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Sample records for nutrition stress management

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L P; De Cicco, Nuccia N T; Atella, Geórgia C; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  3. Stress Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress Management Banner 1 - To Stress or Not to Stress - ... Decide But We Can Help What Is Stress Management? Banner 2 - Stress Continuum Graphic Banner Live life ...

  4. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  5. [Nutrition management for COPD].

    PubMed

    Miki, Keisuke; Maekura, Ryoji

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the lung and of the whole body, and pulmonary cachexia often occurs during the advanced stage. The effects of nutritional support upon the management of under-nutrition in COPD remain controversial. However, a study of the effects of nutritional supplement therapy upon such patients with COPD has recently been published. The present report comprises a review of recent articles about the nutritional support of patients with COPD, especially those with cachexia, and a discussion about the roles of nutritional supplement therapy, focusing on exercise and treatment with ghrelin and vitamin D in the management of COPD. PMID:27254950

  6. [Nutrition and stress].

    PubMed

    Tappy, L; Berger, M M; Chiolero, R L

    2000-11-01

    Acute illness induces major physiological responses, which favor the adaptation of the organism to stress and injury. The metabolic response plays key roles in maintenance of vital functions and promotion of the healing mechanisms. All the components of energy expenditure are modified, particularly the resting metabolism. The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is also markedly altered. Such patients are characterized by fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and by a stimulation of the hepatic glucose production in fasted and fed states. Lipolysis and increased fat oxidation are typically observed. Ketogenesis processes are inhibited, concurring to alter the adaptation to starvation. Protein turnover is stimulated with a preponderance of the catabolic processes, even during full nutritional support. This induces a state of resistance to feeding, leading to a progressive depletion of the fat free mass. Such progressive tissue catabolism cannot be reversed by hypercaloric nutrition or growth factors. Specific nutrients (aminoacids, micronutrients, PUFA) may offer interesting perspectives in stimulating immunity, improving the antioxidant balance or modulating the inflammatory response. PMID:11139659

  7. Forest nutrition management

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book draws on the fields of silviculture, soil studies, ecology, and economics to provide information on how to enhance the nutritional status of forest soils in order to increase their long-term stand productivity. It covers the use of fertilizers to enhance biological nitrogen fixation and how the nutrition status of forests is affected by other operations, such as harvesting and site preparation. Methods for assessing nutrient status, the economics of nutrition management, and models to aid in decision-making are included.

  8. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  9. Stress Management for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Stress management for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stress management should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…

  10. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Modulation of metabolism through nutrition and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients through lactation to the human diet. It is clear that these high-producing and long lactations are stressful on the cows, and minor changes in nutrition and management can have significant impacts on profi...

  11. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  12. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  13. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  14. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... sections Take Action: Get Support 8. Talk to friends and family. Tell your friends and family if you are feeling stressed. They may be able to help. Learn how friends and family can help you feel less stressed. ...

  15. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  16. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  17. What Is Stress Management?

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone mark into the high-stress zone, it’s time to take a stress-management moment. Maybe that means that you call a ... you reserve your “high zone stress responses” for times when it’s more appropriate. When life and death are ... • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction FAQs ...

  18. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  19. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery A Patient’s Guide Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is a treatment ... This guide for patients is based on The Endocrine Society’s practice guidelines for physicians that focus on ...

  20. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…

  1. [Postoperative nutritional management for esophageal cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Kimura, Y

    2008-07-01

    High incidence of malnutrition is found in esophageal cancer patients. It is well known that to maintain good nutritional preoperative condition is very important to prevent postoperative morbidity and mortality. Hence, preoperative oral or nasogastric feeding is recommended when the patient is malnourished, at a total dose of 30 kcal/kg/day. During postoperative period, enteral nutrition should be primarily performed because of its favorable effects on immune-status and intestinal integrity to avoid septic complications. It is also important to keep circulatory volume sufficient to provide oxygen demand during catabolic phase, which leads earlier recovery from critical illness. Enteral nutrition should be immediately started afterward. An initial dose of 5-10 kcal/kg/day of the enteral nutrition is performed from the 1st or 2nd postoperative day and gradually increased to the full dose at 30 kcal/kg/ day. In cases of not administering scheduled dose of the enteral nutrition, either total or peripheral parenteral nutrition is required complementing total caloric intake. When total parenteral nutrition is used, blood glucose level should be controlled less than 150 mg/dl by pertinently administering insulin or limiting glycemic intake. Immunonutrition is promising nutritional management for critical surgical patients such as those performed esophageal cancer surgery. Continuing immune-enhancing diet at a dose of 750 to 1,000 ml/day for 5 to 7 days before surgery is necessary to bring good postoperative outcome. PMID:20715418

  2. Parenteral nutrition: risks, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Patricia H; Gilbert, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving modality, but one that also carries risks for potentially life-threatening complications. Comprehensive management of patients receiving parenteral nutrition includes careful selection of candidates, individualizing formulas to meet patients' unique needs, monitoring response to therapy, and implementing strategies designed to avoid complications. Measures to mitigate the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections are particularly important. As with all complex therapies, a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach promotes optimal outcomes. PMID:22222292

  3. Correlations among Stress, Physical Activity and Nutrition: School Employee Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie; Zannis, Marie; Bowers, Ashley; Brewer, Julie; Russell, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Employee health promotion programs increase work productivity and effectively reduce employer costs related to health care and absenteeism, and enhance worker productivity. Components of an effective worksite health program include stress management, exercise and nutrition and/or weight management classes or counseling. Few studies have documented…

  4. Influence of stress and nutrition on cattle immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have known for decades that "stress" and inadequate nutrition can have detrimental effects on the immune system. However, what had not been distinguished until recently are the divergent effects of "acute" stress compared to long-term or "chronic" stress. As scientists expanded their scop...

  5. Nutritional management of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission. PMID:23634187

  6. Nutrition management of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Doley, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Despite our knowledge of how to prevent pressure ulcers, and improvements in treatment, pressure ulcers remain prevalent and impose a significant burden on financial and labor resources in the healthcare industry. Although there is no known role for specific nutrients in the prevention of pressure ulcers, undernutrition is a risk factor, and nutrition therapy plays a crucial role in pressure ulcer treatment. Limitations in research make it difficult to develop evidence-based nutrition guidelines, so it is important that clinicians conduct a comprehensive assessment that includes weight and intake history, biochemical data, and comorbidities as well as symptoms that may affect the intake, absorption, or excretion of nutrients. These data, combined with clinical judgment, must be used to estimate energy and protein needs, considering the size and severity of the pressure ulcer. Micronutriture is difficult to assess; usual intake, comorbidities and disease symptoms must be considered in addition to biochemical data. Micronutrients should be replaced if depleted, but routine supplementation of vitamins and minerals in all pressure ulcer patients is not warranted. PMID:20130157

  7. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

  8. ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '€œSpace Nutrition'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'€™s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."€ T...

  9. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Xiao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is a key component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants. PMID:18985802

  10. Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

  11. Nutritional Recommendations for the Management of Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Morley, John E.; Argiles, Josep M.; Evans, William J.; Bhasin, Shalender; Cella, David; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Doehner, Wolfram; Fearon, Ken C. H.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lochs, Herbert; MacDonald, Neil; Mulligan, Kathleen; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ponikowski, Piotr; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Schambelan, Morrie; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Schuster, Michael W.; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Sarcopenia, Cachexia, and Wasting Disease convened an expert panel to develop nutritional recommendations for prevention and management of sarcopenia. Exercise (both resistance and aerobic) in combination with adequate protein and energy intake is the key component of the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Adequate protein supplementation alone only slows loss of muscle mass. Adequate protein intake (leucine-enriched balanced amino acids and possibly creatine) may enhance muscle strength. Low 25(0H) vitamin D levels require vitamin D replacement. PMID:20627179

  12. ROOT PLASTICITY TO NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN MEDITERRANEAN SEA BEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of root adaptive responses to nutritional stress is required to improve yield stability of sugarbeet. The aim of this research was a comparative study of the root morpho-physiological plasticity among two sea beet populations collected on poor- and nutrient-rich habitats of the Adriatic co...

  13. Dairy Heifer Development and Nutrition Management.

    PubMed

    Akins, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Heifer development depends on nutritional management decisions throughout all growing phases. Optimizing costs to raise heifers improves profitability of dairy farms. Feed costs for heifers make up 50% of heifer costs. Required growth rates depend on the desired age at first calving and estimated mature body weight. Intensive milk feeding improves calf growth and subsequent milk production. Prepubertal heifers should be fed for adequate gains to calve between 22 and 24 months of age. Controlling gains in pregnant heifers to limit fat deposition is possible using limit-feeding of a higher concentrate diet or using high-fiber forages to reduce diet energy. PMID:27161393

  14. Child Nutrition Management System: An Interview with Rich Connell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Gregory M., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This article, the second in a continuing series highlighting exemplary information technology (IT) practices, recounts an interview with the project manager of New York State's Child Nutrition Management System (CNMS). CNMS is a Web-based system for claim processing and program management for the Child Nutrition Program administered by the New…

  15. Designing a Stress Management Curiculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Educators must develop, for therapeutic recreation students, curriculum that teaches stress management techniques and theories. Guidelines for curriculum revision or enhancement in this area are presented. (CJ)

  16. Management of Hyperglycemia and Enteral Nutrition in the Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia Ann; Wien, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased attention on the importance of identifying and distinguishing the differences between stress-induced hyperglycemia (SH), newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH), and hyperglycemia in persons with established diabetes mellitus (DM). Inpatient blood glucose control is now being recognized as not only a cost issue for hospitals but also a concern for patient safety and care. The reasons for the increased incidence of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients include preexisting DM, undiagnosed DM or prediabetes, SH, and medication-induced hyperglycemia with resulting transient blood glucose variability. It is clear that identifying and documenting hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with and without a previous diagnosis of DM and initiating prompt insulin treatment are important. Agreement on the optimum treatment goals for hyperglycemia remains quite controversial, and the benefits of intensive glucose management may be lost at the cost of hypoglycemia in intensive care unit patients. Nutrition support in the form of enteral nutrition (EN) increases the risk of hyperglycemia in both critical and non-critically ill hospitalized patients. Reasons for beginning a tube feeding are the same whether a person has NDH or DM. What differs is how to incorporate EN into the established insulin management protocols. The risk for hyperglycemia with the addition of EN is even higher in those without a previous diagnosis of DM. This review discusses the incidence of hyperglycemia, the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, factors contributing to hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient, glycemic management goals, current glycemic management recommendations, and considerations for EN formula selection, administration, and treatment. PMID:26084507

  17. Stress Management. Program Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IOX Assessment Associates, Culver City, CA.

    Intended as a resource for individuals wishing to evaluate stress management programs, this handbook, one of a series of seven, provides a collection of measuring devices that can improve the quality of such evaluations. Chapter 1 introduces the handbook's contents and outlines evaluation related issues specific to stress management programs.…

  18. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Rinwa, Puneet; Kaur, Gurleen; Machawal, Lalit

    2013-04-01

    Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management. PMID:23833514

  19. [Trace elements deficiency in children receiving nutritional management].

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji

    2016-07-01

    The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described. PMID:27455814

  20. Severe acute pancreatitis: nutritional management in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neeraj; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2004-02-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis have elevated nutritional needs due to increased energy expenditure and catabolism. It is a clinical challenge to provide adequate nutrition to these patients while maintaining gut function, preventing pancreatic stimulation, and minimizing the risk of septic and metabolic complications associated with nutritional support. We present the case of a patient who had severe acute pancreatitis and was initially given total parenteral nutrition. After a period of initial improvement, he developed hyperglycemia, bacteremia, and sepsis. Parenteral nutrition was discontinued and infection was treated with antibiotics. Subsequent nutritional support consisted of enteral feeding with an elemental diet infused via a nasojejunal feeding tube. His condition improved gradually and he made a full recovery. This case illustrates the difficulties encountered while managing a case of severe acute pancreatitis and provides an evidence based approach to the nutritional management of severe acute pancreatitis in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:16215093

  1. Cystic fibrosis: nutritional consequences and management.

    PubMed

    Dodge, John A; Turck, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Life expectancy for patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) has steadily improved during the last three decades, and death in childhood is now uncommon. Nutrition is a critical component of the management of CF, and nutritional status is directly associated with both pulmonary status and survival. Expert dietetic care is necessary, and attention must be given to ensuring an adequate energy intake in the face of demands which may be increased by inadequately controlled malabsorption, chronic broncho-pulmonary colonisation by bacteria and fungi, exacerbations of acute lung infection, impaired lung function, and the need for rehabilitation, repair and growth. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is needed by up to 90% of CF patients in Northern Europe, where the 'severe' mutation deltaF508 predominates, but a smaller proportion in Mediterranean countries and elsewhere, because pancreatic insufficiency is one of few features of CF which correlate with genotype. Complications of CF including liver disease and CF-related diabetes pose further challenges. In addition, deficiency of specific nutrients including fat soluble vitamins (particularly A, E and K) essential fatty acids and occasionally minerals occur for a variety of reasons. Osteopenia is common and poorly understood. Liver disease increases the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency. Glucose intolerance and diabetes affect at least 25% of CF adults, and the diabetes differs from both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, but it inversely correlates with prognosis. Management consists of anticipating problems and addressing them vigorously as soon as they appear. Supplements of vitamins are routinely given. Energy supplements can be oral, enteral or, rarely, parenteral. All supplements, including PERT, are adjusted to individual needs. PMID:16782527

  2. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  3. The need for additional training for nutritional management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carney, Trish; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' and nursing students'knowledge and perceived role in assisting patients with the nutritional management of diabetes. Three focus groups were conducted and the results were used to modify a previously developed survey regarding the nutritional management of diabetes. The survey was administered via an online survey tool and completed by 231 nurses and students. Over 70% of respondents agreed that nurses have an important role in reinforcing patient nutritional education. Results indicated,however, that knowledge gaps in the nutritional management of diabetes exist among nurses, including not knowing the carbohydrate content of 120ml of orange juice, a common treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%), not knowing where to locate carbohydrate content on a food label (60%), and not identifying the correct treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%). These results indicate that there may be a need to improve the nutritional education of nurses with respect to diabetes management. PMID:23752631

  4. How Can I Manage Stress?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Quit Smoking? How Can I Manage Stress? How Can I Make My Lifestyle Healthier? How Can I Monitor My Cholesterol, Blood Pressure and Weight? Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure ...

  5. Nutritional interventions to alleviate the negative consequences of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Suagee, Jessica K; Sanders, Sara R

    2013-05-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  6. Perceived stress and dietary choices: The moderating role of stress management.

    PubMed

    Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Many college students exhibit unhealthy eating behaviors, consuming large quantities of high-fat foods and few fruits and vegetables. Perceived stress has been linked to daily dietary choices among college students; however, this work has been conducted among predominantly white, female populations. The role of perceived stress management in moderating this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary choices among a diverse sample of male and female college freshmen and assessed whether perceived ability to manage stress moderated this relationship. 613 students from a large, public university completed an online survey which assessed past week consumption of various foods and beverages (e.g. soda, fast food, fruits, vegetables), as well as perceived stress and ability to manage stress. Hierarchical linear regression examined the association between perceived stress and past week dietary choices, and the moderating effect of perceived ability to manage stress, controlling for demographic variables. Perceived stress was positively associated with past week soda, coffee, energy drink, salty snack, frozen food, and fast food consumption (p<0.05). Perceived stress management moderated the relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption. Individuals who reported low ability to manage stress consumed greater amounts. Findings indicate greater stress is associated with poor dietary choices among college freshmen. The relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption was exacerbated among those who reported low ability to manage stress. It may be important for college nutrition education programs to focus on the relationship between stress and diet and promote effective stress management techniques. PMID:27310611

  7. Managing Teacher Stress and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis; Hammond, Janice

    This monograph offers a practical guide for identifying and managing those stressors that are in the specific domain of the individual--exercise, diet, sleep, interpersonal relations, time and conflict management, and relaxation. The first section covers stress theory; methods to identify and clarify stressors; restoration of a balanced…

  8. Learn to manage stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... meditation to yoga and tai chi. Take a class, or try learning from books, videos, or online sources. Connect with loved ones. Do not let stress get in the way of being social. Spending time with family and friends can help ...

  9. Early Fasting Is Long Lasting: Differences in Early Nutritional Conditions Reappear under Stressful Conditions in Adult Female Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Krause, E. Tobias; Honarmand, Mariam; Wetzel, Jennifer; Naguib, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR). During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate. PMID:19325706

  10. [Importance of compliance in nutritional management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mikulka, Ilona

    2016-04-10

    Disease-related malnutrition is usually caused by the joint action of the underlying disease itself and dietary deficiency. The consequences of malnutrition, if left untreated, are serious, causing a marked decline in physical and psychological health and function, and an increased rate of complications and decreased effectiveness of the medical treatments. In case a functional gastrointestinal tract is present, the recommended form of nutritional management is the use of oral nutritional supplements. However, just like to any other therapy, compliance to oral nutritional supplements is highly influenced by the consistency, taste, smell, volume consumed, and side effects. The aim of the present case report is to illustrate that nutritional management is a successful and effective treatment option of disease-related malnutrition when the selection of the oral nutritional supplement takes into consideration patient's preferences as well. PMID:27039999

  11. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  12. Economics, management, and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, T

    1977-02-01

    Research has shown that including a nutritional functional area in comprehensive health care delivery can reduce the total cost per registrant. The savings occur when nutritionists substitute for more costly medical personnel in a team-care setting. Further research has demonstrated that the cost of nutritional care is related to the performance of nutritional staff, i.e., productivity, which may be improved as much as 25 to 70% through simple managerial techniques. The implications for nutritional planning and operations are discussed. Nevertheless, the greatest potential for improving nutritional health rests with the patient himself. Thus, the future orientation in public health nutrition must be directed toward the problems of shifting the major part of the responsibility from the provider to the patient, with accompanying competence in self-care and health maintenance. A promising approach to the idea of greater patient responsibility and autonomy is the so-called Vinland Center concept. Originally developed in Norway, a center incorporating the principles is now being planned in Minnesota and is expected to begin operation in 1979. Funds for the planning effort were given to the U.S. as a Bicentennial gift from Norway. The concept is explained. PMID:402409

  13. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  14. Nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Groetch, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the latest information on the nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), focusing on the foods implicated and how to avoid these whilst maintaining a nutritionally sound diet. Recent findings A number of foods are implicated in FPIES such as milk, soy and grains, particularly rice. The number of foods implicated in FPIES per individual differs, but the majority of reported cases have two or fewer food triggers involved. Summary FPIES is a complex presentation of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Dietary management is complicated as both common food allergens as well as atypical food allergens can trigger FPIES. Sound nutritional advice is required to ensure appropriate food avoidance, adequate consumption of other foods and sufficient nutritional intake to maintain and ensure growth and development. PMID:24699338

  15. Natural malaria infection reduces starvation resistance of nutritionally stressed mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lalubin, Fabrice; Delédevant, Aline; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    In disease ecology, there is growing evidence that environmental quality interacts with parasite and host to determine host susceptibility to an infection. Most studies of malaria parasites have focused on the infection costs incurred by the hosts, and few have investigated the costs on mosquito vectors. The interplay between the environment, the vector and the parasite has therefore mostly been ignored and often relied on unnatural or allopatric Plasmodium/vector associations. Here, we investigated the effects of natural avian malaria infection on both fecundity and survival of field-caught female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, individually maintained in laboratory conditions. We manipulated environmental quality by providing mosquitoes with different concentrations of glucose-feeding solution prior to submitting them to a starvation challenge. We used molecular-based methods to assess mosquitoes' infection status. We found that mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium had lower starvation resistance than uninfected ones only under low nutritional conditions. The effect of nutritional stress varied with time, with the difference of starvation resistance between optimally and suboptimally fed mosquitoes increasing from spring to summer, as shown by a significant interaction between diet treatment and months of capture. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes had similar clutch size, indicating no effect of infection on fecundity. Overall, this study suggests that avian malaria vectors may suffer Plasmodium infection costs in their natural habitat, under certain environmental conditions. This may have major implications for disease transmission in the wild. PMID:24286465

  16. Managing Anxiety and Stress. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.

    This self-help book provides information about stress and stress management. The first part focuses on awareness of stress. A number of activities are included to help the individual understand and analyze stress reactions. Information is provided about stressors, performance stress, cumulative stress, and several other aspects of stress…

  17. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  18. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  19. Managing weight loss with nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1998-01-01

    Wasting is a severe, dangerous medical condition, and it can occur quickly, even in overweight patients. In wasting, the digestive process is disrupted, and patients lose their ability to absorb necessary nutrients from food. HIV interferes with metabolism, causing the body to burn muscle mass before it burns fat. Additionally, other physical problems can make eating difficult or painful, and the nausea associated with HIV therapies compounds the problem. Several nutritional supplements are recommended for people with weakness, fatigue, or poor appetite. Some are standard supplements intended to boost caloric intake easily, others are modified fat supplements or special formula supplements designed for special purposes. PMID:11365227

  20. An Overview of Stress, Career Burnout, Student Stress and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Three articles presented at the 54th Annual Convention of the American School Health Association discuss: understanding stress with an emphasis on environmental factors; stress management techniques; and questions from the audience pertaining to stress management. (JN)

  1. Switchgrass: Establishment, Management, Yield, Nutritive Value, and Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document reports results from 26 studies addressing the establishment, cell wall content, cultivar improvement, defoliation management, nutritive value and utilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as pasture, or its conservation as hay or silage or harvested as biomass. Both lowland and...

  2. Energy and protein nutrition management of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Van Saun, Robert; Degaris, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this article are to briefly review some of the underlying physiology of changes that occur around calving, examine the potential to control the risk of disease in this period, increase milk production, and improve reproductive performance through better nutritional management. Practical guidelines for veterinarians and advisors are provided. PMID:23809895

  3. Malnutrition and age-specific nutritional management in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dodge, J A

    1992-10-01

    Malnutrition is recognised as a major prognostic factor adversely affecting survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is the result of an unfavourable energy balance in these patients. A high resting energy expenditure, dependent on the patient's genotype, in addition to pulmonary infection play an important role in producing anorexia and weight loss. Nutritional management with the aim to gain weight and catch up with growth is age-specific. It is important to repair nutritional status as early as possible after diagnosis. In infancy breast feeding is advised with, if necessary, supplemental feeding with predigested formulae such as Pregestimil. In childhood nutritional management must be aimed towards a normal weight gain and growth velocity. The latter is the best guide of nutritional adequacy. If weight gain falters the first principle is to treat any associated respiratory infection, the second is to ensure adequate enzyme therapy and control of steatorrhoea, and only then should dietary energy supplements be introduced. When oral hypernutrition fails, nocturnal naso-gastric tube feeding of a non-elemental formula may be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated and should be reserved as a last solution for CF-patients. PMID:1470282

  4. Acute Management of Nutritional Demands after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven; Singer, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding nutritional management in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested. PMID:20373845

  5. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  6. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  7. Stress Management Techniques for the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jeff

    An overview of stress management techniques is offered in this paper. Special focus is on the characteristics, causes, and effects of stress; potential sufferers; six reduction strategies; and stress and the principalship. A conclusion is that stress is real; although complete elimination is unlikely, it can be alleviated through effective…

  8. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  9. A nutrition support service web application to manage patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mirtallo, Jay M; Hawksworth, Kim; Payne, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a complex therapy that requires expertise and experience to avoid errors in prescribing and management. Because of care coordination issues, one medical center has developed and implemented a Web-based application to manage PN patients. PN orders have already been programmed into the physician order entry system, but the nutrition support service (NSS) consult and daily PN management have been performed using paper forms. The Web system is developed for ease of use by clinicians and accessibility at any computer within the medical center. The database consists of 12 tables interrelated by the patient medical record number, admission number, or location. The NSS consult is the main table used to navigate to the other tables. Update of the laboratory and PN formula table must be done through the consult table. The system is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act guidelines, and has been developed so that the forms that are required to be placed in the patient's permanent record can be printed. Demographic information and laboratory data are automatically populated via a link to the medical center's medication management system. At present, there are 1393 patients in the database and 21,000 pages are viewed each month during daily PN management by clinicians. Data can be easily retrieved for management reports. Data elements can be exported directly from the database to worksheets. This function has been used for projects designed to improve the efficiency of this PN system. PMID:19605799

  10. Nutritional management of the donor cow.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Cerri, R L A; Sartori, R

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition of the donor cow can influence oocyte and embryo quality, which can affect the success of embryo transfer. Severe undernutrition compromised ovarian follicular development, with implications for superovulatory response and embryo quality. In postpartum lactating cows, undernutrition or inability to consume sufficient nutrients delayed resumption of ovulation, reduced the number of follicles, and compromised oocyte quality. Moderate undernutrition of nonlactating cows was unlikely to affect embryo quality; conversely, nonlactating animals on maintenance diets usually had better superovulatory responses and improved oocyte competence and embryo quality. The negative effects of overfeeding are thought to be mediated by alterations in endocrine cues, such as hyperinsulinemia and increased glucose and IGF-I, which may interfere with glucose transport in the embryo and increase apoptosis. Manipulating energy sources such as carbohydrates and fatty acids (FA) may influence embryo viability, but the effects of FA were not consistent in vitro; increasing concentrations of unsaturated FA in follicular and embryonic cells usually improved embryo viability and resistance to cryopreservation. Excess protein intake and increased urea and ammonia in body fluids can be toxic to embryos, impairing their development; these effects seemed to be associated with alterations in uterine pH and granulosa cell function. Likewise, toxins in feeds (e.g. gossypol), reduced embryo development and increased pregnancy losses. Diet of donor cows should be formulated to optimize the supply of nutrients to meet needs; however, manipulating energy intake, source of FA and protein content of donor diets, particularly moderate underfeeding in nonlactating cows, may further optimize responses. PMID:17959235

  11. Stress Management Training for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdelle, Debra A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A group of dental students participated in a stress management program that included instruction in self-relaxation and time management, exercise and leisure planning, and cognitive modification techniques. The importance of stress-management training for dental students and suggestions for future research are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Nutritional Management of the Older Horse.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG

    2016-08-01

    Leisure animals now comprise the majority of working horses in industrialized nations; a shift that has decreased workloads yet improved veterinary care and lifetime health. Although many horses now progress well into their 20s without any requirement for dietary modification, age-related changes are insidious, and older animals benefit from regular veterinary monitoring to identify, address, and ameliorate the inevitable onset of age-related "disease." Basal metabolic rate decreases with age; older animals expend less energy on controlled exercise, and there can be an increased propensity toward the development of obesity, which needs to be recognized and managed. PMID:27329493

  13. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Munns, Craig F.; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L.; Thacher, Tom D.; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M. Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M.; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. Evidence: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Process: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. Results: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Conclusion: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required. PMID:26745253

  14. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  15. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rani H.; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L.; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Genet Med 16 2, 121–131. PMID:24385075

  16. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:24385075

  17. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  18. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  19. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  20. [Practical management of nutritional and food problems in crisis situations].

    PubMed

    Belchior-Bellino, V

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most consistent problems arising during crisis situations, i.e., food shortage. The author first presents the international context conducive to natural or man-made famine. He emphasizes the importance of early detection and the need for an evaluation phase using public health survey skills to determine the objectives of relief. He then describes strategies for management of alimentary and nutritional requirements in famine-stricken populations in function of the different types of malnutrition encountered. The article ends with a presentation of preventive measures that must be implemented in association with crisis management. PMID:12534175

  1. [Management models in clinical nutrition: weaknesses and strengths].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Burgos, R; Cabrerizo, L; Farrer, K; García Almeida, J M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; Llano, J Del; Planas, M; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At the 6th Abbott-SENPE Debate Forum a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional discussion was established in order to seek for the model or the models of clinical management most appropriate for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units (CNAD) in Spain. The weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for the current systems were assessed concluding that a certain degree of disparity was observed not only due to regional differences but also to different hospital types. It was proposed, from SENPE, the creation of a working group helping to standardize the models and promote the culture of Integral Control and Change Management. PMID:19593481

  2. Stress management for nurses: controlling the whirlwind.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, J; Couture, R T

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes that nurses can manage stress in their lives through a well-integrated, flexible program. A person's stress reaction is compared to a whirlwind, with negative outcomes that may vary from mild to devastating. The emphasis here is that these negative consequences can be minimized by applying different levels of intervention strategies to each phase in the progression of the stress reaction. A variety of strategies for coping with stress are presented here from which a person may select and build a personal repertoire of interventions for stress management. PMID:9110750

  3. Stress Management Training in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…

  4. Health, Stress, and the Manager's Life Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a preventive approach to health which incorporates an understanding of how stress operates in modern organizations and its effect on organizational members. Describes two impact studies that suggest stress and life-style management training have a positive outcome. Suggests a protective health-management paradigm. (Author)

  5. Stress Management Skill for Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Edward A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of a stress management program for nursing students. The stress management group effectively reduced trait anxiety and showed a reduction in state (test-taking) anxiety from mid-semester to final examinations, while the control group showed a slight increase. (Author)

  6. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  7. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  8. Nutritional management of infants with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jacqueline J; Kocoshis, Samuel A

    2007-04-01

    The prevalence of short bowel syndrome appears to be increasing because of more aggressive surgical and medical approaches to the management of neonatal intraabdominal catastrophies. Hence, a large cohort of neonates with intestinal failure occupies neonatal intensive care units, requiring chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in hopes that the residual bowel will adapt, thereby permitting weaning of TPN. Alternatively, when there is no hope for adaptation, these infants are maintained on TPN in hopes that they will grow to a size and state of general health satisfactory for either isolated intestinal transplant when liver function is preserved or combined liver-intestinal transplantation when the liver is irreparably damaged. Thus, it is imperative to provide enough parenteral nutrition to facilitate growth while minimizing TPN constituents predisposing to liver damage. Liver disease associated with intestinal failure (IFALD) seems to occur due to a variety of host factors combined with deleterious components of TPN. Host factors include an immature bile secretory mechanism, bile stasis due to fasting, and repeated septic episodes resulting in endotoxemia. Many constituents of TPN are associated with liver damage. Excessive glucose may result in fatty liver and/or hepatic fibrosis, excessive protein may lead to reduced bile flow, and phytosterols present in intravenous lipid may produce direct oxidant damage to the liver or may impede cholesterol synthesis and subsequent bile acid synthesis. Parenteral strategies employed to minimize TPN damage include reducing glucose infusion rates, reducing parenteral protein load, and reducing parenteral lipid load. Furthermore, preliminary studies suggest that fish oil-based lipid solutions may have a salutary effect on IFALD. Ultimately, provision of enteral nutrition is imperative for preventing or reversing IFALD as well as facilitating bowel adaptation. While studies of trophic hormones are ongoing, the most reliable

  9. Stress and Stress Management Strategies Among Botswana Women Lecturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loate, Irene M.; Marais, James L.

    1996-01-01

    A stress inventory administered to black women faculty at seven Botswana colleges and universities (n=201) found the greatest stressor to be student class boycotts, followed by uncertainties about their institution's future and dual roles. Almost two-thirds experienced fatigue. The most successful stress management technique was positive thinking.…

  10. Consultation Stressors and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Sandy Kosub

    A high incidence of occupational stress has been demonstrated in the mental health and social service professions and appears to be a major factor contributing to low worker morale, absenteeism, high job turnover, and other indices of job stress. A study was conducted to examine the issue of occupational stress among psychological consultants.…

  11. Stress Management as a Pacifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Wylie, Mary Lou

    While numerous studies have identified economic, social, and environmental conditions related to stress, greater stress has been found to be related to poverty, unemployment, assembly line work, crowding, and chronic exposure to noise. These stressful situations most frequently confront people with little personal, economic, or political resources…

  12. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  13. Resistance to nutritional stress in ants: when being fat is advantageous.

    PubMed

    Dussutour, Audrey; Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Buhl, Jerome; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    In ants, nutrient acquisition for the whole colony relies on a minority of workers, the foragers, which are often old and lean. Some studies have shown that the link between age, physiology and foraging activity is more flexible than once thought, especially in response to colony or environmental perturbations. This great plasticity offers the intriguing possibility to disentangle the effect of age, behaviour and physiology on the ants' abilities to cope with nutritional stresses. In this paper, we first looked at the capacity of groups of foragers and inner-nest workers to resist starvation and macronutrient imbalance. Second, we investigated whether behavioural task reversion modified the tolerance to nutritional stresses and by extension, changed mortality rate. We found that inner-nest workers live longer than foragers under nutritional stresses but not under optimal conditions. The reversion from foraging to inner-nest activities is followed by an increase in fat content and longevity. Finally, we demonstrated that changes in fat content associated with behavioural transition are highly flexible and strongly correlated to tolerance of nutritional stress. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the population dynamics of social insects under adverse nutritional conditions. PMID:26985052

  14. Assessment and management of nutrition and growth in Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Helen; Ravikumara, Madhur; Baikie, Gordon; Naseem, Nusrat; Ellaway, Carolyn; Percy, Alan; Abraham, Suzanne; Geerts, Suzanne; Lane, Jane; Jones, Mary; Bathgate, Katherine; Downs, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We developed recommendations for the clinical management of poor growth and weight gain in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. Methods Initial draft recommendations were created based upon literature review and 34 open-ended questions where the literature was lacking. Statements and questions were made available to an international, multi-disciplinary panel of clinicians in an online format and a Microsoft Word formatted version of the draft via email. Input was sought using a 2-stage modified Delphi process to reach consensus agreement. Items included clinical assessment of growth, anthropometry, feeding difficulties and management to increase caloric intake, decrease feeding difficulties and consideration of gastrostomy. Results Agreement was achieved on 101/112 statements. A comprehensive approach to the management of poor growth in Rett syndrome is recommended that takes into account factors such as feeding difficulties and nutritional needs. A BMI of approximately the 25th centile can be considered as a reasonable target in clinical practice. Gastrostomy is indicated for very poor growth, if there is risk of aspiration and if feeding times are prolonged. Conclusions These evidence- and consensus-based recommendations have the potential to improve care of nutrition and growth in a rare condition and stimulate research to improve the current limited evidence base. PMID:24084372

  15. Nutrition services in managed care: new paradigms for dietitians.

    PubMed

    Laramee, S H

    1996-04-01

    Managed care systems are transforming the health care system in the United States. Dietitians will need to review practice opportunities in new and different settings, and develop additional skills to make a successful transition to the transformed health care environment. The shift in health care financing from a fee-for-service model to a capitated system will have the most dramatic impact on the profession. Not all the answers are available, but the focus for the future is clear--customer satisfaction, outcomes research, and cost-effective nutrition services. PMID:8598432

  16. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  17. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  18. Management of donated foods in child nutrition programs, the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and charitable institutions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    This final rule revises and clarifies requirements for the management, distribution, and use of donated foods in the National School Lunch Program and other child nutrition programs, in the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and by charitable institutions. In response to an audit by the USDA Office of Inspector General, the rule establishes specific requirements to ensure that recipient agencies in child nutrition programs receive the benefit and value of all donated foods received and provided to food service management companies to conduct the food service. The rule also incorporates legislative changes affecting the distribution of donated foods in the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and reduces reporting and administrative requirements for donated foods provided to charitable institutions. Lastly, the rule restructures and revises regulatory provisions in a plain language format to make them easier to read and understand. PMID:18949885

  19. Evaluation of a portable stress management device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Portable consumer health management devices are increasingly gaining attention from health consumers. StressEraser is a portable biofeedback device widely advertised as a stress reliever and cognition enhancer. However number of evaluation studies assessing effect of StressEraser on cognitive performance improvement and stress relief is very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of StressEraser on cognitive performance and stress relief using a crossover design. A computerized psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was selected as a mental stressor. The cognitive performance and stress level were measured in fourteen subjects having two 10-minute PVTs and 10-minute StressEraser intervention in between the PVTs. All main PVT metrics of cognitive performance (MeanRT, MedianRT, and Fastest 10%) became significantly worse after StressEraser application (P<0.05). On the other hand, six heart rate variability (HRV) parameters (MeanRR, SDNN, RMSSD, aLF, aHF, and LF/HF) used to assess stress level showed no significant differences between the first and the second PVTs. Furthermore, the subjective stress levels reported by the study subjects after the first and the second PVTs were not significantly different. We concluded that the StressEraser had a negative effect on cognitive performance and no effect on stress level. PMID:25676982

  20. Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Samuel F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

  1. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  2. Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…

  3. Stress Management Techniques for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Francesca M.

    The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…

  4. Inherited Metabolic Disorders: Aspects of Chronic Nutritional Management

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, SW; Barclay, LJ; Burrage, LC

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of newborn screening and the development of new therapies have led to an expanding population of patients with inherited metabolic disorders, and these patients are now entering adulthood. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for many of these disorders and thus, trained metabolic dietitians are critical members of the multidisciplinary team required for management of such patients. The main goals of dietary therapy in inborn errors of metabolism are the maintenance of normal growth and development while limiting offending metabolites and providing deficient products. Typically, the offending metabolite is either significantly reduced or removed completely from the diet and then reintroduced in small quantities until blood levels are within the normal range. Such treatment is required in infancy, childhood and adulthood and requires careful monitoring of micronutrient and macronutrient intake throughout the lifespan. The goal of this review is to highlight the basic principles of chronic nutritional management of the inborn errors of protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. PMID:26079521

  5. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  6. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p < 0.01), rating of current stress level and confidence to manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme. PMID:23897838

  7. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  8. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  9. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  10. [Nutrition management of the cancer patients: modern view on problem].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Voznyĭ, E K

    2008-01-01

    In the review the current state of nutrition for patients with cancers is given. The role of nutrition in cancer etiology and prevention of cancers are discussed. Main principles of diet constriction in cancers are expounded. PMID:18669325

  11. [BALANCED SCORECARD AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN CLINICAL NUTRITION].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez López, Cristina; Mauriz, Jose L; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, balanced scorecards have updated traditional management systems in the business sector. In this way, Kaplan and Norton propose performance measurement through several perspectives with a logical sequence: internal processes and learning impact client services, so that financial performance is affected. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the main characteristics of balanced scorecard when it is applied to non-for-profit companies and, specifically to the health sector in the clinical nutrition field. This model improves the economic vision of management with clinical indicators that represent healthcare professional's perspective. The balanced scorecard would allow a proper monitoring and tracking system for the main healthcare indicators. This contributes to a better control in comparison with standards that are associated with adequate quality assistance. Owing to the role of management accounting and cost calculations, the definition of healthcare professionals as clients or users, and clinical results relevance, it is necessary to adapt the balanced scorecard to the specific characteristics of the clinical field, redefining both perspectives and indicators. PMID:26262746

  12. Occupational stress, working condition and nutritional status of military police officers.

    PubMed

    Santana, Angela Maria C; Gomes, Josiane Keila V; De Marchi, Dione; Girondoli, Yassana M; Rosado, Lina E F P de Lima; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; de Andrade, Isabel Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress, working conditions and the nutritional status of 53 military police officers in a Southeast city of Brazil. In order to evaluate the symptomatology and the stress phase, the Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp for Adults - ISSL was utilized. The assessment of the working conditions was performed by means of socio-demographic questionnaire, direct observation and interviews. The nutritional and health conditions were assessed through anthropometric measures, biochemical tests, blood pressure measurements and cardiovascular disease risk calculator. The sample is of the male gender (92.5%) and aging below 40 years old (73.6%). From these, 35.8% showed stress and 68.4% were in the resistance phase, with 31.6% almost burned out. Through the calculation of Chi-square we could find positive association between the BMI and tiredness (P = 0.0188), between the BMI and irritation (P = 0.0005) and the BMI and the appearance of nervous system problems or emotional problems (P = 0.0304), indicating that these statuses or problems could be related to work. We can conclude then, the stress is present among military police officers. No case of critical stress was found, and the stress phases identified are still susceptible to intervention. PMID:22317161

  13. Stress management for the radiologic technologist.

    PubMed

    Romano, Jeannine M

    2012-01-01

    Changes in technology in the radiology department and an emphasis on multitasking can lead to stress and burnout, along with the potential for medical errors. A shift in viewpoint and exercises in self-evaluation can help radiologic technologists learn to manage change in a positive manner. Learning to approach change through a series of transitions and positive steps can reduce stress at work and at home. PMID:22988262

  14. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment. PMID:26853727

  15. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals. PMID:25700740

  16. Lung cancer: what are the links with oxidative stress, physical activity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Dupuis, Carmen; Galvaing, Géraud; Aubreton, Sylvie; Laurent, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Filaire, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play an essential role as a secondary messenger in the normal regulation of a variety of physiological processes, such as apoptosis, survival, and proliferative signaling pathways. Oxidative stress also plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging, degenerative disease, and cancer. Among cancers, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the Western world. Lung cancer is the commonest fatal cancer whose risk is dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the number of years smoking, some components of cigarette smoke inducing oxidative stress by transmitting or generating oxidative stress. It can be subdivided into two broad categories, small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, the latter is the most common type. Distinct measures of primary and secondary prevention have been investigated to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by lung cancer. Among them, it seems that physical activity and nutrition have some beneficial effects. However, physical activity can have different influences on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply, strength and frequency of exercise loads as well as the degree of exercise-mediated oxidative stress. Micronutrient supplementation seems to have a positive impact in lung surgery, particularly as an antioxidant, even if the role of micronutrients in lung cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine lung cancer in relation to oxidative stress, physical activity, and nutrition. PMID:24161719

  17. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  18. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  19. Nutritional management of PKU with glycomacropeptide from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Gleason, S T; van Calcar, S C; MacLeod, E L; Nelson, K L; Etzel, M R; Rice, G M; Wolff, J A

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet to prevent neurological impairment. Compliance with the low-Phe diet is often poor owing to restriction in natural foods and the requirement for consumption of a Phe-free amino acid formula or medical food. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a natural protein produced during cheese-making, is uniquely suited to a low-Phe diet because when isolated from cheese whey it contains minimal Phe (2.5-5 mg Phe/g protein). This paper reviews progress in evaluating the safety, acceptability and efficacy of GMP in the nutritional management of PKU. A variety of foods and beverages can be made with GMP to improve the taste, variety and convenience of the PKU diet. Sensory studies in individuals with PKU demonstrate that GMP foods are acceptable alternatives to amino acid medical foods. Studies in the PKU mouse model demonstrate that GMP supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provides a nutritionally adequate source of protein and improves the metabolic phenotype by reducing concentrations of Phe in plasma and brain. A case report in an adult with classical PKU who followed the GMP diet for 10 weeks at home indicates safety, acceptability of GMP food products, a 13-14% reduction in blood Phe levels (p<0.05) and improved distribution of dietary protein throughout the day compared with the amino acid diet. In summary, food products made with GMP that is supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provide a palatable alternative source of protein that may improve dietary compliance and metabolic control of PKU. PMID:18956251

  20. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898

  1. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  2. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  3. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  4. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (p<0.05) than those reporting lower quality training. Conclusion Across all non-physician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  5. A Review of Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) in China Using a Nutritional Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...

  6. Dietary Management in Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  7. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  8. Dietary Management in Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  9. Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  10. Dietary Management in Hypertension. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  11. Dietary Management for Alcoholic Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  12. [Prevention of burnout by stress management].

    PubMed

    Günthner, A; Batra, A

    2012-02-01

    Burnout is a possible consequence of excessive demands, high levels of stress, or a consequence of lack of resources for coping with difficult tasks. Systematic stress management might be effective in reducing the risk for development of a burnout syndrome. Based on a literature search on available research papers and meta-analyses in Medline and Pubmed, current findings on the content and effectiveness of stress management programs are reported for different target groups. Stress management programs can be divided into programs focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. In contrast to primary prevention programs, secondary and tertiary preventive programs focus on the specific needs of different target groups. Cognitive-behavioral programs have been shown to be the most effective interventions. A combination of psycho-educational treatment with follow-up or booster sessions increases the long-term outcome in the prevention of burn-out syndromes. Beside the duration of the program, focus on problems and sustainability of supply is important for the long-term effectiveness in secondary and tertiary prevention. PMID:22290161

  13. Nutritional management after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Luís Carlos do Rego

    Changes in the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery markedly change patients' eating patterns. Malnutrition is a significant risk associated with all bariatric procedures, which can lead to dangerous nutritional deficiencies. However, if correct patient selection is conducted and if patients receive thorough preoperative nutrition education and postoperative nutritional follow-up, these deficiencies are largely preventable. Nurses are important members of the multidisciplinary team; assisting in patient selection, providing hands-on care, and educating the patient on the surgical process and post-operative dietary restrictions. It is critical for nurses to understand immediate and projected nutritional consequences of surgery, in order to monitor the patient for diet tolerance and nutrient deficiency symptoms, to encourage dietary compliance, and to reinforce the long-term dietary restrictions. With appropriate supplementation and patient compliance, all nutritional deficiencies can be avoided or corrected. PMID:20505602

  14. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  15. Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  16. Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157876.html Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients When added ... March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of stress management training can make cardiac rehabilitation programs more effective, ...

  17. Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy. PMID:23267362

  18. Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy. PMID:23267362

  19. The lipid management nutrition outcomes project: perspectives from a national experience in protocol implementation and nutrition outcomes tracking.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Katherine S; Weintraub, Martha S; Biesemeier, Christina K; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    2008-02-01

    The Lipid Management Nutrition Outcomes Project was a multicenter prospective noncontrolled observational study in which a network of 51 registered dietitians (RDs) from practice settings across the United States implemented the 1998 Medical Nutrition Therapy Hyperlipidemia Protocol and collected outcomes. Difficulty recruiting RDs and enrolling patients revealed a gap between practice guidelines and clinical practice. Many RDs did not have laboratory values or follow-up visits required by the protocol. RDs able to follow protocol recommendations had the expected positive results. Within a 6-month period, 377 new patients presenting for lipid management met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Some follow-up data were available on 280 (74.3%) patients. There were follow-up lipid data prior to lipid-lowering medication changes for 219 patients. Reported mean dietary fat intake was reduced to <30% (P<0.0001). The population lost weight and increased exercise frequency (P<0.001, P<0.001). In the 175 patients with initial triglycerides <400 mg/dL (4.52 mmol/L), 44.6% had either a 15% drop in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or reached low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal. Lipid response occurred in 34.7+/-16.5 weeks with 3.0+/-1.4 RD visits. The Lipid Management Nutrition Outcomes Project highlights frustrations and values of outcomes monitoring in actual practice and identifies areas for practice advancement. PMID:18237579

  20. Vestibular Stimulation for Stress Management in Students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sai Sailesh; Rajagopalan, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although several methods are developed to alleviate stress among college students, logistic limitations in adopting them have limited their utility. Aim Hence, we aimed to test a very practical approach to alleviate stress among college students by achieving vestibular stimulation using swings. Materials and Methods In this study 60 male and female participants were randomly assigned into vestibular stimulation or control groups. Depression, anxiety, stress scores, sleep quality, heart rate, blood pressure, Autonomic functions, respiratory, haematological, cognitive function, Quality of life were recorded before and after 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th days of vestibular stimulation. Results STAI S and STAI T scores were significantly improved on day 28th following vestibular stimulation. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly decreased and remained within normal limits in vestibular group on day 28th following vestibular stimulation. Postural fall in blood pressure was significantly improved on day 14 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. Respiratory rate was significantly improved on day 7 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. PSQI sleep disturbance, PSQI sleep latency, PSQI total score and bleeding time was significantly improved following vestibular stimulation. Conclusion Our study supports the adoption of vestibular stimulation for stress management. Hence, placement of swings in college campuses must be considered, which may be a simple approach to alleviate stress among college students. PMID:27042457

  1. Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:25755550

  2. The Nurturing Teacher: Managing the Stress of Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles the concerns of stressed teachers. Whether from nurturance suffering (stress related to caring for students) or from the piles of paperwork yet to be tackled, this text helps the reader sort through the causes of stress, the emotional, physical and social reactions to stress and how one can begin to plan a stress management plan.…

  3. Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. ERIC Digest #E488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.

    Presented in a question-and-answer format, this digest offers guidelines to help gifted students manage stress effectively. The following questions are considered: What is stress? How can a youngster experience stress when nothing bad is happening? Is a gifted student more likely to feel stress than others? What are some stresses on a gifted…

  4. Stress Audits as a Precursor to Stress Management Workshops: An Evaluation of the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Wayne E.; Keown-Gerrard, Janine L.; Kline, Theresa

    2003-01-01

    A stress audit assessing potential stressors; stress perceptions, responses, and outcomes; and personal, group, and situational characteristics was conducted in stress management workshops for 20 employees. New skills and attitudes for dealing with stress were taught: time management, communication, alternatives to negative attitudes, and…

  5. Canalization and developmental instability of the fetal skull in a mouse model of maternal nutritional stress

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Paula N.; Lotto, Federico P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional imbalance is one of the main sources of stress in both extant and extinct human populations. Restricted availability of nutrients is thought to disrupt the buffering mechanisms that contribute to developmental stability and canalization, resulting in increased levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and phenotypic variance among individuals. However, the literature is contradictory in this regard. This study assesses the effect of prenatal nutritional stress on FA and among-individual variance in cranial shape and size using a mouse model of maternal protein restriction. Two sets of landmark coordinates were digitized in three dimensions from skulls of control and protein restricted specimens at E17.5 and E18.5. We found that, by the end of gestation, maternal protein restriction resulted in a significant reduction of skull size. Fluctuating asymmetry in size and shape exceeded the amount of measurement error in all groups, but no significant differences in the magnitude of FA were found between treatments. Convsersely, the pattern of shape asymmetry was affected by the environmental perturbation since the angles between the first eigenvectors extracted from the covariance matrix of shape asymmetric component of protein restricted and control groups were not significantly different from the expected for random vectors. In addition, among-individual variance in cranial shape was significanlty higher in the protein restricted than the control group at E18.5. Overall, the results obtained from a controlled experiment do not support the view of fluctuating asymmetry of cranial structures as a reliable index for inferring nutritional stress in human populations. PMID:24888714

  6. Canalization and developmental instability of the fetal skull in a mouse model of maternal nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula N; Lotto, Federico P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional imbalance is one of the main sources of stress in both extant and extinct human populations. Restricted availability of nutrients is thought to disrupt the buffering mechanisms that contribute to developmental stability and canalization, resulting in increased levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and phenotypic variance among individuals. However, the literature is contradictory in this regard. This study assesses the effect of prenatal nutritional stress on FA and among-individual variance in cranial shape and size using a mouse model of maternal protein restriction. Two sets of landmark coordinates were digitized in three dimensions from skulls of control and protein restricted specimens at E17.5 and E18.5. We found that, by the end of gestation, maternal protein restriction resulted in a significant reduction of skull size. Fluctuating asymmetry in size and shape exceeded the amount of measurement error in all groups, but no significant differences in the magnitude of FA were found between treatments. Conversely, the pattern of shape asymmetry was affected by the environmental perturbation since the angles between the first eigenvectors extracted from the covariance matrix of shape asymmetric component of protein restricted and control groups were not significantly different from the expected for random vectors. In addition, among-individual variance in cranial shape was significantly higher in the protein restricted than the control group at E18.5. Overall, the results obtained from a controlled experiment do not support the view of fluctuating asymmetry of cranial structures as a reliable index for inferring nutritional stress in human populations. PMID:24888714

  7. Nutrition in Wound Care Management: A Comprehensive Overview.

    PubMed

    Quain, Angela M; Khardori, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wound care is a multidisciplinary specialty requiring many physiologic and immunologic processes as well as physical, social, and societal factors to achieve successful wound closure. Most wounds are treated with combinations of antimicrobials, protective barriers, and topical growth agents, including skin and biologic grafts.The role of nutrition in wound healing may be overlooked in the wound care patient. Like the specialty, it is often multifaceted, with many nutritional components playing a variety of roles in the wound healing process. Suboptimal nutrition can alter immune function, collagen synthesis, and wound tensile strength, all of which are essential in the wound healing process. It is also important to remember that not all wounds are equal: a burn is different from a diabetic foot ulcer, which is different from a pressure ulcer. Nonetheless, nutrition is a common denominator for all wound patients, and what is studied in 1 wound population is often relevant in another. Due to the complexities of monitoring and measuring both wound healing and dietary intake, randomized, controlled trials of wound care patients are difficult to conduct, and much of the data concerning nutrition in wound care relies on combined supplements. In summary, it appears that some nutrients are necessary only if deficient, whereas others may become conditionally essential and serve a therapeutic role. All of the nutrients discussed should be viewed as a component of a broader, complete diet. This article is a summary of wound healing and the roles of a variety of macronutrients and micronutrients in the process. PMID:27447105

  8. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G S

    1999-08-01

    Prolonged stress, whether a result of mental/emotional upset or due to physical factors such as malnutrition, surgery, chemical exposure, excessive exercise, sleep deprivation, or a host of other environmental causes, results in predictable systemic effects. The systemic effects of stress include increased levels of stress hormones such as cortisol, a decline in certain aspects of immune system function such as natural killer cell cytotoxicity or secretory-IgA levels, and a disruption of gastrointestinal microflora balance. These systemic changes might be a substantial contributor to many of the stress-associated declines in health. Based on human and animal research, it appears a variety of nutritional and botanical substances - such as adaptogenic herbs, specific vitamins including ascorbic acid, vitamins B1 and B6, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B5 (pantethine) and B12 (methylcobalamin), the amino acid tyrosine, and other nutrients such as lipoic acid, phosphatidylserine, and plant sterol/sterolin combinations - may allow individuals to sustain an adaptive response and minimize some of the systemic effects of stress. PMID:10468649

  9. Stress, Food, and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology and Nutrition at the Cutting Edge

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would certainly be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can impact mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen NF-κB activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community. PMID:20410248

  10. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-1: Occupational Opportunities Related to Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Mary

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on occupational opportunities related to foods and nutrition is the first in a set of three modules on occupational education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  11. Stress management by autophagy: Implications for chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Zhou, Li; Chen, Zhibin; Nice, Edouard C; Huang, Canhua

    2016-07-01

    Development of chemoresistance, which limits the efficiency of anticancer agents, has long been a major problem in cancer therapy and urgently needs to be solved to improve clinical outcomes. Factors contributing to chemoresistance are various, but a key factor is the cell's capability for stress management. Autophagy, a favored survival strategy that organisms employ to get over many kinds of stress, is emerging as a crucial player in drug resistance. It has been shown that autophagy facilitates the resistance of tumor cells to anticancer agents, and abrogation of autophagy could be therapeutically beneficial in some cases, suggesting autophagy could be a promising target for cancer treatments. Thus, defining the roles of autophagy in chemoresistance, and the mechanisms involved, will be critical to enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy and develop novel anticancer strategy interventions. PMID:26757106

  12. Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis: Prevention and Management.

    PubMed

    Beath, Sue V; Kelly, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    When cholestasis occurs in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition, it is the result of many pathogenic pathways converging on the hepatic acinus. The result may be a temporary rise in liver function tests. The resulting fibrosis, portal hypertension, and jaundice are hallmarks of type 3 intestinal-associated liver disease to which children are more susceptible than adults. The key to prevention is in identifying high-risk scenarios, meticulous monitoring, and personalized prescription of parenteral nutrition solutions combined with an active approach in reducing the impact of inflammatory events when they occur by prompt use of antibiotics and line locks. PMID:26593297

  13. Lipidomic analysis of lipid droplets from murine hepatocytes reveals distinct signatures for nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Chitraju, Chandramohan; Trötzmüller, Martin; Hartler, Jürgen; Wolinski, Heimo; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Köfeler, Harald C; Spener, Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritional stress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritional stress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights. PMID:22872753

  14. Oxidative stress and nutritional intakes in lung patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madill, J; Aghdassi, E; Arendt, B M; Gutierrez, C; Singer, L; Chow, C-W; Keshavjee, S; Allard, J P

    2009-11-01

    Survival after lung transplantation is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Oxidative stress (OxS) can be associated with BOS due to chronic inflammation. The type of fat and antioxidant intakes may also contribute to OxS. Our aim was to compare OxS and nutritional intakes in non-BOS versus various stages of BOS. Fifty-eight lung recipients with versus without BOS were prospectively classified as: non-BOS; BOS Op-1 (mild), and BOS 2-3 (severe). We measured nutritional intake and plasma vitamins A, C, and E. Among a subgroup of 37 patients, OxS was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO micromol/L MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in bronchoalveolar lavage BAL fluid (BALF). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare groups. Results are reported as mean values +/- standard errors of the mean. There was no significant difference in demographic features on time posttransplant among groups. Although there were comparable cell counts in BALF, severe BOS patients showed significantly higher BALF LPO concentrations when compared with milder stage of BOS or with non-BOS (P = .001, for both). Severe BOS recipients also displayed higher BALF GSSG concentrations compared to milder stage of BOS (P = .001) or non-BOS (P = .007). In conclusion, patients with severe BOS were more oxidatively stressed compared with mild and non-BOS recipients. PMID:19917398

  15. Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

  16. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  17. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  18. Stress Management Model for the Elementary/Middle/High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    The Matthews Stress Management formula is a stress management model for use in schools. This effective, practical, and inexpensive model entails the awareness of the physiology of stress, perception of tangible bases of motivation for children, appropriate and simplified techniques, applicability to other areas, and full recognition of the…

  19. Effect of a Stress Management Class: One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Addison W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Graduate and undergraduate students showed a reduction in anxiety during a 16-week course designed to include information on the causes and effects of stress as well as practical techniques for stress management. A follow-up study showed that the students were still successfully using the stress management techniques a year later. (RM)

  20. A Stress-Management Guide for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Bettie B.

    This document presents a comprehensive guide to help young people understand and cope with stress, pressure, and anxiety. Adolescent readers are introduced to the concept of stress, the ways that stress can affect them, and the skills and techniques needed to help them learn effective ways to reduce and manage stress. The guide begins by defining…

  1. Multidimensional stress management in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Russler, M F

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of multidimensional stress management training for beginning baccalaureate nursing students (N = 57). An experimental pretest-posttest placebo group, control group design was used. Two pretest and three posttest measurements of the dependent variables of state anxiety (SA), reported emotions, and coping methods were completed. The program incorporated cognitive, physiological, and behavioral approaches. Second, this study examined the relationship of self-esteem, recent life experiences, and trait anxiety (TA) to encountered stressors. A repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences between treatment groups across time. However, written workshop evaluations demonstrated a strongly positive response by the experimental group. Significant within-subjects change was demonstrated for all 57 subjects over the semester on the dependent variables of SA, Threat emotions, and Challenge emotions reinforcing Lazarus' transactional model. A correlation matrix revealed that individuals with low self-esteem appraised the environment in a negative manner as did those subjects with high state and TA. Recommendations include further revision of the multidimensional stress management approach and continued use of the transactional theoretical framework. PMID:1658267

  2. Management of stress and stress-related diseases: Emerging computer-based technologies and the rationale for clinical laboratory assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the issue of stress management in mental health has been discussed without reference to the clinical laboratory perspectives. Translational research and the vast array of emerging diagnostic technologies in alternative medical practice are now bridging the gap. While it would be scientific arrogance for the clinical practitioner and scientist to ignore the trend, the new technologies seeking clinical acceptability necessarily require expatiation of the scientific aspects of their products. Aims: This commentary builds on a comparative critical review to further our hypothesis that oxidative stress is the biochemical basis of the emerging computer-based diagnostic technologies. Materials & Method: The available information on Computer Meridian Diagnostics, Neuropattern and Virtual Scanning technologies were critically reviewed. The differences and similarities were articulated. Results: The technologies seem different, but have similarities that have not been articulated before. The seemingly different theories are traceable to Russian scientists and are based upon stress-induced adrenal secretions and the associated effect on glucose metabolism. The therapeutic effects of antioxidant nutrition, exercise or relaxation that are inherent in the technologies are highlighted. Conclusion: This commentary furthers explanation of the alterations in antioxidant activities as a result of biofeedback, oxidative stress and/or physiological effects as the biochemical basis of the technologies. The place for antioxidant indices and whole blood viscosity are also highlighted. This provides a rationale for the evaluation of available clinical diagnostic tests both to validate the technologies and as clinical laboratory correlates in stress management. PMID:22666709

  3. Use of the nutrition facts label in chronic disease management: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert E; Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Matheson, Eric M; Everett, Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts their energy and nutrient intake. Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of the United States population, was performed. Adults (20 years of age or older) who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia were included for analysis. There were 3,748 unweighted participants, which represents 170,958,166 in the US population. Proportions of patients with chronic disease who read nutrition labels were compared by chi(2) analysis, mean values of various components of their diet were compared by the two-sample independent t test, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by logistic regression. Among patients with chronic disease, the odds of reading food labels when told by their doctor or another health professional to reduce calories or weight was 50% higher than in those without physician intervention (odds ratio=1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.00). Those who read food labels consumed less energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and sugar, and more fiber than those who did not. These findings point to the value of dietary counseling in chronic disease management. PMID:20338291

  4. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

  5. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Managing Your Stress Know When to Get Help Sometimes things become ... anger, or desires revenge; or shows signs of stress (listed on this page) for several days or ...

  6. Controlled trial of bowel rest and nutritional support in the management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, G R; Fleming, C R; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Rosenberg, I H; Sales, D; Tremaine, W J

    1988-01-01

    To define the role of bowel rest as an independent variable from nutritional support a prospective, randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 51 patients with active Crohn's disease unresponsive to other medical management. Nutritional support for 21 days was randomised to total parenteral nutrition and nil by mouth (n = 17), defined formula diet administered through a nasogastric tube (n = 19), or partial parenteral nutrition and oral food (n = 15). Nutrient input in the first two groups provided 40 non-protein kcal/kg ideal body weight /d and 1g/ kg/d protein respectively, while the third group received 15 non-protein kcal/kg/d and 0.3 g/kg/d protein intravenously and ate unrestricted food. Clinical remissions occurred in 71% of patients on parenteral nutrition, in 58% on the defined formula diet and in 60% on partial parenteral nutrition; the probability for each group of being in remission at one year, after successful therapy was 42%, 55%, and 56% respectively. These differences were not significant. In patients with active Crohn's disease bowel rest was not a major factor in achieving a remission during nutritional support and did not influence outcome during one year's follow-up. PMID:3143625

  7. Nutritional management of a patient with brain damage and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bildsten, C; Lamid, S

    1983-08-01

    Few reports on nutritional management of patients with both brain damage and spinal-cord-injury appear in the literature. We present a case of a 20-year-old male quadriplegic, C4 complete, who also sustained brain damage secondary to cerebral anoxia. When the patient was transferred to our rehabilitation unit, deterioration in nutritional status was noted, as evidenced by weight loss and depressed serum albumin and hemoglobin. Nutritional rehabilitation consisted of weaning from nasogastric tube feedings to an oral diet providing snacks and commercial supplements. This resulted in a positive nitrogen balance. Other factors, such as mobilization, exercises, and closure of a pressure sore, contributed favorably to improvement of nutritional status. PMID:6411046

  8. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S; Chabot, John A; Kluger, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    nutrition screening and intervention, and the surgical/oncological team should include nutrition professionals in managing these patients in the perioperative period. PMID:25713805

  9. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  10. Running Therapy: Change Agent in Anxiety and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Running can be used effectively to produce positive physiological and psychological changes, including cardiovascular and physical fitness, reduction of anxiety, and more effective management of stress. (CJ)

  11. COPD - managing stress and your mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... with COPD have a greater risk for depression, stress, and anxiety. Being stressed or depressed can make ... your physical health. Learning how to deal with stress and anxiety and seeking care for depression can ...

  12. Nutritional strategies to counter stress to the immune system in athletes, with special reference to football.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2006-07-01

    Although epidemiological data indicate that athletes are at increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during periods of heavy training and the 1 - 2 week period following endurance race events, there is very limited information on the responses to football training and match-play. For several hours after heavy exertion, components of both the innate (e.g. natural killer cell activity and neutrophil oxidative burst activity) and adaptive (e.g. T and B cell function) immune system exhibit suppressed function. Although such responses to football training and competition do not appear to be as pronounced, variations in immune cell numbers and function are reported in professional footballers over the course of a season. Attempts have been made through nutritional means (e.g. glutamine, vitamins C and E, and carbohydrate supplementation) to attenuate immune changes following intensive exercise and thus lower the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Carbohydrate supplementation during heavy exercise has emerged as a partial countermeasure and attenuates increases in blood neutrophil counts, stress hormones, and inflammatory cytokines, but has little effect on decrements in salivary IgA output or natural killer cell function. Animal research indicates that other nutritional components such as beta-glucan, quercetin, and curcumin warrant human investigations to determine if they are effective countermeasures to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:16766504

  13. Stress management in dental students: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226

  14. Natural variation reveals relationships between pre-stress carbohydrate nutritional status and subsequent responses to xenobiotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Background Soluble sugars are involved in responses to stress, and act as signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone cross-talk transduction pathways. Thus, exogenous sucrose treatment efficiently induces tolerance to the herbicide atrazine in Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets, at least partially through large-scale modifications of expression of stress-related genes. Methods Availability of sugars in planta for stress responses is likely to depend on complex dynamics of soluble sugar accumulation, sucrose–starch partition and organ allocation. The question of potential relationships between endogenous sugar levels and stress responses to atrazine treatment was investigated through analysis of natural genetic accessions of A. thaliana. Parallel quantitative and statistical analysis of biochemical parameters and of stress-sensitive physiological traits was carried out on a set of 11 accessions. Key Results Important natural variation was found between accessions of A. thaliana in pre-stress shoot endogenous sugar levels and responses of plantlets to subsequent atrazine stress. Moreover, consistent trends and statistically significant correlations were detected between specific endogenous sugar parameters, such as the pre-stress end of day sucrose level in shoots, and physiological markers of atrazine tolerance. Conclusions These significant relationships between endogenous carbohydrate metabolism and stress response therefore point to an important integration of carbon nutritional status and induction of stress tolerance in plants. The specific correlation between pre-stress sucrose level and greater atrazine tolerance may reflect adaptive mechanisms that link sucrose accumulation, photosynthesis-related stress and sucrose induction of stress defences. PMID:19789177

  15. Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. PMID:24491646

  16. IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

  17. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  18. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  19. Perceptions of School Nutrition Directors and Managers Regarding Their Role in School Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Lofton, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the perceptions of school nutrition (SN) directors and managers regarding their role in school wellness, the responsibility of SN professionals for serving as positive role models, and factors contributing to greater involvement in school wellness. Methods: A survey assessing the…

  20. Nutrition knowledge of rural older populations: can congregate meal site participants manage their own diets?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lionel; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Congregate meal sites were funded to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural older individuals in improving their health-related practices. Although the participants in the program are largely female, the meals are designed to meet one third of the daily caloric intake of a 70-year-old male, and to satisfy his recommended dietary allowances for total fat, fiber, calcium, and sodium. The actual percentage of the required nutrient intake contributed by meals served at congregate sites is indefinite. Moreover, the ability of congregate meal participants to manage their diets and their receptiveness to helpful nutrition information in that regard is unknown. Our objective was to promote nutritional knowledge in economically disadvantaged, rural older participants by studying its impact on their ability to benefit from congregate meal programs. We used a test, intervention, retest methodology to examine the effect of short-term nutrition interventions on congregate meal site participants' nutrition knowledge. The objective was to determine the participants' potential for managing their own diets (e.g., their ability to determine what diet behaviors are appropriate for specific chronic conditions). We found that while congregate meal site participants have knowledge of nutrition recommendations, their ability to apply this information in helping themselves to prevent or control their chronic conditions remains in question. PMID:20711926

  1. Major intestinal complications of radiotherapy. Management and nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Deitel, M.; To, T.B.

    1987-12-01

    Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome.

  2. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  3. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  4. Capitalizing on Stress Management Techniques in Developmental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    Mastering stress management techniques can help college developmental class educators protect themselves from burnout. These techniques can also be taught to students in developmental classes to enable them to maximize the benefits from these classes. This paper outlines the causes of stress, identifies stressors, describes responses to stress,…

  5. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Contributions to Teacher Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Susan G.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that irrational beliefs are significantly related to teacher stress levels and that teacher stress management interventions having most evidence of effectiveness employ cognitive restructuring components based on rational-emotive therapy procedures. Notes that programs use stress inoculation training framework and provide behavioral and…

  6. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  7. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect: influence of salts, nutritional stress and pyocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, R O; Pizarro, R A

    1999-05-01

    The presence of NaCl in plating media shows an important protection against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect, contrasting with the known sensitizing action of salts on UV-A-irradiated Escherichia coli cells. MgSO4 exhibits a similar protection, but lower concentrations than for NaCl are needed to achieve the same effect. NaCl protection from lethal effects involves an osmotic mechanism, while MgSO4 could act by a different process. On the other hand, when cells grown in a complete medium are then incubated for 20 min in a synthetic medium and irradiated with UV-A, a very marked protection is obtained. This protection is dependent on protein synthesis, since treatment with tetracycline, during the nutritional stress, blocks its induction. These results offer a new example of cross-protection among different stressing agents. In our experimental conditions, natural phenazines of P. aeruginosa are not present in the cells, ruling out the possibility that these pigments act as photosensitizers. Conversely, pyocyanine (the major phenazine produced by this microorganism) prevents the UV-A killing effect in a concentration-dependent way when present in the irradiation media. Finally, UV-A irradiation induces, as in E. coli, the accumulation of guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, although the physiological meaning of this finding has yet to be determined. PMID:10443032

  9. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Bélgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tècnica del Norte, aged 43 ± 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  10. Hepatic mitochondrial alterations and increased oxidative stress in nutritional diabetes-prone Psammomys obesus model.

    PubMed

    Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M Nieves; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; El-Mir, M Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R; Detaille, Dominique; Koceïr, E Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species. PMID:22675340

  11. Macroelemental composition of cadmium stressed lettuce plants grown under conditions of intensive sulphur nutrition.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-09-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is moderately sensitive to cadmium (Cd) and shows high accumulation of this metal. Thus, this species is considered to be a good model for both identifying determinants controlling Cd accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting the accumulation of this metal in edible tissues. Simultaneously, lettuce is characterised by medium requirements for sulphur (S) - a macronutrient whose role is associated not only with proper growth and development, but also with stress tolerance. The common use of NPK fertilizers without sulphates (S-SO4) together with the progressive process of reducing emissions of S compounds to the natural environment may lead to deficiency of this element in plants. The present study evaluated the changes in macronutrient content and accumulation in Cd-stressed lettuce 'Justyna' supplied with different S doses. Four concentrations of Cd (0, 0.0002, 0.02 or 0.04 mM) and three levels of S applied in the form of S-SO4 (2, 6 or 9 mM S) were used. Cd exposure impaired the macronutrient balance and accumulation in lettuce. Intensive S nutrition to some extent alleviated Cd-induced toxicity. High S doses, especially 6 mM S, partially improved macronutrient status and restored the macronutrient balance. In Cd-stressed plants supplemented with additional S, an increase in root and shoot biomass and in the content of N, K and Mg was found, without significant changes in the Ca content. Simultaneously, the P and S contents in the biomass of both above- and underground organs remained unchanged. In the leaves, as opposite to the roots, intensive S nutrition reduced the accumulation of Cd. However, the foliar Cd concentration still exceeded the acceptable limits established for consumption. All the obtained results concerning the content of macronutrients and their ratios were referred, inter alia, to the standards i.e. the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms. PMID

  12. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  13. Helping Clients Manage Stress: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    The pervasiveness of stress as a problem, with its many harmful effects on people, makes it a matter of growing interest for counselors and other personnel workers. This monograph provides definitions of stress, distress, and eustress, and discusses numerous causes of distress, as well as the benefits of stress to a healthy, productive life.…

  14. Stress Management for Educators. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, William T.

    Educators at all levels find stress a reality in their professional lives. But an educational system free of stress would make for a profession without achievement. While it is important to make sure that stress does not become so intense that it endangers or impairs mental or physical health, it can be a positive force when properly understood…

  15. What is the relationship between mineral nutrition and disease management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan disease management potentially influences efficient use of fertilizer and other expensive orchard inputs. Optimization of tree nutrient element physiology is key to the expression of a cultivar’s full potential to express resistance to disease. This is especially important in cultivars posse...

  16. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean. PMID:25667936

  17. Nutritional ecology of ursids: A review of newer methods and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Felicetti, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The capability to understand the nutritional ecology of free-ranging bears has increased dramatically in the last 20 years. Advancements have occurred because (1) managers and biologists recognized the need to link habitat quality, productivity, and variability with bear movements, home ranges, and demographic parameters like reproductive output, survival, and population growth, and (2) several research teams are using new methods to build on the results of earlier field studies. Our ability to couple new field methods and empirical field research with controlled experiments using captive bears has been central to our increased understanding of bear nutrition. Newer methods include the use of stable isotopes to quantify assimilated diet and nutrient flows within ecosystems, bioelectrical impedance to measure body composition, and naturally occurring mercury to estimate fish intake. Controlled experiments using captive bears have been integral to developing methods, isolating specific variables by controlling the environment, and providing additional nutritional understanding necessary to interpret field observations. We review new methods and apply our increased understanding of bear nutritional ecology to 3 management issues: (1) the importance of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) to brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Pacific Northwest, (2) the consequences of the closure of the Yellowstone garbage dumps to grizzly bears, and (3) the relocation of problem bears.

  18. Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. PMID:25412151

  19. Parenteral nutrition in the management of a dog with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis and severe protein-losing enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, I F; Miller, E; Twedt, D C

    1999-01-01

    Management of lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis in a dog with whipworm infestation, hypoproteinemia, and ascites is described. Short-term parenteral nutrition hastened normalization of serum proteins, resolution of diarrhea, and weight gain. A description of the potential benefits, limitations, and possible complications of parenteral nutrition in refractory inflammatory bowel disease is given. PMID:10572669

  20. Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naïve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD

  1. Polyandry and fitness of offspring reared under varying nutritional stress in decorated crickets.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Schaus, Jennifer M; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Snedden, W Andrew; Brady, Pamela L

    2002-10-01

    Females, by mating with more than one male in their lifetime, may reduce their risk of receiving sperm from genetically incompatible sires or increase their prospects of obtaining sperm from genetically superior sires. Although there is evidence of both kinds of genetic benefits in crickets, their relative importance remains unclear, and the extent to which experimentally manipulated levels of polyandry in the laboratory correspond to those that occur in nature remain unknown. We measured lifetime polyandry of free-living female decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and conducted an experiment to determine whether polyandry leads to an increase in offspring viability. We experimentally manipulated both the levels of polyandry and opportunities for females to select among males, randomly allocating the offspring of experimental females to high-food-stress or low-food-stress regimes to complete their development. Females exhibited a high degree of polyandry, mating on average with more than seven different males during their lifetime and up to as many as 15. Polyandry had no effect on either the developmental time or survival of offspring. However, polyandrous females produced significantly heavier sons than those of monandrous females, although there was no difference in the adult mass of daughters. There was no significant interaction between mating treatment and offspring nutritional regimen in their effects on offspring mass, suggesting that benefits accruing to female polyandry are independent of the environment in which offspring develop. The sex difference in the extent to which male and female offspring benefit via their mother's polyandry may reflect possible differences in the fitness returns from sons and daughters. The larger mass gain shown by sons of polyandrous females probably leads to their increased reproductive success, either because of their increased success in sperm competition or because of their increased life span. PMID:12449487

  2. Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons

    PubMed Central

    Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly. PMID:16558676

  3. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed d15N and d13C daynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stress is a major abiotic stress factor, resulting in a major yield loss and poor seed quality. Little information is available on the effects of B nutrition on seed composition under water stress. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutr...

  4. The 2014 ESPEN Arvid Wretlind Lecture: Metabolism & nutrition: Shifting paradigms in COPD management.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-12-01

    COPD is a chronic disease of the lungs, but heterogeneous with respect to clinical manifestations and disease progression. This has consequences for health risk assessment, stratification and management. Heterogeneity can be driven by pulmonary events but also by systemic consequences (e.g. cachexia and muscle weakness) and co-morbidity (e.g. osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease). This paper shows how a metabolic perspective on COPD has contributed significantly to understanding clinical heterogeneity and the need for a paradigm shift from reactive medicine towards predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. These insights have also lead to a paradigm shift in nutritional therapy for COPD from initial ignorance or focusing on putative adverse effects of carbohydrate overload on the ventilatory system to beneficial effects of nutritional intervention on body composition and physical functioning as integral part of disease management. The wider implications beyond COPD as disease have been as clinical model for translational cachexia research. PMID:26474814

  5. Rhizosphere carbon deposition, oxidative stress and nutritional changes in two poplar species exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dhiraj; Smith, Ernest; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2009-03-01

    Species and hybrids in the genus Populus have become the focus of investigation for use in biofuels production and their capacity to sequester carbon (C) in the environment. The identification of species resistant to marginal edaphic sites may be important in both of these endeavors. Plant growth, total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) and low molecular weight organic acid (OA) production, antioxidative enzyme activities and mineral content were assessed in Populus tremuloides L. and Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray seedlings under exposure to aluminum (Al). Both species were sensitive to Al, with significant reductions in shoot and root biomass at and above 50 microM Al. Exposure to Al induced 40-fold increases in TOC deposition in P. tremuloides and 100-fold increases in P. trichocarpa. In P. tremuloides, Al treatment induced root exudation of malic and citric acids, while Al increased exudation of citrate and oxalate in P. trichocarpa. Organic acids accounted for 20-64% of total C released upon Al exposure, with the proportion of OAs increasing in P. tremuloides and decreasing in P. trichocarpa. Dose-dependent responses of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in both root and leaf tissues, indicating that Al exposure induced oxidative stress in poplar. Treatment at and above 100 microM Al reduced the concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in roots and leaves, whereas Al at or above 50 microM reduced root and leaf phosphorous (P) concentrations. The majority of Al taken up was retained in the root system. Even with the induction of OA exudation and accumulation, P. tremuloides and P. trichocarpa remained sensitive to Al, as evidenced by elevated antioxidative enzyme activities, which may reflect inhibition of Ca or P uptake and destabilization of cell homeostasis in these poplar species. Although plants exhibited reductions in growth and evidence of oxidative and nutritional stress, total C rhizodeposition rates for both species increased with

  6. The Trainer's Role in Stress Management and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlans, Vanja

    1986-01-01

    This article explores the role of the trainer in relation to the management of stress and its prevention and considers some of the available research in order to put the problem into perspective. (Author)

  7. Creative Stress Management: "Put Your Own Oxygen Mask On First."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenberg, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Describes creative stress management techniques for early childhood practitioners. Presents a model whereby the caregiver identifies the problem; conducts a personal scan to identify symptoms and reactions that form behavior patterns; chooses from options to alleviate stress reactions related to the body, emotions, actions/behavior, or the mind;…

  8. A Stress Management Course To Prevent Teacher Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Saul Neves; Conboy, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a stress management course for teachers that taught sharing professional experiences with colleagues, identifying specific stress factors and possible coping strategies, replacing irrational beliefs with more appropriate beliefs, analyzing strategies for dealing with student discipline and motivation problems, and assertiveness and…

  9. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

  10. Management of work-related stress in nursing.

    PubMed

    Harris, N

    Evidence suggests that health professionals experience significant levels of occupational stress, which can lead to illness, increased absenteeism, high staff turnover, unsafe behaviour and increased accident rates. Nia Harris highlights strategies to manage and prevent high levels of stress at work. PMID:11975211

  11. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  12. Parent Stress Management Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Lee; Tripp, Gail; Baird, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stress management program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…

  13. Sources of Faculty Stress and Strategies for Its Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Paul; Clagett, Craig

    Views on sources of stress on college faculty and strategies for its management were obtained at small-group sessions in the 1980 faculty orientation at Prince George's Community College, Maryland. Sixteen faculty groups generated 218 responses expressing sources of job stress, a complete listing of which is appended. The responses were aggregated…

  14. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We Should"…

  15. Work-related stress management by Finnish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective. PMID:24583512

  16. Managing stress incontinence in postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Tracy

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant impact on quality of life. This article explores the causes of stress urinary incontinence, and the impact of childbirth in particular, and discusses the importance of thorough assessment and treatment options. PMID:22708190

  17. [Advances in metabolic and nutritional management of patients in critical care].

    PubMed

    Hasebe, M; Suzuki, H; Nakatani, T; Kobayashi, K

    1999-07-01

    Nutritional management often fails in critically ill patients such as trauma and sepsis because of their acutely progressive malnutrition and metabolic derangement being characteristic of such clinical settings. Nutritional strategies for these patients have been almost established by the methods of clinical epidemiology. A considerable amount of clinical evidences suggests that the following should be of benefit for the patients, enteral delivery of nutrition, a nutrition assessment including metabolic evaluation such as liver function or energy requirements, and supplementation of specialty nutrients. Our current data suggest that the metabolic evaluation should include measurement of energy expenditure, assessment of hepatic mitochondrial function, and measurement of the magnitude of body water deviations. Energy expenditure and hepatic mitochondrial function can be observed by the methods of indirect calorimetry and arterial ketone body measurement, respectively. These parameters are helpful to prevent overfeeding from the patients. We emphasize that application of a new method, body impedance spectrum analysis, is important and useful to evaluate the change of body water distributions resulting from metabolic derangement. PMID:10481846

  18. Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O; Foreyt, J; Bouchard, C; Brownell, K D; Dietz, W H; Ravussin, E; Salbe, A D; Schwenger, S; St Jeor, S; Torun, B

    1998-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influenced by genetic factors, but the actual heritability of juvenile obesity is not known. A low physical activity (PA) is characteristic of obese children and adolescents, and it may be one cause of juvenile obesity. There is little evidence, however, that overall energy expenditure is low among the obese. There is a strong association between the prevalence of obesity and the extent of TV viewing. Enhanced PA can reduce body fat and blood pressure and improve lipoprotein profile in obese individuals. Its effect on body composition, however, is slower than with low-calorie diets. The three main dietary approaches are: protein sparing modified fast, balanced hypocaloric diets, and comprehensive behavioral lifestyle programs. To achieve long-standing control of overweight, one should combine changes in eating and activity patterns, using behavior modification techniques. However, the onus is also on society to reduce incentives for a sedentary lifestyle and over-consumption of food. To address the key issues related to childhood weight management, the American College of Sports Medicine convened a Scientific Roundtable in Indianapolis. PMID:9475638

  19. No Trade-Offs between Lipid Stores and Structural Growth in Juvenile Zebra Finches Undergoing Nutritional Stress during Development.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional conditions during development can affect both structural growth and body fat deposition. Body size and body fat each have significant consequences for fitness, yet few studies have investigated how young birds balance resource allocation between structural growth and fat reserves. We raised zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in consistently high- or low-food conditions until posthatch day 35 (PHD 35). From this age until PHD 62, half of the birds in each condition were switched to the other treatment, while the rest were maintained on the same conditions. Body mass, lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length were measured before (PHD 25) and after (PHD 55) nutritional independence. Precise measures of body composition were obtained noninvasively at both ages using quantitative magnetic resonance analysis. At PHD 25, birds in the high treatment had more body mass and lean mass than birds in the low treatment, but nutritional treatments did not affect body fat at this age. Unexpectedly, the strategic response of birds that experienced deteriorating food availability was to maintain body mass by increasing body fat and decreasing lean mass. Birds that experienced an improvement in food availability significantly increased body mass by increasing lean mass and not body fat. Birds maintained on a low diet throughout did not significantly increase body mass, lean mass, or body fat. Tarsus length was not affected by nutritional manipulations. These findings indicate that nutritional stress did not affect the relationship between skeletal growth and body fat deposition because lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length can be independently regulated at different developmental periods depending on nutritional conditions. PMID:25730275

  20. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  1. Bioenergetic Response of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to Thermal and Nutritional Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Peeples, T. L.; Kelly, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins, including a 62-kDa protein immunologically related to the molecular chaperone designated thermophilic factor 55 in Sulfolobus shibatae (J. D. Trent, J. Osipiuk, and T. Pinkau, J. Bacteriol. 172:1478-1484, 1990), on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The 62-kDa protein was also noted at elevated levels in cells that had been shifted from 70 to either 80 or 85(deg)C. The proton motive force ((Delta)p), transmembrane pH ((Delta)pH), and membrane potential ((Delta)(psi)) were determined for samples obtained from continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) and incubated under nutritionally and/or thermally stressed and unstressed conditions. At 70(deg)C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a (Delta)p of approximately -190 to -200 mV, the result of an intracellular pH of 5.4 (extracellular pH, 2.0) and a (Delta)(psi) of +40 to +50 mV (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85(deg)C, (Delta)(psi) decreased to nearly 0 mV and internal pH approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from 70 to 80(deg)C were shifted back to 70(deg)C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal pH increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, (Delta)(psi) remained close to 0 mV, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate

  2. Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity—The Dietitians Role

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

  3. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  4. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  5. Impact of a stress management program on stress perception of nurses working with psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sailaxmi, Gandhi; Lalitha, Krishnasamy

    2015-04-01

    Nurses caring for psychiatric patients may have to face violent emotions and unpredictable behaviour which can be quite stressful. A stress management program may equip nurses with skills to cope effectively with the stress. A one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted to test this hypothesis. Both gender nurses caring for psychiatric patients were invited to undergo 10 consecutive, one hour sessions of a stress management program. The DCL Stress scale (The De Villiers, Carson & Leary Stress Scale; Carson et al., 1997a,b,c) was used to collect data immediately after intervention and four weeks later. RM ANOVA with spss 16 showed that pre-intervention mean stress reduced significantly (p=0.000) from 57.45±16.42 to 41.06±16.51 immediately following the intervention and 26.43±12.82 (p=0.000) four weeks after the intervention. The stress management strategies positively impacted on nurses' stress levels. PMID:25703040

  6. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  7. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  8. An ambient agent model for analyzing managers' performance during stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Aziz, Azizi Ab; Gratim, Haned

    2016-08-01

    Stress at work have been reported everywhere. Work related performance during stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when managers are presented with work demands that are not matched with their knowledge, skills, or abilities, and which challenge their ability to cope. Although there are many prior findings pertaining to explain the development of manager performance during stress, less attention has been given to explain the same concept through computational models. In such, a descriptive nature in psychological theories about managers' performance during stress can be transformed into a causal-mechanistic stage that explains the relationship between a series of observed phenomena. This paper proposed an ambient agent model for analyzing managers' performance during stress. Set of properties and variables are identified through past literatures to construct the model. Differential equations have been used in formalizing the model. Set of equations reflecting relations involved in the proposed model are presented. The proposed model is essential and can be encapsulated within an intelligent agent or robots that can be used to support managers during stress.

  9. Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

  10. Role of Medical Nutrition Therapy in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Cristina; Mauricio, Didac; Hernandez, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays an important role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and accordingly, it has a significant impact on women and newborns. The primary objective of MNT is to ensure adequate pregnancy weight gain and fetus growth while maintaining euglycemia and avoiding ketones. However, the optimal diet (energy content, macronutrient distribution, its quality and amount, among others) remains an outstanding question. Overall, the nutritional requirements of GDM are similar for all pregnancies, but special attention is paid to carbohydrates. Despite the classical intervention of restricting carbohydrates, the latest evidence, although limited, seems to favor a low-glycemic index diet. There is general agreement in the literature about caloric restrictions in the case of being overweight or obese. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to investigate the optimal MNT for GDM; this knowledge could yield health benefits and cost savings. PMID:26879305

  11. Stress Management for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensor, M. Carol

    This handbook was designed to provide a basic introduction to and understanding of stress and its impact upon children. Several coping techniques for children are presented along with the methods with which to teach them. These techniques are intended to provide a resource for school psychologists working with children and adolescents who are…

  12. School Stress Management Training: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Myron H.; And Others

    This research documents the development and empirical testing of a theoretically based training program aimed at reducing debilitating anxiety and increasing the skills required for successfully coping with stressful situations in the school setting. The intervention used is an integrated approach incorporating relaxation and deep-breathing…

  13. Nutritional strategies to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress pathways via activation of the master antioxidant switch Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Ludmila F M F; Pedruzzi, Liliana M; Stenvinkel, Peter; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Daleprane, Julio B; Leite, Maurilo; Mafra, Denise

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular protection against cancer, renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation are common conditions. The Nrf2 regulates the expression of detoxifying enzymes by recognizing the human Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) binding site and it can regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cellular responses, playing an important protective role on the development of the diseases. Studies designed to investigate how effective Nrf2 activators or modulators are need to be initiated. Several recent studies have shown that nutritional compounds can modulate the activation of Nrf2-Keap1 system. This review aims to discuss some of the key nutritional compounds that promote the activation of Nrf2, which may have impact on the human health. PMID:23643732

  14. COPD - managing stress and your mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vancouver, WA: GOLD; 2013. PMID: 22878278 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:25053754

  16. Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-κB/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chávez, Araceli Amaya; Alanís, Adriana Garduño; Ferreyra, María del Carmen Colín; Benítez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán; Castañeda, Violeta Saraí Morales; García, Ma. Victoria Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-κB, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-κB and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-κB expression (1, p≤0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p≤0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-κB/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta. PMID:23772281

  17. Bioenergetic response of the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Kelly, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70{degrees}C, and dilution rate of 0.05h{sup {minus}1}) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins. At 70{degrees}C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a {triangle}p of approximately -190 to -200{sub m}V, the result of an intracellular {sub p}H of 5.4 (extracellular {sub p}H, 2.0) and a {triangle}{Psi} of +40 to +50 {sub m}V, (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85{degrees}C, {triangle}{Psi} decreased to nearly 0 {sub m}V and internal {sub p}H approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from ;70 to 80{degrees}C were shifted back to 70{degrees}C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal {sub p}H increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, {triangle}{Psi} remained close to 9 {sub m}V, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79{degrees}C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73{degrees}C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Management and Prevention of Surgical and Nutritional Complications After Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Eric; Chand, Bipan

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is well-recognized for its effects on health, beyond weight-loss. It underwent a revolution recently with the growing performance of laparoscopic procedures, leading to enhanced recovery and a reduction in procedural risk. However, surgical complications, although rare, do develop. It is important to recognize the complications, and ideally prevent them from happening. This article reviews the risks of the four most commonly performed bariatric procedures, with an emphasis on technique and management in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The nutritional aspect of bariatric surgery is of the utmost importance, because catastrophic consequences have been linked to malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:27473805

  19. Managing heat and immune stress in athletes with evidence-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Guy, Joshua H; Edwards, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Heat and immune stress can affect athletes in a wide range of sports and environmental conditions. The classical thermoregulatory model of heat stress has been well characterized, as has a wide range of practical strategies largely centered on cooling and heat-acclimation training. In the last decade evidence has emerged of an inflammatory pathway that can also contribute to heat stress. Studies are now addressing the complex and dynamic interplay between hyperthermia, the coagulation cascade, and a systemic inflammatory response occurring after transient damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Damage to the intestinal mucosal membrane increases permeability, resulting in leakage of endotoxins into the circulation. Practical strategies that target both thermoregulatory and inflammatory causes of heat stress include precooling; short-term heat-acclimation training; nutritional countermeasures including hydration, energy replacement, and probiotic supplementation; pacing strategies during events; and postevent cooling measures. Cooperation between international, national, and local sporting organizations is required to ensure that heat-management policies and strategies are implemented effectively to promote athletes' well-being and performance. PMID:24911928

  20. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a

  1. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-08-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs' apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and 'necroapoptophagy'. The concept of 'necroapoptophagy' is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of

  2. Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

    2008-08-01

    The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

  3. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management. PMID:25775201

  4. Nutritional education for management of osteodystrophy: Impact on serum phosphorus, quality of life, and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Karavetian, Mirey; Elzein, Hafez; Rizk, Rana; Jibai, Rime; de Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Osteodystrophy management includes dietary phosphorus restriction, which may limit protein intake, exacerbate malnutrition-inflammation syndrome and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted in Lebanon, to test the hypothesis that intensive nutrition education focused on phosphorus-to-protein balance will improve patient outcomes. Six hemodialysis units were randomly assigned to the trained hospital dietitian (THD) protocol (210 patients). Six others (184 patients) were divided equally according to the patients' dialysis shifts and assigned to Dedicated Dietitian (DD) and Control protocols. Patients in the THD group received nutrition education from hospital dietitians who were trained by the study team on renal dietetics, but had limited time for hemodialysis patients. Patients in the DD group received individualized nutritional education on dietary phosphorus and protein management for 6 months (2-hour/patient/month) from study renal dietitians. Patients in the control group continued receiving routine care from hospital dietitians who had limited time for these patients and were blinded to the study. Serum phosphorus (mmol/L), malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) index and length of hospital stay (LOS) were assessed at T0 (baseline), T1 (postintervention) and T2 (post6 month follow up). Findings Only the DD protocol significantly improved serum phosphorus (T0:1.78 ± 0.5, T1:1.63 ± 0.46, T2:1.69 ± 0.53), 3 domains of the HRQOL and maintained MIS at T1, but this protective effect resolved at T2. The LOS significantly dropped for all groups. Discussion The presence of competent renal dietitians fully dedicated to hemodialysis units was superior over the other protocols in temporarily improving patient outcomes. PMID:26843138

  5. A Pilot Study of Self-Management-based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention in Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda

    2016-07-01

    Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450

  6. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  7. The Involvement of Glutamate Metabolism in the Resistance to Thermal, Nutritional, and Oxidative Stress in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Rocha, Sandra C.; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Silber, Ariel M.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition of some glutamate metabolic pathways could lead to diminished parasite survival. In this study, the effects of L-methionine sulfoximine (MS), DL-methionine sulfone (MSO), and DL-methionine sulfoxide (MSE), three glutamate analogs, on several biological processes were evaluated. We found that these analogs inhibited the growth of epimastigotes cells and showed a synergistic effect with stress conditions such as temperature, nutritional starvation, and oxidative stress. The specific activity for the reductive amination of α-ketoglutaric acid, catalyzed by the NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, showed an increase in the NADP+ levels, when MS, MSE, and MSO were added. It suggests an eventual conversion of the compounds tested by the T. cruzi cells. The fact that trypomastigote bursting was not significantly inhibited when infected cells were treated with these compounds, remarks the existence of relevant metabolic differences among the different life-cycle stages. It must be considered when proposing a new therapeutic drug. PMID:21629861

  8. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  9. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1) as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  10. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969