recommended dietary allowances for total fat, fiber, calcium, and sodium. The actual percentage of the required nutrient intake contributed by meals served at congregate sites is indefinite. Moreover, the ability of congregate meal participants to manage their diets and their receptiveness to helpful nutrition information in that regard is unknown. Our objective was to promote nutritional knowledge in economically disadvantaged, rural older participants by studying its impact on their ability to benefit from congregate meal programs. We used a test, intervention, retest methodology to examine the effect of short-term nutrition interventions on congregate meal site participants' nutrition knowledge. The objective was to determine the participants' potential for managing their own diets (e.g., their ability to determine what diet behaviors are appropriate for specific chronic conditions). We found that while congregate meal site participants have knowledge of nutrition recommendations, their ability to apply this information in helping themselves to prevent or control their chronic conditions remains in question. PMID:20711926

  3. Helping Clients Manage Stress: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    The pervasiveness of stress as a problem, with its many harmful effects on people, makes it a matter of growing interest for counselors and other personnel workers. This monograph provides definitions of stress, distress, and eustress, and discusses numerous causes of distress, as well as the benefits of stress to a healthy, productive life.…

  4. Alternatives in Polymerization Contraction Stress Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Braga; J. L. Ferracane

    2004-01-01

    Polymerization contraction stress of dental composites is often associated with marginal and interfacial failures of bonded restorations. The magnitude of stress depends on composite composition (filler content and matrix composition) and its ability to flow before gelation, which is related to the cavity configuration and curing characteristics of the composite. This article reviews variations among studies regarding contraction-stress-testing methods and

  5. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed ?15N and ?13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W ? B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS ? B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45?kg·ha?1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W ? B, WS + B, and WS ? B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS ? B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed ?15N and ?13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean. PMID:25667936

  6. Managing work-related stress in the district nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture. PMID:24471225

  7. Examining the potential for nutritional stress in young Steller sea lions: physiological effects of prey composition.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2005-05-01

    The effects of high- and low-lipid prey on the body mass, body condition, and metabolic rates of young captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined to better understand how changes in prey composition might impact the physiology and health of wild sea lions and contribute to their population decline. Results of three feeding experiments suggest that prey lipid content did not significantly affect body mass or relative body condition (lipid mass as a percent of total mass) when sea lions could consume sufficient prey to meet their energy needs. However, when energy intake was insufficient to meet daily requirements, sea lions lost more lipid mass (9.16+/-1.80 kg+/-SE) consuming low-lipid prey compared with eating high-lipid prey (6.52+/-1.65 kg). Similarly, the sea lions lost 2.7+/-0.9 kg of lipid mass while consuming oil-supplemented pollock at maintenance energy levels but gained 5.2+/-2.7 kg lipid mass while consuming identical energetic levels of herring. Contrary to expectations, there was a 9.7+/-1.8% increase in metabolism during mass loss on submaintenance diets. Relative body condition decreased only 3.7+/-3.8% during periods of imposed nutritional stress, despite a 10.4+/-4.8% decrease in body mass. These findings raise questions regarding the efficacy of measures of relative body condition to detect such changes in nutritional status among wild animals. The results of these three experiments suggest that prey composition can have additional effects on sea lion energy stores beyond the direct effects of insufficient energy intake. PMID:15900507

  8. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) have greater blood volumes, higher diving metabolic rates and a longer aerobic dive limit when nutritionally stressed.

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammal foraging behaviour inherently depends on diving ability. Declining populations of Steller sea lions may be facing nutritional stress that could affect their diving ability through changes in body composition or metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether nutritional stress (restricted food intake resulting in a 10% decrease in body mass) altered the calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL) of four captive sea lions diving in the open ocean, and how this related to changes in observed dive behaviour. We measured diving metabolic rate (DMR), blood O2 stores, body composition and dive behaviour prior to and while under nutritional restriction. We found that nutritionally stressed sea lions increased the duration of their single long dives, and the proportion of time they spent at the surface during a cycle of four dives. Nutritionally stressed sea lions lost both lipid and lean mass, resulting in potentially lower muscle O2 stores. However, total body O2 stores increased due to rises in blood O2 stores associated with having higher blood volumes. Nutritionally stressed sea lions also had higher mass-specific metabolic rates. The greater rise in O2 stores relative to the increase in mass-specific DMR resulted in the sea lions having a longer cADL when nutritionally stressed. We conclude that there was no negative effect of nutritional stress on the diving ability of sea lions. However, nutritional stress did lower foraging efficiency and require more foraging time to meet energy requirements due to increases in diving metabolic rates and surface recovery times. PMID:24198263

  9. STRESS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hancey

    2010-04-27

    During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

  10. Economic comparison of nutritional management strategies for Venezuelan dual-purpose cattle systems.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, C F; Blake, R W; Urbina, C I; Lee, D R; Fox, D G; Van Soest, P J

    1994-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to compare three nutritional management strategies for dual-purpose herds in Venezuela in 1987 using a deterministic, multiperiod linear programming model of a representative farm. The model maximized discounted net margin (total revenues minus variable costs) from the herd for a 3-yr cow replacement cycle partitioned into six periods. The periods accounted for seasonal variation in forage availability and quality, and the model provided information about optimal animal inventories, animal sales, land in forage, and feed supplements. We compared current nutritional management practices and alternatives allowing optimal supplementation with commercial concentrate, molasses, cassava root, and urea. Iteration between the programming model and results from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System assured technical coefficients consistent with predicted animal performance. Compared with management practices relying on commercial concentrate, optimal use of molasses and urea permitted increases in the stocking rate. Productivity and profit were restricted primarily by energy intake, which was constrained by intakes of NDF and DM. Alternative management strategies changed the relative importance of nutrient requirements and feed intake constraints. Thus, optimal interventions to alleviate nutritional constraints will vary with current management. Mobilizing adipose and protein tissues during lactation was optimal for most strategies. Supplementing with molasses and urea instead of commercial concentrate was the most profitable strategy, increasing herd net margin by 16% compared to the predominant feeding strategy in the late 1980s. PMID:7928747

  11. Job stress in managers, professionals, and clerical workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet J. Turnage; Charles D. Spielberger

    1991-01-01

    The intensity and frequency of occurrence of 30 job stressors as measured by the job stress survey (JSS) were examined in white-collar employees of a large manufacturing firm, consisting of 68 managers, 171 professional (mostly engineers), and 69 clerical personnel. The highest levels of stress intensity were attributed to ‘lack of opportunity for advancement’ and ‘poor or inadequate supervision’. Individual

  12. Parent Stress Management Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Lee; Tripp, Gail; Baird, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stress management program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…

  13. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  14. A Program of Stress Management in a College Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria R. Valdes

    1988-01-01

    During the Spring semester of 1982, a program of stress management workshops was developed at Baruch College to bring the benefits of stress reduction to students. The program employed the Open Focus attention training technique. Data for 4 semesters have been examined to evaluate the results of using Open Focus attention in this program. During the first two semesters, Open

  15. Psychoeducational interventions Psychoeducational interventions to occupational stress management: a comparative study to occupational stress management: a comparative study to occupational stress management: a comparative study to occupational stress management: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Giardini Murta; Bartholomeu Tôrres Tróccoli

    This study implemented and evaluated an occupational stress management program for a group of 74 non-academics from a private university in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Forty-two employees attended a multimodal intervention for stress management while the other 32 attended social skills training. Both were conducted in 12 group sessions of 60 minutes each, during working hours. Pre- and post-test

  16. Proteomic Analysis of the Function of Sigma Factor ?54 in Helicobacter pylori Survival with Nutrition Deficiency Stress In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Shan, Yuqun; Li, Xinpeng; Lu, Xingxiao; Li, Yan; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Yabin; Jia, Jihui

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori can survive under a nutrition-deficient environment. During infection and transmission, H. pylori is confronted with nutrient limitation and the bacterium requires rapid alteration in gene expression for survival under stress conditions. However, the mechanism underlining this regulation remains unknown. A previous study showed that ?54 is an important regulation factor for H. pylori survival in the nutrition-deficient environment. Our results show that the expression of ?54 (rpoN) is significantly induced in the stationary phase (nutrition deficiency) and the rpoN mutant showed a significantly lower viability than wild-type H. pylori in the late stationary phase. Thus, ?54 is involved in H. pylori survival during nutrient limitation. We used comparative proteomics to analyze the protein differentiation between wild-type and rpoN mutant during the stationary phase. With depleted nutrients, ?54 can slow the process of proliferation by negatively regulating genes involved in energy metabolism and biosynthesis and enhance stress-resistant ability by positively regulating genes involved in protein fate and redox reaction. Especially, NapA positively regulated by ?54 plays an important function in H. pylori survival both in the stationary phase and in water, and the latter situation would be beneficial for bacterial in vitro transmission. Our investigations give new light on the adaptive regulation of H. pylori under stress conditions. PMID:24015282

  17. Effects of two stress management interventions on student nurses' perceived stress and general self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Marie Collins

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of a health promotion Stress Management Workshop and Verbal Persuasion Interventions on the perceived stress and general self-efficacy of first year student nurses. The two dependent variables examined were perceived stress and general self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental two-group research study was conducted with first year student nurses at a large

  18. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  19. Stress Reduction for Family Caregivers in Chronic Mental Illness: Implications of a Work Stress Management Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen R. Winefield

    2000-01-01

    In several studies involving a total of 291 family caregivers for schizophrenia sufferers, the stressors that arise from caregiving were identified. Also identified were the outcomes for caregivers, which often include psychological distress. Caregivers develop various stress-reduction techniques, but this article explores the utility of applying the principles of work stress management to caregiver well-being. An organizational psychology perspective suggests

  20. Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naďve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD. The recent advance of methodologies and techniques for early diagnosis of AD facilitates the investigation of strategies to reduce the risk for AD progression in the earliest stages of the disease. Nutrition-based approaches deserve further investigation as an integral part of such strategies due to their low risk for side effects and their potential to affect pathological processes of very early AD. PMID:23756280

  1. Strategies in the Nutritional Management of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Teri L.; Anderson, Molly A.; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Friedman, Jacob E.; Barbour, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the optimal macronutrient composition for dietary management of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) has enormous potential to improve perinatal outcomes. Diet therapy may result in significant cost savings if effective in deterring the need for expensive medical management within this growing population. In only 6 randomized controlled trials(RCTs) in 250 women, data suggest that a diet higher in complex carbohydrate and fiber, low in simple sugar, and lower in saturated fat may be effective in blunting postprandial hyperglycemia, preventing worsened insulin resistance and excess fetal growth. The use of diet in GDM remains an area in grave need for high-quality RCTs. PMID:24047934

  2. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  3. Occupational Stress in Workers and Managers in Steelworks in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Shanfa; Kate Sparks; Gary L. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    Occupational stressors and strains of 121 Chinese steelwork employees and 122 managers were measured using the Chinese version of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). It was found that factors intrinsic to the job, Type A behavior, logic, and organizational structure and climate were the main predictors of mental ill-health and physical ill-health in managers. Organizational structure and climate and relationships

  4. Diabetes and nutrition: the latest thinking on dietary management.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Tina

    2005-04-01

    Dietary management is an important part of the care of people with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This article examines the latest thinking on diet, including use of the plate model, based on recommended percentages of foods from the five food groups, and dispels some common myths about food and diabetes. PMID:15819314

  5. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We Should"…

  6. Nutrition Management of Congenital Glucose-Galactose Malabsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA ABAD-SINDEN; STEPHEN BOROWITZ; ROBIN MEYERS; JAMES SUTPHEN

    1997-01-01

    In this article we describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of an infant who had congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM)—a rare disorder thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Because of defective sodium-coupled cotransport of glucose and galactose in the intestinal mucosa, infants with CGGM suffer from chronic, profuse, watery diarrhea that often leads to hypertonic dehydration.

  7. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  8. Women in management and occupational stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gourie Suraj-Narayan

    2005-01-01

    Since the first democratic elections in South Africa, there has been an accelerated move to promote women into managerial and executive positions. The Affirmative Action Policy was introduced to facilitate this process of gender equity amongst managers in the workplace. However, whilst the government has viewed this as positive action, women managers themselves have experienced several sources of work, family

  9. Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

  10. Climate change and cattle nutritional stress J O S E P H M . C R A I N E *, A N D R E W J . E L M O R E w , K . C . O L S O N z, D O U G T O L L E S O N }

    E-print Network

    Elmore, Andrew J.

    Climate change and cattle nutritional stress J O S E P H M . C R A I N E *, A N D R E W J . E L M O Abstract Owing to the complex interactions among climate, plants, cattle grazing, and land manage- ment practices, the impacts of climate change on cattle have been hard to predict. Predicting future grassland

  11. Prevalence of outsourcing and perception of clinical nutrition managers on performance of health care dietetics services.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junehee; Yoon, Barbara J H

    2003-08-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical dietitians and clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess the prevalence of outsourcing in health care dietetics services and to evaluate perceived performance of dietetics services. A questionnaire was developed, validated by an expert panel, and pilot tested prior to data collection. Members of the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group (N=1,668) were selected as the study sample. Of 431 respondents, 152 (35.3%) indicated that management of both patient and cafeteria foodservices was outsourced. When mean scores of perceived performance ratings were compared using t test, respondents from self-operated facilities rated several items related to patient and cafeteria food quality and material and human resource utilization higher than respondents at contract-managed facilities. No significant differences were found in performance related to decision-making process, buying power, or training programs. Results suggest that careful weighing of advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing is needed before making decisions regarding outsourcing dietetics services. PMID:12891155

  12. Nutritional Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

  13. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery D. Houghton; Jinpei Wu; Jeffrey L. Godwin; Christopher P. Neck; Charles C. Manz

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors’ model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping among students. A primary implication of the model is that basic emotion regulation and

  14. Student's Stress: It's Real and Manageable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary F. McGurn

    2011-01-01

    I have been a dental hygiene professor at a Community College from the last seven years as well as a 2001 alumna from the same dental hygiene program. The dental hygiene curriculum is demanding, and it can be overwhelming to manage the heavy work load. My goal as a teacher is to help the dental hygiene students find their own

  15. Stress Reduction in Transition: Conceptual Problems in the Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Worksite Stress Management Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Reynolds; David A. Shapiro

    1991-01-01

    Interventions to reduce occupational stress have focused primarily on strategies which target change in individual employees despite recommendations that researchers address organizational issues in occupational stress. This paper discusses the impact of the medical model in stress research and explores the extent to which it has constrained the design, implementation, and evaluation of stress management interventions. It is suggested that

  16. The ABCs of Stress Management: A Little Stress Is Good For You, If You Know How To Handle It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2005-01-01

    Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to manage stress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…

  17. Psychophysiological effects of stress management in patients with atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schut, Christina; Weik, Ulrike; Tews, Natalia; Gieler, Uwe; Deinzer, Renate; Kupfer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis leads to, and can be triggered by, stress. Psychological interventions have been shown to have positive effects on skin status, itch and scratching behaviour. However, it has not been analysed whether stress management leads to a change in physiological stress level and psychophysiological stress reaction under acute stress in this patient group. In this study 28 patients with atopic dermatitis were randomized to an experimental group (cognitive behavioural stress management) or a control group. The endocrine stress level and skin status were measured before and after the stress management programme. A public-speaking paradigm was used to induce acute stress. The study revealed that the experimental group had a tentatively reduced cortisol awakening response after the stress management programme. In addition, the experimental group remained calmer and showed lower salivary cortisol levels under acute stress. Thus, stress management might be a useful addition to standard treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:22983681

  18. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  19. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  20. Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required. PMID:22576135

  1. Psychological and Physiological Effects of a Stress Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Robert J.; Munz, David C.

    Interest in health promotion has resulted in various programs designed to enhance health and prevent disease through changes in lifestyles. The effects of a widely used stress management program were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, office employees in treatment (N=21) and control (N=24) groups were administered the State-Trait Anxiety…

  2. Managing occupational stress: A national and international perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen F. Dollard; Anthony H. Winefield

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical models of occupational stress are important because they suggest a focus for intervention, and inform practice. The gap between research and practice was exposed most recently by Burke (1993) claiming “little awareness of research findings by practitioners (managers, consultants, clinicians), little intervention activity being undertaken at the organizational level, little research being undertaken to determine the effectiveness of individual

  3. Adapting Critical Incident Stress Management to the Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Tortorici; Luna Kendall Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The need for school-appropriate applications of critical incident stress management (CISM) is noted in the literature on school crisis response. This paper presents preliminary data suggesting a School Crisis Response Team's (SCRT) usage and team needs. The SCRT was dispatched for a variety of critical incidents. Self-dispatch, followed by dispatches from Student Support Services, and a central Team Dispatcher accounted

  4. Promoting Well?Being at College: Stress Management for Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Durbin

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a stress management programme run for students in an FE College. The programme was the result of a collaboration between a County Psychological Service and an FE College. The paper also examines the benefits and pitfalls experienced in running such a programme. It suggests ways in which these may be overcome and how students' well?being may be

  5. Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

    2008-08-01

    The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

  6. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967

  7. [Management of stressing events and prevention of post-traumatic stress in the railroad setting].

    PubMed

    del Nord, P

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the proper management of events that can lead to post traumatic stress, that are the situations where: the person experienced or witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. This document results from a collation of the knowledge acquired by railway undertakings and infrastructure managers on the management and prevention of post-traumatic stress. Having surveyed the various strategies for the management of post-traumatic stress as these are applied in the participating countries, a number of recommendations and best practices were identified and these are presented in this guide. This guide comprises two parts: * A theoretical document comprising several parts: Part one deals with the fundamental notions involved in post-traumatic stress and potentially traumatic events; Part two deals with a strategy for managing potentially traumatic events and sets out a reference framework to this end. This strategy is broken down into five key phases: risk assessment, preparation and prevention, intervention, post-intervention and follow-up, appraisal, including reports from experience. Practical "check sheets" stating the key messages to be understood and/or the specific actions to be taken before, during or after a potentially traumatic event. These sheets are intended for operational staff, managers, directors and support workers. This guide was prepared by a working group under the supervision of the UIC Safety Platform's Occupational Health and Safety Group (OHSG). The working group brought together psychologists, occupational physicians, ergonomists, safety experts, managers and safety directors. It is the fruit of interdisciplinary collaboration, marrying the concerns, needs and knowledge of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers from a variety of European countries. PMID:23405657

  8. Nutrition management of congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abad-Sinden, A; Borowitz, S; Meyers, R; Sutphen, J

    1997-12-01

    In this article we describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of an infant who had congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM)--a rare disorder thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Because of defective sodium-coupled cotransport of glucose and galactose in the intestinal mucosa, infants with CGGM suffer from chronic, profuse, watery diarrhea that often leads to hypertonic dehydration. This infant experienced persistent diarrhea and hypernatremic dehydration during the first 3 months of life. Despite management with elemental formulas and continuous nasogastric feedings during initial hospitalizations, worsening diarrhea and dehydration persisted and malnutrition occurred. Diagnostic evaluations ruled out cystic fibrosis and bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. Diagnostic tests also revealed normal pancreatic exocrine function and normal villus architecture. The persistence of glucose-positive, watery diarrhea, even when the infant was fed an oral electrolyte solution, led to the diagnosis of CGGM. The infant was treated successfully with a carbohydrate-free infant formula to which fructose was added incrementally to meet energy requirements. Parental education about dietary management of CGGM with specialized formula supplemented with fructose and solid food feedings was an important component of this infant's nutrition therapy. Aggressive nutrition intervention for the infants and judicious dietary counseling for parents can lead to normal growth and neurological development for an infant with CGGM. PMID:9404340

  9. Effects of a Stress Management workshop on perceived stress, state anxiety, and self-efficacy in counselors-in-training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vida Ann-Nicholas Fiorentino

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Stress Management workshop on perceived stress, state anxiety, and self-efficacy in counselors-in-training. It was hypothesized the stress management workshop with verbal persuasion e-mail messages would have a positive effect on decreasing perceived stress and state anxiety, while enhancing self-efficacy in counselors-in-training. The study participants were the practicum students from Spring\\/Summer and Fall, 2008

  10. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management. PMID:25775201

  11. Salicylic acid and the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog are involved in poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering of Pharbitis nil.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kaede C; Yamada, Mizuki; Shiraya, Takeshi; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-04-15

    The short-day plants Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil), var. Violet and Tendan were grown in a diluted nutrient solution or tap water for 20 days under long-day conditions. Violet plants were induced to flower and vegetative growth was inhibited, whereas Tendan plants were not induced to flower, although vegetative growth was inhibited under these conditions. The Violet plants induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress produced fertile seeds and their progeny developed normally. Defoliated Violet scions grafted onto the rootstocks of Violet or Tendan were induced to flower under poor-nutrition stress conditions, but Tendan scions grafted onto the Violet rootstocks were not induced to flower. These results indicate that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in the induction of flowering by poor-nutrition stress. The poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor, and this inhibition was almost completely reversed by salicylic acid (SA). However, exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions, suggesting that SA may be necessary but not sufficient to induce flowering. PnFT2, a P. nil ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the Violet plants were induced to flower by growing in tap water, but expression of PnFT1, another ortholog of FT, was not induced, suggesting the specific involvement of PnFT2 in stress-induced flowering. PMID:19906461

  12. Tolerating uncertainty: the exploration of a 10-week stress management course which supports a process of recovery, personal change and educational development for people experiencing stress and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Smith

    2002-01-01

    An exploration of a 10-week stress management and relaxation course which aims to support stressed and anxious learners. As students develop physical relaxation skills for the reduction in symptoms of stress and anxiety, they gain knowledge of stress management theory in relation to their own difficult life experiences and go on to self-select strategies for the management of personal stress

  13. Stress and Reproductive Hormones in Grizzly Bears Reflect Nutritional Benefits and Social Consequences of a Salmon Foraging Niche

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n?=?75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n?=?42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  14. Occupational Stress in Secondary Education in Cyprus: Causes, Symptoms, Consequences and Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjisymeou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    The survey attempted to look into the causes, symptoms and consequences that occupational stress has on teachers in Secondary Education in Cyprus and find ways to manage it. Thirty eight schools with 553 teachers participated in the survey. The sample chosen is a result of a simple random sampling and it is representative of the country's…

  15. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts

    PubMed Central

    ?wieca, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food.

  16. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts.

    PubMed

    ?wieca, Micha?

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  17. An online stress management workbook for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kelly M; Stoner, Susan A; Schmitz, KrisAnn; McGregor, Bonnie A; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral stress management groups have been shown to be decrease psychological symptoms and increase adaptive coping in breast cancer patients, but dissemination of this effective intervention has been challenging. The goal of the present project was to develop an online cognitive behavioral stress management intervention for early stage breast cancer survivors and evaluate its effectiveness using a 2 group × 3 time randomized, waitlist-controlled design. Intervention and waitlist control group participants were assessed at three time points: at baseline; at 10 weeks, after which only intervention participants had used the workbook; and at 20 weeks, after which both groups had used the workbook. Results indicate that at 10 weeks intervention participants showed improved self-efficacy for coping with their cancer and for regulating negative mood and lower levels of cancer-related post-traumatic symptoms as compared to the control group, suggesting that an internet stress management intervention could be effective for helping breast cancer patients increase their confidence in their ability to cope with stress. PMID:23212928

  18. Evaluating an online stress management intervention for college students.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Samuel; Frazier, Patricia A; Meredith, Liza

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a theory-based online intervention designed to improve stress management in undergraduate students. The intervention focused on present control because it has been found to be associated with a range of positive outcomes, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, controlling for a range of other variables (e.g., Frazier et al., 2011, 2012). Two pilot studies were first conducted to confirm that our intervention could increase present control. We then randomly assigned psychology students (n = 292) who were prescreened to have lower scores on the present control subscale of the Perceived Control Over Stressful Events Scale (Frazier et al., 2011) to 1 of 3 conditions: the present control intervention, the present control intervention plus feedback, and stress-information only. Seventy-six percent (n = 223) began the intervention, and 87% (n = 195) of those completed the posttest and 3-week follow-up. The 2 present control intervention groups had lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms (on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and perceived stress (on the Perceived Stress Scale; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) relative to the stress-information-only group at posttest and 3-week follow-up (mean between group d at follow-up = .35, mean within group d for intervention groups at follow-up = -.46). Further, mediation analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by changes in present control. Our intervention represents a potentially valuable tool for college mental health services. PMID:24635586

  19. An Examination of the Effects of Stress Management Training for Japanese College Students of Social Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumi Hirokawa; Akihiro Yagi; Yo Miyata

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a stress-management program for college students of social work on their perception of mental stress and stress-coping strategies. Students in a stress-management group received progressive muscle training, cognitive-behavioral skills training, and assertion training for 14 weeks. Their life events, stress symptoms, and stress-coping skills (active and passive coping

  20. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peńuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r?=?0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling performance under xeric outplanting conditions. However, fertilization increased growth under mesic conditions, whereas drought hardening decreased growth. We conclude that drought hardening and N fertilization applied under typical container nursery operational conditions exert opposite effects on the physiological stress tolerance of P. pinea seedlings. While drought hardening increases overall stress tolerance, N nutrition reduces it and yet has no effect on the drought acclimation capacity of seedlings. PMID:23370549

  1. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  2. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE REGIME SHIFT``JUNK FOOD''NUTRITIONAL STRESS

    E-print Network

    diets shifted in response to this change in fish community structure, and (3) a diet composed sea lion population is that a climate regime shift in 1976­1977 changed the species composition of the fish community and reduced the nutritional quality (energy density) of the sea lion prey field

  3. Co-occurrence and coaction of stress management with other health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Jessica M; Paiva, Andrea L; Redding, Colleen A; Butterworth, Susan; Prochaska, James O

    2015-07-01

    This study provides a preliminary investigation of the role of stress management in multiple behavior change. Risk status on stress management and five health behaviors (healthy eating, exercise, alcohol, smoking, and depression management) was assessed before and after a multiple behavior change intervention. Findings suggested a link between stress management and a worse health risk behavior profile at baseline. Results also showed relationships between improved stress management over 6 months and heightened odds of improving on specific behaviors as well as improving one's overall behavioral risk profile. Particularly strong links between stress management and energy balance and other affective behaviors were observed. PMID:24165862

  4. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

  5. A randomized trial of stress management for the prevention of new brain lesions in MS

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    A randomized trial of stress management for the prevention of new brain lesions in MS David C. Mohr the efficacy of a stress management program in reducing neuroim- aging markers of multiple sclerosis (MS stress management therapy for MS (SMT-MS) or a wait-list control condition. SMT-MS provided 16 individual

  6. AutoEmotive: Bringing Empathy to the Driving Experience to Manage Stress

    E-print Network

    AutoEmotive: Bringing Empathy to the Driving Experience to Manage Stress Abstract With recent in the car with the goal of helping to manage stress. These new interactions could help not only to bring this type of information can be used to help manage the stress of drivers. Permission to make digital

  7. Evaluating physical and nutritional stress during mycelial growth as inducers of tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation in Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

    2008-11-01

    Elevated tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat may be induced in conidia produced on fungi exposed during mycelial growth to sublethal stresses other than heat or UV-B. This is due to a phenomenon referred to as 'cross-protection'. Several mechanisms are associated with this increased conidial tolerance, one of which is the accumulation of trehalose and mannitol within conidia. In the present study, conidia of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were produced on mycelium subjected to nutritive, heat-shock, osmotic, or oxidative stress. The tolerance levels to UV-B radiation and heat of the conidia from stressed mycelium were evaluated, and the amounts of trehalose and mannitol accumulated in conidia were quantified. Conidia produced under nutritive stress (carbon and nitrogen starvation) were two-times more heat and UV-B tolerant than conidia produced under rich (non-stress) nutrient conditions [potato-dextrose agar with yeast extract (PDAY)], and they also accumulated the highest concentrations of trehalose and mannitol. Conidia produced on heat-shock stressed PDAY cultures had higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat than conidia produced without heat shock; however, both the UV-B tolerance and trehalose/mannitol concentrations in conidia produced on heat-shocked mycelium were less than those of conidia produced under nutritive stress. Conidia produced under osmotic stress (sodium or potassium chloride added to PDAY) had elevated heat and UV-B tolerances similar to those of conidia produced under nutritive stress; however, they had the lowest levels of mannitol and trehalose, which indicates that accumulation of these compounds is not the only mechanism used by M. anisopliae for protection from heat and UV-B radiation. Oxidative stress from UV-A irradiation or hydrogen peroxide did not produce conidia with elevated UV-B or heat tolerances. Conidia produced under oxidative stress generated by menadione had increased or unchanged tolerances to heat or UV-B, respectively. The levels of mannitol or trehalose in conidia were similar to those in the unstressed controls. Conidial yield was reduced, in some cases severely, by nutritive and osmotic stress; whereas oxidative and heat-shock stress did not alter levels of spore production. PMID:18938068

  8. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

  9. Nutritional aspects modulating brain development and the responses to stress in early neonatal life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire-Dominique Walker

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the critical factors insuring adequate growth and development in all species. In particular, brain development is sensitive to specific nutrient intake such as proteins and lipids, which are important for cell membrane formation and myelinization. Carbohydrate intake insures adequate short-term energy supply, but has important effects on the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to regulate

  10. Enteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papadopoulou; A MacDonald; M D Williams; P J Darbyshire; I W Booth

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric

  11. Bacteria modulate the degree of amphimix of their symbiotic entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterohabditis spp) in response to nutritional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincones, Johana; Mauléon, Hervé; Jaffe, Klaus

    2001-06-01

    Facultatively sexual entomopathogenic nematodes are a promising model for the experimental study of the adaptive values of sex. Our experiments in the laboratory showed that entomopathogenic nematodes display at least two different strategies in regulating the degree of amphimix as a response to nutritional stress. One strategy promotes the production of males, amphimix and the genetic variability of the offspring, improving the chances for a successful new adaptation. Another strategy increases the production of hermaphrodites at the expense of males, increasing the total number of reproductive individuals and thus the total number of offspring produced. Surprisingly, the strategy used depends upon the strain of symbiotic bacteria the nematodes are growing. The relevance of the results, in helping to discriminate between rival theories for the evolutionary maintenance of sex, is discussed.

  12. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Haboubi, Nadim

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements. PMID:20711440

  13. Beneficial Effects of a Q-ter® Based Nutritional Mixture on Functional Performance, Mitochondrial Function, and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y.; Vorobyeva, Darya A.; Carter, Christy S.; Anton, Stephen D.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter® based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn®) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q10 (Q-ter®), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn® supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn® supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. Conclusions/Significance These data imply that Eufortyn® is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn® supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age. PMID:20485503

  14. Nutrigenomic profiling of transcriptional processes affected in liver and distal intestine in response to a soybean meal-induced nutritional stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Bartie, Kerry L; Olsen, Rolf E; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300gkg(-1) SBM for 12weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress. The transcriptome was analyzed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine, with the hypothesis being that the liver transcriptome would be characterized by gene expression responses related to overall growth and health performance, whereas intestinal gene expression would be dominated by specific responses to SBM. A set of 133 genes was differentially expressed in liver including 44 genes in common with the intestinal response. The liver-specific response included up-regulation of genes involved in protein digestion, energy metabolism and immune functions, whereas genes in other metabolic pathways were generally anabolic and down-regulated. These responses may be more related to general nutritional stress than to SBM per se. The transcriptomic profile in the distal intestine was consistent with the enteritis response as described previously. This study provides a comprehensive report on the profiles of liver and distal intestine transcriptomes, specifically highlighting the role of the liver in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress. PMID:25916579

  15. Esophago-gastric motility and nutritional management in a child with ATR-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Arai, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Masataka; Ohno, Michinobu; Sato, Kaori; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Wada, Takahiko; Ida, Shinobu; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kanamori, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder that often involves gastrointestinal symptoms. Aspiration pneumonia related to gastroesophageal reflux has been reported as the major cause of death, but gastrointestinal function has not been well investigated. The present report describes a child with ATR-X syndrome who suffered from periodical episodes of refractory vomiting. We investigated the function of upper alimentary tract and found that esophago-gastric dysmotility and severe gastric volvulus were the major causes of gastrointestinal symptoms. This child was surgically treated with anterior gastropexy and jejunal alimentation through gastrostomy, and the symptoms were relieved with good weight gain. This report may provide insight into the gastrointestinal function and nutritional management in children with ATR-X syndrome. PMID:25252072

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  17. Agri-environmental grass hay: nutritive value and intake in comparison with hay from intensively managed grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O. Fiems; J. L. De Boever; A De Vliegher; J. M. Vanacker; D. L. De Brabander; L Carlier

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition, digestibility, nutritive value and intake of hay from an agri-environmental management (EH) were compared with those from hay (Lolium perenne) from an intensive management (IH). IH was of low to moderate quality because of unfavourable weather conditions. EH was harvested mid-June of 2000 (EH1) and 2001 (EH2) on the same sward that had not received mineral fertilizer for

  18. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

  19. Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea. PMID:24971280

  20. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  1. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

  2. A Stress Management Classroom Tool for Teachers of Children with BD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James T.; Owens, James L.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how stress may affect the lives of children with behavior disorders, provides educators with a model for introducing stress management techniques, and closes with strategies for managing stress in the classroom, including listening to relaxing music, manipulating the environment, and providing a morning physical education…

  3. The role of emotion control and emotional rumination in stress management training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Roger; Chris Hudson

    1995-01-01

    The present paper reports on three outcome studies evaluating the effectiveness of a new stress management training program. In contrast to conventional stress management, which tends to emphasize life-events, the symptoms of stress and relaxation, the new program is based on emotional rumination, emotion control, and attention control. The training developed from a series of experimental studies on the role

  4. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  5. Holistic Health Stress Management ProgramNursing Student and Client Health Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy Stetson

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the application of stress management techniques by nursing students to their clients (i.e., patients, family members, friends) within a model holistic stress management nursing course. Out of 90 students, 88 completed a Client Teaching Relaxation Questionnaire during the course. Responses indicated a decrease in clients' perceived levels of discomfort following a stress reduction intervention (paired t

  6. Sperm DNA damage caused by oxidative stress: modifiable clinical, lifestyle and nutritional factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Milne, S; Leeson, H

    2014-06-01

    DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is still debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high levels of DNA fragmentation will have significantly lower odds of conceiving naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be much more successful in this group, and couples may be counselled to proceed directly to ICSI, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses. However, ICSI is not without its limitations or risks. Ideally, DNA fragmentation should be investigated and minimized where possible in men trying to conceive naturally or through assisted reproduction technology. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed and in many cases are easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential sperm function, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction treatment. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. PMID:24745838

  7. Redox regulation of heat shock protein expression in aging and neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress: a nutritional approach.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Scapagnini, G; Colombrita, C; Ravagna, A; Pennisi, G; Giuffrida Stella, A M; Galli, F; Butterfield, D A

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in mechanisms leading to neuronal cell injury in various pathological states of the brain. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disorder with cognitive and memory decline, speech loss, personality changes and synapse loss. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand AD, but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clinically most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, increasing evidence indicates that factors such as oxidative stress and disturbed protein metabolism and their interaction in a vicious cycle are central to AD pathogenesis. Brains of AD patients undergo many changes, such as disruption of protein synthesis and degradation, classically associated with the heat shock response, which is one form of stress response. Heat shock proteins are proteins serving as molecular chaperones involved in the protection of cells from various forms of stress.Recently, the involvement of the heme oxygenase (HO) pathway in anti-degenerative mechanisms operating in AD has received considerable attention, as it has been demonstrated that the expression of HO is closely related to that of amyloid precursor protein (APP). HO induction occurs together with the induction of other HSPs during various physiopathological conditions. The vasoactive molecule carbon monoxide and the potent antioxidant bilirubin, products of HO-catalyzed reaction, represent a protective system potentially active against brain oxidative injury. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing the heat shock response. Increasing interest has been focused on identifying dietary compounds that can inhibit, retard or reverse the multi-stage pathophysiological events underlying AD pathology. Alzheimer's disease, in fact, involves a chronic inflammatory response associated with both brain injury and beta-amyloid associated pathology. All of the above evidence suggests that stimulation of various repair pathways by mild stress has significant effects on delaying the onset of various age-associated alterations in cells, tissues and organisms. Spice and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties, and it is generally assumed that the phenol moiety is responsible for the antioxidant activity. In particular, curcumin, a powerful antioxidant derived from the curry spice turmeric, has emerged as a strong inducer of the heat shock response. In light of this finding, curcumin supplementation has been recently considered as an alternative, nutritional approach to reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology associated with AD. Here we review the importance of the heme oxygenase pathway in brain stress tolerance and its significance as an antidegenerative mechanism potentially important in AD pathogenesis. These findings have offered new perspectives in medicine and pharmacology, as molecules inducing this defense mechanism appear to be possible candidates for novel cytoprotective strategies. In particular, manipulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms such as the heat shock response, through nutritional antioxidants or pharmacological compounds, represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing tissue damage, such as neurodegeneration. Consistent with this notion, maintenance or recovery of the activity of vitagenes, such as the HO gene, conceivably may delay the aging process and decrease the occurrence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:14661103

  8. Nutritional immunomodulation as an approach to decreasing the negative effects of stress in poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress can lead to changes in the immune response resulting in both increased and decreased resistance to opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Growth-promoting antibiotics have been a major tool in modulating host-pathogen interactions and limiting clinical and sub-clinical bacterial infection in conf...

  9. Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

  10. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, Viswanathan; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-01

    In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than is the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in wholegrains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts; moderate in alcohol consumption; and lower in refined grains, red or processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and improve glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. With an emphasis on overall diet quality, several dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, low glycaemic index, moderately low carbohydrate, and vegetarian diets can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although much progress has been made in development and implementation of evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted worldwide efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  11. Nutrition Management of School Age Children with Special Needs: A Resource Manual for School Personnel, Families, and Health Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White

    This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the introduction,…

  12. CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MINERAL NUTRITION IN CITRUS LEAVES UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Javier Bleda; Ramón Madrid; Antonio Lino García-Torres; Ángel García-Lidón; Ignacio Porras

    2011-01-01

    In vivo measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv\\/Fm) were used to evaluate the physiological effects of salt stress on two citrus rootstocks (Alemow and Cleopatra mandarin), with and without reciprocal grafts, grown in a nutrient solution with different sodium chloride (NaCl) levels: 0, 25, or 50 mM NaCl (T0, T1, and T2, respectively). Values of chlorophyll fluorescence, measured with non-destructive and

  13. Student-Led Stress Management Program for First-Year Medical Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Redwood; Michael H. Pollak

    2007-01-01

    Background: The medical education community has emphasized repeatedly the importance of teaching stress management and self-care skills to medical students. However, descriptions and evaluations of intervention programs are infrequent. This article describes a student-led stress management program for 1st-year medical students and summarizes program evaluation data from 1,111 participants.Description: The Stress Management Program is a voluntary activity that involves small

  14. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  15. Chill Out! Helping Gifted Youth Deal with Stress: What Are Some Specific, Practical Ways to Teach Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Terry

    2006-01-01

    What causes stress in gifted youth and what specific skills do they need to manage it? Although stress is a real presence in all people's lives, it can be more intense for the gifted because they are usually more sensitive, introspective, and emotional. Growing up gifted is a qualitatively different experience, which can manifest itself in the…

  16. Behavioral analysis of sources of occupational stress and responses of middle-level managers in the Gulf Coast petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A behavioral assessment interview procedure was used to identify sources of occupational stress, responses and effectiveness of these responses to stress. Seventy-three middle-level managers in three petrochemical companies in the Texas gulf area were interviewed. Six categories of stress were used to categorize the sources of stress obtained during the interview. The frequencies in sources of stress reported by managers

  17. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-07-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries. PMID:25996372

  18. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Marcela S; Sá, Luana A; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Laurindo, Paula SOC; Ribeiro, Danielle RG; Santos, Rogério S; Guzzo, Paulo; Dolabela, Maria F; Percario, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample included 24 children (both boys and girls) between two and eight years of age, of whom 10 were HIV positive and received supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus for a three-month period, and 14 were HIV negative and received no supplementation. At the beginning and conclusion of the study, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite and nitrate (NN), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant capacity of inhibition of diphenyl-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radicals were analyzed. RESULTS: Before supplementation, significantly higher values of TBARS and NN, but decreased values of DPPH, were observed in infected subjects when compared with HIV-negative subjects. After supplementation, a reduction of TBARS and NN values and an increase in DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were observed in HIV-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in HIV infection, with the participation of NN synthesis. Additionally, supplementation reversed oxidative alterations and improved antioxidant defense in infected individuals, and may become a complementary strategy in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25371688

  19. Carotenoid and lipid production by the autotrophic microalga Chlorella protothecoides under nutritional, salinity, and luminosity stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Campenni', L; Nobre, B P; Santos, C A; Oliveira, A C; Aires-Barros, M R; Palavra, A M F; Gouveia, L

    2013-02-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source for high-value products. The specie Chlorella protothecoides (Cp), heterotrophically grown, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of lutein and fatty acids (FA) and has a good profile for biodiesel production. This work studies carotenoid and FA production by autotrophic grown Cp. Cp was grown until the medium's nitrogen was depleted, then diluted in NaCl solution, resulting in nutritional, luminosity, and salinity stresses. Different NaCl concentrations were tested (10, 20, 30 g/L) at two different dilutions. After dilution, a color shifting from green to orange-red was noticed, showing carotenoid production. The best production of both carotenoids and FA was attained with a 20 g/L NaCl solution. The total carotenoid content was 0.8 % w/w (canthaxanthin (23.3 %), echinenone (14.7 %), free astaxanthin (7.1 %), and lutein/zeaxanthin (4.1 %)). Furthermore, the total lipid content reached 43.4 % w/w, with a FA composition of C18:1 (33.64 %), C16:0 (23.30 %), C18:2 (11.53 %), and less than 12 % of C18:3, which is needed to fulfill the biodiesel quality specifications (EN 14214). PMID:23160982

  20. Stressful Dieting: Nutritional Conditions but Not Compensatory Growth Elevate Corticosterone Levels in Zebra Finch Nestlings and Fledglings

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Mariam; Goymann, Wolfgang; Naguib, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species. As nestlings (day 0–17) or fledglings (day 17–35), subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding. PMID:20927394

  1. Cow-calf reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management to improve the sustainability of whole beef production systems.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Brady, M; Capper, J L; McNamara, J P; Johnson, K A

    2015-06-01

    Optimizing efficiency in the cow-calf sector is an important step toward improving beef sustainability. The objective of the study was to use a model to identify the relative roles of reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management in minimizing beef production systems' environmental impact in an economically viable, socially acceptable manner. An economic and environmental diet optimizer was used to identify ideal nutritional management of beef production systems varying in genetic and reproductive technology use. Eight management scenarios were compared to a least cost baseline: average U.S. production practices (CON), CON with variable nutritional management (NUT), twinning cattle (TWN), early weaning (EW), sire selection by EPD using either on-farm bulls (EPD-B) or AI (EPD-AI), decreasing the calving window (CW), or selecting bulls by EPD and reducing the calving window (EPD-CW). Diets to minimize land use, water use, and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were optimized under each scenario. Increases in diet cost attributable to reducing environmental impact were constrained to less than stakeholder willingness to pay for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Baseline land use, water use, and GHG emissions were 188 m, 712 L, and 21.9 kg/kg HCW beef. The NUT scenario, which assessed opportunities to improve sustainability by altering nutritional management alone, resulted in a simultaneous 1.5% reduction in land use, water use, and GHG emissions. The CW scenario improved calf uniformity and simultaneously decreased land use, water use, and GHG emissions by 3.2%. Twinning resulted in a 9.2% reduction in the 3 environmental impact metrics. The EW scenario allowed for an 8.5% reduction in the 3 metrics. The EPD-AI scenario resulted in an 11.1% reduction, which was comparable to the 11.3% reduction achieved by EPD-B in the 3 metrics. Improving genetic selection by using AI or by purchasing on-farm bulls based on their superior EPD demonstrated clear opportunity to improve sustainability. When genetic and reproductive technologies were adopted, up to a 12.4% reduction in environmental impact was achievable. Given the modeling assumptions used in this study, optimizing nutritional management while concurrently improving genetic and reproductive efficiency may be promising avenues to improve productivity and sustainability of U.S. beef systems. PMID:26115306

  2. Nutritional stress induces exchange of cell material and energetic coupling between bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Saida; Ranava, David; Cárdenas, María Luz; Trably, Eric; Rafrafi, Yan; Ducret, Adrien; Hamelin, Jérôme; Lojou, Elisabeth; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérčse

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the behaviour of bacterial communities is crucial for understanding biogeochemical cycles and developing environmental biotechnology. Here we demonstrate the formation of an artificial consortium between two anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium acetobutylicum (Gram-positive) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing) in which physical interactions between the two partners induce emergent properties. Molecular and cellular approaches show that tight cell-cell interactions are associated with an exchange of molecules, including proteins, which allows the growth of one partner (D. vulgaris) in spite of the shortage of nutrients. This physical interaction induces changes in expression of two genes encoding enzymes at the pyruvate crossroads, with concomitant changes in the distribution of metabolic fluxes, and allows a substantial increase in hydrogen production without requiring genetic engineering. The stress induced by the shortage of nutrients of D. vulgaris appears to trigger the interaction. PMID:25704114

  3. Parenteral nutritional therapy and risk of infection: review with proposed management guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. DELLA LOGGIA; V. KIREN; D. GIACOMAZZI; R. LUZZATI

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutritional therapy increases the risk of infection when compared with enteral feeding or delayed nutrition. On the other hand, some clinical circumstances require the delivery of nu- trition by central vascular catheter for both critically ill and chronically ill patients. Catheter-related bloodstream infection remains one of the most frequent infective complications in these patients, with an incidence ranging from

  4. Endogenous factors regulating poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering in pharbitis: The involvement of metabolic pathways regulated by aminooxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Koshio, Aya; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Okada, Rieko; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2014-09-26

    The short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory), Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil), was induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress. This stress-induced flowering was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), which is a known inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocycropropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and thus regulates endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA), IAA and polyamine (PA). Stress treatment increased PAL activity in cotyledons, and AOA suppressed this increase. The observed PAL activity and flowering response correlate positively, indicating that AOA functions as a PAL inhibitor. The inhibition of stress-induced flowering by AOA was also overcome by IAA. An antiauxin, 4-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid, inhibited stress-induced flowering. Both SA and IAA promoted flowering induced by stress. PA also promoted flowering, and the effective PA was found to be putrescine (Put). These results suggest that all of the pathways leading to the synthesis of SA, IAA and Put are responsive to the flowering inhibition by AOA and that these endogenous factors may be involved in the regulation of stress-induced flowering. However, as none of them induced flowering under non-stress conditions, they may function cooperatively to promote flowering. PMID:25462081

  5. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents. PMID:22054044

  6. A New Dimension: The Leader's Role in Identifying and Managing Stress in the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Regene L.

    This paper provides a conceptual framework for identifying high-stress, negative community college work environments and offers suggestions for managers who are willing to make the changes necessary to turn a stress-laden environment into a positive, more productive one. The paper begins with a discussion of workplace stress and the conditions,…

  7. Cross-cultural differences in occupational stress among British and German managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Kirkcaldy; C. L. Cooper

    1992-01-01

    A total of 255 managers (133 German and 123 British), predominantly from middle and upper management level working in diverse companies throughout both countries, responded to a survey assessing occupational stress and job satisfaction (Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI)) and leisure preferences (Leisure Interest Inventory (FIF)). A principal-components analysis of the correlation matrix between the 25 OSI subscales produced a 6–7

  8. Stress management training and relaxation imagery in the treatment of essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janis H. Crowther

    1983-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of three procedures in the treatment of 34 individuals with essential hypertension: (1) stress management training plus relaxation imagery, which consisted of an adaptation of existing stress management techniques in conjunction with extensive relaxation training using relaxation imagery; (2) relaxation imagery alone; and (3) weekly blood pressure checks. The relaxation imagery technique involved visualization

  9. Stressed triangular lattices on microsized spherical surfaces and their defect management

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    Stressed triangular lattices on microsized spherical surfaces and their defect management C. R. Li online 25 July 2008 Triangular lattices were assembled on spherical surfaces and caps via thermal stress the defect management strategy in nature. All the experimental observations can be explained by numerical

  10. Subjective Effects of Several Stress Management Strategies: With Reference to Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Pekala; Elizabeth J. Forbes

    1990-01-01

    This study assessed variations in reported attentional experience associated with several stress management techniques (hypnosis, progressive relaxation, deep abdominal breathing) and baseline (eyes closed) as a function of hypnotic susceptibility. Three hundred nursing students experienced the stress management conditions and afterward completed a self-report inventory, the Dimensions of Attention Questionnaire (DAQ), in reference to each condition. The DAQ quantifies 12

  11. The Transcription Factor DksA Prevents Disruption of DNA Replication upon Nutritional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tehranchi, Ashley K.; Blankschien, Matthew D.; Zhang, Yan; Halliday, Jennifer; Srivatsan, Anjana; Peng, Jia; Herman, Christophe; Wang, Jue D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Actively dividing cells perform robust and accurate DNA replication during fluctuating nutrient availability, yet factors that prevent disruption of replication remain largely unknown. Here we report that DksA, a nutrient-responsive transcription factor, ensures replication completion in Escherichia coli by removing transcription roadblocks. In the absence of DksA, replication is rapidly arrested upon amino acid starvation. This arrest requires active transcription, and is alleviated by RNA polymerase mutants that compensate for DksA activity. This replication arrest occurs independently of exogenous DNA damage, yet it induces the DNA damage response and recruits the main recombination protein RecA. This novel function of DksA is independent of its transcription initiation activity, but requires its less studied transcription elongation activity. Finally, GreA/B elongation factors also prevent replication arrest during nutrient stress. We conclude that transcription elongation factors alleviate fundamental conflicts between replication and transcription, thereby protecting replication fork progression and DNA integrity. PMID:20478253

  12. Management of post traumatic stress disorder after childbirth: a review.

    PubMed

    Lapp, Leann K; Agbokou, Catherine; Peretti, Charles-Siegfried; Ferreri, Florian

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence and risk factors for the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth is well described in the literature. However, its management and treatment has only begun to be investigated. The aim of this article is to describe the studies that examine the effects of interventions on PTSD after childbirth. MedLine, PILOTS, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials, pilot studies and case studies using key words related to PTSD, childbirth, treatment and intervention. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also used to supplement the search. A total of nine studies were retrieved. Seven studies that examined debriefing or counselling were identified; six randomised controlled trials and one pilot study. Also found were one case report describing the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on two women, and one pilot study of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). Overall, there is limited evidence concerning the management of women with PTSD after childbirth. The results agree with the findings from the non-childbirth related literature: debriefing and counselling are inconclusively effective while CBT and EMDR may improve PTSD status but require investigation in controlled trials before conclusions could be drawn. PMID:20653342

  13. Nutritional antioxidants and the heme oxygenase pathway of stress tolerance: novel targets for neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Butterfield, D Allan; Stella, Anna M Giuffrida

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in mechanisms leading to neuronal cell injury in various pathological states of the brain. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disorder with cognitive and memory decline, speech loss, personality changes and synapse loss. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand AD, but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clinically most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, increasing evidence indicates that factors such as oxidative stress and disturbed protein metabolism and their interaction in a vicious cycle are central to AD pathogenesis. Brains of AD patients undergo many changes, such as disruption of protein synthesis and degradation, classically associated with the heat shock response, which is one form of stress response. Heat-shock proteins are proteins serving as molecular chaperones involved in the protection of cells from various forms of stress. Recently, the involvement of the heme oxygenase (HO) pathway in anti-degenerative mechanisms operating in AD has received considerable attention, as it has been demonstrated that the expression of HO is closely related to that of amyloid precursor protein (APP). HO induction, which occurs together with the induction of other HSPs during various physiopathological conditions, by generating the vasoactive molecule carbon monoxide and the potent antioxidant bilirubin, represents a protective system potentially active against brain oxidative injury. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing the heat shock response. Recently, increasing interest has been focused on identifying dietary compounds that can inhibit, retard or reverse the multi-stage pathophysiological events underlying AD pathology. Alzheimer's disease, in fact, involves a chronic inflammatory response associated with both brain injury and beta-amyloid associated pathology. Spice and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties, and it is generally assumed that the phenol moiety is responsible for the antioxidant activity. In particular, curcumin, a powerful antioxidant derived from the curry spice turmeric, has emerged as a strong inducer of the heat shock response. In light of this finding, curcumin supplementation has been recently considered as an alternative, nutritional approach to reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology associated with AD. Here we review the importance of the heme oxygenase pathway in brain stress tolerance and its significance as antidegenerative mechanism operating in AD pathogenesis. We also discuss the role that exogenous antioxidant supplementation, conceivably, could play in AD in combating oxidative damage and compensating for the decreased level of endogenous antioxidants. Conceivably, dietary supplementation with vitamin E or with polyphenolic agents, such as curcumin and its derivatives, can forestall the development of AD, consistent with a major "metabolic" component to this disorder. Such an outcome would provide optimism that the signs and symptoms of this devastating brain disorder of aging may be largely delayed and/or modulated. PMID:15141484

  14. Training Programmes for Stress Management in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treven, Sonja; Potocan, Vojko

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present: the problem of stress employees might encounter; the individual inclination to stress; the individual methods for reducing stress; and the authors' model of training for stress prevention. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper uses both descriptive and analytical approaches to research and…

  15. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  16. Evaluation of the owner's perception in the use of homemade diets for the nutritional management of dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michele C C; Brunetto, Márcio A; da Silva, Flávio L; Jeremias, Juliana T; Tortola, Letícia; Gomes, Marcia O S; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Many dog owners see homemade diets as a way of increasing the bond with their pets, even though they may not have the convenience of commercial diets. Modifications of ingredients, quality and proportion might change the nutritional composition of the diet, generating nutritional imbalances. The present study evaluated how dog owners use and adhere to homemade diets prescribed by veterinary nutritionists over an extended period of time. Forty-six owners of dogs fed a homemade diet for at least 6 months were selected for the present study. Owners were invited to answer questions by first reading all possible answers and then selecting the one that best indicated their opinion. The results were evaluated through descriptive statistics. Thirty-five owners (76·1 %) found that the diets are easy to prepare. Fourteen owners (30·4 %) admitted to modifying the diets, 40 % did not adequately control the amount of provided ingredients, 73·9 % did not use the recommended amounts of soyabean oil and salt, and 34·8 % did not correctly use the vitamin, mineral or amino acid supplements. Twenty-six owners (56·5 %) reported that their dogs refused to eat at least one food item. All of these alterations make the nutritional composition of the diets unpredictable and likely nutritionally imbalanced. Although homemade diets could be a useful tool for the nutritional management of dogs with certain diseases, not all owners are able to appropriately use this type of diet and adhere to it for an extended period of time and this limitation needs to be considered when recommending the use of homemade diets. PMID:26101592

  17. The World Trade Center Attack: Helping the helpers: the role of critical incident stress management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Hammond; Jill Brooks

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare and prehospital workers involved in disaster response are susceptible to a variety of stress-related psychological and physical sequelae. Critical incident stress management, of which critical incident stress debriefing is a component, can mitigate the response to these stressors. Critical incident stress debriefing is a peer-driven, therapist-guided, structured, group intervention designed to accelerate the recovery of personnel. The attack on

  18. Nutritional management of infants and children with specific diseases or other conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystic fibrosis is characterized by progressive deterioration of pulmonary and pancreatic function. The former may increase nutrient requirements somewhat, but probably affects nutrition more by adversely affecting intake, particularly during acute exacerbations and in older children with severe pul...

  19. Reprint of: Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications?

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:26041952

  20. Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Genevičve

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  1. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Watson, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described. PMID:23015576

  2. Does interactive media enhance the management of stress? Suggestions from a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between interactive media and stress has gained wide interest in the mental health area. In our research, we found that interactive experiences helped people manage their stress. By combining different techniques, which may produce more significant outcomes than single-strategy programs, we developed a stress management protocol to increase self-awareness, to control and relax oneself, induce positive emotions, and substitute negative emotions. Our stress management protocol was tested in a controlled study comparing three interactive experiences (virtual reality [VR], video, and audio). Results showed the efficacy of all three interactive experiences in inducing positive emotions and integrating different approaches to manage stress. In particular, VR showed better improvements related to the psycho-physiological changes. Implications of the results for worldwide healthcare services will be discussed. PMID:22032797

  3. Association of stress management skills and perceived stress with physical and emotional well-being among advanced prostrate cancer survivors following androgen deprivation treatment.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Frank J; Benedict, Catherine; Zhou, Eric S; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce R; Soloway, Mark; Czaja, Sara; Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Advanced prostate cancer (APC) is associated with disruptions that compromise health related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment often includes androgendeprivation therapy (ADT), which results in a range of side effects (e.g., fatigue, urinary dysfunction) that further impact HRQOL. Despite these challenges, there are limited evaluations of the impact of stress and stress management skills on HRQOL among APC survivors on ADT. This study evaluated relationships among stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL, and it was hypothesized that better stress management skills would relate to greater physical and emotional well-being by mitigating perceived stress levels. Participants (N = 77) were 69.7 years old (SD = 9.8), 18.6 months post-treatment (SD = 17.5), and ethnically diverse (65 % Non-Hispanic White, 13 % Hispanic, 21 % African-American). Measures included the Measure of Current Status for stress management skills, the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress, and the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS SF-36; physical functioning and emotional well-being subscales) for HRQOL. Direct effects and mediation models were evaluated to determine the relationships between perceived stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL domains, controlling for relevant covariates. Stress management skills and perceived stress were significantly associated with physical functioning (? = .24, p < .05 and ? = -.43, p < .01, respectively) and emotional well-being (? = .35, p < .01 and ? = -.64, p < .01, respectively). Regression analyses supported the hypothesis that reduced perceived stress mediated the relationship between stress management skills and both physical functioning and emotional well-being. These results demonstrate that one way stress management skills may impact HRQOL is by lessening ongoing perceptions of stress. PMID:22739661

  4. Student Well-Being Interventions: The Effects of Stress Management Techniques and Gratitude Journaling in the Management Education Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L. Flinchbaugh; E. Whitney G. Moore; Young K. Chang; Douglas R. May

    2012-01-01

    Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students’ reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom interventions could influence these dimensions of student well-being. Specifically, the authors examined the impact of stress

  5. NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management. PMID:20126376

  6. Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

    2014-05-01

    The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

  7. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  8. Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pingleton

    1996-01-01

    Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease. S.K. Pingleton. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1996. ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment and management is an important therapeutic modality in patients with respiratory disease. Malnutrition adversely affects res- piratory function. Nutritional therapy for the spontaneously breathing patient should include an appropriate diet plus the consideration of nutritional supplements. Complete nutritional support should be undertaken with enteral

  9. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  10. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…

  11. Caregiver Stress and Physical Health: The Case for Stress Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, C.; Krisztal, E.; Rabinowitz, Y.; Gillispie, Z.; Oportot, M.; Tse, C.; Singer, L.; Gallagher-Thompson, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that providing care for a loved one with memory problems puts a person at risk for both mental and physical health problems. In the last several decades, research on chronic stress suggests that the body's physical response to stress becomes severely dysregulated as a result of chronic stress lifestyles such as caregiving. This…

  12. Menorrhagia: A synopsis of management focusing on herbal and nutritional supplements, and chiropractic.

    PubMed Central

    Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice. PMID:18060009

  13. Modularized Stress Management for Reduction of Predicted Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyda Hill; Nancy Smith; Sylvia Jasmin

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cost-effective modularized and self-paced learning method for reducing stress for beginning college students. Stress associated with entering collegiate programs significantly affects student adjustment and achievement. Many researchers report significant correlations between stress and serious physical and emotional illness.Two hundred ninty-nine students were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. All students

  14. Stress Management as an Enabling Technology for High-Field Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    E-print Network

    Holik, Eddie Frank

    2014-06-03

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb_(3)Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental...

  15. Achieving compliance in chronic illness management: illustrations of trust relationships between physicians and nutrition clinic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R Dibben; Mej Lean

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research from a study of trust and co-operation between chronic illness patients and their physicians, conducted in nutrition clinics. The paper details models of trust and co-operative behaviour designed to aid interpretive analysis. The paper then presents an interpretive discussion of 16 examples from interactions observed between patients and their consultants at the initial visit and

  16. The Relationship Between a Specific Stress Management Program and the Reading Attitudes of First Grade Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Bower

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Kiddie QR stress management technique would affect the reading attitude of first grade students. It was also the intent of the investigation to examine whether the subjects of the treatment group, identified as least stressed and most stressed, would make gains in reading attitude.\\u000aStatistical analysis of pre and post

  17. The Effects of a Stress Management Course on Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Holly; Abel, Annette; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a stress management course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent…

  18. Stress Management Consultation to Israeli Social Workers during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikel, Julie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Stress Management Consultation (SMC), short-term group intervention designed to enable social workers in Israel during Persian Gulf War to work through stress reactions and model method workers could use with their own target populations. Presents qualitative feedback from participants and administrators indicating that SMC model was…

  19. Cognitive Therapy, Stress Management Training, and the Type A behavior pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary A. Jenni; Janet P. Wollersheim

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of two treatments for reducing stress associated with the Type A behavior pattern was evaluated. One treatment, Stress Management Training, was a replication of a previously reported treatment. The Cognitive Therapy treatment, based on the principles of rational-emotive therapy, was designed specifically for this study. Both treatment groups were compared with a waiting list control group on several

  20. Surgical management of recurrent stress urinary incontinence: A 12-year experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fons A. Amaye-Obu; Harold P. Drutz

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the study was to evaluate the surgical procedures used to manage recurrent stress urinary incontinence in a tertiary referral center, to compare the procedures with respect to efficacy and failure rates, and to identify risk factors for failure. Study Design: The health records of patients who underwent surgical treatment of recurrent stress urinary incontinence performed by

  1. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  2. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  3. Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

    High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

  4. Primary Prevention for Mental Health: Design and Delivery of a Generic Stress Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Carmen; McRobert, Jim; Piller, Meeta

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates a stress management program, "Balancing Out," that seeks to target the needs of the local community. Quantitative results indicate that the sample had significantly higher stress levels then the norm at the beginning of the program and below population norms at program completion. Qualitative responses indicated that respondents had…

  5. School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and…

  6. Effectiveness of a Stress Management Program in Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Nursing Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreen Johansson

    1991-01-01

    This study sought to develop a stress management program based on the arousal-attribution stress model and to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in reducing anxiety and depression experienced by nursing students. Forty-two sophomore and 34 senior nursing students in a private, sectarian, liberal arts college were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. All subjects were given pre- and

  7. A School-Based Approach to Stress Management Education of Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan G. Forman; Patricia L. OMalley

    1985-01-01

    Stress in children and adolescents has been linked to a variety of physical and emotional problems as well as to poor school performance. Because of these negative effects, school-based special services providers need to implement stress management education programs it optimal learning and development are to occur. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral coping skills training have been effective in helping students deal

  8. EFFECTS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING OF SELF-IMAGE PERCEPTION OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED INDIVIDUALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Eniola; A. O. Busari

    This study investigates the effects of stress management training on self-image perception of the visually impaired individuals. The participants were thirty-three (33) purposively selected visually impaired students of Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, Nigeria with age ranging between 18 and 27 years. The research instrument used for data collection was visually impaired stress Questionnaire (VISQ). ANCOVA was the method

  9. Stress Management Through Written Emotional Disclosure Improves Academic Performance Among College Students With Physical Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Lumley; Kimberly M. Provenzano

    2003-01-01

    This study tested whether writing about stressful events improves grade point averages (GPAs) and whether decreases in writing-induced negative mood from the first to last day of writing predicts GPA improvements. College students (n = 74) reporting elevated physical symptoms were randomized to write for 4 days about either stressful experiences (disclosure group) or time management (control group). Students rated

  10. How to Master Stress 1. Understanding Stress

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    1 How to Master Stress 1. Understanding Stress Introduction to Stress Management Understanding Stress o Survival Stress o Internally Generated Stress o Environmental Stress, Job Stress and Fatigue How to Recognize Stress Optimizing Your Levels of Stress Managing Life Crises How stress can get

  11. Strategies for the Management of Lecturer Stress in Feedback Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The process of providing students with individual feedback on assessed work was identified as a source of lecturer stress (Stough and Emmer, 1998). An action research approach was used to address the following research question. What approaches to providing students with feedback minimize lecturer stress? Data were collected using written feedback…

  12. Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Roger J.

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…

  13. Managing Stress for College Success through Self-Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrese, Marie A.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)

  14. Changes in glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones as indicators of nutritional stress and subsequent refeeding in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    du Dot, Tiphaine Jeanniard; Rosen, David A S; Richmond, Julie P; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Zinn, Steven A; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-04-01

    Physiological responses to changes in energy balance are tightly regulated by the endocrine system through glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones. Changes in these hormones were studied in eight captive female Steller sea lions that experienced changes in food intake, body mass, body composition, and blood metabolites during summer and winter. During a period of energy restriction, one group of sea lions was fed reduced amounts of Pacific herring and another was fed an isocaloric diet of walleye pollock, after which both groups returned to their pre-experimental diets of herring. Cortisol was negatively and IGF-I was positively associated with changes in body mass during periods of energy restriction (mass loss associated with increase in cortisol and decrease in IGF-I) and refeeding (body mass maintenance associated with stable hormone concentrations in summer and compensatory growth linked to decrease in cortisol and increase in IGF-I in winter). Cortisol and IGF-I were also correlated with changes in lipid and lean mass, respectively. Consequently, these two hormones likely make adequate biomarkers for nutritional stress in sea lions, and when combined provide indication of the energetic strategy (lipid vs lean mass catabolism) animals adopt to cope with changes in nutrient intake. Unlike type of diet fed to the sea lions, age of the animals also impacted hormonal responses, with younger animals showing more intense hormonal changes to nutritional stress. Thyroid hormones, however, were not linked to any physiological changes observed in this study. PMID:19146974

  15. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjřrke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

  16. Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations. PMID:21860667

  17. Nutrition: a promising route for prevention and management of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses - in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. PMID:25460293

  18. Stress-wave energy management through material anisotropy Alireza V. Amirkhizi, Aref Tehranian, Sia Nemat-Nasser

    E-print Network

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Stress-wave energy management through material anisotropy Alireza V. Amirkhizi, Aref Tehranian, Sia that if this axis initially coincides with the stress-wave vector, then the energy of the plane waves would closely the required anisotropy, and to experimentally demonstrate the management of stress-wave energy in a desired

  19. Nutrition Therapy and the Management of Obesity and Diabetes: An Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian G. Arathuzik; Ann E. Goebel-Fabbri

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes and obesity have each become a national health crisis in recent years. The number of people who have diabetes and\\u000a prediabetes continues to grow with a predicted number of 336 million people worldwide with type 2 diabetes by 2030. The prevalence\\u000a of diabetes has risen in parallel with the increased prevalence of obesity. The optimal nutrition therapy for the

  20. Tolerating Uncertainty: The Exploration of a 10-Week Stress Management Course which Supports a Process of Recovery, Personal Change and Educational Development for People Experiencing Stress and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue

    2002-01-01

    A 10-week stress management and relaxation course helped anxious students develop skills and strategies derived from self-awareness. Course included stress theory, organizational skills (time management, goal setting), personal transformation, tolerance for uncertainty, and metacognition, with an emphasis on self-efficacy and autonomy. (Contains…

  1. An 8-week stress management program in pathological gamblers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Linardatou, C; Parios, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-09-01

    Stress plays a major role at the onset and relapse of pathological gambling (PG), but at the same time it can also be the aftermath of gambling behavior, thus revealing a reciprocal relationship. Although the role of stress has been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effect of an adjunctive stress management program on PG. In this 8-week parallel randomized waitlist controlled trial pathological gamblers, already in the gamblers anonymous (GA) group, were assigned randomly in two groups, with the intervention group (n = 22) receiving an additional stress management program (consisting of education on diet and exercise, stress coping methods, relaxation breathing -RB- and progressive muscle relaxation -PMR). Self-reported measures were used in order to evaluate stress, depression, anxiety, sleep quality/disturbances, life-satisfaction and daily routine. The statistical analyses for the between group differences concerning the main psychosocial study outcomes revealed a statistically significant amelioration of stress, depression, anxiety symptoms and an increase of life-satisfaction and a better daily routine in participants of the intervention group. We hope that these will encourage researchers and clinicians to adopt stress management in their future work. PMID:24912736

  2. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, ?-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility. PMID:24844127

  3. Stress in Adults after a Disaster: Warning Signs and Management 

    E-print Network

    Warren, Judith L.

    2005-09-30

    Experiencing a disaster can lead to erratic behavior, changes in mood, and even physical symptoms. The warning signs of post-disaster stress are explained in this publication. There are suggestions for helping victims deal ...

  4. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  5. Residual Stresses Management: Measurements, Fatigue Analysis and Beneficial Redistribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kudryavtsev

    \\u000a Residual stresses (RS) can significantly affect engineering properties of materials and structural components, notably fatigue\\u000a life, distortion, dimensional stability, corrosion resistance. RS play an exceptionally significant role in fatigue of welded\\u000a elements. The influence of RS on the multi-cycle fatigue life of butt and fillet welds can be compared with the effects of\\u000a stress concentration. Even more significant are the

  6. Perceptions of Guided Imagery for Stress Management in Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  7. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole research laboratory and has not yet been put to a definitive high-field test. The TAMU Physics Accelerator Research Laboratory has constructed a Nb 3Sn dipole, TAMU3, that is specially designed to provide a test bed for high-field stress management.

  8. Bibliotherapy Revisited: Issues in Classroom Management. Developing Teachers' Awareness and Techniques to Help Children Cope Effectively with Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Marilyn N. Malloy

    2006-01-01

    Are teachers aware of the stress in their classrooms? Do teachers plan for stress control? Educators need to understand why stress is a part of classroom life and how it affects the teacher-student relationship. Bibliotherapy can be an intervention in stress management through books. The use of appropriate reading material to help solve emotional…

  9. Chronic Stress, Cortisol Dysfunction, and Pain: A Psychoneuroendocrine Rationale for Stress Management in Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non–pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non–pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non–pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non–pain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  10. Factors Affecting Deer Diets and Nutrition 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Calvin

    2000-04-25

    Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...

  11. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  12. Randomized controlled evaluation of the effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gaab; N. Blättler; T. Menzi; B. Pabst; S. Stoyer; U. Ehlert

    2003-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. While neuroendocrine stress responses are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, evidence suggests that excessive activation of the HPA axis constitutes a risk for disease and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of cognitive–behavioral stress management training on endocrine stress responses and cognitive

  13. Aerobic conditioning and stress inoculation: A comparison of stress-management interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonita C. Long

    1984-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a jogging program [aerobic conditioning (AC)] with stress-inoculation training (SI) and a waiting list control (WL) in the treatment of chronic intermittent stress. The participants were community residents; 48 were females and 25 were males. Therapy sessions were conducted over a 10-week period with subjects meeting in small groups for 1 1\\/2 hours per

  14. Abscisic Acid-Regulated Growth Modulations and Its Application for Stress and Quality Management of Vegetable Transplants 

    E-print Network

    Agehara, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    modulation by the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The first part of this study evaluated the effects of ABA foliar spray on stress and quality management of vegetable transplants. In muskmelon seedlings subjected to water withholding, pre...

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-2: Operations and Activities of a Food Service Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waskey, Frank

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on operations and activities of a food service operation is the second in a set of three modules on occupational education relating to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  16. Ammonium nutrition increases photosynthesis rate under water stress at early development stage of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiwei Guo; Gui Chen; Yi Zhou; Qirong Shen

    2007-01-01

    An hydroponic experiment with a simulated water stress induced by PEG (6000) was conducted in a greenhouse to study the effects\\u000a of nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?), ammonium (NH4\\u000a +) and the mixture of NO3\\u000a ? and NH4\\u000a +, on water stress tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice (Shanyou 63) was grown under non- or simulated water stress condition (10% (w\\/v) PEG, MW6000)

  17. Nutrition and Exercise in the Management of Horses and Ponies at High Risk for Laminitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Geor

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are risk factors for laminitis in horses and ponies. Alterations in management, especially diet and physical activity, can be helpful in the management of these risk factors. Caloric restriction, ideally combined with increased physical activity, to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity is indicated for the management of obese animals. Strict control of dietary

  18. Ward nutrition coordinators to improve patient nutrition in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jackie

    It is important that patients receive adequate nutrition while in hospital. Reports and research over the past 10 years have highlighted the problems in the NHS of managing the nutritional needs of patients (King's Fund, 1992; McWhirter and Pennington, 1994; Edington et al, 2000). This article describes a successful pilot study addressing nutrition at the ward level. It resulted from a multidisciplinary team forming to share their specific nutritional concerns; through creative thinking they devised a new role of nutrition coordinator. In the study a healthcare assistant was used from the existing ward establishment and given one-week intensive multidisciplinary induction before commencing the role in the wards. The main focus of the role was to facilitate, rather than undertake, the nutritional care of patients throughout their stay. Following a 6-month trial, the role demonstrated a significant impact on nutritional screening, nutritional service, patients' perceptions of their nutritional care, and staff satisfaction. PMID:14581841

  19. The cachexia clinic: from staging to managing nutritional and functional problems in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vigano, Antonio; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Bruera, Eduardo; Borod, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Panels of experts have agreed on the definition of cancer cachexia stages (CCS). We evaluated the clinical relevance of these stages and proposed ways to apply the CCSs to the clinical practice via standardized methods. The CCS were applied to 207 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung or gastrointestinal cancers from the Human Cancer Cachexia Database via consensus among the coauthors. Patients were categorized as noncachectic, precachectic, cachectic, and in refractory cachexia. Through analysis of variance, ?2, and Kaplan-Meier analyses, we tested the relationships between CCSs and selected outcomes. The CCS were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with patient-centered indicators, including overall symptom burden, quality of life, tolerability to chemotherapy, body composition, hospital stay, and survival. However, precachectic and cachectic patients behaved similarly in all these outcomes but were significantly different from noncachectic and refractory cachectic patients. The average scores for the abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (aPG-SGA) corresponded well with the CCSs and reflected nicely the cut-off scores recommended for the nutritional triage of cancer patients. In addition to the aPG-SGA, we proposed the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and routine laboratory tests for the triage of patients with refractory cachexia, for whom comfort care is the primary goal. The cachexia clinic hosted by the McGill Nutrition and Performance Laboratory offers a model for diagnosing more precisely the pathophysiology and severity of precachectic and cachectic conditions. The cachexia clinic, by working closely with palliative care programs, may offer the best environment for a comprehensive and personalized approach to the nutritional and functional problems in advanced cancer patients. PMID:22831160

  20. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:26142998

  1. Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance. PMID:25373105

  2. Effects of physical and nutritional stress conditions during mycelial growth on conidial germination speed, adhesion to host cuticle, and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alston, Diane G; Roberts, Donald W

    2008-11-01

    Growth under stress may influence pathogen virulence and other phenotypic traits. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate ARSEF 2575) were produced under different stress conditions and then examined for influences on in vitro conidial germination speed, adhesion to the insect cuticle, and virulence to an insect host, Tenebrio molitor. Conidia were produced under non-stress conditions [on potato-dextrose agar plus 1gl(-1) yeast extract (PDAY; control)], or under the following stress conditions: osmotic (PDAY+sodium chloride or potassium chloride, 0.6 or 0.8m); oxidative [(PDAY+hydrogen peroxide, 5mm) or UV-A (irradiation of mycelium on PDAY)]; heat shock (heat treatment of mycelium on PDAY at 45 degrees C, 40min); and nutritive [minimal medium (MM) with no carbon source, or on MM plus 3gl(-1) lactose (MML)]. Conidia were most virulent (based on mortality at 3d) and had the fastest germination rates when produced on MML, followed by MM. In addition, conidial adhesion to host cuticle was greatest when the conidia were produced on MML. Media with high osmolarity (0.8m) produced conidia with slightly elevated virulence and faster germination rates than conidia produced on the control medium (PDAY), but this trend did not hold for media with the lower osmolarity, (0.6m). Conidia produced from mycelium irradiated with UV-A while growing on PDAY had somewhat elevated virulence levels similar to that of conidia produced on MM, but their germination rate was not increased. Hydrogen peroxide and heat shock treatments did not alter virulence. These results demonstrate that the germination, adhesion and virulence of M. anisopliae conidia can be strongly influenced by culture conditions (including stresses) during production of the conidia. PMID:18947989

  3. Finnish occupational physicians' and nurses' experience of work related stress management: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta

    2011-01-01

    Work-related stress has a strong influence on the health of workers. Occupational health care has an important role in assessing and managing this stress in collaboration with enterprises. The methods to reduce stress can be directed at the individual and at the organization as a whole. There is little information about stress handling methods in occupational health practices. This study aims to investigate these practices in Finnish occupational health physicians' and nurses' work. The data were generated through semi structured interviews of ten voluntary occupational physicians and eight occupational nurses in the metropolitan area of Finland in June 2009. The work-related stress was experienced as difficult to handle. There was no specific protocol for handling work-related stress in practice. Stress reduction activities were mostly randomly directed at the individual or the organizational level. Activities remained mainly on the individual level and were rarely allocated to the organization. There is a need for structured guidelines on how to manage work-related stress to assure standardized action on both the individual and organizational level. The roles of the physician, nurse and psychologist should be clarified in teamwork. Their collaborative activities should be directed also to the organisational level. PMID:22020021

  4. Occupational Stress and its Effects towards the Organization Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azizi Yahaya; Noordin Yahaya; Kamariah Arshad; Jasmi Ismail; Saini Jaalam; Zurihanmi Zakariya

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The aim of this study is to find out the causes of occupational stress within the organization and the implication on job satisfaction and intention to leave and absenteeism . The researcher chooses 100 employees in Companies Commission of Malaysia, a statutory body which regulated company and businesses. Approach: All questionnaires are gathered after 2 weeks after it

  5. Sports participation at work: An aid to stress management?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kerr; E. H. Vlaswinkel

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of sport participation on mood, including stress, arousal, and psychological reversals. The subjects (N = 42) of the study were enrolled in an international MBA program which included, in addition to a range of academic courses, a course in physical education for which attendance was voluntary. Subjects, 26 sport participants and 16 nonparticipants, completed mood

  6. The impact of detrusor overactivity on the management of stress urinary incontinence in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Henry Lai; Michael Simon; Timothy B. Boone

    2006-01-01

    The presence of overactive bladder symptoms, urodynamic detrusor overactivity, and urge incontinence can complicate the diagnosis\\u000a and management of stress urinary incontinence in women. The exact pathophysiology of mixed incontinence is not well characterized;\\u000a in some patients, the stress and urge etiology may be pathologically linked. The role of urodynamics in evaluating patients\\u000a with mixed incontinence remains controversial. Conservative therapies,

  7. Detection and Evaluation of Plant Stresses for Crop Management Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Jackson; Paul Pinter; Robert Reginato; Sherwood Idso

    1986-01-01

    The ability to quantitatively assess crop conditions using remotely sensed data would not only improve yield forecasts but would also provide information that would be useful to farm managers in making day-to-day management decisions. Experiments were conducted using ground-based radiometers to relate spectral response to crop canopy characteristics. It was found that radiometrically measured crop temperature, when compared with a

  8. [Stress cardiac MRI in management of ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Russel, S; Darmon, S; Vermillet, A; Haziza, F

    2014-11-01

    Stress magnetic cardiac resonance imaging (MRI) development is in progress. Many cardiac imaging technics already known are completed by this safe radiation free exam with a short time acquisition (30minutes) and a good diagnostic performance in particular for patients with three vessels coronary artery diseases. Best indication concerns symptomatic patients unable to exercise with intermediate or high pretest probability. Pharmacological heart stress can be induced with vasodilatators or dobutamine to identify the presence and extent of myocardial ischemia, with high precision to guide coronary vessels revascularization. MRI gives many other interesting informations like heart anatomy, left ventricular function. Myocardial viability can be assessed with study of late gadolinium enhancement or analysis of contractile reserve with low dose of dobutamine. PMID:25281219

  9. The effects of postpartum nutrition and suckling management on reproductive function and preweaning calf performance in fall-calving Brahman (B?o?s? i?n?d?i?c?u?s?) females 

    E-print Network

    Browning, Richard

    1992-01-01

    , and preweaning calf performance. At parturition, females were randomly placed into one of four management groups to receive either high or low nutrition and once daily or normal suckling treatmems. High nutrition (H) dams received 3. 6 kg hd 1 d of a... activity in the HX group appeared to be more synchronous soon after calf separation as compared to the variation in ovarian response time to controlled suckling within the LX group. High nutrition tended to elevate blood urea nitrogen, glucose...

  10. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Nienaber; G. L. Hahn; R. A. Eigenberg

    1999-01-01

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate\\u000a strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the\\u000a heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop\\u000a biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities

  11. Contemporary Perspectives on Stress Management: Medication, Meditation or Mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Overholser; Lauren B. Fisher

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events can increase the risk for developing a variety of physical disorders and emotional problems. A biopsychosocial\\u000a approach can help mental health professions to better understand and more effectively treat disorders that are related to\\u000a severe negative life events. Biological approaches focus on suppressing emotional reactions, usually through a reliance on\\u000a psychopharmacological interventions. Psychological approaches usually focus on

  12. Stress management using UMTS cellular phones: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Preziosa, Alessandra; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    One of the best strategies for dealing with stress is learning how to relax. However, relaxing is difficult to achieve in typical real world situations. For this study, we developed a specific protocol based on mobile narratives - multimedia narratives experienced on UMTS/3G phones - to help workers in reducing commuting stress. In a controlled trial 33 commuters were randomly divided between three conditions: Mobile narratives (MN); New age music and videos (NA); no treatment (CT). In two consecutive days the MN and NA samples experienced during their commute trip 2 x 2 6-minute multimedia experiences on a Motorola A925 3G phone provided by the "TRE" Italian UMTS carrier: the MN sample experienced a mobile narrative based on the exploration of a desert beach; the NA sample experienced a commercial new age video with similar visual contents. The trials showed the efficacy of mobile narratives in reducing the level of stress experienced during a commute trip. No effects were found in the other groups. These results suggest that 3G mobile handsets may be used as relaxation tool if backed by a specific therapeutic protocol and meaningful narratives. PMID:16404099

  13. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Jo Lynne W.; McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R.K.; Walter, Jeanne M.; McDade, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind–body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress–disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  14. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (?2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (?1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

  15. Nature-Based Stress Management Course for Individuals at Risk of Adverse Health Effects from Work-Related Stress—Effects on Stress Related Symptoms, Workability and Sick Leave

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention. PMID:25003175

  16. Improving the Health of Infants on Medicaid by Collocating Special Supplemental Nutrition Clinics With Managed Care Provider Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Alan P.; Peterson, Alwin; Manning, Claudine; Xu, Fujie; Neville, Loretta J.; Hogue, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study tested whether collocation of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics at managed care provider sites improved health care for infants enrolled in Medicaid and WIC. Methods. Weights and immunization rates were studied for the 1997 birth cohort of African American infants enrolled in WIC and Medicaid in Detroit, Mich. Infants using traditional WIC clinics and health services were compared with those enrolled under Medicaid in 2 managed care organizations (MCOs), of whom about half obtained WIC services at MCO provider sites. Results. Compared with other infants, those who used collocated WIC sites either were closer to their age-appropriate weight or had higher immunization rates when recertified by WIC after their first birthday. Specific benefits (weight gain or immunizations) varied according to the priorities at the collocated sites operated by the 2 MCOs. Conclusions. Collocation of WIC clinics at MCO sites can improve health care of low-income infants. However specific procedures for cooperation between WIC staff and other MCO staff are required to achieve this benefit. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:399–403) PMID:11867319

  17. Skilled Work in an Era of Management-by-Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mike

    1998-01-01

    If the labor movement is to survive technological change and lean-work reorganization schemes, it must address the issues of skilled work, particularly training; how management organizes work; and the relationship between skilled workers and the rest of the labor movement. (Author)

  18. The Relationship of Chronic and Momentary Work Stress to Cardiac Reactivity in Women Managers: Feasibility of a Smart PhoneYAssisted Assessment System

    E-print Network

    Shi, Weisong

    The Relationship of Chronic and Momentary Work Stress to Cardiac Reactivity in Women Managers and momentary work stress on HR reactivity among women managers. Methods: A sample of 40 women managers reported elevated HR only in the context of high chronic stress. Conclusions: Women managers who experience chronic

  19. Improved Health And Coping By Physical Exercise Or Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Training In A Work Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilde Grřnningaeter; Karsten Hytten; Geir Skauli; C. C. Christensen; Holger Ursin

    1992-01-01

    The effects of two types of stress-reduction interventions on physically inactive employees in an insurance company have been studied. After balancing for sex. level of job stress, and anxiety, subjects were allocated at random to: (a) aerobic physical exercise, (b) stress management training, or (c) a control group (no treatment). A total of 76 subjects (96%) were tested after ten

  20. [Role of dietary fibers in the nutritional management of chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Alphonse, J Cl; Deteix, R

    2004-01-01

    During the past few decades, considerable attention has been given to the impact of nutrition on kidney disease. Although most dietary attempts to treat chronic renal failure (CRF) and to decrease uremia recommend a protein restriction, another dietetic approach, based on dietary fibers (DF), can lead to the same urea-lowering effect by increasing urea-nitrogen (N) excretion in stool with a concomitant decrease of the total N quantity excreted in urine. In fact, feeding DF results in a greater rate of urea N transfer from blood to large bowel, where it will be hydrolyzed by bacterial ureases before subsequent microflora metabolism and proliferation. Because elevated concentration of serum urea N have been associated with adverse clinical symptoms of CRF, these results suggested a possible usefulness of combining DF with a low protein diet to increase N excretion via the fecal route. These results have been shown in animal models of experimental renal failure and in CRF patients. Further investigations in this population of patients are currently in progress to study whether DF may be beneficial on CRF progression and on CRF terminal stage tolerance. A part of this work is financed by the French Society of Nephrology. PMID:15584637

  1. Nutritional factors in the prevention and management of coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2015-02-01

    Nutritional factors such as magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, L-arginine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) appear to be significantly beneficial for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the prevention and arresting the progression of HF and cardiac arrhythmias. Additionally, ingestion of adequate amounts of protein and maintaining normal concentrations of plasma albumin seem to be essential for these patients. These nutrients closely interact with the metabolism of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) system, essential fatty acids, and eicosanoids such that beneficial products such as NO, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, prostaglandin I3, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins are generated and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines is suppressed that results in platelet anti-aggregation, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and prevention of CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and stabilization of HF. This implies that individuals at high risk for CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and HF and those who have these diseases need to be screened for plasma levels of magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, L-arginine, NO, various PUFAs, lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (an endogenous inhibitor of NO), albumin, and various eicosanoids and cytokines and correct their abnormalities to restore normal physiology. PMID:25592005

  2. The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Mimura; P Griffiths

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than

  3. Evaluating the impact of a worksite stress management programme for distressed student nurses: A randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn C. Jones; Derek W. Johnston

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of a stress management intervention designed to reduce affective distress in 79 student nurses who previously reported significant distress, was evaluated by comparing stress management with wait-list control. The intervention had reliable, positive effects on affective outcomes including General Health Questionnaire-30, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and a measure of domestic satisfaction. The intervention also

  4. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria Joăo; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (?-, ?-, ?-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For ?- and ?- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies. PMID:25028959

  5. Adapting Critical Incident Stress Management to the Schools: A Multi-Agency Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortorici, Joanne; Johnson, Luna Kendall

    2004-01-01

    The need for school-appropriate applications of critical incident stress management (CISM) is noted in the literature on school crisis response. This paper presents preliminary data suggesting a School Crisis Response Team's (SCRT) usage and team needs. The SCRT was dispatched for a variety of critical incidents. Self-dispatch, followed by…

  6. Management Characteristics and Employee Stress and Burnout as Reported in the Periodical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Darlene Ann; Blazek, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Describes a content analysis of 106 articles in business journals that attempted to determine the role and responsibility of management as it relates to employee stress or burnout. Results are compared to those of an earlier study of the literature of reference librarianship, and suggestions for future research are included. (Author/LRW)

  7. Manager's occupational stress in state-owned and private enterprises in the People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-qin Lu; Oi-ling Siu; Wing-tung Au; Sandy S. W. Leung

    2009-01-01

    Privatization that has taken place in the People's Republic of China has brought about improved profitability and effectiveness of enterprises. However, it is not known whether employees' occupational stressors and strains in private enterprises would differ from those in state-owned enterprises. This study aims to examine the major sources of manager's occupational stress in private and state-owned enterprises, and comparing

  8. School Programs Targeting Stress Management in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods: Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) between baseline…

  9. Stress Management in the Health Care Setting: Matching Interventions with Patient Coping Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martelli, Michael F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Prospective preprosthetic oral surgery patients were presented with a problem-focused, emotion-focused, or mixed-focus stress management intervention. The mixed-focus intervention produced the best overall response to surgery; the emotion-focused intervention produced the lowest adjustment levels. Better adjustment and satisfaction and lower…

  10. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  11. Surgery Insight: management of failed sling surgery for female stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig V Comiter

    2006-01-01

    Sling surgery has replaced Burch colposuspension as the most common surgery for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). While incontinence surgery has become a routine part of urologic care, the management of surgical complications and recurrent incontinence can be quite difficult. It is important that the urologic surgeon is well informed about the most common complications that are associated with

  12. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  13. The impact of a stress management programme on staff well-being and performance at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Rose; Fiona Jones; Ben C. Fletcher

    1998-01-01

    Stress management programmes were implemented for direct care staff in two group homes for people with learning disabilities. Staff working in three similar homes were used as controls. Assessments were made of anxiety and depression levels and demands, supports and constraints at work. Staff in the intervention houses were also observed at work to determine who they were interacting with,

  14. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Heinrich; Cyndie Coscarelli Schag

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-one ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses participated in a study to evaluate a stress and activity management treatment program (SAM) conducted in a group. Twenty-six patients participated in the SAM treatment condition, and 25 patients participated in the current available care (CAC) control condition. SAM patients and spouses were expected to improve more than

  15. Stress management techniques: Are they all equivalent, or do they have specific effects?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Lehrer; Richard Carr; Deepa Sargunaraj; Robert L. Woolfolk

    1994-01-01

    This article evaluates the hypothesis that various stress management techniques have specific effects. Studies comparing various techniques are reviewed, as well as previous literature reviews evaluating the effects of individual techniques. There is evidence that cognitively oriented methods have specific cognitive effects, that specific autonomic effects result from autonomically oriented methods, and that specific muscular effects are produced by muscularly

  16. Social Validity of the Critical Incident Stress Management Model for School-Based Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…

  17. Stress Management with Adolescents at the Junior High Transition: An Outcome Evaluation of Coping Skills Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Schinke; Robert F. Schilling; William H. Snow

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports an outcome study of coping skills intervention to help adolescents manage stress associated with the transition from elementary school to junior high. In a randomized design, sixth grade students from four elementary schools were pretested, then two schools each were assigned to an intervention condition and to a control condition. Intervention condition subjects received eight sessions of

  18. The Evaluation of a Stress Management Program for Middle School Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane de Anda

    1998-01-01

    A pretest posttest control group design was employed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-week stress management program for middle school adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents participated in the experimental groups and 18 served as controls. The experimental subjects, in contrast to controls, reported a significant increase in the use of cognitive control coping strategies, in the effectiveness of adaptive coping strategies,

  19. Stress Management for Dental Students Performing Their First Pediatric Restorative Procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie A. Piazza-Waggoner; Lindsey L. Cohen; Kavita Kohli; Brandie K. Taylor

    Research has demonstrated that dental students experience considerable stress during their training. Students' anxiety is likely to be especially high when they perform their first pediatric restorative procedure. The aims of this study were to provide a description of dental students' level of anxiety and typical coping strategies and to evaluate the use of a distress management intervention for reducing

  20. Effect of severity of stress on whole-body protein kinetics in surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuguhiko Tashiro; Hideo Yamamori; Kazuya Takagi; Yuichi Morishima; Nobuyuki Nakajima

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to clarify the quantitative relationship between the alteration of protein metabolism and the severity of surgical stress to further understand the mechanisms of body nitrogen losses in surgical trauma. Twenty-one patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer (group E), and 22 undergoing gastrectomy or colorectal operations for gastric or colorectal cancer (Group GC) were studied. All patients

  1. Corticosterone in thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri chicks: diel rhythm, timing of fledging and nutritional stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Quillfeldt; Maud Poisbleau; Olivier Chastel; Juan F. Masello

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) of the hypothalam– pituitary–adrenal axis play a role in association with both stressful events and daily life processes. However, relative- ly little is known,about the role of GCs in relation to daily and seasonal life processes in animals in the wild. In this paper, we present data on basal levels of plasma cortico- sterone CORT in chicks

  2. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  3. Four years of North American registry home parenteral nutrition outcome data and their implications for patient management

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, L.; Heaphey, L.; Fleming, C.R.; Lininger, L.; Steiger, E. (Division of Clinical Nutrition, Albany Medical Center, New York (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The OASIS Registry started annual collection of longitudinal data on patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in 1984. This report describes outcome profiles on 1594 HPN patients in seven disease categories. Analysis showed clinical outcome was principally a reflection of the underlying diagnosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, ischemic bowel disease, motility disorders, radiation enteritis, and congenital bowel dysfunction all had a fairly long-term clinical outcome, whereas those with active cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a short-term outcome. The long-term group had a 3-year survival rate of 65 to 80%, they averaged 2.6 complications requiring hospitalization per year, and 49% experienced complete rehabilitation. The short-term group had a mean survival of 6 months; they averaged 4.6 complications per year and about 15% experienced complete rehabilitation. The registry data also indicated HPN was used for 19,700 patients in 1987 with therapy growth averaging about 8% per year. This growth was chiefly from new cancer patients. The number of new patients with long-term disorders in whom HPN was initiated appeared rather constant. The authors conclude that these clinical outcome assessments justify HPN for long-term patients, but the utility and appropriateness of HPN for the cancer and AIDS patients remains uncertain and requires further study. Medical, social, and fiscal aspects of HPN management in long-term and short-term patients appear to involve quite separate considerations.

  4. A Nutrition Center Provides Practical Application for Teaching Diabetes Self-Management Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda D. Mack

    1999-01-01

    According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the incidence of diabetes in mis area is 1 in 14, much higher than the 1 in 20 national average. In spite of the high incidence of diabetes, there are no Endocrinologists or Diabetologists in mis community.To the fill the void, Certified Diabetes Educators have developed a Diabetes Self-Management Program in an off-campus

  5. Nutrition support to patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Ward

    2003-01-01

    Nutritional depletion has been demonstrated to be a major determinant of the development of post-operative complications. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at risk of nutritional depletion from inadequate nutritional intake, surgical stress and the subsequent increase in metabolic rate. Fears of postoperative ileus and the integrity of the newly constructed anastomosis have led to treatment typically entailing starvation with administration of

  6. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  7. Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2011-06-10

    This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

  8. A Systematic Review of Biopsychosocial Training Programs for the Self-Management of Emotional Stress: Potential Applications for the Military

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Shawn S.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Walter, Joan A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed. PMID:24174982

  9. Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which D-penicillamine is the most commonly used. D-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous D-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1 months (range, 5.9-39 months) after being effectively treated with D-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3±0.3 mg copper/1000 kcal and 64.3±5.9 mg zinc/1000 kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6 months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800 mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with D-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

  10. Nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets for weight management: observations from the NHANES.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Bonnie

    2014-07-01

    Observational studies have shown that body mass indexes of vegetarians are lower than those of nonvegetarians and that caloric intake of vegetarians is typically lower than that of nonvegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian diet could be an approach for weight management. However, vegetarians may be at risk of inadequate intakes of certain vitamins and minerals. Population-based studies indicate that vegetarians have lower mean intakes of vitamin B-12 and zinc and higher intakes of fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, and E than do nonvegetarians. Usual intake data suggest a similar prevalence of inadequacy between vegetarians and nonvegetarians for magnesium and vitamins A, C, and E, with both groups at high risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients. These same data report that vegetarians have a higher prevalence of inadequacy for iron, vitamin B-12, protein, and zinc than do nonvegetarians. Although mean intake data suggest that a vegetarian diet may be a useful approach for weight management, combined with energy restriction it may have a detrimental effect on diet quality. Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A and C, magnesium, and iron were significantly lower for vegetarians with energy intakes ? 500 kcal below Estimated Energy Requirements than for vegetarians who did not restrict energy. Vegetarian diets should be recommended for weight management; however, care should be taken to optimize food intake to provide adequate intakes of nutrients of concern when energy restriction is used in conjunction with a vegetarian dietary pattern. At any caloric amount, vegetarians should optimize intakes of vitamin B-12, zinc, and protein; and both vegetarians and nonvegetarians need to increase intakes of calcium, magnesium, fiber, and vitamins A, C, and E. PMID:24871478

  11. Post-harvest quality risks by stress/ethylene: management to mitigate.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce, in actual fact, is exposed to multiple stresses through entire post-harvest phase such as handling, storage and distribution. The biotic stresses are associated with various post-harvest diseases leading to massive produce loss. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and chilling cause cell weakening, membrane leakage, flavour loss, surface pitting, internal browning, textural changes, softening and mealiness of post-harvest produce. A burst in 'stress ethylene' formation makes post-harvest produce to be at high risk for over-ripening, decay, deterioration, pathogen attack and physiological disorders. The mutation study of genes and receptors involved in ethylene signal transduction shows reduced sensitivity to bind ethylene resulting in delayed ripening and longer shelf life of produce. This review is aimed to highlight the various detrimental effects of stress/ethylene on quality of post-harvest produce, primarily fruits, with special emphasize to its subsequent practical management involving the 'omics' tools. The outcome of the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of stress/ethylene which sustain fruit quality at post-harvest phase. PMID:25091877

  12. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

  13. Poor maternal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth leads to alterations in DNA damage and repair, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and oxidative defense capacity in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain; Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Land, John M; Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We reported previously that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero and postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) develop metabolic dysfunction and have reduced life span. Here we explored the hypothesis that cardiac oxidative and nitrosative stress leading to DNA damage and accelerated cellular aging could contribute to these phenotypes. Recuperated animals had a low birth weight (P<0.001) but caught up in weight to controls during lactation. At weaning, recuperated cardiac tissue had increased (P<0.05) protein nitrotyrosination and DNA single-stranded breaks. This condition was preceded by increased expression of DNA damage repair molecules 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1, nei-endonuclease-VIII-like, X-ray-repair-complementing-defective-repair-1, and Nthl endonuclease III-like-1 on d 3. These differences were maintained on d 22 and became more pronounced in the case of 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1 and nei-endonuclease-VIII-like. This was accompanied by increases in xanthine oxidase (P<0.001) and NADPH oxidase (P<0.05), major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The detrimental effects of increased ROS in recuperated offspring may be exaggerated at 22 d by reductions (P<0.001) in the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin-3 and CuZn-superoxide-dismutase. We conclude that poor fetal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth results in increased cardiac nitrosative and oxidative-stress and DNA damage, which could contribute to age-associated disease risk. PMID:23024373

  14. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that a pleiotropic antibiotic regulator, AfsS, modulates nutritional stress response in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Wei; Jayapal, Karthik P; Charaniya, Salim; Mehra, Sarika; Glod, Frank; Kyung, Yun-Seung; Sherman, David H; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2008-01-01

    Background A small "sigma-like" protein, AfsS, pleiotropically regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. Overexpression of afsS in S. coelicolor and certain related species causes antibiotic stimulatory effects in the host organism. Although recent studies have uncovered some of the upstream events activating this gene, the mechanisms through which this signal is relayed downstream leading to the eventual induction of antibiotic pathways remain unclear. Results In this study, we employed whole-genome DNA microarrays and quantitative PCRs to examine the transcriptome of an afsS disruption mutant that is completely deficient in the production of actinorhodin, a major S. coelicolor antibiotic. The production of undecylprodigiosin, another prominent antibiotic, was, however, perturbed only marginally in the mutant. Principal component analysis of temporal gene expression profiles identified two major gene classes each exhibiting a distinct coordinate differential expression pattern. Surprisingly, nearly 70% of the >117 differentially expressed genes were conspicuously associated with nutrient starvation response, particularly those of phosphate, nitrogen and sulfate. Furthermore, expression profiles of some transcriptional regulators including at least two sigma factors were perturbed in the mutant. In almost every case, the effect of afsS disruption was not observed until the onset of stationary phase. Conclusion Our data suggests a comprehensive role for S. coelicolor AfsS as a master regulator of both antibiotic synthesis and nutritional stress response, reminiscent of alternative sigma factors found in several bacteria. PMID:18230178

  15. Energy reallocation during and after periods of nutritional stress in Steller sea lions: low-quality diet reduces capacity for physiological adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    Two groups of female Steller sea lions (groups H and P) were subjected to periods of energy restriction and subsequent refeeding during winter and summer to determine changes in energy partitioning among principal physiological functions and the potential consequences to their fitness. Both sea lion groups consumed high-quality fish (herring) before and after the energy restrictions. During restrictions, group H was fed a lower quantity of herring and group P a caloric equivalent of low-quality fish (pollock). Quantitative estimates of maintenance and production energies and qualitative estimates of thermoregulation, activity, and basal metabolic rate were measured. During summer, all animals compensated for the imposed energy deficit by releasing stored energy (production energy). Group H also optimized the energy allocation to seasonal conditions by increasing activity during summer, when fish are naturally abundant (foraging effort), and by decreasing thermoregulation capacity when waters are warmer. During winter, both groups decreased the energy allocated to overall maintenance functions (basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and activity together) in addition to releasing stored energy, but they preserved thermoregulatory capacity. Group H also decreased activity levels in winter, when foraging in the wild is less efficient, unlike group P. Overall, sea lions fed pollock did not change energy allocation to suit environmental conditions as readily as those fed herring. This implies that a low energy-density diet may further reduce fitness of animals in the wild during periods of nutritional stress. PMID:19637969

  16. Worksite Stress Management with High-Risk Maintenance Workers: A Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen K. Peters; John G. Carlson

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of a worksite stress management\\/health promotion program with primarily minority blue-collar employees showing a number of high-risk health behaviors. In a biopsychosocial approach, participants were assessed with a standardized health risk appraisal that included physical and behavioral variables, plus measures of self-control, health attitudes\\/satisfaction, and other factors. A controlled group design was employed with pretreatment, treatment,

  17. Use of Injectable Urethral Bulking Agents in the Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aisha Khalali Taylor; Elodi Dielubanza; John Hairston

    2011-01-01

    The use of injectable bulking agents is a well-established approach to management of patients with stress urinary incontinence\\u000a (SUI). No single bulking agent to date has been shown to be superior or consistently durable in the literature. Novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies, including the use of injectable, muscle-derived stem cell therapy, have shown promising results in investigational\\u000a stages. Urethral bulking agent therapy

  18. Effects of Occupational Stress Management Intervention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine M. Richardson; Hannah R. Rothstein

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of stress management interventions in occupational settings. Thirty-six experimental studies were included, representing 55 interventions. Total sample size was 2,847. Of the participants, 59% were female, mean age was 35.4, and average length of intervention was 7.4 weeks. The overall weighted effect size (Cohen's d) for all studies was 0.526 (95% confidence

  19. Managers’ occupational stress in China: the role of self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-qin Lu; Oi-ling Siu; Cary L. Cooper

    2005-01-01

    The role of self-efficacy, an individual difference variable, in occupational stress research is seldom discussed, and is even rarely examined in Chinese societies. This study investigates the relationships between stressors, managerial self-efficacy (MSE) and job strains (job satisfaction, physical strain, and psychological strain). A total of 450 enterprise managers in eight cities of the People’s Republic of China completed a

  20. Pilot study of a self-administered stress management and exercise intervention during chemotherapy for cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick W. Wilson; Lindsay A. Taliaferro; Paul B. Jacobsen

    2006-01-01

    Goals of work  This pilot project explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a self-administered exercise and stress management intervention for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.Patients and methods  Thirty-nine of 56 eligible patients (acceptance =69%) with a variety of solid tumors volunteered for the study. Participants were advised to exercise 20–40 min at 50–75% estimated heart rate reserve 3–5 times per week. In addition,

  1. Cognitive-behavioural stress management for patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Henry; P. H. Wilson; D. G. Bruce; D. J. Chisholm; P. J. Rawling

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural stress management programme in improving subjective anxiety and diabetic control in 19 subjects with non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM, Type II) diabetes. Subjects were randomly allocated to either cognitive-behaviour therapy (n = 10) or waiting list (n = 9) conditions. Treatment consisted of six weekly 1.5-hour sessions conducted in two small

  2. Rational Thinking and Stress Management in Health Workers: A Psychoeducational Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talma Kushnir; Ruth Malkinson; Joseph Ribak

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the rationale and contents of a graduate-level practicum on stress management. The course objective is consistent with the current call for improved training in psychological issues in medical education. Participants were 39 occupational health practitioners (physicians, industrial hygienists, nurses, and physiotherapists) in the Tel-Aviv University Medical School graduate program in occupational health. Twenty-five students in the same

  3. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind\\/React “Stress-Managed” Block Dipole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McInturff; P. Bish; R. Blackburn; N. Diaczenko; T. Elliott; R. Hafalia; W. Henchel; A. Jaisle; W. Lau; A. Lietzke; P. McIntyre; P. Noyes; A. Sattarov

    2007-01-01

    A second phase of a high field dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind\\/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A&M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the

  4. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  5. Mission Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    swinward

    2010-04-12

    Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

  6. Nutrition Expert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

  7. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood glucose elevation in response to mental stress. Learning to Relax For some people with diabetes, controlling ... uncross your legs and arms. Take in a deep breath. Then push out as much air as ...

  8. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Some changes are major, such as marriage or divorce, serious illness, or a car accident. Other changes ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness. Traumatic stress, experienced in an event ...

  9. Weight loss resistance: a further consideration for the nutritional management of obese Equidae.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG; Curtis, Gemma C; Grove-White, Dai; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; Barfoot, Clare F; Harris, Patricia A

    2012-11-01

    Evidence-based, weight loss management advice is required to address equine obesity. Changes in body mass (BM), body condition score (BCS), heart (HG) and belly circumference (BG), direct (ultrasonographic) and indirect (D(2)O dilution, bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA]) measures of body fat as well as indices of insulin resistance (IR) were monitored in 12 overweight (BCS ? 7/9) horses and ponies of mixed breed and gender for 16 weeks. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups (Group 1, n=6, BCS 7.6/9 ± 0.6, 489 ± 184.6 kg; Group 2, n=6, BCS 8.1/9 ± 0.6, 479 ± 191.5 kg). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted to 1.25% BM as one of two, near-isocaloric (DE ?0.115 MJ/kg BM/day), forage-based diets (Group 1, 0.8% BM chaff-based feed: 0.45% BM hay; Group 2, 1.15% BM hay: 0.1% BM nutrient-balancer). Statistical modelling revealed considerable between-animal heterogeneity in proportional weight losses (0.16-0.55% of Week 1 BM weekly). The magnitude of weight loss resistance (WLR) or sensitivity to dietary restriction was independent of diet or any measured outset variable and was largely (65%) attributed to animal identity. Predicted rates of weight loss decreased over time. BCS and BIA were poor estimates of D(2)O-derived body fat%. Reciprocal changes in depths of retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were evident. Changes in BG were associated with losses in retroperitoneal fat and BM (r(2), 0.67 and 0.79). Indices of IR improved for 9/12 animals by Week 16. For obese animals, weight loss should be initiated by restricting forage DMI to 1.25% BM. Subsequent restriction to 1% BM may be warranted for WLR animals. PMID:23117030

  10. Benefit Finding, Affective Reactions to Diabetes Stress, and Diabetes Management among Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Vincent; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Fortenberry, Katherine T.; Butler, Jorie M.; Berg, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether benefit finding was associated with better adjustment among adolescents with diabetes by buffering negative affective reactions to diabetes stress and by promoting positive affective reactions. Design Early adolescents aged 10-14 with type 1 diabetes (n=252) described recent diabetes stressors, affective reactions, and perceived coping effectiveness. They also completed measures of benefit finding, depressive symptoms, and adherence. Metabolic control (i.e., HbA1c) was obtained from medical records. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were perceived coping effectiveness, depressive symptoms, adherence, and HbA1c. Results Benefit finding was associated with lower depressive symptoms, higher perceived coping effectiveness and better adherence, and with higher positive as well as negative affective reactions to diabetes stress. Benefit finding interacted with negative affective reactions to predict depressive symptoms and HbA1c. Negative affective reactions to stress were associated with poorer adjustment among those with low benefit finding, but were unrelated or more weakly related to poor adjustment among those with high benefit finding. Positive affective reactions did not mediate associations between benefit finding and any outcome. Conclusions Consistent with a stress-buffering process, benefit finding may be a resource that buffers the disruptive aspects of negative affective reactions to stress for adolescents’ diabetes management. PMID:21401255

  11. Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes. PMID:24875684

  12. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  13. Pre-weaning nutritional management and dry season nutritional supplementation on intake, growth and onset of puberty of improved Zebu heifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. N Bwire; H. Wiktorsson

    1996-01-01

    Two succeeding studies on the same heifers were conducted to investigate the effects of various methods of pre-weaning management during the wet season and feeding regime on the post-weaning performance during succeeding dry season (experiment 1) and the following wet season (experiment 2) of improved Zebu (pure Mpwapwa and Mpwapwa crossbred) heifers. The pre-weaning management systems were: Artificial rearing (R1)

  14. Cognitive–behavioral stress management increases benefit finding and immune function among women with early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie A McGregor; Michael H Antoni; Amy Boyers; Susan M Alferi; Bonnie B Blomberg; Charles S Carver

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study examined the effect of a cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on emotional well-being and immune function among women in the months following surgery for early-stage breast cancer.

  15. Intestinal permeability in patients after surgical trauma and effect of enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Hua Jiang; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    AIM: To study the intestinal permeability (IP) following stress of abdominal operation and the different effects on IP of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Forty patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomized into EN group and PN group. Each group received nutritional support of the same nitrogen and calorie from postoperative day (POD) 3 to POD 11. On

  16. "Learn Young, Learn Fair", a Stress Management Program for Fifth and Sixth Graders: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…

  17. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  18. Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training: Background, Methods, and Design for the ENHANCED study

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Wang, Jenny T.; Babyak, Michael; Watkins, Lana; Kraus, William; Miller, Paula; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with Stress Management Training in Patients with Heart Disease (ENHANCED) is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by the NHLBI to evaluate the effects of stress management training (SMT) on changes in biomarkers of risk and quality of life for patients enrolled in traditional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). METHODS: One hundred fifty cardiac patients recruited from Duke University and the University of North Carolina will be evaluated and randomized to CR enhanced by SMT (including sessions devoted to relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or to standard exercise-based CR. Before and following 12 weeks of treatment, patients will undergo a battery of psychometric questionnaires and evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers including measures of flow-mediated dilation, heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, platelet function and inflammation, and ischemia during laboratory mental stress testing. The primary outcomes include a composite measure of stress (distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility and 24-hr urinary catecholamines and cortisol) and a composite measure of cardiac biomarkers of risk (vascular endothelial function, cardiac vagal control, inflammation, platelet function and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia). Secondary outcomes include measures of quality of life as well as clinical events including death, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, and revascularization procedures. RESULTS: This article reviews prior studies in the area and describes the design of the ENHANCED study. Several key methodological issues are discussed including the assessment of biomarkers of risk and barriers to the integration of SMT into traditional CR. CONCLUSIONS: The ENHANCED study will provide important information by determining the extent to which SMT combined with exercise-based CR may improve prognosis and quality of life in vulnerable cardiac patients. PMID:20216360

  19. Stress Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic The EmpowerMEnt Challenge Resources How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids Top 10 Tips to Help ...

  20. A2-2: Improving Diabetes Management with Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Whitebird, Robin; Kreitzer, Mary; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Enstad, Christopher; Stuck, Logan; O’Connor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Managing diabetes can be challenging and stressful for many people resulting in poor diabetes control and increased mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Methods We conducted a pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a combination of mindfulness meditation and gentle yoga, to look at whether it could help patients better manage their diabetes. We recruited 38 people with diabetes and 2 HbA1c values > 8 in the prior 18 months to complete a community-based MBSR course. Participants attended eight-weekly intervention sessions and participated in home-based MBSR practice. Surveys and HbA1c values were obtained at pre and post-intervention, Cohen’s-d statistic was estimated for survey outcomes. Pre-post change was evaluated using paired t-test. Results Participants were 31- to 78-years-old (M = 57), the majority were female (68 %), white (70%), employed, with some college education. Mean HbA1c pre-intervention was 9.18. Participants showed significant improvement in pre-post measures of HbA1c (change .73%, P = .000), overall mental health (Cohen’s-d .69, P = .001), stress (Cohen’s-d ?.76, P = .001), depression (Cohen’s-d .62, P = .001), and anxiety (Cohen’s-d .66, P = .001). There was also improvement in two measures of diabetes management: Problem Area in Diabetes Questionnaire (Cohen’s-d ?.71, P = .002) and the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (Cohen’s-d .80, P = .000). Conclusions These results suggest that MBSR may offer a safe and effective method for helping people better manage diabetes and improve their mental health. Effect sizes were large and significant pre-post differences were found indicating that a larger clinical trial is warranted.

  1. Improvement in A1C levels and diabetes self-management activities following a nutrition and diabetes education program in older adults.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elizabeth H; Burnett, Sarah M; Johnson, Mary Ann; Park, Sohyun; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition and diabetes education intervention on improving hemoglobin A1C levels, diabetes self-management activities, and A1C knowledge in congregate meal recipients in senior centers in north Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample and completed a pre-test, an educational intervention, and a post-test (N = 91, mean age = 73 years, 60% Caucasian, and 40% African American). Following the intervention, (1) A1C levels significantly decreased by 0.66 and 1.46% among those with pretest A1C of > 6.5% and > 8%, respectively (P 6.5% were correlated with increases in physical activity (P nutrition and diabetes intervention improved several aspects of the diabetes self-management activities and A1C knowledge, with concurrent decreases in A1C levels in older adults; however, additional interventions are needed to improve A1C levels, diabetes self-management activities, and A1C awareness in older adults. PMID:17890205

  2. Anticipating on amplifying water stress: Optimal crop production supported by anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Simons, Gijs

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on the soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Drought but especially an excess of water in the root zone and herewith limited availability of soil oxygen reduces crop yield. With ongoing climate change, more prolonged dry periods alternate with more intensive rainfall events, which changes soil moisture dynamics. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to both drought stress and waterlogging will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities need to be provided with opportunities to reduce risks of decreasing crop yields. In The Netherlands, agricultural production of crops represents a market exceeding 2 billion euros annually. Given the increased variability in meteorological conditions and the resulting larger variations in soil moisture contents, it is of large economic importance to provide farmers and water management authorities with tools to mitigate risks of reduced crop yield by anticipatory water management, both at field and at regional scale. We provide the development and the field application of a decision support system (DSS), which allows to optimize crop yield by timely anticipation on drought and waterlogging situations. By using this DSS, we will minimize plant water stress through automated drainage and irrigation management. In order to optimize soil moisture conditions for crop growth, the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system need to be considered explicitly. Our study comprises both the set-up and application of the DSS on a pilot plot in The Netherlands, in order to evaluate its implementation into daily agricultural practice. The DSS focusses on anticipatory water management at the field scale, i.e. the unit scale of interest to a farmer. We combine parallel field measurements ('observe'), process-based model simulations ('predict'), and the novel Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD) system ('adjust') to optimize soil moisture conditions. CAD is used both for controlled drainage practices and for sub-irrigation. The DSS has a core of the plot-scale SWAP model (soil-water-atmosphere-plant), extended with a process-based module for the simulation of oxygen stress for plant roots. This module involves macro-scale and micro-scale gas diffusion, as well as the plant physiological demand of oxygen, to simulate transpiration reduction due to limited oxygen availability. Continuous measurements of soil moisture content, groundwater level, and drainage level are used to calibrate the SWAP model each day. This leads to an optimal reproduction of the actual soil moisture conditions by data assimilation in the first step in the DSS process. During the next step, near-future (+10 days) soil moisture conditions and drought and oxygen stress are predicted using weather forecasts. Finally, optimal drainage levels to minimize stress are simulated, which can be established by CAD. Linkage to a grid-based hydrological simulation model (SPHY) facilitates studying the spatial dynamics of soil moisture and associated implications for management at the regional scale. Thus, by using local-scale measurements, process-based models and weather forecasts to anticipate on near-future conditions, not only field-scale water management but also regional surface water management can be optimized both in space and time.

  3. A Public Health Nutrition Collateral within the

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    ), Newark Campus #12;Nutrition is an integral component of health and wellbeing of the population and is important for the improvement and promotion and health of populations. While Registered Dietitians NUTR 7215 - Nutrition and Behavioral Management NUTR 7310 - Nutrition Informatics All Public Health

  4. Managing mechanical stress in flexible active-matrix backplanes Sigurd Wagner, I-Chun Cheng, Ke Long, Alexis Kattamis, and James C. Sturm

    E-print Network

    Managing mechanical stress in flexible active-matrix backplanes Sigurd Wagner, I-Chun Cheng, Ke., in press). During manufacture the stress is managed to keep the TFT films or the substrate from breaking stress during their fabrication and when they are flexed in displays. Mechanical results obtained

  5. Silviculture Forest Productivity and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    15 Silviculture Forest Productivity and Nutrition Fire and Fuel Load Management Tree crops for bio to place compartments in a soil water availability class even if they are situated in areas remote from

  6. Effect of Sahaja yoga practice on stress management in patients of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, U; Gupta, H L; Singh, S H; Selvamurthy, W; Rai, U C

    1995-04-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of Sahaja yoga meditation in stress management in patients of epilepsy. The study was carried out on 32 patients of epilepsy who were rendomly divided into 3 groups: group I subjects practised Sahaja yoga meditation for 6 months, group II subjects practised postural exercises mimicking Sahaja yoga and group III served as the epileptic control group. Galvanic skin resistance (GSR), blood lactate and urinary vinyl mandelic acid (U-VMA) were recorded at 0, 3 and 6 months. There were significant changes at 3 & 6 months as compared to 0 month values in GSR, blood lactate and U-VMA levels in group I subjects, but not in group II and group III subjects. The results indicate that reduction in stress following Sahaja yoga practice may be responsible for clinical improvement which had been earlier reported in patients who practised Sahaja yoga. PMID:7649596

  7. Addressing Cultural Contexts in the Management of Stress via Narrative and Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew D; Kang, Xiao; Hanrahan, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In developing applications for stress management and mental health, developers have largely ignored cultural context in design, opting instead to produce apps for a general audience. However, apps designed without a specific population in mind actually have limited reach. Generally stress trackers and socalled "therapists in your pocket", tend to be lost among a jungle of other generic apps that appeal only to the quantified self population and those already predisposed to help-seeking behavior. To reach a broader audience, designing for a specific population may have appeal. The AppHappy Project's Journey to the West is a mobile app being developed by a multidisciplinary group of students at the University of Pennsylvania. The objective is to promote better stress management and mental health among Asian international college students and facilitate their social integration with the general student population. With a prevalence of depression twice that of domestic college students, a reluctance to engage in help-seeking behavior due to stigma, and the challenge of cultural integration, creating interventions for this population requires a different approach to app-mediated therapy. Journey to the West packages bite-sized pieces of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy techniques within the framework of a role-playing game. Every element of its design-from its characters to its art style, from its narrative to its mechanics to its approach to community features-is rooted in a culturally appropriate context. An avatar serves as a surrogate of self while experiencing externalized stressors. Each quest blends therapeutic elements into gameplay with the goal of building resilience towards stressful events. PMID:24875715

  8. The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP): ten year empirical support for critical incident stress management (CISM).

    PubMed

    Flannery, R B

    2001-01-01

    Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) refers to an integrated comprehensive, multicomponent, crisis intervention approach for addressing the psychological aftermath of critical incidents. It includes pre-incident training, acute crisis intervention, and post-incident responses. The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP) is a voluntary, system-wide, peer-help, crisis intervention program for staff victims of patient assaults. ASAP is a CISM approach, and this paper evaluated fourteen empirical studies of ASAP to assess the empirical justification for ASAP and CISM approaches, which demonstrated a 25%-62% reduction in staff assaults. PMID:11351510

  9. Management Effects on Biomass and Foliar Nutritive Value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis in Arkansas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Burner; D. H. Pote; A. Ares

    2005-01-01

    The browse potential of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and thornless honey locust [Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis (L.) Zabel] has not been adequately tested. Our objective was to determine effects of fertilization and pollarding on biomass and foliar nutritive value in separate studies of black locust and thornless honey locust in Arkansas, USA. Shoots were sampled monthly for two consecutive

  10. The University of Pi sburgh is studying ways to learn how to manage stress, improve quality of life, and maintain independence.

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    The University of Pi sburgh is studying ways to learn how to manage stress, improve quality of life, and learn how to be er manage daily stress and problems. DEPRESSION ABC The AgencyBased Collabora ve (ABC. Click Here if you would like to be contacted by a member of the iMANAGE study team. RECALL: Brain Health

  11. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  12. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  13. Nutrition Cafe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

  14. Stress-management interventions: A 15-month follow-up of aerobic conditioning and stress inoculation training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonita C. Long

    1985-01-01

    This report presents findings from a 15-month follow-up of a study that compared the effectiveness of aerobic conditioning (i.e., jogging) and stress inoculation training in the reduction of anxiety for chronically stressed community residents (N =61). At this follow-up, both interventions led to continued reports of significantly less anxiety and greater self-efficacy. The superior treatment effects of stress inoculation in

  15. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React"Stress-Managed" Block Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Sattarov, A.; Lietzke, A.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Lau, W.; Nyman, M.; Bish, P.

    2007-06-01

    A second phase of a high field dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb{sub 3}Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A&M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85% of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed.

  16. Exercise and stress management training prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation: Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Paul B; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Jim, Heather; Syrjala, Karen; Wingard, John R; Logan, Brent; Wu, Juan; Majhail, Navneet S; Wood, William; Rizzo, J Douglas; Geller, Nancy L; Kitko, Carrie; Faber, Edward; Abidi, Muneer H; Slater, Susan; Horowitz, Mary M; Lee, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    Studies show that engaging patients in exercise and/or stress management techniques during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) improves quality of life. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network tested the efficacy of training patients to engage in self-directed exercise and stress management during HCT. The study randomized 711 patients at 21 centers to receive 1 of 4 training interventions before HCT: a self-directed exercise program, a self-administered stress management program, both, or neither. Participants completed self-reported assessments at enrollment and up to 180 days after HCT. Randomization was stratified by center and transplant type. There were no differences in the primary endpoints of the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 at day +100 among the groups, based on an intention-to-treat analysis. There also were no differences in overall survival, days of hospitalization through day +100 post-HCT, or in other patient-reported outcomes, including treatment-related distress, sleep quality, pain, and nausea. Patients randomized to training in stress management reported more use of those techniques, but patients randomized to training in exercise did not report more physical activity. Although other studies have reported efficacy of more intensive interventions, brief training in an easy-to-disseminate format for either self-directed exercise or stress management was not effective in our trial. PMID:24910380

  17. Effects of short duration stress management training on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Edimansyah, BA; Rusli, BN; Naing, L

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effects of short duration stress management training (SMT) on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers, 118 male automotive workers from Pekan, Pahang (n = 60, mean age = 40.0 years, SD = 6.67) and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (n = 58, mean age = 38.1 years, SD = 5.86) were assigned to experimental and control group, respectively. A SMT program consisting of aerobic exercise, stress management manual, video session, lecture, question and answer session, and pamphlet and poster session were conducted in the experimental group. A validated short-form Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered before and after the intervention program in the experimental and control group and their time and group interaction effects were examined using the repeated measure ANOVA test. Results indicated that the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Depression (p = 0.036) and DASS-Anxiety (p = 0.011) were significantly decreased, respectively, after the intervention program in the experimental group as compared to the control group (significant time-group interaction effects). No similar effect was observed for the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Stress (p = 0.104). However, the mean (SD) scores for subscales of DASS-Depression (Dysphoria, p = 0.01), DASS-Anxiety (Subjective Anxiety, p = 0.007, Situational Anxiety, p = 0.048), and DASS-Stress (Nervous Arousal, p = 0.018, Easily Upset, p = 0.047) showed significant time and group interaction effects. These findings suggest that short duration SMT is effective in reducing some aspects of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive workers. PMID:19021918

  18. The design of a stress-management programme for nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Lees, S; Ellis, N

    1990-08-01

    This study identifies the stressors and coping strategies of nursing staff (students, trained staff and those who had left the profession before qualification) in a variety of ward specialisms. The research instruments included an open-ended interview concerning pre-nursing experience, perceived stressors and satisfactions, and ways of coping, and psychometric tests of self-esteem, assertion, ways of coping and personality. The five most frequently cited stressors were understaffing, conflict with nurses, dealing with death and dying, overwork and conflict with doctors. Experience of stressors was related to role and seniority of respondents, with different aspects of the same stressor differentially affecting nurses at different levels of experience. Coping strategies also depended on experience. Trained staff showed more use of problem-focused ways of coping, whilst students and leavers relied more on emotion-focused strategies to deal with stressful situations. These differences were related to personality characteristics of respondents and to self-esteem as well as to situational characteristics of the stressful episode. Social support was important in times of work-related stress, with students in particular making good use of peer group support. Respondents were generally lacking in assertiveness and high in anxiety. Although self-esteem was generally high, leavers scored markedly less than other subject groups in the areas of personal and social self-esteem. Leavers had little prior knowledge or experience of nursing before entering training and knew few nurses or doctors: consequently, nursing failed to meet their expectations. Stress was identified as the major cause of attrition and the sources of stress are identified. This study informed a major programme of stress-management training for student nurses which began in 1988 at the North Wales School of Nursing and which is currently under evaluation. It includes relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, and on-going group discussions which foster peer-group support and which explore the stressors and coping strategies relevant to different stages of training and ward specialisms. PMID:2229692

  19. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life. PMID:20388698

  20. Clinical trials in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Hsu-Hage, B H; Lukito, W

    1999-09-01

    Trials of nutritional intervention in a wide range of health and disease states, preventive and therapeutic, are required. Not only has the emergence of chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) with acknowledged nutritional pathogenesis created this imperative need, but so also have other conditions which, previously, had not been regarded as nutritionally based. Among the latter are health problems associated with ageing: the menopause, a decline in immune function, and a decline in cognitive function. At the same time, there is a new set of materno-foetal and infant nutrition issues for investigation which relate to new food exposures and the long-term effects of nutritionally mediated gene expression. The emergence of the new food science of phytochemicals with human biological importance also sets the scene for their evaluation in traditional diets and novel foods. Such trials are more complex than comparable pharmacotherapeutic studies because of the complexity of food chemistry, as well as the food behavioural changes which may accompany a nutritional intervention, and the general problem of there not being a 'gold standard' for food intake methodology. Choice of study population is also a key issue in relation to the extrapolation of findings from a particular trial, with population representativeness being an advantage. In order to obtain useful information on manageable sample sizes, either intermediate end-points (short of morbidity and mortality) need to be studied or high-risk groups (such as the aged) need to be recruited. There are some unique ethical issues which must inform clinical nutrition trials. These include certain preventive imperatives like the right to be fed, the risks in disruption of food cultures and the need for food security and sustainability. Rapid changes in the food supply do, however, make such trials more important, while the value of food-health knowledge that cannot be obtained by trial must still be appreciated. PMID:24394168

  1. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  2. Stress and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S; O'Farrell, I; Erasi, M; Kochar, M S

    1998-12-01

    Stress can cause hypertension through repeated blood pressure elevations as well as by stimulation of the nervous system to produce large amounts of vasoconstricting hormones that increase blood pressure. Factors affecting blood pressure through stress include white coat hypertension, job strain, race, social environment, and emotional distress. Furthermore, when one risk factor is coupled with other stress producing factors, the effect on blood pressure is multiplied. Overall, studies show that stress does not directly cause hypertension, but can have an effect on its development. A variety of non-pharmacologic treatments to manage stress have been found effective in reducing blood pressure and development of hypertension, examples of which are meditation, acupressure, biofeedback and music therapy. Recent results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that 50 million American adults have hypertension (defined to be a systolic blood pressure of greater than 139 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of greater than 89 mm Hg). In 95% of these cases, the cause of hypertension is unknown and they are categorized as "essential" hypertension. Although a single cause may not be identified, the general consensus is that various factors contribute to blood pressure elevation in essential hypertension. In these days of 70 hour work weeks, pagers, fax machines, and endless committee meetings, stress has become a prevalent part of people's lives; therefore the effect of stress on blood pressure is of increasing relevance and importance. Although stress may not directly cause hypertension, it can lead to repeated blood pressure elevations, which eventually may lead to hypertension. In this article we explore how stress can cause hypertension and what can be done about it. PMID:9894438

  3. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion: current updates on a promising novel therapy for the management of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Gohel, Tushar; Deen, Omer J.; DeChicco, Robert; Shatnawei, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterized by loss of enteral function to absorb necessary nutrients and water to sustain life. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapeutic modality for patients with intestinal failure. Lifelong PN is also needed for patients who have short bowel syndrome due to extensive resection or a dysmotility disorder with malabsorption. However, prolonged PN is associated with short-term and long-term complications. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is one of the long-term complications associated with the use of an intravenous lipid emulsion to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in these patients. PNALD affects 30–60% of the adult population on long-term PN. Further, PNALD is one of the indications for isolated liver or combined liver and intestinal transplantation. There is no consensus on how to manage PNALD, but fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FOBLE) has been suggested to play an important role both in its prevention and reversal. There is significant improvement in liver function in those who received FOBLE as lipid supplement compared with those who received soy-based lipid emulsion. Studies have also demonstrated that FOBLE reverses hepatic steatosis and reduces markers of inflammation in patients on long-term PN. Future prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further strengthen the positive role of FOBLE in PNALD. PMID:25858884

  4. A Pilot study of Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Effects on Stress, Quality of life, and Symptoms in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Corina; Antoni, Michael; Penedo, Frank; Weiss, Donna; Cruess, Stacy; Segotas, Mary-Catherine; Helder, Lynn; Siegel, Scott; Klimas, Nancy; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present pilot study was designed to test the effects of a 12 week group-based Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention on stress, quality of life, and symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We hypothesized that participants randomized to CBSM would report improvements in perceived stress, mood, quality of life, and CFS symptomatology from pre-to-post intervention compared to those receiving a psychoeducational (PE) seminar control. METHOD We recruited 69 persons with a bonafide diagnosis of CFS and randomized 44 to CBSM and 25 to PE. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS),Profile of Mood States (POMS), Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), and a CDC-based CFS symptom checklist pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS Repeated Measures ANOVA revealed a significant group × time interaction for PSS, POMS-total mood disturbance, and QOLIscores, such that participants in CBSM evidenced greater improvements than those in PE. Participants in CBSM also reported decreases in severity of CFS symptoms vs. those in PE. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that CBSM is beneficial for managing distress, improving quality of life, and alleviating CFS symptom severity. PMID:21414452

  5. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  6. The Food and Nutrition Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) of the National Agricultural Library (USDA) maintains a variety of electronic access points for the full texts of its bibliographies, resource lists, and fact sheets. Topics include Food Labeling Educational Materials, Food and Nutrition Software and Multimedia, and educational materials covering Foodborne Illness and the Food Guide Pyramid. Additional information is available on human nutrition, nutrition education, food service management, and other topics. Gopher to: gopher.nalusda.gov select: NAL Information Centers/Food and Nutrition Information Center

  7. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop mana...

  8. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module I-C-2: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Wholesomeness and Quality of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Evelyn

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on regulatory agencies responsible for wholesomeness and quality of foods is the second in a set of five modules on consumer education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer…

  9. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  10. Management of ischiopubic stress fracture in patients with anorexia nervosa and excessive compulsive exercising.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Bazzani, Paola; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 28-year-old non-athlete female patient with anorexia nervosa who was diagnosed with an ischiopubic ramus stress fracture and treated successfully as an inpatient with a cognitive behaviour-based therapy. The patient's clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described, and a brief review of the relevant literature is included. The importance of this case report stems from the rarity of descriptions of this kind of injury in such patients, despite their inherent risk, and the originality of the treatment applied. This, in addition to the usual approach to medical management, exploited specific cognitive and behavioural procedures and strategies to address the patient's excessive compulsive exercising, promoting rest and movement avoidance in order to allow the fracture to heal, while simultaneously addressing the underlying psychopathology. PMID:25301426

  11. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  12. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React 'Stress-Managed' BlockDipole

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.; Bish, P.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott,T.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; Lau, W.; Lietzke, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Nyman, M.; Sattarov, A.; Sattarov, A.

    2006-08-25

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology developmenthas been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, usingmagnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primaryobjective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of thestress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A&M. In this strategy ahigh-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to interceptLorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate inthe outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent withshort sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. Thedecoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings wasvalidated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkablerobustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of shortsample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness isattributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to thefield in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation thatcharacterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and thenext development phase plans are discussed.

  13. Impact of a mindfulness stress management program on stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Charikleia; Bacopoulou, Flora; Livadas, Sarantis; Kandaraki, Anna; Karachalios, Athanasios; Chrousos, George P; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with a significant psychological burden throughout the life course of affected women. Thus, use of mindful awareness may be beneficial as an adjunct to conventional medical management of women with PCOS. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at the Evgenideion Hospital of the Athens University Medical School to explore the impact of an 8-week mindfulness stress management program on measures of depression, anxiety and stress as well as on the quality of life in reproductive age women with PCOS. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Twenty-three and 15 women with PCOS were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group, respectively. All participants were administered DASS21, PSS-14, PCOSQ, Daily Life and General Life Satisfaction Questionnaires and provided three-timed daily samples of salivary cortisol, before and after the intervention. Intervention group participants were provided with the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire at the day of enrolment, to check for possible placebo effect on the outcome. Post-intervention, between-group results revealed statistically significant reductions in stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as in salivary cortisol concentrations, along with an increase in Life Satisfaction and Quality of Life scores in the intervention group only. There was no significant "placebo" effect on the outcome measures. Mindfulness techniques seem promising in ameliorating stress, anxiety, depression and the quality of life in women with PCOS and could be used as an adjunct method to the conventional management of these women. PMID:25287137

  14. Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit--A Unique Stress Management Program That Improves Lifestyle Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter-Smith, Molly; Massey, Vera; Rellergert, Linda; Wissmann, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit is a multi-session group program developed by University of Missouri Extension that provides a unique and practical approach to helping adults better managing their stress and bounce back from life's challenges while improving lifestyle behaviors. The program combines mindfulness and a variety of other…

  15. WATER STRESS AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GAS EXCHANGE, WATER RELATIONS, AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ejaz Ahmad Waraich; R. Ahmad; Saifullah; A. Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted over two years to evaluate the gas exchange, water relations, and water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat under different water stress and nitrogen management practices at Crop Physiology Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Four irrigation regimes and four nitrogen levels, i.e., 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha were applied in this

  16. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  17. Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

  18. The effects of stress management on the quality of life of patients following acute myocardial infarction or coronary bypass surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Trzcieniecka-Green; A. Steptoe

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of group-based stress management training on emotional well- being, functional status, social activity and chest pain in cardiac patients, within a randomized controlled trial. Fifty acute myocardial infarction and 50 coronary artery bypass patients were randomized to experimental (27 myo- cardial infarction and 23 coronary artery bypass) and control (23

  19. The effects of stress management on symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, secretory immunoglobulin A, and mood in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle R Reid; Laurel T Mackinnon; Peter D Drummond

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of a stress management programme on symptoms of colds and influenza in 27 university students before and after the examination period. Method: The incidence of symptoms, levels of negative affect, and secretion rate of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were recorded for 5 weeks before treatment, for the 4 weeks of treatment, and for 8 weeks

  20. Managing posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression in women veterans during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, Geetha; Anderson, Elizabeth H; Surís, Alina M

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) era women Veterans, most of whom are younger compared to other women Veterans, presenting with mental health issues is expected to pose new clinical challenges. Treatment of mental health conditions in women Veterans is not considered comprehensive without adequate examination of the impact of reproductive events across the life span, such as their menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum period, and menopausal transition. The overarching aim of this article is to discuss emerging clinical issues in managing common psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression during pregnancy and postpartum period in the VA healthcare system and secondly, to identify steps to advance the knowledge and understanding of these complex issues. Information to be gained in this area has immediate clinical application in the overall management of major psychiatric conditions in women Veterans during pregnancy and postpartum, and implications for policy-making decisions. PMID:25560190

  1. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments. PMID:25081580

  2. Firefighter feedback during active cooling: A useful tool for heat stress management?

    PubMed

    Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide decisions of heat stress management. PMID:25455942

  3. A case study in R and D productivity: Helping the program manager cope with job stress and improve communication effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, W. D.; Gerloff, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain structural changes in the Naval Material Command which resulted from a comparison of its operations to those of selected large-scale private sector companies are described. Central to the change was a reduction in the number of formal reports from systems commands to headquarters, and the provision of Program Management Assistance Teams (at the request of the program manager) to help resolve project problems. It is believed that these changes improved communication and information-processing, reduced program manager stress, and resulted in improved productivity.

  4. Multi-Scale Environment For Simulation And Materials Characterization In Stress Management For 3D IC TSV-Based Technologies—Effect Of Stress On The Device Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2011-09-01

    The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze any design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited test and characterization capabilities of 3D IC stacks and a strict "good die" requirement make this type of analysis really critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation, to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon dies stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology, is proposed. A strategy for a materials data generation to feed simulation and a respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to establish a database for multi-scale materials parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. A proposal for model validation based and a calibration approach based on fitting the simulation results to measured local stress components and to electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices are discussed.

  5. Targeting peroxynitrite driven nitroxidative stress with synzymes: A novel therapeutic approach in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Daniela; Neumann, William

    2010-04-10

    Morphine sulfate and other opiate/narcotic analgesics are the most effective treatments for acute and chronic severe pain. However, their clinical utility is often hampered by the development of analgesic tolerance. This complex pathophysiological cycle contributes significantly to decreased quality of life in the growing population of subjects with chronic pain due to oversedation, reduced physical activity, respiratory depression, constipation, potential for addiction, and other side-effects. Accordingly, there is growing interest in new approaches that would maintain opiate efficacy during repetitive dosing without engendering tolerance or unacceptable side-effects. Considerable evidence implicates nitroxidative stress in the development of pain of several etiologies and importantly in opiate antinociceptive tolerance, caused by the presence of superoxide, O(2)(-), (SO) nitric oxide, NO (NO) and more recently peroxynitrite, ONOO(-) or its conjugate acid ONOOH, (PN) that is the product of their interaction. To this end, several antioxidant synthetic enzymes (synzymes) have been developed to effectively prevent the formation of PN (superoxide dismutase mimetics, SODms) or to decompose PN once it is formed (PN decomposition catalysts). The objectives of this mini-review written on PN and morphine antinociceptive tolerance are to 1) summarize recent advances made in the development of novel synzymes as therapeutics, 2) discuss the importance of nitroxidative stress in opiate anatinociceptive tolerance and 3) argue that PN is a rational target for therapeutic intervention in pain management. These concepts provide a pharmacological basis for developing inhibitors of PN biosynthesis as novel non-narcotic analgesics, thus addressing a large and currently unmet medical need with major socioeconomic consequences. PMID:19576230

  6. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  7. Internet-based stress management for women with preterm labour--a case-based experience report.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Sandra; Urech, Corinne; Hösli, Irene; Tschudin, Sibil; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Alder, Judith

    2014-12-01

    Pregnant women with preterm labour (PTL) in pregnancy often experience increased distress and anxieties regarding both the pregnancy and the child's health. The pathogenesis of PTL is, among other causes, related to the stress-associated activation of the maternal-foetal stress system. In spite of these psychobiological associations, only a few research studies have investigated the potential of psychological stress-reducing interventions. The following paper will present an online anxiety and stress management self-help program for pregnant women with PTL. Structure and content of the program will be illustrated by a case-based experience report. L.B., 32 years (G3, P1), was recruited at gestational week 27 while hospitalized for PTL for 3 weeks. She worked independently through the program for 6 weeks and had regular written contact with a therapist. Processing the program had a positive impact on L.B.'s anxiety and stress levels, as well as on her experienced depressive symptoms and bonding to the foetus. As PTL and the risk of PTB are associated with distress, psychological stress-reducing interventions might be beneficial. This study examines the applicability of an online intervention for pregnant women with PTL. The case report illustrates how adequate low-threshold psychological support could be provided to these women. PMID:25123471

  8. Intelligent Signal Analysis Using Case-Based Reasoning for Decision Support in Stress Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahina Begum; Mobyen Uddin Ahmed; Peter Funk; Ning Xiong

    \\u000a Modern daily life triggers stress for many people in different everyday situations. Consequently many people live with increased\\u000a stress levels under long durations. It is recognized that increased exposure to stress may cause serious health problems if\\u000a undiagnosed and untreated. One of the physiological parameters for quantifying stress levels is finger temperature, which\\u000a helps clinicians with the diagnosis and treatment

  9. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden

    PubMed Central

    Lattie, Emily G.; Antoni, Michael H.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J.; Klimas, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as “illness burden”). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. Methods A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Results Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Conclusions Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills. PMID:24278791

  10. Managing sales of beverages in schools to preserve profits and improve children's nutrition intake in 15 Mississippi schools.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denise M; Tammineni, Suresh K

    2009-12-01

    School environments that provide consistent and reliable nutrition information promote the development of healthful eating in children. High-energy, nutrient-poor beverages offered for sale to children during the school day compete with healthful choices. The primary objective of this prospective, quasiexperimental study was to encourage children to choose more healthful beverages during the school day without adversely affecting the profits realized from vending sales. Fifteen of 18 schools completed voluntary changes to beverage sales practices during the school day between August 2005 and May 2006. Twelve of 15 schools reported increased profits from the previous year (2004-2005) while offering more healthful beverage choices at discounted prices. Units of carbonated soft drinks sold declined when sports drinks, 100% fruit juice, and water were made available in their place. Passive marketing in the form of vending machine fronts, attractive pricing with a nominal 10% to 25% discount, and changing the types and proportions of beverages offered encouraged children to make more healthful choices. Local school administrators were receptive to making changes to beverage sales when local needs were incorporated into the study design. Profit information from this study informed state legislators and the Mississippi State Board of Education in the development and adoption of statewide snack and beverage vending guidelines. Registered dietitians serve as advocates to foster these collaborative efforts, inform key decision makers, and work in their local communities to develop and promote healthful practices in K-12 school settings. PMID:19942021

  11. Novel endoscopic management of a late complication following TVT insertion for stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orfhlaith E.; Martyn, Fiona; O’Connor, Rory; Jaffery, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Bladder erosion Symptoms: Haematuria • irritative bladder symptoms • recurrent UTI Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endoscopic tape resection Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Since 1995 over 1 million tension free vaginal slings have been utilized to treat stress incontinence. The 10 year success rates range from 84–93%. Complication rates are low by comparision. Bladder perforation occurring during the time of surgery and is managed effectively if diagnosed and treated intraoperatively. However bladder erosion occuring post-operatively predominantly occur within the first 2 years. The risk of erosion increases with body mass index and previous vaginal surgery. Case Report: We report the case of a bladder erosion occurring 5 years following the original surgery. The symptoms included recurrent urinary tract infections, frequency and haematuria. A novel technique was employed using the transurethral approach to initially disintegrate the calculus and then using an endoshears to excise the mesh below the level of the epithelium. Continence was maintained postoperatively. Conclusions: This approach provides a safe alternative to both the transvaginal and transabdominal approach to excising intravesical mesh. PMID:24222816

  12. Understanding and Managing Job Stress: A Vital Dimension of Workplace Violence Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behjat A. Sharif

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the causes and consequences of job stress, and of various coping mechanisms; ultimately it aims to promote early detection of mismanaged stress, and thereby to prevent workplace violence. In the 1980s, public health literature devoted significant attention to job stress. In the 1990s, however, concern has shifted to workplace violence. But the two

  13. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  14. Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

  15. Differential Effectiveness of Coping in Managing Stress and Burnout in Oncology Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; Zevon, Michael A.

    High levels of stress experienced by primary care oncology nursing staff, and the competency impairment which results from such stress, has become a matter of much concern in health care settings. This study was conducted to identify the coping strategies employed by oncology nurses, and to relate these strategies to differential indices of stress

  16. [Nutrition and cardiovascular mortality].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2006-08-13

    About 17 million persons die in cardiovascular disease yearly in the world. Most part of this disease can be prevented by the elimination of primary risk factors, thus by the abolishment of unhealthy nutrition, physical inactivity and by the absence of smoking. The cost-effective national program, as well as the life style with decreasing individual risk factors can give a trend to decrease the cardiovascular mortality. Individually the usual blood pressure and cholesterol control, the inhibition of obesity and the life style without smoking are able to decrease the organic changes, which produce the lethal consequences of this disease. The different kinds of diets can significantly influence the development of human diseases. The Western diet has atherogenic effect, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The Mediterranean diet beneficially influences the life expectancy at birth. The Far-East Japanese diet could specially be important from the viewpoint of nutrition, because the longest life expectancy at birth and the smallest cardiovascular mortality can be found there. The quality nutrition factors (vitamins, vitamin like materials, polyphenols in wine and fruit juices, trace elements, omega-3 fatty acids) play an important role in the decreasing of oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16981422

  17. Nutritional assessment in children with cystic fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal nutrition, including consuming 35–40% of calories (kcal) as fat, is a vital part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), and involves accurate assessment of dietary intake. We compared 3 methods of nutritional assessment in 8– to 14-year-old children (n=20) with CF: 1) a 24-h Dietary Reca...

  18. Control of heifer mastitis by nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Heinrichs; S. S. Costello; C. M. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional factors that are linked to mastitis in the mature dairy cow can be associated with mastitis in the first lactation cow as well. However, there may also be risk factors unique to the heifer due to differences in feeding management during rearing or pre-calving. Literature was reviewed to summarize current knowledge regarding links between heifer nutrition and mastitis with

  19. CCA, Inc. 475 Park Avenue South 5th Floor New York, NY 10016 800.833.8707 www.myccaonline.com Managing Traumatic Stress

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    .myccaonline.com Managing Traumatic Stress: After the Hurricane It is common for people to experience very strong emotional, and behaviors. Putting into practice some of the tips in this guide can help you along the path to managing the following: Recognize that this is a challenging time but one that you can work to manage. You've tackled

  20. SOME DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM SALT STRESS ON GROWTH, NUTRITION, AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GERBERA (GERBERA JAMESONII L.) AND POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF ITS SALT TOLERANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapila Kumara Ganege Don; Yi Ping Xia; Zhujun Zhu; Chang Le; Alge Wattage Wijeratne

    2010-01-01

    Tolerance of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) to long-term sodium chloride (NaCl) salt stress was evaluated by subjecting plants to 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mM NaCl levels for ten weeks. Increased NaCl led to a significant decrease in leaf and stem biomass. Salt stress significantly affected sodium (Na), potassium (K) concentrations in leaves, stems and roots leading to sharp

  1. Gender Based Analysis of Myers-Briggs Personality Profiles and Stress Coping Styles of Academic Managers Occupational Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shazia Zamir; Saqib Shahzad; Syed Naeem Badshah; Naseeb Dar Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Inventory-revised (OSI-R) to measure coping styles among academic managers. In order to select representative sample from the population, simple random sampling technique was used. Total sample size was 120. Data was collected through registered mail and personal visits to the offices of principals. For data analysis; both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. For data analysis percentages, mean, standard deviation

  2. Construction challenges and solutions in TAMU3, a 14 T stress-managed Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Holik, E. F.; Garrison, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Jaisle, A.; McInturff, A. D.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A. [Texas A and M University 3380 University Drive East College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A and M University is nearing completion of a Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole that incorporates stress management directly in its windings. The windings utilize graded-cross-section cable made from 54/61 (54 out of a 61 subelement hexagonal pattern) Restacked Rod Processed® Nb{sub 3}Sn/Cu conductor and fine-filament S-2 glass fabric insulation. Coil heat treatment and associated differential expansions have brought about some tin leakage, highresistance electrical shorts, and coil gaps. TAMU3b impregnation successfully increased the coil-to-ground resistance. Quench protection in TAMU3 was simulated using QUENCH. The tests of TAMU3 should provide the first examination of stress management at field intensities greater than 12 T.

  3. Blunt pancreatic trauma with main pancreatic duct disruption managed successfully with total parenteral nutrition: Report of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Shirai; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Yoichi Yamadera; Tetsuya Ohtani; Terukazu Muto; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    1995-01-01

    Although surgery is the usual treatment of choice for pancreatic trauma with disruption of the main pancreatic duct, we report herein the case of a patient in whom blunt pancreatic trauma with disruption of the proximal main pancreatic duct was successfully managed by conservative treatment. An 18-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain 22 days after being involved in a car

  4. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  5. Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and ?-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. PMID:25449633

  6. Trace elements in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dreosti, I E

    1980-08-01

    Advances in trace element research over the last decade have done much to elucidate the function of these nutrients at the biochemical level. Five new trace elements have been identified and the general relevance of microelements in human nutrition has undergone reassessment. Deficiencies of iodine, iron and fluorine remain important problems and necessitate supplementation. Suboptimal nutrition in chromium, copper, selenium, zinc and possibly vanadium has been suggested, and these elements are generally acknowledged to be of concern in human nutrition. Genetic factors and other "conditioning" agents have been implicated in the aetiology of a number of trace element deficiencies in apparently well nourished communities. Tissues under anabolic stress have been recognized to be especially sensitive to trace element deficits, and the particular vulnerability of the fetus has been demonstrated on a number of occasions. In practical dietary terms, the loss of microelements during the refining and processing of food has been widely illustrated. Also, the generally lower levels of trace elements in plant material and the lower availability of minerals from these food sources has been well established. Of the newer trace element deficiencies, zinc impoverishment appears to be especially important, as a state of physiological zinc deficiency rapidly follows dietary insufficiency, and the consequences on all growing tissues are particularly serious. In general, recent developments suggest that marginal deficiencies of microelements are more widespread in human nutrition than was previously appreciated. Greater attention to trace element status seems to be indicated in circumstances in which physical condition and vigour are unaccountably poor and especially in situations accompanied by active anabolism. PMID:7421677

  7. Roadmap: Nutrition Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-NUTR

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Nutrition ­ Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-NUTR] College of Education, Health and Human Communication 3 Fulfills Kent Core Additional NUTR 23511 Science of Human Nutrition 3 Fulfills Kent Core of Management 3 BSCI 30030 Human Physiology 4 NUTR 43016 Cultural Aspects of Food, Nutrition and Health 3

  8. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  9. Nutrition Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  10. Stress Management Effects on Psychological, Endocrinological, and Immune Functioning in Men with HIV Infection: Empirical Support for a Psychoneuroimmunological Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Antoni

    2003-01-01

    We present a psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI) model for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, describe a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention and summarize research demonstrating the effects of this intervention on mood, neuroendocrine (Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA), Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal (HPG) and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) hormones) and immune system status (lymphocyte subsets, anti- viral immune function) in HIV-infected

  11. Cognitive–Behavioral Stress Management Intervention Buffers Distress Responses and Immunologic Changes Following Notification of HIV1 Seropositivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Antoni; Gail Ironson; Arthur LaPerriere; Sharon August; Nancy Klimas; Neil Schneiderman; Mary Ann Fletcher

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven asymptomatic, healthy gay men were randomly assigned to a cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an assessment-only control group 5 weeks before being notified of their HIV-1 antibody status. Seventy-two hours before and 1 week after serostatus notification, blood samples and psychometric data were collected. Control subjects showed significant increases in depression, but only slight decrements in mitogen responsivity

  12. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Boushey

    Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Disorders in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder:A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenin, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: International and societal conflicts and natural disasters can leave physical and mental scars in people who are directly affected by these traumatic experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the clinical manifestation of these experiences in the form of re-experiencing the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, and persistent symptoms of hyperarousal. There is growing evidence that sleep disruption that occurs following trauma exposure may in fact contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of recognition and management of sleep disorders in patients with PTSD. Data Sources: English-language, adult research studies published between 1985 and April 2014 were identified via the PubMed database. The search terms used were PTSD AND sleep disorders. Study Selection: The search identified 792 original and review articles. Of these, 53 articles that discussed or researched sleep disorders in PTSD were selected. Fourteen randomized controlled trials of therapy for PTSD are included in this review. Results: Impaired sleep is a common complaint mainly in the form of nightmares and insomnia among people with PTSD. Sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder are particularly prevalent in patients with PTSD and, yet, remain unrecognized. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in improving PTSD global symptoms, they have a variable and modest effect on sleep disorder symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral treatment targeted to sleep and/or the use of the centrally acting selective ?1 antagonist prazosin have been more successful in treating insomnia and nightmares in PTSD than other classes of medications. In view of the high occurrence of sleep apnea and periodic leg movement disorder, a thorough sleep evaluation and treatment are warranted. Conclusions: Patients with PTSD have a high prevalence of sleep disorders and should be queried for insomnia, nightmares, periodic limb movement disorder, and sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:25834768

  14. Multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: trauma management therapy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Samuel M; Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex psychiatric disorder resulting in considerable emotional distress and impaired social functioning and often constitutes a significant treatment challenge. Although a range of psychotherapeutic strategies for chronic PTSD have been advanced, behavioral treatments emphasizing various methods of exposure therapy have been the most carefully studied and show the most promise. However, chronic PTSD exposure alone does not appear to have a significant effect on the negative symptoms of PTSD (e.g., avoidance, interpersonal difficulties) or anger control. This may be because exposure is more focused on anxiety and fear reduction and does not address basic skill deficits, help reestablish impaired relationships, or teach anger control. Therefore, we developed a multicomponent treatment program to complement exposure by targeting those areas of the clinical syndrome (e.g., social skills) not found to be helped by exposure alone. This treatment program, trauma management therapy (TMT), has showed good preliminary results in an open trial. In this article, we describe the treatment program, including elements of education, individually administered exposure therapy, programmed practice (i.e., homework), and group-administered social and emotional skills training. The appendix includes a detailed description of how to implement the social and emotional skills training components on a session-by-session basis; the full TMT treatment manual is available on request. PMID:15557478

  15. Mobile Contingency Management as an Adjunctive Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) smoke at higher prevalence rates and are more likely to relapse early in a quit attempt. Innovative methods are needed to enhance quit rates, particularly in the early quit period. Web-based contingency-management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but are limited by the need for computers. This pilot study builds on the web-based CM approach by evaluating a smartphone-based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods: Following a 2-week training period, 22 smokers with PTSD were randomized to a 4-week mCM condition or a yoked (i.e., noncontingent 4-week mCM condition). All smokers received 2 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Participants could earn up to $690 ($530 for mCM, $25.00 for assessments and office visits [up to 5], and $35.00 for equipment return). The average earned was $314.00. Results: Compliance was high during the 2-week training period (i.e., transmission of videos) (93%) and the 4-week treatment period (92%). Compliance rates did not differ by group assignment. Four-week quit rates (verified with CO) were 82% for the mCM and 45% for the yoked controls. Three-month self-report quit rates were 50% in the mCM and 18% in the yoked controls. Conclusions: mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among smokers with PTSD, particularly early in a smoking quit attempt. PMID:23645606

  16. Effects of stress inoculation on the anger and aggression management skills of institutionalized juvenile delinquents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jeffrey Schlichter; John J. Horan

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight institutionalized male delinquents evidencing verbal and physical aggression in response to anger provocations were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: stress inoculation training, a treatment elements condition (which left out certain ingredients of stress inoculation), or a no-treatment control condition. Both active treatments reduced anger and aggression on three self-report scales. Only stress inoculation lowered verbal aggression

  17. Discovering Vegetables: The Nutrition Education Guidebook for School Food Service Managers and Cooperators for use with Children Ages 5 through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed to help school food service personnel to familiarize young school children with a variety of cooked and raw vegetables. The nutritional importance of vegetables in children's diets is emphasized. Learning activities which focus on the visual qualities, nutritional value, and taste characteristics of different vegetables…

  18. GNC University: Exploring the Influence of a Unique Academic-Industry Educational Partnership on Understanding and Use of Nutrition Concepts among GNC Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irani, Tracy A.; Lundy, Lisa; Turner, R. Elaine; Percival, Susan S.; Nieves, C.; Sharf, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    Distance education has been at the forefront of forging unique partnerships to facilitate learning. The purpose of this case study was to describe a business-education collaboration between General Nutrition Corporation, Inc. and the University of Florida, involving a series of online courses in introductory nutrition. Utilizing a competency-based…

  19. Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics

    E-print Network

    Engel, Robert

    service management and family and consumer science courses. Upon completion of the curriculum and earning;3 NUTRITION and DIETETICS CURRICULUM FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES CORE REQUIREMENTS Introduction to Family and Consumer Sciences FNES 106 3cr. Family Relations FNES 147 3cr. Family as Consumers (L)FNES 151 3cr. Seminar

  20. Building the Foundation for a Relevant and Acceptable Stress-Management Program to Millenial College Students: Use of Focus Groups to Determine How to Communicate with Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent G. Ryder

    2010-01-01

    The college experience can involve many challenges that can contribute to stress and life adversity, and that can detract from the potential benefits of a successful college experience. In this study the qualitative research method of focus groups was used at three different universities to address college stress and how it could be managed. Seven focus groups were conducted to

  1. The effects of incorporating a virtual agent in a computer-aided test designed for stress management education: The mediating role of enjoyment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-A. Annie Jin

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the Entertainment–Education paradigm, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-aided interactive test designed for stress management education targeting college students. The presence (vs. absence) of a virtual agent incorporated into the interactive test was proposed as the key factor that induces enjoyment and educational outcomes. The interactive test consisted of scenarios describing stressful situations that could occur

  2. A Retrospective Comparison of Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy with Burch Colposuspension versus Sacrospinous Fixation with Transvaginal Needle Suspension for the Management of Vaginal Vault Prolapse and Coexisting Stress Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. M. Sze; T. Roat; M. M. Karram

    1999-01-01

    :   The objective of this study was to compare the surgical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy and Burch colposuspension with\\u000a sacrospinous fixation and transvaginal needle suspension in the management of vaginal vault prolapse and coexisting stress\\u000a incontinence. One hundred and seventeen women with vaginal vault prolapse and coexisting stress incontinence were surgically\\u000a managed over a 7-year period. The first 61 consecutive

  3. The effects of Stress Management Training on collegiate football athletes' anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance and coping skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lucille Sepulvelda

    2008-01-01

    The study sought to examine the differential effects of a Stress Management Training on the anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance, and coping skills for collegiate football athletes. It was hypothesized the Stress Management Training would have a positive effect on outcomes. The study was conducted using collegiate football athletes at a large urban university. Eighty-five collegiate football athletes participated,

  4. Management of Sports Facilities: Stress and Terrorism Since 9\\/11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Appelbaum; Ethan Adeland; Jake Harris

    2005-01-01

    Since 9\\/11, the world has been on alert and it is just a matter of time before a sports facility is targeted. No empirical studies have examined the stress levels of employees in sports facilities. Tangential studies will show, stress symptoms, changes in behavior and life style continued long after 9\\/11 to the point that it became a habit and

  5. Strategies for Managing Reproduction in the Heat-Stressed Dairy Cow1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hansen; C. F. Arechiga

    1999-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy is difficult in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress because of reductions in estrous detection rate and the proportion of inseminated cows that maintain pregnancy. The most common approach to ameliorate heat stress in developed countries has been to alter the cow's environment through provision of shade, fans, sprinklers, and so on. Nonetheless, seasonal

  6. An Exploration of the Central Factors Influencing Teachers' Stress Management in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Kristen Lee

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, it was estimated that 50% of new teachers leave urban districts in less than five years. New urban teachers face a host of demands that can contribute towards stress and burnout. While some of the literature has focused upon teacher stress, to date none has focused upon new teachers who are enrolled in alternative licensure programs with…

  7. Mobile Mental Wellness Training for Stress Management: Feasibility and Design Implications Based on a One-Month Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahtinen, Aino; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. Objective The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Methods Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week’s and one month’s use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month’s use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Results Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. Conclusions A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good acceptability, usefulness, and engagement among the working-age participants, and provided increased understanding on the essential features of mobile apps for stress management. Five design implications were derived based on the qualitative findings: (1) provide exercises for everyday life, (2) find proper place and time for challenging content, (3) focus on self-improvement and learning instead of external rewards, (4) guide gently but do not restrict choice, and (5) provide an easy and flexible tool for self-reflection. PMID:25100683

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Impact of ambient and supplemental ultraviolet-B stress on kidney bean plants: an insight into oxidative stress management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the response of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Komal) plants was evaluated under three different levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B), i.e., excluded UV-B (eUV-B), ambient UV-B (aUV-B; 5.8 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 280-315 nm; ambient?+?7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), under near-natural conditions. eUV-B treatment clearly demonstrated that both aUV-B and sUV-B are capable of causing significant changes in the plant's growth, metabolism, economic yield, genome template stability, total protein, and antioxidative enzyme profiles. The experimental findings showed maximum plant height at eUV-B, but biomass accumulation was minimum. Significant reductions in quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were observed under both aUV-B and sUV-B, as compared to eUV-B. UV-B-absorbing flavonoids increased under higher UV-B exposures with consequent increments in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities. The final yield was significantly higher in plants grown under eUV-B, compared to those under aUV-B and sUV-B. Total protein profile through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analysis of isoenzymes, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), through native PAGE revealed major changes in the leaf proteome under aUV-B and sUV-B, depicting induction of some major stress-related proteins. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile of genomic DNA also indicated a significant reduction of genome template stability under UV-B exposure. Thus, it can be inferred that more energy is diverted for inducing protection mechanisms rather than utilizing it for growth under high UV-B level. PMID:24728984

  10. Nutritional Care of Deteriorating Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  11. Nutrient Content of Foods, Nutritional Supplements, and Food Fallacies. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Stein, Joan Z.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  12. Managing thermal stress in feedlot cattle: environment, animal susceptibility and management options from a U.S. perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme summer time conditions can have a devastating impact on livestock, especially those animals who are typically housed outdoors without shelter, such as feedlot cattle. The effect of heat stress on feedlot cattle can vary from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in ...

  13. Stress, Inc.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students explore the physical and psychological effect of stress and tension on human beings. Concepts of stress and stress management are introduced. Students discover how perception serves to fuel a huge industry dedicated to minimizing risk and relieving stress. Students complete a writing activity focused on developing critical thinking skills. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world — concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

  14. Provider management of child stress behavior in family day care facilities: scaffolding for learning and development by developmentally appropriate practice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ying; Austin, Ann M Berghout; Piercy, Kathleen W

    2006-06-01

    Six children (5 boys, 1 girl; aged 36-60 months) participated in this qualitative study. Each child was enrolled in a different family child care facility. The authors rated the child care providers in 3 of the facilities as using developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) most of the time and rated the providers in the 3 other facilities as rarely or never using DAP. They also examined provider management of children's stress behaviors. The authors observed less active and passive stress behaviors in the high-DAP facilities than in the low-DAP facilities. The authors discuss the results with regard to the distinctively different day care culture found in high-DAP facilities versus low-DAP facilities and the implications for practice. PMID:16910208

  15. AutoEmotive: bringing empathy to the driving experience to manage stress

    E-print Network

    Hernandez Rivera, Javier

    With recent developments in sensing technologies, it's becoming feasible to comfortably measure several aspects of emotions during challenging daily life situations. This work describes how the stress of drivers can be ...

  16. Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Kennaugh, Jan M.; Hay, William W.

    1987-01-01

    Both the successful development of healthy, long-term animal models to study fetal nutrition and metabolism and the improved survival of low-birth-weight, preterm infants have focused interest and research on fetal and neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Such a focus is important, given the recent emphasis on promoting neonatal growth in preterm infants at “normal” in utero growth rates. Estimates of nutrient requirements for growth in a human fetus remain ill defined, however. Body composition data appear biased toward thin infants. Animal data suggest that fetal nutrition proceeds according to species-specific growth rates, with variations in fat content largely dependent on placental fat permeability and on maternal nutrient supply as regulated by the placenta. After birth, neonatal nutrition is affected primarily by food intake and the functional integrity and capacity of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, muscle activity, thermoregulation and stresses of various kinds and degrees modify a neonate's nutritional requirements. Functional deficits of the gastrointestinal tract have been circumvented by a more aggressive use of intravenous nutrition. Both intravenous and enteral nutrient mixtures have been substantially improved in the quantity of all nutrients and have been modified qualitatively toward compositions that are closer to those of human milk. These nutrient mixtures now produce plasma nutrient concentrations that approximate those of a healthy, breast-fed infant. Although such efforts to improve the nutritional balance and growth of preterm infants have been successful, much remains to be learned about the nutritional requirements of sick infants. PMID:3318138

  17. Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

  18. Focus on nutrition: how a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition can help your practice and patients.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Sean J

    2011-06-01

    Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition (ACVN) can provide clinicians with a variety of nutrition-related services that can enhance patient management and owner satisfaction. Patients with chronic or acute disease can often benefit from client or clinician consultation with an ACVN diplomate. Services offered by board-certified veterinary nutritionists include detailed diet evaluations, commercial diet counseling, weight loss program creation, guidance on nutritional management monitoring and adjustments, feeding tube placement, and parenteral and homemade diet formulation. PMID:23705172

  19. Survival, growth, metallothionein and glycogen levels of Nucella lapillus (L.) exposed to subchronic cadmium stress: the influence of nutritional state and prey type.

    PubMed

    Leung, K M; Furness, R W

    2001-08-01

    Dogwhelks Nucella lapillus feed mainly on mussels and barnacles, and may experience periods of starvation. We report effects of nutritional state and prey type on the survival, growth, cadmium (Cd) accumulation, metallothionein (MT) induction and glycogen stores in N. lapillus exposed to Cd in water. Adult dogwhelks, with similar shell length (30.0+/-1.5 mm), were either starved or fed to satiation with barnacles Semibalanus balanoides, mussels Mytilus edulis or Cd-dosed M. edulis, and kept in filtered natural seawater (< 0.01 microg Cd 1(-1)) or Cd-contaminated (400 microg Cd 1(-1)) seawater for 80 days. Mortality and individual growth rate were determined. Cd, MT and glycogen were measured in different tissues. Prolonged starvation and exposure to Cd significantly reduced the survivorship of N. lapillus, but feeding could help dogwhelks to combat Cd toxicity and minimise mortality. Extended starvation also caused tissue wastage, leading to higher concentrations of Cd and MT in tissues, whereas fed animals increased in weight and had lower Cd and MT concentrations because of the tissue dilution effect. Prey type significantly affected growth rate of dogwhelks and indirectly influenced Cd accumulation, MT induction and glycogen stores. Eating mussels promoted better growth and higher glycogen reserves than eating barnacles. Individual growth rate decreased with increasing Cd accumulation. Cd-exposed survivors grew faster and consumed more than control animals, implying that these survivors may have better fitness and greater tolerance to Cd toxicity. The use of growth, condition index, MT and glycogen as biomarkers of environmental pollution are discussed. These results indicate a need to incorporate biological data including growth (or at least condition index) and prey type into biomonitoring programmes to allow sound interpretation. PMID:11525429

  20. Professor of Range Science Range Animal Nutrition, Range Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Professor of Range Science Range Animal Nutrition, Range Wildlife Interactions, Grazing Management M.S., Range Science, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 1976 Ph.D., Animal Science/Range Nutrition, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 1980 Range Science 294 - Range Management Range