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Thermal stress can impact negatively on performance of intensively managed livestock in the southern United States and other subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Three funda- mental management practices, physical protection, genetic development and nutritionalmanage- ment schemes, have been proposed to alleviate partially the extent and severity of thermal stress. Focus of this paper is on i) interrelationships
|Stressmanagement for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stressmanagement should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…
Heat stress results from the animal's inability to dissipate sufficient heat to maintain homeothermy. Environmental factors, including am- bient temperature, radiant energy, relative humidity, and metabolic heat associated with maintenance and productive processes, contribute to heat stress. The focus of this article is to identify environmental and metabolic factors that contribute to excessive heat load, describe how disruption of homeothermy
Numerous school counselors have taught their students how to use solution-focused techniques to address their problems. This article suggests that counselors learn how to use solution-focused techniques to manage their own day-to-day stress. (GCP)
Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission.
Stroke has a significant impact on public health in Italy as well as in most industri- alized countries due to its high incidence, prevalence and subsequent disability rate. While ap- propriate diagnostic tools and pharmacological agents have proven effective in the manage- ment of this disease, the unequivocal demonstration of the usefulness of nutrition therapy in stroke patients is lacking.
G. CAIRELLA; L. SCALFI; R. BERNI CANANI; F. GARBAGNATI; M. G. GENTILE; C. GIANNI; M. MARCELLI; A. MOLFINO; M. MUSCARITOLI; S. PAOLUCCI; L. PRATESI; F. ROSSI FANELLI; U. SCOGNAMIGLIO; Y. TARI; E. TROIANO; F. BRANCA
The effect of a chemosensory disturbance on nutrition and quality of life is not clear and may show individual variance. It is important for the clinician to become sensitive to this relationship and pursue appropriate nutritionalmanagement. Nutritionalmanagement of an individual with a chemosensory disorder requires nutritional assessment with appropriate dietary intake measurements, dietary and weight history, food behavior questions, and anthropometric measures. A registered dietitian can identify potential nutritional problems and provide guidance for weight control, dietary modification, and use of food-related compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nutritional status and quality of life in the person suffering from chemosensory disturbances. PMID:2663436
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children’s book he co-authored called “Space Nutrition.” The book talks about the history of space flight, the various space programs and of course space food.
Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…
|Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…
|Chapter 10 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter lists practical suggestions from many diverse sources for managing time and reducing stress. The author begins by noting attitudes and concepts that block or facilitate time or stressmanagement. A number of time management strategies are suggested, including goal-setting, using a daily…
Chapter 10 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter lists practical suggestions from many diverse sources for managing time and reducing stress. The author begins by noting attitudes and concepts that block or facilitate time or stressmanagement. A number of time management strategies are suggested, including goal-setting, using a daily…
Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stressmanagement by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…
The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing
Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stressmanagement process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident StressManagement Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization. PMID:11760259
Included in this volume are papers on stressmanagement in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…
Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.
Six regions of the United States developed multidisciplinary pediatric HIV-specialist working groups to address nutrition issues in pediatric HIV disease. Literature reviews and professional experiences were summarized and translated into nutrition assessment and management guidelines. The groups included physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, dietitians, and social workers from Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami\\/Tampa, New York\\/New Jersey, San Francisco\\/Oakland, and Washington DC. Members
Wasting, kwashiorkor and stunting are not usually due to either protein or energy deficiency. Treatment based upon this concept results in high mortality rates, and failure of treated children to return physiologically to normal. They become relatively obese with insufficient lean tissue. Preventive strategies have also failed. Wasting and stunting are primarily due to deficiency of type II nutrients and kwashiorkor probably due to deficiency of several type I nutrients that confer resistance to oxidative stress. Modern dietary treatments are based upon the F75 formula whilst the child is sick without an appetite, followed by F100 for rapid gain of weight. Derivative, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) allow treatment of large numbers of children at home, are preferred by mothers and dramatically improve coverage. Children are indentified by screening in the community and treated before complications arise, using simple protocols. Successful treatment of the sick children with severe malnutrition not only depends upon these products, but appropriate management of complications. The physiology of the malnourished child is completely different from the normal child and many drugs and treatments that are safe in children with normal physiology are fatal for the malnourished child. In particular, the diagnosis and management of diarrhea and dehydration is different in the malnourished child. Giving standard treatment frequently leads to circulatory overload and death from heart failure. The challenge now is to find successful local ways to prevent malnutrition and achieve nutritional security. Until prevention works, we have to rely on fortified foods for treatment and convalescence from illness. PMID:20972284
|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest nutritional assistance program addressing food insecurity in the United States. Due to the programâ€™s reach, SNAP has been called upon to address other nutrition-related challenges facing low-income Americans, including childhood obesity. This study considers the effect of SNAP participation on child weight outcomes after controlling for household financial stress, an important
Rebecca Burgstahler; Craig Gundersen; Steven B. Garasky
Reviews selected research on personal and family stress and outlines some of the most effective strategies for stressmanagement. Topics include effective management strategies for individuals, families under stress, stress pile-ups, conflicting role expectations, and effective coping strategies for families. (CT)
The current pitfalls and future possibilities of nutritionalmanagement are discussed by two patients with tongue cancer who have suffered from substantial weight loss. Their nutritional problems are illustrative of those among other (cancer) patient groups. The main concerns are the lack of early case finding and dietary treatment, and insufficient nutritional information transfer through referral letters. The GP as a central and longitudinal caretaker faces challenges in improving nutritionalmanagement.
van Wayenburg, Caroline AM; van Binsbergen, Jaap J; van den Berg, Manon GA; Merkx, Matthias AW; van Staveren, Wija A; Rasmussen-Conrad, Ellen; van Weel, Chris
Stress has long been suspected to play a role in the etiology of many diseases and may be detrimental to health. Nowadays, the communication between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems is well established and there is enough evidence that the magnitude of stress-associated immune dysregulation is large enough to have health implications. In stress conditions, modulation of the immune
Javier Romeo; Julia Wärnberg; Sonia Gómez-Martínez; Ligia Esperanza Díaz; Ascensión Marcos
Psychosocial factors play an important role in occupational health and safety. Stress is probably the most prevalent psychosocial problem and hence stressmanagement ranks among the most promising health and safety promoters. This contribution deals with the stress of air traffic controllers (ATCOs) which results from workload on the one hand and the responsibility for air traffic safety on the
Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management. PMID:23833514
Dietary protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibre have marked influences on gastrointestinal tract function and dysfunction. This article reviews the nutritionalmanagement of common gastrointestinal disorders in companion animals and introduces some of the current areas of research including probiotics, prebiotics, protein-hydrolysate diets, immunonutrition and dietary fibre.Nutritionalmanagement of oesophageal disease revolves around varying the consistency of the diet and feeding
The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' and nursing students'knowledge and perceived role in assisting patients with the nutritionalmanagement of diabetes. Three focus groups were conducted and the results were used to modify a previously developed survey regarding the nutritionalmanagement of diabetes. The survey was administered via an online survey tool and completed by 231 nurses and students. Over 70% of respondents agreed that nurses have an important role in reinforcing patient nutritional education. Results indicated,however, that knowledge gaps in the nutritionalmanagement of diabetes exist among nurses, including not knowing the carbohydrate content of 120ml of orange juice, a common treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%), not knowing where to locate carbohydrate content on a food label (60%), and not identifying the correct treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%). These results indicate that there may be a need to improve the nutritional education of nurses with respect to diabetes management. PMID:23752631
Carney, Trish; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J
|Emphasizes the importance of recognizing and managing the stress produced by organizational development and encourages practitioners to acknowledge stressmanagement as an important organizational development skill. (LRA)|
This thesis researched the applicable literature on stress. Emphasis was placed on management of organizational stress. A comprehensive literature review was used to define stress, determine how to recognize stress, determine how stress affects work perfo...
Stress and worry are always a part of our patients' problems and frequently the sole cause of their symptoms. Ways of relieving anxiety in different types of patients are described, according to complexity and time required. The main principles are: adequate diagnosis; explanation of the stress symptom cycle; supportive reassurance; identification and reduction of stressors where possible, and varying degrees of personal development to bring patients' level of functioning and adjustment up to match his stresses. Objections and difficulties are discussed, together with benefits such as diminised use of anxiolytics; a healthier adjustment for the patient, and greater job satisfaction for the physician.
Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792
Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Suagee, Jessica K; Sanders, Sara R
|This self-help book provides information about stress and stressmanagement. The first part focuses on awareness of stress. A number of activities are included to help the individual understand and analyze stress reactions. Information is provided about stressors, performance stress, cumulative stress, and several other aspects of stress…
Milk is successfully produced by mothers regardless of their nutritional status. Nevertheless, the concentrations of some nutrients, specifically vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12, fatty acids, and iodine, in human milk depend on or are influenced by maternal diet. A healthy and varied diet during lactation ensures adequate maternal nutrition and optimal concentration of some nutrients in human milk. Exclusive breastfeeding meets the nutritional needs of infants for 6 months of life with the exception of vitamins D and K, which should be given to breastfed infants as supplements. PMID:23178069
A literature review on the management of phenylketonuria (PKU) suggests that nutritional therapy may be associated with many challenges. Children who are diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a strict protein-restricted diet from birth, and supplementation of these children with specialised phenylalanine (Phe)-free protein formula is essential. However, current dietary management may result in risk of deficiency of several essential
The role of stress in the aetiology of several diseases is well recognized in Ayurvedic science and modern medicine. The stress is known as sahasa in Ayurveda. Sahasa by causing ojahksaya (loss of immunity) increases the susceptibility of the body to various diseases. Avoidance of stress is the best strategy for treatment and where it is not possible, the body should be well protected by taking appropriate care of the diet and sleep, sleep here indicates adequate rest required by the body. Further, regular intake of several rasayana herbs to increase the coping capacity of the body is advised. Several of these rasayanas have demonstrated significant stress attenuating effects in animal experimentation and scientific efforts are ongoing to logically utilize rasayana herbal formulation in stressmanagement.
This study investigated the effects of stressmanagement training and child management training for abusive parents on self report, observational, and role play measures considered to be related to child abuse. Parents were randomly assigned to four conditions: stressmanagement (n = 11), child management (n = 11), and combination stress\\/child management (n=9), and treatment?as?usual control condition (n = 10).
This research examines the level of stress experienced by IT project managers and determines the types of coping strategies used to handle their stress. Sixty-four South African IT project managers completed an online questionnaire. The findings indicate that IT project managers are highly stressed and tend to utilize maladaptive coping strategies more as their stress levels increase. These strategies included
The effects of nutrition on the incidence of stress fractures among classical ballet dancers were studied. Ten dancers with stress fractures were compared with a group of dancers without stress fractures and a group of nondancing control subjects. Subject pairs were matched for age, weight, and height. Specific nutrient intake and eating patterns were thus isolated to determine if dietary patterns could account for the incidence of stress fractures among these dancers. The majority (80%) of the 10 dancers with recent stress fractures had weights less than 75% of ideal (p less than 0.05) and showed a greater incidence of eating disorders (p less than 0.05). This group also showed a lower fat intake and a higher intake of low-calorie food (p less than 0.05). Menstrual patterns and bone density studies of the wrist, foot, and spine did not differ among the three groups, showing that stress fractures were significantly associated with a more-restrictive diet. PMID:2333835
Frusztajer, N T; Dhuper, S; Warren, M P; Brooks-Gunn, J; Fox, R P
|Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe an efficient nutrition screening tool for use by the admitting practitioner on a substance abuse\\/stress recovery unit.The 1996 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAHO) requires that nutrition screening be completed within 24 hours of admission. At the medical center, the routine nutrition screening was completed by a dietetic technician within 48 hours of admission on
Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis poses a serious threat to human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) in a natural population will not develop a mature infection of either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei sp. because of refractoriness, a phenomenon that is affected by different factors, including the tsetse fly's immune defence. Starvation of tsetse flies significantly increases their susceptibility to the establishment of a trypanosome infection. This paper reports the effects of nutritionalstress (starvation) on (a) uninduced baseline levels of gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides attacin, defensin and cecropin in the tsetse fly, and (b) levels of expression induced in response to bacterial (Escherichia coli) or trypanosomal challenge. In newly emerged, unfed tsetse flies, starvation significantly lowers baseline levels of antimicrobial peptide gene expression, especially for attacin and cecropin. In response to trypanosome challenge, only non-starved older flies showed a significant increase in antimicrobial peptide gene expression within 5 days of ingestion of a trypanosome-containing bloodmeal, especially with T. brucei bloodstream forms. These data suggest that a decreased expression of immune genes in newly hatched flies or a lack of immune responsiveness to trypanosomes in older flies, both occurring as a result of fly starvation, may be among the factors contributing to the increased susceptibility of nutritionallystressed tsetse flies to trypanosome infection. PMID:19712150
Akoda, K; Van den Bossche, P; Marcotty, T; Kubi, C; Coosemans, M; De Deken, R; Van den Abbeele, J
2 Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of body weight on stress and nutrition in women. Data were gathered from 889 women living in Turkey. The participants were selected randomly. Women were informed that the purpose of the study was to gather information on stress and nutrition and each participant attended a face-to-face interview .Subjects
Chronic nutritionalstress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritionalstress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by
|Three articles presented at the 54th Annual Convention of the American School Health Association discuss: understanding stress with an emphasis on environmental factors; stressmanagement techniques; and questions from the audience pertaining to stressmanagement. (JN)|
Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…
Describes stressmanagement for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…
... traumatic stress: After a tornado The effects of tornadoes can be long-lasting and the resulting trauma ... de los tornados Find a Psychologist Related Reading Tornadoes, Hurricanes and Children Managing traumatic stress: Tips for ...
Managing traumatic stress: After the hurricanes It is common for people to experience very strong emotional reactions with the arrival of ... of footage from the hurricane can make your stress even greater. Often, the media tries to interest ...
Managing your stress in tough economic times Money is on the minds of most Americans. In fact, according to the American Psychological Association’s 2010 Stress in America survey, over three-quarters of Americans ( ...
|Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress…
The effects of nutrition on the incidence of stress fractures among classical ballet dancers were studied. Ten dancers with stress fractures were compared with a group of dancers without stress fractures and a group of nondancing control subjects. Subject pairs were matched for age, weight, and height. Specific nutrient intake and eating patterns were thus isolated to determine ifdietary patterns
Nina T Frusztajer; Santa Dhuper; Michelle P Warren; J Brooks-Gunn; Richard P Fox
Background\\/Objective: Nutritional dwarfing (ND) consists of a decrease in weight and height gain and delayed onset of puberty. The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifications induced in male rats by the nutritionalstress of a mere 20% reduction in food intake which, however, started immediately after weaning. Materials and Methods: At weaning, male Wistar rats were
Cecilia V. Compagnucci; Gabriela E. Compagnucci; Alejandro Lomniczi; Claudia Mohn; Irene Vacas; Elisa Cebral; Juan C. Elverdin; Silvia M. Friedman; Valeria Rettori; Patricia M. Boyer
Stable isotope analysis is an increasingly valuable tool in ecological studies and shows promise as a measure of nutritionalstress in wild animals. Thus far, however, the only studies on endotherms that have conclusively shown changes in delta(15)N and delta(13)C values in response to nutritionalstress were conducted on fasting animals and animals growing under extreme levels of food restriction. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test whether delta(15)N and delta(13)C values provide a general index of nutritionalstress. We compared the isotopic composition of whole blood, liver, muscle and feathers between two groups of juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) hand-reared in captivity under identical conditions except for feeding regime. To verify that our experimental treatment induced a biologically meaningful level of nutritionalstress, we simultaneously measured the effects on physiology, growth and development at multiple scales. While food-restricted birds were physiologically stressed, physically smaller, and showed poorer growth and brain development compared to ad libitum-fed birds, there was no effect of feeding regime on either delta(15)N or delta(13)C values in any tissue. Instead of a continuum where the level of change in (15)N or (13)C contents corresponds to the level of nutritionalstress, we suggest there may be a threshold level of nutritionalstress below which such isotopic changes are likely to be negligible. PMID:17102993
Kempster, Bethany; Zanette, Liana; Longstaffe, Fred J; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Wingfield, John C; Clinchy, Michael
The purpose of this poster session is to discuss four protocols: “Pressure Ulcers (Stage I - IV)”, “Pre-End-Stage Renal Disease”, “HIV\\/AIDS”, and “Type II Diabetes Mellitus”.As a result of managed care and the health care environment dietetic professionals now have significant opportunities to offer Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT), generate positive client\\/client health outcomes and decrease the cost of health care.
... It’s important to learn how to recognize how stress affects you, learn how to deal with it, and ... some people. How does stress make you feel? Stress affects each of us in different ways. You may ...
|Anxiety, or stress and tension, is a major problem in education for teachers as well as students. Training in the self-management of stress and tension seeks to help a person learn how to reduce tension and how to change the stress-producing features of the environment. The training program described in this paper is based on a variation of…
Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed. PMID:16697502
Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C
|While numerous studies have identified economic, social, and environmental conditions related to stress, greater stress has been found to be related to poverty, unemployment, assembly line work, crowding, and chronic exposure to noise. These stressful situations most frequently confront people with little personal, economic, or political…
|Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…
Nutritional support is given to many patients in surgical intensive care after major trauma and serious sepsis but rarely after major elective surgery. We have quantified the changes in body composition that occur in these patients and have found that serious losses of body protein still occur after trauma and sepsis despite nutritional support. Correct nutritionalmanagement of critically ill
To define the role of bowel rest as an independent variable from nutritional support a prospective, randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 51 patients with active Crohn's disease unresponsive to other medical management. Nutritional support for 21 days was randomised to total parenteral nutrition and nil by mouth (n = 17), defined formula diet administered through a nasogastric tube (n
G R Greenberg; C R Fleming; K N Jeejeebhoy; I H Rosenberg; D Sales; W J Tremaine
Within the field of stress-management intervention, there have been substantial disagreements on the ‘right’ approach. Some argue for counselling and stress-management training, while other argue for more substantive organisational change through stress audits. It is argued that both are important in meeting the needs of individuals and organisations.
Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stressmanagement in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stressmanagement) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stressmanagement. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stressmanagement (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stressmanagement in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute anti-fatigue effect of a liquid nutritive and tonic crude drugs (NTDs) on stress induced in mice. After forced walking for 3 or 6h, the NTDs (applied orally, 10ml\\/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity, while the administration of NTDs after rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation stress and after immobilization stress did not
Stressmanagement training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)
|In this article, the author discusses how to managestress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…
The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stressmanagement techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…
The experiences of undergoing economic crises attest that the loss of employment prompts an outbreak of mental illnesses and suicides, increases the numbers of heart attacks and strokes and negatively affects other illnesses suffered by individuals under stress. Negative stress can devastate a person, cause depression, lower productivity on the job and the competitiveness of businesses and damage the quality
A. Kaklauskas; E. K. Zavadskas; V. Pruskus; A. Vlasenko; L. Bartkiene; R. Paliskiene; L. Zemeckyte; V. Gerstein; G. Dzemyda; G. Tamulevicius
The effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition and soil water availability (W) on the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants was studied in two pot experiments. Several levels of P supply were applied once before sowing. Before seedling establishment, the pots were kept near 100% of field capacity (FC). Afterwards, half of the pots were maintained between 60–70% FC. Control
D. Rodriguez; J. Goudriaan; M. Oyarzabal; M. C. Pomar
A nationwide survey of clinical dietitians and clinical nutritionmanagers was conducted to assess the prevalence of outsourcing in health care dietetics services and to evaluate perceived performance of dietetics services. A questionnaire was developed, validated by an expert panel, and pilot tested prior to data collection. Members of the Clinical NutritionManagement Dietetic Practice Group (N=1,668) were selected as
Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and near-isolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and
Weight loss and overweight\\/obesity-frequent consequences of malnutrition-may impair functional status and worsen concomitant\\u000a morbidities in the elderly, often through changes in oxidative balance. In order to verify the relationships between these\\u000a factors, a group of elderly people living on the island of Sardinia (Italy) underwent health and nutritional status assessment\\u000a and oxidative balance evaluation. The elderly subjects had significantly higher
Antonella Mandas; Maria Gabriella Congiu; Cinzia Balestrieri; Antonello Mereu; Eugenio Luigi Iorio
Research in accelerator dipole magnet technology is aimed first and foremost to produce as high a magnetic field as possible. However, stresses in the superconducting coil packages from Lorentz forces limit the maximum field. Future dipole magnets are being designed, built, and tested by the Accelerator Research Lab at Texas A&M University which incorporate unique stressmanagement techniques. Within these magnets, custom capacitive pressure transducers are being developed to monitor the Lorentz forces within the coil package. A brief introduction to stressmanagement techniques used in future TAMU magnets will be given, along with the status of current and future research involving tooling and fabrication techniques used in the production of capacitive pressure transducers.
BACKGROUND: Stressmanagement interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stressmanagement intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stressmanagement
S. J. M. de Brouwer; F. W. Kraaimaat; F. C. Sweep; A. R. T. Donders; A. Eijsbouts; S. van Koulil; A. W. M. Evers
Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...
The objective was to develop a program for inducing estrus (followed by insemination) of suckled beef cows under nutritionalstress (poor body condition). A total of 123 cows, from 60 to 75 days postpartum, were classified according to their body condition score (BCS; range from 1 to 5, in increments of 0.5) and allocated into two groups. On Day 0
Guilherme de Medeiros Bastos; Ricardo Heitor Brenner; Fabr??cio Wollman Willke; Jairo Pereira Neves; João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira; José Francisco Manta Bragança; Sérgio Abreu Machado; Patr??cia Marafon Porciúncula; Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves
In order to evaluate the action of central nervous system Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) in the control of feeding behavior the present studies employed a dietary self-selection task sensitive both to overall appetite as well as preferential intake of familiar versus unfamiliar foods. Prior to the diet selection test, one group of nutritionallystressed animals was fed a protein deficient diet
In spite of the tremendous public interest in the recent large honeybee losses attributed to colony collapse disorder, there is still no definitive explanation for the phenomenon. With the hypothesis that nutritionalstress due to habitat loss has played an important role in honeybee colony collapse, I analyze the land use data in United States to show that the colony
Changes in technology in the radiology department and an emphasis on multitasking can lead to stress and burnout, along with the potential for medical errors. A shift in viewpoint and exercises in self-evaluation can help radiologic technologists learn to manage change in a positive manner. Learning to approach change through a series of transitions and positive steps can reduce stress at work and at home. PMID:22988262
... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental ...
To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Tancheon Breathing Meditation as a self-healing form of managingstress as illustrated in the ?Tancheon Breathing Meditation Self-Healing Wheel Model? described later in this essay. In this essay, I hope to convey the important role of the ?tancheon? (lower abdomen) and on how breathing through the tancheon combined with
In this study, patients with newly diagnosed cancer and scheduled to undergo chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group will receive standard psychosocial care along with stressmanagement training, while the other will receive standard psychosocial care alone.
Objective: Our objective is to provide a paradigm that can assist certified athletic trainers in selecting and implementing techniques to help athletes cope with the stress associated with injury. Background: The psychological impact of injury and the stress associated with rehabilitation are well known in the athletic training room. Specific stressmanagement techniques should be determined by the personality of the athlete, the specific stressors associated with the injury and rehabilitation process, and the education and expertise of the certified athletic trainer. Therefore, it is important that certified athletic trainers be proficient in stress theory regarding the psychological aspects of injury, as well as the techniques to address them. Description: We provide a framework that applies transactional theory to athletic injury and suggests that an athlete's belief about injury plays a central role in the stress reaction. It describes the role of the certified athletic trainer in addressing the 4 components of transactional theory: 1) increased awareness, 2) information processing and appraisal, 3) modified behavior, and 4) peaceful resolution with injured athletes. Clinical Advantages: The application of this conceptual framework allows certified athletic trainers to differentiate stressmanagement techniques based on the individual athlete's reaction rather than apply a generic approach.
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.
HyperFit is an Internet service for personal management of nutrition and exercise. It provides tools for promoting healthy diet and physical activity. The principle of the service is to mimic the process of personal nutrition counseling. It includes self evaluation tools for testing and goal definition, food and exercise diaries, analysis tools, and feedback and encouragement given by a virtual
Paula Järvinen; Timo H. Järvinen; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Caj Södergård
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...
|This guide is designed to encourage and stimulate school nutritionmanagers to cooperate with classroom teachers in an active nutrition education program. The suggestions in the guide have been experienced and tested in the Fulton County Schools of Atlanta, Georgia. Contents of the chapters cover the following: (1) an outline of the roles of…
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
This paper on designing and implementing a stressmanagement program in the workplace begins by defining stress. A brief overview of the relationship of stress to health and personal style follows. The subsequent discussion of the relationship between stress and work focuses on these topics: work contributes to stress; stress affects work…
Abstract In some mosquito species the conditions experienced by larvae during development have been shown to lead to changes in susceptibility to various arboviruses in the adult female. Since laboratory mosquitoes are generally reared under ideal conditions, mosquito vector competence experiments in the laboratory may not accurately reflect vector–virus relationships in nature. We examined the consequences of larval nutritionalstress on Culex tarsalis vector competence for West Nile virus (WNV). Larval nutrition deprivation resulted in increased development time, decreased pupation and emergence rates, and smaller adult female body size. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days postfeeding were not consistently affected. These results suggest that larval nutritional rearing protocols are not a major factor in laboratory estimates of WNV vector competence in Cx. tarsalis.
Frequent monitoring by a dietitian can ensure desirable progression of the post-surgery diet, adequate nutritional composition, management of food intolerances, and ongoing education/reinforcement of the post-surgical nutritional needs. Additionally, it is critical for dietitians to assess the type of GBP because increased nutritional risks result with longer limb lengths and will require closer monitoring. With close follow up and adherence to recommendations, patients with CKD who undergo GBP can reduce the risk of post-surgical, nutrition complications. PMID:20462077
Burnout is a possible consequence of excessive demands, high levels of stress, or a consequence of lack of resources for coping with difficult tasks. Systematic stressmanagement might be effective in reducing the risk for development of a burnout syndrome. Based on a literature search on available research papers and meta-analyses in Medline and Pubmed, current findings on the content and effectiveness of stressmanagement programs are reported for different target groups. Stressmanagement programs can be divided into programs focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. In contrast to primary prevention programs, secondary and tertiary preventive programs focus on the specific needs of different target groups. Cognitive-behavioral programs have been shown to be the most effective interventions. A combination of psycho-educational treatment with follow-up or booster sessions increases the long-term outcome in the prevention of burn-out syndromes. Beside the duration of the program, focus on problems and sustainability of supply is important for the long-term effectiveness in secondary and tertiary prevention. PMID:22290161
Stress and its management influence the nature of family interactions. Harmful family interactions, including violent interactions, are likely affected by mismanaged stress. This paper reviews scientific evidence on stress concepts, sources, and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to the potential of stress-management preventive intervention for reducing the risk of family violence. Based on a study with teenage parents, the
Steven Paul Schinke; Robert F. Schilling; Richard P. Barth; Lewayne D. Gilchrist; Josie Solseng Maxwell
Changes in the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery markedly change patients' eating patterns. Malnutrition is a significant risk associated with all bariatric procedures, which can lead to dangerous nutritional deficiencies. However, if correct patient selection is conducted and if patients receive thorough preoperative nutrition education and postoperative nutritional follow-up, these deficiencies are largely preventable. Nurses are important members of the multidisciplinary team; assisting in patient selection, providing hands-on care, and educating the patient on the surgical process and post-operative dietary restrictions. It is critical for nurses to understand immediate and projected nutritional consequences of surgery, in order to monitor the patient for diet tolerance and nutrient deficiency symptoms, to encourage dietary compliance, and to reinforce the long-term dietary restrictions. With appropriate supplementation and patient compliance, all nutritional deficiencies can be avoided or corrected. PMID:20505602
A stressmanagement program that used computerized, telephone-based technology was offered to the public via a free, "800" telephone number. The program was intended to reach a very large number of persons, while requiring a minimum of staff time. The program used an interactive telephone system, employing natural sounding, digitized voice, and touch tone recognition of callers' responses. The program was available 24 hours a day. It composed each message to suit the individual needs and expectations of each caller. A controlled evaluation of the program was conducted to determine how the messages could be worded and presented most effectively. The results suggest that subjects were most likely to find the messages in the program helpful, to carry out the stressmanagement instructions, and to continue calling when the messages were personalized and contained homework assignments.
Ninety eight patients with stress urinary incontinence treated surgically at Central Military Hospital, were studied. We analyzed the risk factors as age, weight, height, parity, menopause age, and previous medical and surgical procedures. They were divided in two groups. The Group I, vaginal approach, with 35 patients and Group II, retropubic surgery, with 63 patients. There were no differences both groups regarding age, weight, height, parity and menopausal age. The most frequent illness associated with stress urinary incontinence, was pelvic floor relaxation. The complications were 17.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The efficacy of Burch is procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 84.1% versus 62.1% in the vaginal approach, was confirmed. PMID:1752448
In a weekly managerial newspaper survey the abbreviated German version of the Occupational Stress Indicator’s Coping scale was completed anonymously by over 200 readers. Of these we selected only those who were categorised as management (n = 160) in our study. The mean coping score for the full Coping scale was 36.98 (SD 8.65) with a split half reliability of
This book tackles the concerns of stressed teachers. Whether from nurturance suffering (stress related to caring for students) or from the piles of paperwork yet to be tackled, this text helps the reader sort through the causes of stress, the emotional, physical and social reactions to stress and how one can begin to plan a stressmanagement plan.…
The role of nutritional support in critical illness is well established. This article reviews the nutritionalmanagement of military trauma patients in the deployed setting, which poses special challenges for the surgeon and intensivist. There is little direct evidence relating to the nutritionalmanagement of trauma patients in general, and military trauma patients in particular, but much of the evidence accrued in the civilian and non-trauma critical care setting can be extrapolated to military practice. There is strong consensus that feeding should be commenced as soon possible after injury. Enteral nutrition should be used in preference to parenteral nutrition whenever possible. If available, supplemental parenteral feeding can be considered if enteral delivery is insufficient. Gastrointestinal anastomoses and repairs, including those in the upper gastrointestinal tract, are not a contraindication to early enteral feeding. Intragastric delivery is more physiological and usually more convenient than postpyloric feeding, and thus the preferred route for the initiation of nutritional support. Feeding gastrostomies or jejunostomies should not be used for short-term nutritional support. Enteral feeding of patients with an open abdomen does not delay closure and may reduce the incidence of pneumonia, and enteral nutrition should be continued for scheduled relook surgery not involving hollow viscera or airway. Glutamine supplementation may improve outcome in trauma patients, but fish-oil containing feeds, while showing some promise, should be reserved for subgroups of patients with ARDS. PMID:22049817
Dietary segregation is essential for the coexistence of closely related species of animals. However, little is known about how changes in availability of food resources might affect trophic interactions of wild animals breeding in sympatry. Here, we examined how interannual variations in relative food availability (as reflected in blood levels of stress hormone corticosterone, CORT) affect food partitioning (assessed via a comparison of stable isotope ?(15)N and ?(13)C ratios of blood) between the common murre (Uria aalge) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), breeding on a single colony in the Bering Sea. During a 6-year study, CORT varied among years but not between species, whereas stable isotope ratios varied among years and between species. Isotopic distance between species increased with increasing CORT. These results indicate that, when food was not limiting, both species relied on similar food resources. As foraging conditions deteriorated, murres diverged in their diets. We conclude that the degree of dietary segregation between Uria spp. varies with changes in the availability of food and is greatest during food shortages. PMID:22171022
College students who have high stress levels tend to experience an increased risk of academic difficulties, substance abuse, and emotional problems. To enhance student stressmanagement and health promoting behaviors, an online stressmanagement intervention called MyStudentBody–Stress (MyStudentBody–Stress) was developed and tested. College students at six U.S. colleges were randomized to one of three conditions: MyStudentBody–Stress, a control health information
Emil Chiauzzi; Julie Brevard; Christina Thurn; Stacey Decembrele; Sarah Lord
A stress audit assessing potential stressors; stress perceptions, responses, and outcomes; and personal, group, and situational characteristics was conducted in stressmanagement workshops for 20 employees. New skills and attitudes for dealing with stress were taught: time management, communication, alternatives to negative attitudes, and…
Ormond, Wayne E.; Keown-Gerrard, Janine L.; Kline, Theresa
The benefits of work site stressmanagement programs for a symptomatic employee populations remain to be established. The present study evaluated the physiological changes of a yoga based stressmanagement program for 26 a symptomatic, male, middle managers. The Occupational Stress index (OSI) and autonomic parameters were measured. Data of subjects with OSI greater or less than the median ware
We sent the reports and plans concerning nutritionalmanagement to the 81 facilities, such as a hospital, nursing home, or clinic of home care, and carried out the questionnaire to determine their level of understanding and utilization of the reports. Sixty-nine % understood the purpose of the survey, with 74% noting that the report served as a reference. The purpose of the report was relatively well understood in the hospital or nursing home environments, but was not sufficiently understood in the clinics. In addition, it became clear that several facilities involved with one patient. Therefore, it was necessary to send a report to each facility. The interest in the report concerning nutritionalmanagement was very high in a range of various medical workers. Sections such as "matters that require attention, a characteristic in the nourishment management", "dysphagia ", and "a nourishment management method" were considered useful by these workers. The nutritional evaluation of patients discharged may be difficult; therefore, information from reports on nutritionalmanagement may help to make a more informed decision on future nutritionalmanagement. PMID:23268909
In modern life stress is a common problem. The negative effects of stress affect individuals' health and performance. As a result, individuals have their own stress perceptions and they develop different kinds of strategies in order to managestressful situations. Culture is a relevant aspect that influences this process. Considering that stress is presented in different dimension of daily life,
The video presents a brief history of nutrition, emphasizing the importance of forming food habits for a lifetime. It stresses attitudes toward food, nutrition, and eating, and how they affect the job of the school food service worker.
Chronic nutritionalstress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritionalstress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by colonies exposed to varying degrees of long-term pollen stress. Pollen provides honey bee workers with almost all of the proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals that they require as larvae and adults. Colonies were created that were either chronically pollen poor or pollen rich, or were intermediate in pollen supply; treatments altered colonies' pollen stores and brood-rearing capacity. Workers from these colonies were put through a series of olfactory-conditioning assays using proboscis-extension response (PER). PER thresholds were determined, then workers learned in olfactory-conditioning trials to associate two floral odors (one novel and the other presented previously without reward) with stimulation with sucrose and a sucrose reward. The strength of the memory that was formed for the odor/sucrose association was tested after olfactory-conditioning assays ended. Colony-level nutritional status had no effect on worker learning or memory (response threshold of workers to sucrose, acquisition of the odor/sucrose association, occurrence of latent inhibition, or memory retention over 72 h). We conclude that potential effects of chronic, colony-wide nutrient deprivation on learning and memory are not found in workers, probably because colonies use brood-rearing capacity to buffer nutrient stress at the level of the individual. PMID:18761030
|Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…
Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances
Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-?B, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-?B and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-?B expression (1, p?0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p?0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-?B/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta.
Zeron, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chavez, Araceli Amaya; Alanis, Adriana Garduno; Ferreyra, Maria del Carmen Colin; Benitez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillan; Castaneda, Violeta Sarai Morales; Garcia, Ma. Victoria Dominguez
Objective: The stress-induced release of cortisol has been linked to detrimental health outcomes. Therefore, strategies to attenuate cortisol stress responses are of interest for prevention and treatment of stress-related symptoms and problems. Previous studies have found protective effects of cognitive–behavioral stressmanagement training—which focuses on the modification of stress-inducing cognitions—on cortisol stress responses; however, the effects of resource-oriented interventions on
Maja Storch; Jens Gaab; Yvonne Küttel; Ann-Christin Stüssi; Helmut Fend
Nutrition is an integrating discipline that draws on a diverse range of reductionist disciplines. It embraces biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, psychology, physiology and epidemiology to name a few. The benefits of the discipline for humans lie in the efficient production of food and its intelligent use by consumers. Food is not simply fuel; it is overlain by culture and identity, is in many ways an index of the status of consumers and is symbolic of their stage of economic and consciousness 'development'. The challenges for the future lie in the social context of food production. The sustainable production of food and its safety for humans reflects self image and a new consciousness. Human nutritional benefit is problematic. The benefit can be an expression of health or it can be an expression of well-being that embraces both health and the environments both actual and vicarious. The latter is the forum for nutritional futures. Future nutritional concerns will see food as a component of the body that is clean and a component of the 'soul' that is green. It is relatively simple to understand the system that renders quality assured safe food with certain nutritional properties. It is far more difficult to understand the lifecycle impacts of food. The problem is that while the nutritional properties of two items of the same food may be identical the whole lifecycle impact on the environment of the two identical items may differ enormously. This in turn reflects the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of food production systems and is further complicated by markets that segment on quality variables (objective and perceptual) rather than source lifecycle variables. The lifecycle approach to sustainable food production is holistic and has to be challenging to a profession that is fragmented in character. The divide is not however between positivism and constructivism but between holism and reductionism. Such a divide is not easily understood save through a paradigm shift to a systems and systematic approach. PMID:15023667
Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues. PMID:22825360
Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stressmanagement as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…
Background: Over the years, the issue of stressmanagement in mental health has been discussed without reference to the clinical laboratory perspectives. Translational research and the vast array of emerging diagnostic technologies in alternative medical practice are now bridging the gap. While it would be scientific arrogance for the clinical practitioner and scientist to ignore the trend, the new technologies seeking clinical acceptability necessarily require expatiation of the scientific aspects of their products. Aims: This commentary builds on a comparative critical review to further our hypothesis that oxidative stress is the biochemical basis of the emerging computer-based diagnostic technologies. Materials & Method: The available information on Computer Meridian Diagnostics, Neuropattern and Virtual Scanning technologies were critically reviewed. The differences and similarities were articulated. Results: The technologies seem different, but have similarities that have not been articulated before. The seemingly different theories are traceable to Russian scientists and are based upon stress-induced adrenal secretions and the associated effect on glucose metabolism. The therapeutic effects of antioxidant nutrition, exercise or relaxation that are inherent in the technologies are highlighted. Conclusion: This commentary furthers explanation of the alterations in antioxidant activities as a result of biofeedback, oxidative stress and/or physiological effects as the biochemical basis of the technologies. The place for antioxidant indices and whole blood viscosity are also highlighted. This provides a rationale for the evaluation of available clinical diagnostic tests both to validate the technologies and as clinical laboratory correlates in stressmanagement.
Background Stressmanagement interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stressmanagement intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stressmanagement training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) 1 week after the stressmanagement training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. Results Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (?-amylase) or endocrine (cortisol) responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. Conclusion A relatively short stressmanagement intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. Trial Registration TrialRegister.nl NTR1193
de Brouwer, Sabine J. M.; Kraaimaat, Floris W.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Donders, Rogier T.; Eijsbouts, Agnes; van Koulil, Saskia; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Evers, Andrea W. M.
The treatment of eating disorders demands a comprehensive medical approach, where a dietitian has an important role, primarily due to numerous instances of malnutrition. The objective of this paper was to recapitulate the research findings and clinical evidence which show the importance of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of eating disorders; furthermore, they present significant guidelines for clinical practice.
|A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…
In this paper the perspective for nutritional modulation of systemic impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is discussed. Progressive weight loss is characterised by disease-specific elevated energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Weight gain per se can be achieved by caloric supplementation while future studies may prove efficacy of amino acid modulation to stimulate protein synthesis and
Strides have been significant in the knowledge of calf and heifer rearing during the last 25 yr. Much information has been gathered on digestive enzymes, development of the digestive system, and metabolism. Investigations have clarified further the role of colostrum in immunity and nutrition of the young calf. Several sources of nutrients have been tested for their suitability in formulation
... when to get help. Know the Signs of Stress Your Behavior: An increase or decrease in your ... Mental Health Services www.samhsa.gov Managing Your Stress Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Helpful ...
|A number of brief, focused self-help interventions designed to help faculty managestress more effectively are described such as being assertive, setting priorities, and using quick relaxation techniques. Related causes of stress are cited. (MSE)|
Stress in nurses affects their health and increases absenteeism, attrition rate, injury claims, infection rates and errors in treating patients. This in turn significantly increases the cost of employment in healthcare units. Proper management of stress ensures greater efficiency at work place and improved wellbeing of the employee. Therefore, a pre-experimental study was conducted among 30 Critical Care Unit nurses working inMedical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala) to assess the effect of stressmanagement interventions such as Job Stress Awareness, Assertiveness Training, Time Management, andProgressive Muscle Relaxation on job stress. The results showed that caring for patients, general job requirements and workload were the major sources of stress for the nurses. The level of severe stress was reduced from 60 percent to 20 percent during post-test. The StressManagement Interventions were statistically effective in reducing the stress of nurses at p<0.001 level. PMID:23923598
Reviews several alternative conceptions of stress drawn from the literature in an effort to clarify some of the reasons that stressful situations are perceived as stressful. Particular attention is paid to educational managership as a stress-inducing condition. (PGD)
The effects of nitrogen nutrition on cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf water potential, N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and glycinebetain concentrations in C3 plant, Agrostis palustris Huds. (creeping bentgrass) were assessed under water-stress conditions. Water-stressed plants showed greater adaptation to water stress at higher nitrogen (N) levels. Cell membrane stability measured by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) technique was increased by
Hirofumi Saneoka; Reda E. A. Moghaieb; Gnanasiri S. Premachandra; Kounosuke Fujita
Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would certainly be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can impact mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen NF-?B activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community.
Autophagy can be induced under nutritionstress conditions. Bcl-2 is a pro-survival protein which inhibits apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of Bcl-2 in autophagy regulation and cell survival under nutrition deprivation has not been fully understood. This study sought to investigate if Bcl-2 upregulation is essential in limiting autophagic activity and prevent cell death under nutrition deprivation conditions. Autophagic activity was monitored by the changes in GFP-LC3 localization and protein levels of Beclin1, LC3-II, cathepsin D and p62 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells underwent serum deprivation. Manipulation of Bcl-2 function was achieved with siRNAs and small molecular inhibitors. The cell viability and apoptosis were assessed with MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. The results showed that serum starvation increased protein levels of LC3-II and Beclin1 but decreased autophagy substrate p62. Autophagy activation induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin was accompanied by an upregulation of Bcl-2 protein levels. When Bcl-2 was knocked down with siRNA or inhibited with HA 14-1 or ABT-737, serum starvation induced profound cell death and enhanced autophagic flux under nutrition deprivation conditions, while knockdown of autophagic gene Beclin1 or autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and E64D), rescued cell death. In contrast, overexpression of Bcl-2 inhibited autophagy and blocked cell death in response to serum deprivation. These data suggest that Bcl-2 plays an essential role in limiting autophagy activation and preventing initiation of programmed cell death. Thus Bcl-2 may be an important mechanism for balancing beneficial and detrimental impacts of autophagy on cell survival. PMID:23658815
Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia.
Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A
Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritionalstress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritionalstress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights.
Chitraju, Chandramohan; Trotzmuller, Martin; Hartler, Jurgen; Wolinski, Heimo; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Kofeler, Harald C.; Spener, Friedrich
|This study evaluated the effectiveness of a staff training-and-management package on nutritional practices in two community-based group homes serving adults with developmental disabilities. Food storage, menu development, and meal preparation were covered. All staff behaviors increased after training and were maintained for up to one year.…
To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...
Juvenile diabetes is the commonest endocrine metabolic disease of childhood. It develops as a result of synergistic effect of genetic, environmental and immunological factors that ultimately destroy the pancreatic beta-cells. To study the impact of nutrition counselling in the management of malnutrition among juvenile diabetics, thirty male juvenile diabetics were selected in the age group of 13-18 years from two
Nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture is rare and can be difficult to manage, especially if associated with ipsilateral gonarthritis. Three patients with nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture adjacent to an arthritic knee joint were managed by performing simultaneous total knee arthroplasty and internal fixation of the fracture site. The technique involved performing a total knee arthroplasty
|Maintains that the counselor can make valuable contributions to school staffs as a stressmanagement consultant. Possible stressmanagement workshop components are described and guidelines are provided for consultation in a school setting. Recent literature, research, and resource materials are described. (Author/PAS)|
Stressmanagement training interventions have become one of the most popular treatment programs in health psychology practice. Although numerous clinical approaches are available, limited attention is given to the matching of intervention with the clinical needs of individuals. As a result, stressmanagement programs are more frequently marketed in clinical and community settings as palliative techniques without sufficient exploration of
The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome
Registered dietitians (RDs) have a defined and unique role in care for patients with diabetes that differs depending on whether the service is for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) or part of a diabetes self-management training (DSMT) program (DSMT and diabetes self-management education [DSME] are used interchangeably in this article). The purpose of this article is to describe the current regulatory
Anne Daly; Pam Michael; Elvira Q. Johnson; Carolyn C. Harrington; Stephanie Patrick; Tori Bender
... management approaches are presented below. Organizational Approaches for Stress Prevention and Management 1. Provide effective management structure ... and formal recognition for service Individual Approaches for Stress Prevention and Management 1. Manage workload. Set priority ...
Although numerous guidelines and standards address the management of diabetes in outpatient settings, only recently has evidence been provided to issue standards of care to guide clinicians in optimal inpatient glycemic control for hospitalized individuals with diabetes or illness-induced hyperglycemia. Both the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Endocrinology recommend critically ill patients keep their blood glucose level
Jackie L. Boucher; Carrie S. Swift; Marion J. Franz; Karmeen Kulkarni; Rebecca G. Schafer; Ellen Pritchett; Nathaniel G. Clark
Although numerous guidelines and standards address the management of diabetes in outpatient settings, only recently has evidence been provided to issue standards of care to guide clinicians in optimal inpatient glycemic control for hospitalized individuals with diabetes or ill- ness-induced hyperglycemia. Both the American Diabe- tes Association and the American College of Endocrinol- ogy recommend critically ill patients keep their
JACKIE L. BOUCHER; CARRIE S. SWIFT; MARION J. FRANZ; KARMEEN KULKARNI; REBECCA G. SCHAFER; ELLEN PRITCHETT; NATHANIEL G. CLARK
Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritionalstress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660
Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato; Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira; Mariano Martinez Espinosa; Vanderley Salvador Bagnato; Maria A. A. M. Machado
|Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stressmanagement behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…
Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.
Background Soluble sugars are involved in responses to stress, and act as signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone cross-talk transduction pathways. Thus, exogenous sucrose treatment efficiently induces tolerance to the herbicide atrazine in Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets, at least partially through large-scale modifications of expression of stress-related genes. Methods Availability of sugars in planta for stress responses is likely to depend on complex dynamics of soluble sugar accumulation, sucrose–starch partition and organ allocation. The question of potential relationships between endogenous sugar levels and stress responses to atrazine treatment was investigated through analysis of natural genetic accessions of A. thaliana. Parallel quantitative and statistical analysis of biochemical parameters and of stress-sensitive physiological traits was carried out on a set of 11 accessions. Key Results Important natural variation was found between accessions of A. thaliana in pre-stress shoot endogenous sugar levels and responses of plantlets to subsequent atrazine stress. Moreover, consistent trends and statistically significant correlations were detected between specific endogenous sugar parameters, such as the pre-stress end of day sucrose level in shoots, and physiological markers of atrazine tolerance. Conclusions These significant relationships between endogenous carbohydrate metabolism and stress response therefore point to an important integration of carbon nutritional status and induction of stress tolerance in plants. The specific correlation between pre-stress sucrose level and greater atrazine tolerance may reflect adaptive mechanisms that link sucrose accumulation, photosynthesis-related stress and sucrose induction of stress defences.
Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cecile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couee, Ivan
The British Bangladeshi community is one of the youngest and fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the UK. Many report poor socio-economic and health profiles with the existence of substantial health inequalities, particularly in relation to type 2 diabetes. Although there is compelling evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, there is little understanding of how best to tailor treatments to the needs of minority ethnic groups. Little is known about nutrition related lifestyle choices in the Bangladeshi community or the factors influencing such decisions. Only by exploring these factors will it be possible to design and tailor interventions appropriately. The Bangladeshi Initiative for the Prevention of Diabetes study explored lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings and professional perspectives in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community in Tower Hamlets, London. Contrary to the views of health professionals and previous research, poor knowledge was not the main barrier to healthy lifestyle choices. Rather the desire to comply with cultural norms, particularly those relating to hospitality, conflicted with efforts to implement healthy behaviours. Considerable support from Islamic teachings for diabetes prevention messages was provided by religious leaders, and faith may have an important role in supporting health promotion in this community. Some health professionals expressed outdated views on community attitudes and were concerned about their own limited cultural understanding. The potential for collaborative working between health educators and religious leaders should be explored further, and the cultural competence of health professionals addressed. PMID:21144124
Elucidating the optimal macronutrient composition for dietary management of gestational diabetes mellitus has enormous potential to improve perinatal outcomes. Diet therapy may result in significant cost savings if effective in deterring the need for expensive medical management within this growing population. In only 6 randomized controlled trials in 250 women, data suggest that a diet higher in complex carbohydrate and fiber, low in simple sugar, and lower in saturated fat may be effective in blunting postprandial hyperglycemia, preventing worsened insulin resistance and excess fetal growth. The use of diet in gestational diabetes mellitus remains an area in grave need for high-quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:24047934
Hernandez, Teri L; Anderson, Molly A; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A
Two series of examinations were carried out in two voluntary test groups for the purpose of elucidating the correlation between ultraviolet light load and oxidative stress as well as the way it is influenced by nutritive radical scavengers. After a 6 to 7-hour impact of sunshine on the whole body (sunbathing beach) at n = 8 a continuous progredient increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances could be identified in the serum (from 5.56 +/- 0.98 to 8.91 +/- 0.99 mumol/l, p < 0.001), which after new exposure to sunshine reached 11.3 +/- 2.4 mumol/l. Likewise, a 15-minute exposure to ultraviolet light at n = 24 induced increases of TBRS concentrations lasting from 1-2 days. After 14-day supplementation with beta-carotene (n = 6), D-alpha-tocopherol (n = 6), selenium (n = 6), and ginkgo biloba extract (n = 6) the extent of the oxidative stress could be inhibited during a second exposure to ultraviolet light up to the following efficiency: Se > Ginkgo > beta-carotene > vitamin E. The clastogenous effect of sunshine and ultraviolet light must be regarded as a factor for initiating and promoting cancerogenesis in the total organism. Concerning the aetiopathogenesis of malignant melanoma the paramagnetic properties of free radicals with their nonenergetic effects of the magnetic field have to be considered more carefully in scientific examinations. PMID:1462677
Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species.
Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M. Nieves; Sanchez-Martin, Carlos; El-Mir, M. Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R.; Detaille, Dominique; Koceir, E. Ahmed
Researchers have suggested that dispositional optimism is related to both stress and stress outcomes. However, the nature of this relationship has not fully been explained. The authors contributed to a better understanding of this relationship by evaluating dispositional optimism, stress, overall life satisfaction, and job burnout in a sample of restaurant managers. Results indicated that stress and job burnout were significantly related; however, their relationship was not moderated by dispositional optimism, as would be suggested by the results of past research. The diminished personal accomplishment dimension of job burnout mediated the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction. Also, stress significantly impacted perceptions of diminished personal accomplishment and life satisfaction. PMID:18044271
Objective: To compare the nutritional status and the preva- lence of iron deficiency among children enrolled in a day care center before and after 15 months of nutritionalmanagement. Methods: Cohort study of 52 children, aged 32 to 78 months, evaluated before and after treatment of anemia and nutritional disturbs in a no-profit day care center in Catan- duva, São
Terezinha Soares Biscegli; Carlos Elysio; C. Corrêa; João Romera; André Binotti Candido
In this article we describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of an infant who had congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM)—a rare disorder thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Because of defective sodium-coupled cotransport of glucose and galactose in the intestinal mucosa, infants with CGGM suffer from chronic, profuse, watery diarrhea that often leads to hypertonic dehydration.
ANA ABAD-SINDEN; STEPHEN BOROWITZ; ROBIN MEYERS; JAMES SUTPHEN
The immense stress associated with experiencing and surviving childhood sexual abuse directly influences coping, immune function and overall health. Lifelong overuse of maladaptive coping strategies results in impaired adjustment to stress. The purpose of this research was to re-examine if stressmanagement education would be effective in improving coping skills for this population. Two 4-week series of stressmanagement workshops were completed by 32 adult survivors who completed the ways of coping questionnaire before and after the training. Four categories of coping showed significant change. Stressmanagement education is an effective and cost-efficient approach that gives adult survivors an empowering set of tools for their healing journey. PMID:22070354
Objectives: (1) To improve case management of kwashiorkor at seven Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs) through 2–4 weekly paediatric supervisory visits. (2) To evaluate the impact of the use of routine tube-feeding and a micronutrient supplement (Nutriset).Design: An intervention project with descriptive clinical data in which Nutriset was introduced halfway through the project, and routine tube-feeding at one NRC was compared
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and self management training (SMT) provided specifically by a R.D. in lowering hemoglobin Ale (HbAlc) values. Additionally, correlations were calculated between patients* perceived diabetes control versus actual control as assessed by HbAlc.Methods: Subjects consisted of 15 Type I and 87 Type 2 diabetics
N. K. Christensen; J. S. Steiner; N. B. Schvaneveldt
Objective To explore the financial implications of applying the WHO guidelines for the nutritionalmanagement of HIV-infected children in a rural South African HIV programme. Methods WHO guidelines describe Nutritional Care Plans (NCPs) for three categories of HIV-infected children: NCP-A: growing adequately; NCP-B: weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) ??2 but no evidence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM), confirmed weight loss/growth curve flattening, or condition with increased nutritional needs (e.g. tuberculosis); NCP-C: SAM. In resource-constrained settings, children requiring NCP-B or NCP-C usually need supplementation to achieve the additional energy recommendation. We estimated the proportion of children initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Hlabisa HIV Programme who would have been eligible for supplementation in 2010. The cost of supplying 26-weeks supplementation as a proportion of the cost of supplying ART to the same group was calculated. Results A total of 251 children aged 6 months to 14 years initiated ART. Eighty-eight required 6-month NCP-B, including 41 with a WAZ ??2 (no evidence of SAM) and 47 with a WAZ >?2 with co-existent morbidities including tuberculosis. Additionally, 25 children had SAM and required 10-weeks NCP-C followed by 16-weeks NCP-B. Thus, 113 of 251 (45%) children were eligible for nutritional supplementation at an estimated overall cost of $11 136, using 2010 exchange rates. These costs are an estimated additional 11.6% to that of supplying 26-week ART to the 251 children initiated. Conclusions It is essential to address nutritional needs of HIV-infected children to optimise their health outcomes. Nutritional supplementation should be integral to, and budgeted for, in HIV programmes.
The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding and the effect of nutritional support was studied retrospectively in 166 spinal cord injured patients. Sixty six patients included in group 1 were started on oral diet when 'clinically ready' which resulted in a haphazard manner for provision of nutrition. One hundred patients in group 2 were treated according to an organised nutrition
J Kuric; C E Lucas; A M Ledgerwood; A Kiraly; G G Salciccioli; C Sugawa
|Review of clinical studies providing empirical data on stressmanagement programs in medical education found that student participants in such programs demonstrated improved immunologic functioning, decreased depression and anxiety, increased spirituality and empathy, enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies, improved knowledge of stress…
Shapiro, Shauna L.; Shapiro, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Gary E. R.
Suggests strategies for dealing with job stress and for prolonging career satisfaction. Stresses time management as a prime coping tool. Encourages reviewing objectives, and planning and setting priorities. Points out value of good physical health to development of mental fitness. (LS)
Five patients with stress fractures of the proximal tibia adjacent to an arthritic knee joint were treated by resurfacing arthroplasty with intramedullary fixation of the fracture. All five fractures healed and limb realignment was achieved. The literature concerning proximal tibial stress structures in relation to the arthritic knee and the management of this condition is reviewed.
|This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stressmanagement program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…
|The purpose of this study was to determine whether stressmanagement training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…
Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.
Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to managestress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stressmanagement strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565
|This book is concerned with the problem of student stress and the possibility that children and adolescents will internalize ineffective coping strategies used by adult models available to them. The introductory chapter explains a need for an educational plan to promote ways of controlling stress; recommends a systematic approach to managing…
This book is concerned with the problem of student stress and the possibility that children and adolescents will internalize ineffective coping strategies used by adult models available to them. The introductory chapter explains a need for an educational plan to promote ways of controlling stress; recommends a systematic approach to managing…
A field study of 109 information systems (IS) managers explores the relationship among organizational characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress. The results indicate that work overload is the major source of perceived IS work stress, followed by role conflict, job-induced anxiety, and then role ambiguity. Four organizational contextual factors--IS climate, clarity and sharing of organizationa l mission, quality of work
In response to repeated requests for information about how to develop training program for the management of combat stress reactions, a series of workshops were planned. The purpose of the first Users' Workshop on Combat Stress was to present a forum to: ...
Stress fractures are common overuse injuries of bone resulting from the repeated application of submaximal load. Factors that reduce bone strength or increase the load applied to bone can place an athlete at risk of developing a stress fracture. These factors include low bone density, menstrual disturbances, inadequate dietary intake and eating disorders, training errors, inadequate muscle function and biomechanical
Stress is a key issue facing many organisations yet, despite the increasing awareness of how it impacts on business, many companies are unsure of the best way to fulfil their duty of care towards their employees. This article looks at how training can have a positive impact on tackling stress in the workplace – helping employees become more resilient towards
|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We Should"…
Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine how the soft competencies of an information technology (IT) project manager, specifically optimism and stress, can affect project success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was exploratory. Experienced IT project managers were requested to relate a “structured” story regarding a significant, personal experience relating to optimism or stress and how this affected
This paper reports on the findings of a piece of research work aimed at investigating and analysing the impact of stress on the effectiveness of site managers as leaders. The sample of the study included semi-structured interviews with 71 site managers at the sharp end of production and their superiors. The investigation was more specifically concerned with the impact of
ObjectiveTo examine the long-term effects of a stressmanagement intervention (SMI) based on the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model, on psychological and biological reactions to work stress.Methods174 lower or middle management employees (99% male) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a waiting control group. The programme comprised 24×45 min group sessions (2 full days followed by two 4×45 min sessions
Heribert Limm; Harald Gündel; Mechthild Heinmüller; Birgitt Marten-Mittag; Urs M Nater; Johannes Siegrist; Peter Angerer
There is a well-established adverse reciprocal relationship between stress and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, stressmanagement in these patients has been parsimoniously studied. In this parallel randomized controlled trial, relapsing-remitting MS patients were randomly assigned to undergo either an 8-week stressmanagement program (n=31; relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day) or not (n=30). Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, anxiety, and depression. Daily diaries of MS symptoms were also kept by patients. In patients in the intervention group, perceived stress and symptoms of depression were significantly decreased after 8 weeks of relaxation. Repeated measures analyses showed significant group-by-time interactions for both the number of weekly symptoms and the mean intensity per symptom. No other significant change was reported. We deem that our results should encourage future studies that will incorporate more objective clinical and laboratory outcomes. PMID:22491729
Artemiadis, Artemios K; Vervainioti, Angeliki A; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Rombos, Antonis; Anagnostouli, Maria C; Darviri, Christina
|This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress…
Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.
In several studies involving a total of 291 family caregivers for schizophrenia sufferers, the stressors that arise from caregiving were identified. Also identified were the outcomes for caregivers, which often include psychological distress. Caregivers develop various stress-reduction techniques, but this article explores the utility of applying the principles of work stressmanagement to caregiver well-being. An organizational psychology perspective suggests
The iatrogenic malnutrition of neurosurgical patients in intensive care units (ICU) is an underestimated problem. It may cause a decrease in plasma albumin and oncotic pressure, leading to an increase in the amount of water entering the brain and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined high-protein parenteral and enteral nutrition is beneficial for neurosurgical patients in ICU. A total of 202 neurosurgical patients in ICU (mean age+/-standard deviation, 56 years+/-16 years; male:female=1.2:1) were studied. Two consecutive 1-year time periods were compared, during which two different nutritional regimens were followed. In the first time period (Y1) patients were given a low-protein/high-fat formulation parenterally, followed by a standard enteral regimen. In the second time period (Y2) a protein-rich, combined parenteral and enteral diet was prospectively administered. The Glasgow Outcome Score was measured at 3-6 months after discharge. The following clinical parameters were recorded during the first 2 weeks after admission: ICP; albumin; cholinesterase (CHE); daily hours of ICP > 20 mmHg and cerebral perfusion pressure<70 mmHg; and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. It was found that overall albumin (32.4 g/L+/-4.1g/L vs. 27.5 g/L+/-3.6g/L) and CHE was higher during Y2, although the total energy supply, glucose and fat intake was lower. Higher GOS scores were seen when patients had lower APACHE II scores and received the Y2 nutritional regimen. During Y2, the total hours of ICP > 20 mmHg were fewer. With the Y2 nutrition, maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion required less catecholamine medication and colloidal fluid replacement. Therefore, adequate nutrition is an important parameter in the management of neurosurgical patients in ICU. PMID:19570684
BACKGROUND: Stress has been defined as a barrier to concentration, problem solving, decision making, and other necessary abilities for students’ learning; it also has some symptoms and illnesses in the students such as depression and anxiety. In reviewing stress and its consequences, the methods of coping with stress in the method of response to it would be more important than the nature of stress itself. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of stressmanagement training program on depression, anxiety and stress rate of the nursing students. METHODS: This parallel group randomized quasi-experimental trial, was done on 68 Bs nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery School in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 2010 to 2011. The questionnaires of this study consisted of individual characteristics and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42). In a random fashion, The intervention group was trained with stressmanagement training program in 8 two hours sessions, twice a week. The questionnaires were completed by both groups before, after and one month after the study. RESULTS: The results of the study indicated that there was no significant difference before the intervention in depression, anxiety and stress mean scores in the two groups. After the intervention, the mean scores of anxiety and stress in the intervention group was 5.09 (4.87) and 8.93 (6.01) and in the control group was 10 (6.45) and 13.17 (7.20), that reduction in depression mean score was significantly greater in the intervention group in the control group (p = 0.040). Furthermore, the mean scores of anxiety and stress showed a significant difference between the two groups (Anxiety p = 0.001; Stress p = 0.011); this reduction also had been remained after a month. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, holding stressmanagement training program workshops in different courses of the mental health department can improve mental health of the students.
H. pylori can survive under a nutrition-deficient environment. During infection and transmission, H. pylori is confronted with nutrient limitation and the bacterium requires rapid alteration in gene expression for survival under stress conditions. However, the mechanism underlining this regulation remains unknown. A previous study showed that ?(54) is an important regulation factor for H. pylori survival in the nutrition-deficient environment. Our results show that the expression of ?(54) (rpoN) is significantly induced in the stationary phase (nutrition deficiency) and the rpoN mutant showed a significantly lower viability than wild-type H. pylori in the late stationary phase. Thus, ?(54) is involved in H. pylori survival during nutrient limitation. We used comparative proteomics to analyze the protein differentiation between wild-type and rpoN mutant during the stationary phase. With depleted nutrients, ?(54) can slow the process of proliferation by negatively regulating genes involved in energy metabolism and biosynthesis and enhance stress-resistant ability by positively regulating genes involved in protein fate and redox reaction. Especially, NapA positively regulated by ?(54) plays an important function in H. pylori survival both in the stationary phase and in water, and the latter situation would be beneficial for bacterial in vitro transmission. Our investigations give new light on the adaptive regulation of H. pylori under stress conditions. PMID:24015282
While past experiments on animals, birds, fish, and insects have shown changes in stable isotope ratios due to nutritionalstress, there has been little research on this topic in humans. To address this issue, a small pilot study was conducted. Hair samples from eight pregnant women who experienced nutritionalstress associated with the nausea and vomiting of morning sickness (hyperemesis gravidarum) were measured for carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotope ratios. The delta13C results showed no change during morning sickness or pregnancy when compared with pre-pregnancy values. In contrast, the delta15N values generally increased during periods of weight loss and/or restricted weight gain associated with morning sickness. With weight gain and recovery from nutritionalstress, the hair delta15N values displayed a decreasing trend over the course of gestation towards birth. This study illustrates how delta15N values are not only affected by diet, but also by the nitrogen balance of an individual. Potential applications of this research include the development of diagnostic techniques for tracking eating disorders, disease states, and nitrogen balance in archaeological, medical, and forensic cases. PMID:16106342
Fuller, Benjamin T; Fuller, James L; Sage, Nancy E; Harris, David A; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Hedges, Robert E M
Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children's daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritionalmanagement of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.
A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritionalstress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritionalstress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritionalstress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.
Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.
During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and managestress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...
|This handbook was designed to provide a basic introduction to and understanding of stress and its impact upon children. Several coping techniques for children are presented along with the methods with which to teach them. These techniques are intended to provide a resource for school psychologists working with children and adolescents who are…
All conservative methods of treating genuine stress incontinence (GSI) aim to increase the urethral closure pressure, either by increasing pelvic floor or urethral muscular tone (pelvic floor physiotherapy, electrostimulation, alpha-adrenergic agents), increasing tissue occlusive forces (hormone replacement) or by mechanical means. Simple pelvic floor exercises should suffice for motivated patients who are able to isolate the correct muscles. In the
We spend over ten hours a day at work or on work related issues. We not only have to deal with work pressures but also juggle, personal relationships, personal finances, information technology, personal fears and changes. All these aspects of modern-day-living can be incredibly stressful, which imposes high physical demands on our bodies and emotional costs on our lives (Cohen,
The complex nature of hospital care , requires communication which not only accurately transfers factual clinical information, but also engenders cooperation, and motivation to maintain patient safety. Dysfunctional communication and behaviour in the hospital setting provides observable evidence of stress, and failure to achieve this goal. While the incidence of severely disruptive behaviour is low (4-5%), the impact of this
The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritionalstresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins, including a 62-kDa protein immunologically related to the molecular chaperone designated thermophilic factor 55 in Sulfolobus shibatae (J. D. Trent, J. Osipiuk, and T. Pinkau, J. Bacteriol. 172:1478-1484, 1990), on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The 62-kDa protein was also noted at elevated levels in cells that had been shifted from 70 to either 80 or 85(deg)C. The proton motive force ((Delta)p), transmembrane pH ((Delta)pH), and membrane potential ((Delta)(psi)) were determined for samples obtained from continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70(deg)C, and dilution rate of 0.05 h(sup-1)) and incubated under nutritionally and/or thermally stressed and unstressed conditions. At 70(deg)C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a (Delta)p of approximately -190 to -200 mV, the result of an intracellular pH of 5.4 (extracellular pH, 2.0) and a (Delta)(psi) of +40 to +50 mV (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85(deg)C, (Delta)(psi) decreased to nearly 0 mV and internal pH approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from 70 to 80(deg)C were shifted back to 70(deg)C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal pH increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, (Delta)(psi) remained close to 0 mV, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79(deg)C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73(deg)C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs.
Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritionalstress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritionalstress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.
Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.
I have been a dental hygiene professor at a Community College from the last seven years as well as a 2001 alumna from the same dental hygiene program. The dental hygiene curriculum is demanding, and it can be overwhelming to manage the heavy work load. My goal as a teacher is to help the dental hygiene students find their own
Purpose – Construction is a competitive, ever-changing, and challenging industry. Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of construction professionals suffer from stress, especially construction project managers (C-PMs), who are often driven by the time pressures, uncertainties, crisis-ridden environment, and dynamic social structures that are intrinsic to every construction project. Extensive literature has indicated that stress can be categorized
Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs' apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and 'necroapoptophagy'. The concept of 'necroapoptophagy' is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967
Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans.
Discusses the employee assistance program (EAP), a benefit increasingly provided by United Kingdom employers that claims to reduce the effects of stress on individuals and organizations, provide a management tool to improve workplace performance and productivity, and respond to critical incidents. Describes EAPs, their history, development and…
|Stressmanagement training contributes to weight loss, maintenance of weight loss and improved social and occupational functioning in obese women. Data from the Beck Depression Inventory and the Assertiveness Questionnaire indicate that obese persons have poor self-concepts which result in depression which is inversely related to assertiveness.…
Theoretical models of occupational stress are important because they suggest a focus for intervention, and inform practice. The gap between research and practice was exposed most recently by Burke (1993) claiming “little awareness of research findings by practitioners (managers, consultants, clinicians), little intervention activity being undertaken at the organizational level, little research being undertaken to determine the effectiveness of individual
Interest in health promotion has resulted in various programs designed to enhance health and prevent disease through changes in lifestyles. The effects of a widely used stressmanagement program were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, office employees in treatment (N=21) and control (N=24) groups were administered the State-Trait Anxiety…
Atopic dermatitis leads to, and can be triggered by, stress. Psychological interventions have been shown to have positive effects on skin status, itch and scratching behaviour. However, it has not been analysed whether stressmanagement leads to a change in physiological stress level and psychophysiological stress reaction under acute stress in this patient group. In this study 28 patients with atopic dermatitis were randomized to an experimental group (cognitive behavioural stressmanagement) or a control group. The endocrine stress level and skin status were measured before and after the stressmanagement programme. A public-speaking paradigm was used to induce acute stress. The study revealed that the experimental group had a tentatively reduced cortisol awakening response after the stressmanagement programme. In addition, the experimental group remained calmer and showed lower salivary cortisol levels under acute stress. Thus, stressmanagement might be a useful addition to standard treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:22983681
|Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to managestress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…
Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to managestress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…
The Institute of Medicine recently convened a workshop to review the state of the various domains of nutritional genomics research and policy and to provide guidance for further development and translation of this knowledge into nutrition practice and policy. Nutritional genomics holds the promise to revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and facilitate the establishment of (a) genome-informed
This review and case study report considers the evidence to indicate that the progress of wound healing is negatively affected by the presence of stressors and in circumstances where patients are in pain. It considers the relationship between perceptions of pain, stress and delayed wound healing with a specific focus on guidance for clinical practice. It is appreciated that although the literature has examined these issues in the management of acute wounds, demonstrating that psychological stress can have detrimental effects on the wound-healing process, the evidence to support this link in relation to chronic wounds is limited. The review considers evidence indicating that punch biopsy wounds heal more slowly in subjects under stress due to caring for family members with long-term illnesses and also considers briefly the relationship between cortisol secretion in response to stress and consequent influences on cytokine levels and the wound-healing process. PMID:22905710
The paper addresses the proper management of events that can lead to post traumatic stress, that are the situations where: the person experienced or witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. This document results from a collation of the knowledge acquired by railway undertakings and infrastructure managers on the management and prevention of post-traumatic stress. Having surveyed the various strategies for the management of post-traumatic stress as these are applied in the participating countries, a number of recommendations and best practices were identified and these are presented in this guide. This guide comprises two parts: * A theoretical document comprising several parts: Part one deals with the fundamental notions involved in post-traumatic stress and potentially traumatic events; Part two deals with a strategy for managing potentially traumatic events and sets out a reference framework to this end. This strategy is broken down into five key phases: risk assessment, preparation and prevention, intervention, post-intervention and follow-up, appraisal, including reports from experience. Practical "check sheets" stating the key messages to be understood and/or the specific actions to be taken before, during or after a potentially traumatic event. These sheets are intended for operational staff, managers, directors and support workers. This guide was prepared by a working group under the supervision of the UIC Safety Platform's Occupational Health and Safety Group (OHSG). The working group brought together psychologists, occupational physicians, ergonomists, safety experts, managers and safety directors. It is the fruit of interdisciplinary collaboration, marrying the concerns, needs and knowledge of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers from a variety of European countries. PMID:23405657
In this article, the authors review the current empiric literature on early interventions. Findings on the effects, course, help-seeking, and recovery from disasters are first reviewed, with recommendations given that are pertinent to intervention following mass casualties. In reviewing the most commonly used interventions, it is clear that evidence from well-controlled studies showing that early intervention can help prevent longer-term problems is limited. The authors discuss the approaches that have received the most attention or empiric support as early interventions following trauma, which include psychologic debriefing, cognitive-behavioral interventions, eye movement desensitization and processing (EMDR) and other neoteric approaches, and psychopharmacology. At this time, the most promising results for prevention of psychopathology have been achieved with brief four- or five-session cognitive-behavioral therapy. In contrast, randomized clinical trials on psychologic debriefing currently suggest that this approach is either ineffective at preventing psychopathology, or contributive to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Research support is currently lacking for EMDR and pharmacotherapy as early interventions. A major challenge to the field is to integrate the practical experience and knowledge of professional responders with well-controlled, timely intervention research, and to effectively disseminate these findings to practitioners in the field. PMID:12126592
Watson, Patricia J; Friedman, Matthew J; Ruzek, Josef I; Norris, Fran
Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts
Robert E. Post; Arch G. Mainous III; Vanessa A. Diaz; Eric M. Matheson; Charles J. Everett
The purpose of the HyperFit project was to develop communicational tools for personal nutrition and exercise management. The main result of the HyperFit project is the HyperFit application, an Internet service for personal management of nutrition and exer...
Cognitive behavioral stressmanagement groups have been shown to be decrease psychological symptoms and increase adaptive coping in breast cancer patients, but dissemination of this effective intervention has been challenging. The goal of the present project was to develop an online cognitive behavioral stressmanagement intervention for early stage breast cancer survivors and evaluate its effectiveness using a 2 group × 3 time randomized, waitlist-controlled design. Intervention and waitlist control group participants were assessed at three time points: at baseline; at 10 weeks, after which only intervention participants had used the workbook; and at 20 weeks, after which both groups had used the workbook. Results indicate that at 10 weeks intervention participants showed improved self-efficacy for coping with their cancer and for regulating negative mood and lower levels of cancer-related post-traumatic symptoms as compared to the control group, suggesting that an internet stressmanagement intervention could be effective for helping breast cancer patients increase their confidence in their ability to cope with stress. PMID:23212928
Carpenter, Kelly M; Stoner, Susan A; Schmitz, Krisann; McGregor, Bonnie A; Doorenbos, Ardith Z
Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a stress-management program for college students of social work on their perception of mental stress and stress-coping strategies. Students in a stress-management group received progressive muscle training, cognitive-behavioral skills training, and assertion training for 14 weeks. Their life events, stress symptoms, and stress-coping skills (active and passive coping
This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.
Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert
Vulnerability–stress models suggest that training in specific stressmanagement techniques should yield benefits to those suffering from schizophrenia and related disorders. In this paper, we describe an evaluation of the impact of adding a stressmanagement program to other medical and psychosocial interventions for such patients. Outcomes were compared for 121 patients randomly assigned to receive either a 12-week stress
Ross M. G Norman; Ashok K Malla; Terry S McLean; Elizabeth M McIntosh; R. W. J Neufeld; L. Panth Voruganti; L Cortese
|Investigated a stressmanagement training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stressmanagement treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stressmanagement techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. First-line therapy for NAFLD includes weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity. However, there is a lack of evidenced-based dietary recommendations. The American Diabetes Association's (ADA) recommendations that aim to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may also be applicable to the NAFLD population. The objectives of this review are to: (1) provide an overview of NAFLD in the context of insulin resistance, and (2) provide a rationale for applying relevant aspects of the ADA recommendations to the nutritionalmanagement of NAFLD. PMID:24152749
AimTo identify the specific management behaviours associated with the effective management of stress in nursing; and to build a stressmanagement competency framework that can be integrated and compared with nurse management frameworks.
Rachel Lewis; Joanna Yarker; Emma Donaldson-Feilder; Paul Flaxman; Fehmidah Munir
Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.
The aim of this research was to investigate the beneficial effect of medical nutrition therapy by a registered dietitian (R.D.) in the weight management of dyslipidemic patients. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel's second report on hyperlipidemia, dietary modification including weight management is an essential first step and that the registered dietitians (R.D.s) have the key
LEARNING OUTCOME: There is a trend for Medical Nutrition Therapy to increase weight and inch loss as well as maintenance of loss under Medical Weight Loss ManagementProgram is discontinued.One hundred twenty-six subjects enrolled in a Medical Weight Loss Management program using fenfluramine and phentermine were followed for 12 months. Subjects were divided into three groups based on frequency of Medical
Scott-Sheldon, Kalichman, Carey, and Fiedler (2008) present a thoughtful, important, and timely meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of stressmanagement interventions in HIV. They differentiate controlled effect sizes across classes of acute outcomes including psychological distress, psychosocial processes, biological processes (immune status, viral, and hormonal) and fatigue. The authors join Scott-Sheldon et al., in considering future directions for this type of clinical psychosocial intervention research in HIV. Recommendations for addressing the high prevalence of psychosocial problems including diagnosable mental health disorders comorbid with HIV are presented. Suggestions for addressing medication adherence and accommodating interventions with concomitant substance use treatment are also considered. These recommendations are presented with an emphasis on expanding both the efficacy and effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in HIV. These recommendations are presented as realistic strategies for improving the modest treatment effect sizes for psychosocial outcomes and identifying meaningful effects on distal physiological outcomes associated with traditional stressmanagement interventions in HIV.
This study was conducted to clarify Japanese female workers' psychosomatic symptoms including women-specific complaints and their need for stressmanagement as part of occupational health services (OHS). In 1997, a survey was conducted in which a questionnaire was sent to 1108 full-time female workers. The response rate was 92.1%. They classified their own health status excellent (26.0%), good (60.4%), fair (9.6%), or bad (1.6%). They also reported their irritability (25.3%) and depression (15.6%). There were high rates of complaints of eye discomfort (53.6%), fatigue (44.1%), headache (43.0%), and menstrual pain (32.5%). Such symptoms were associated with irritability or depression. Amount of overtime works, marital status in the 30-44 age group, the presence of children were found to be important factors in determining health status. Regarding the needs for occupational health services, 22.2% of respondents answered they needed mental health management (MHM). Compared with other services, such as management of lifestyle diseases, gynecological diseases, cancer screenings and counseling on nutrition and exercise, the need for MHM was low. The preferred personnel were female doctors and nurses. Workers who performed frequent overtime work had a greater need for MHM. The most preferred means of receiving MHM was personal counseling by doctors (not psychologists) and nurses. PMID:10319574
Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r?=?0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling performance under xeric outplanting conditions. However, fertilization increased growth under mesic conditions, whereas drought hardening decreased growth. We conclude that drought hardening and N fertilization applied under typical container nursery operational conditions exert opposite effects on the physiological stress tolerance of P. pinea seedlings. While drought hardening increases overall stress tolerance, N nutrition reduces it and yet has no effect on the drought acclimation capacity of seedlings. PMID:23370549
Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F
In many ways, adolescent seasonal camp staff are asked to do what no parent would likely be capable of doing: to be best friend, role model, and risk manager for a group of young strangers. The high expectations for camp responsibility converge at a time when the developmental stages of most camp staff and their growing skill sets may be most challenged. What we ask of seasonal staff may, in fact, be at direct odds with their developmental capabilities as adolescents. This conflict may be a primary source of daily hassle-type stress, which has been shown to have tremendous impact on health and general well-being. To help prevent or, at least, mitigate this impact, the combination of administrative structure, supervisory support, and peer and self-care is critical to staff development. This article provides a brief exploration of the developmental stages and capabilities of seasonal staff and, an overview of methods to support and empower staff while on the job to help prevent burnout and encourage stressmanagement. The focus of this article is on mechanical and procedural prevention as a stressmanagement tool. PMID:17823059
From 3000 BC, healers have understood the importance of nutrition in wound care and used nutritional supplements to aid healing. Many of the teachings from Hippocrates, the father of modern-day medicine, clearly state his firm belief that good health can be achieved through nutrition. In the early 1900s when advances in biochemistry were frequent, many of the essential constituents of
The purpose of this project was to design, implement, and improve a nationwide medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention program for nutritionally at-risk employees and their dependents and retirees (hereinafter referred to as clients) with a Fortune 100 company (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Tex) with a dispersed population of 80,000. Preferred Nutrition Therapists (PNT), a network of registered dietitians, with the assistance
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress. PMID:23771023
Goat fibre production is affected by genetic and environmental influences. Environmental influences which are the subject of this review include bio–geophysical factors (photoperiod, climate–herbage system and soil–plant trace nutrient composition), nutrition factors and management factors. Nutrition and management influences discussed include rate of stocking, supplementary feeding of energy and protein, liveweight change, parturition and management during shearing. While experimental data
Water stress is a primary limitation on plant growth. In previous studies, it has been found that ammonium enhances the tolerance\\u000a of rice plants to water stress, but how water is related to nitrogen form and water stress remains unknown. To study the effects\\u000a of nitrogen form (NH4+, NO3?, and a mixture of NH4+ and NO3?) on the growth and
During attempts to achieve and maintain sobriety, humans with a history of alcohol dependence struggle with symptoms including stress hypersensitivity and eating disruption. Rat models can help to develop treatment protocols that ease symptoms and thus increase the likelihood of success. The present study examined: how protracted alcohol exposure affects chow consumption and body weight; withdrawal stress; and whether exposure
In today’s society, human activities and lifestyles generate numerous forms of environmental oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as a process in which the balance between oxidants and antioxidants is shifted toward the oxidant side. This shift can lead to antioxidant depletion and potentially to biological damage if the body has an insufficient reserve to compensate for consumed antioxidants. This
The human and finacial costs of stress in the workplace have been extensively documented in the literature. The present study used a two-round Delphi methodology with 17 human resource managers from 17 medium-sized and large Canadian organizations. The main purposes of the study were to predict future policy and programme directions as well as expected benefits and constraints on organizations
Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting at the time when the males were introduced to the
G. Fitz-Rodríguez; M. A. De Santiago-Miramontes; R. J. Scaramuzzi; B. Malpaux; J. A. Delgadillo
Nutrition education programs and social marketing campaigns frequently focus on low-income audiences with the goal of improving dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity. The impact of nutrition education can be assessed by measuring change in relation to any or all of these broad variables. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to
Jacquelyn W. McClelland; Debra Palmer Keenan; Jan Lewis; Susan Foerster; Sharon Sugerman; Paula Mara; Shirley Wu; Sheryl Lee; Kathleen Keller; James Hersey; Christine Lindquist
|This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the…
Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White
Ninety-six registrants (70 females, 26 males, mean age 36.4) were trained in seven standard autogenic training groups for management of stress-related disorders by a family physician in a community health centre. Comparisons were made before and after six training weeks, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire about physical and psychological symptoms, drug, tobacco and alcohol use. As in a previous study, state and trait anxiety scores and symptoms related to stress were decreased in a majority of subjects. Effects were maintained in a subgroup followed for 12 months. Problems of data collection over time in clinical settings and of establishing the impact of health education measures are discussed.
The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stressmanagement strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…
|Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…
Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.
Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep.
The aim of this study was to conduct a stress audit among construction industry site managers in the UK as a precursor to a stressmanagement intervention programme. Qualitative data were obtained from in-dept interviews with a total of 36 male middle and senior construction site managers; and aquantitative data were obtained by questionnaire. Based on the analysis of 561
We have characterized industrial yeast strains used in the brewing, baking, and winemaking industries for the presence or absence of cytoplasmic single-stranded 20S and 23S RNAs. Furthermore, the variation of intracellular concentrations of these replicons in brewing and laboratory strains under nutritionalstress conditions was determined. Our results show a correlation between the relative abundance of these replicons and exposure of yeast to nutritionallystressful conditions, indicating that these RNAs could be employed as molecular probes to evaluate the exposure of 20S(+) and/or 23S(+) yeast strains to stress situations during industrial manipulation. During this study, several 20S(-)23S(+) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated and identified. This is the first time that a yeast strain containing only 23S RNA has been reported, demonstrating that 20S RNA is not required for 23S RNA replication. PMID:11921103
López, Victoria; Gil, Rosario; Vicente Carbonell, José; Navarro, Alfonso
The overall goal of the proposed research is to characterize the pathophysiology of stress in wild and managed-care bottlenose dolphins and to establish relationships between markers of the stress response in cetaceans and immune function, dependent hormo...
The purpose of this dissertation was twofold. First, to evaluate the treatment effectiveness of a stressmanagement package. Second, to examine the role of social support as a significant external factor in reducing stress symptomatology. It was hypothesi...
Stressed female students with gynecological problems showed reductions in anxiety, stress, and gynecological symptoms following anxiety management training. A two-year follow-up study showed continued change. (Author)
While there is considerable anecdotal evidence and some research indicating poor nutritional intake and high levels of food wastage in hospitals, there have been no studies relating these issues to the catering system used. The overall purpose of this study was, therefore, to measure food wastage and nutritional intake in selected hospital catering systems. Data were collected from three types
Healthcare and prehospital workers involved in disaster response are susceptible to a variety of stress-related psychological and physical sequelae. Critical incident stressmanagement, of which critical incident stress debriefing is a component, can mitigate the response to these stressors. Critical incident stress debriefing is a peer-driven, therapist-guided, structured, group intervention designed to accelerate the recovery of personnel. The attack on the World Trade Center, and the impact it may have on rescue, prehospital, and healthcare workers, should urge us to incorporate critical incident stressmanagement into disaster management plans.
What causes stress in gifted youth and what specific skills do they need to manage it? Although stress is a real presence in all people's lives, it can be more intense for the gifted because they are usually more sensitive, introspective, and emotional. Growing up gifted is a qualitatively different experience, which can manifest itself in the…
A review of data on the morbidity and mortality caused by persistent diarrhea (more than 14 days' duration) was undertaken from studies in several geographic areas, including Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, and Peru, over the last 3 decades. An estimated 3-5 billion diarrheal illnesses and 5-10 million diarrhea-related deaths occur annually among 3 billion people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Mostly the 338 million to 1 billion episodes and 4.6 million deaths annually. A study from India showed that the incidence of persistent diarrhea was greater in the age group 0-11 months (31 episodes/100 child-years) than at age 12-23 months (9 episodes/100 child years) or 24-35 months (6 episodes/100 child-year). Similar results were obtained in periurban Peru, periurban northeastern Brazil, and rural guatemala. Diarrhea is believed to precipitate and exacerbate malnutrition while malnutrition predisposes to diarrhea. 2 studies in both Bangladesh and Peru indicate that the risk of developing diarrhea inversely parallels delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to standard skin-test antigens. In a cohort of 175 children under 5 years of age over a 28-month period in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil the children had an average of 11 episodes/year and spent 82 days/year with diarrhea. The leading potential pathogens seen with persistent diarrhea in some areas are enteroaggregative E. coli and Cryptosporidium. Other pathogens include Shigella, Salmonella, enteropathogenic (LA (local)) E. coli, and variably Giardia lamblia. Recent nutritionalmanagement promotes breast feeding, dietary supplementation with vitamin A, zinc, iron, folate, and vitamin B 12, and improved oral rehydration solutions with glucose polymers (such as rice starch) and possibly neutral amino acids (such as alanine or glycine) and glutamine. PMID:1289113
A series of 75 patients with 87 postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas (PEF) is reported. All received parenteral nutrition after the diagnosis of PEF was made. There were 16 deaths (21.3 per cent) and 62 fistulas (71.2 per cent) closed spontaneously. A classification of PEF is proposed according to the results obtained. The therapeutic approach cannot be uniform in all types of PEF. We feel that parenteral nutrition has substantially improved the prognosis of fistulous patients by increasing the rate of spontaneous closure and improving the nutritional status of patients needing repeated operations. Comparison between series of patients to establish the usefulness of parenteral nutrition is bound to yield inconclusive data due to marked differences in patient populations. We suggest that proper information be obtained by studying series of homogeneous patients, namely those who develop oesophageal, gastric or intestinal fistulas after surgery. PMID:6802216
Cystic fibrosis is characterized by progressive deterioration of pulmonary and pancreatic function. The former may increase nutrient requirements somewhat, but probably affects nutrition more by adversely affecting intake, particularly during acute exacerbations and in older children with severe pul...
Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. We also investigated whether seasonal changes in host behaviour, physiology and demography affect host–pathogen dynamics. Data showed that pregnant and lactating females had significantly higher risk of infection, which may explain previously observed temporal associations between HeV outbreaks and flying fox birthing periods. Age-specific seroprevalence curves generated from field data imply that HeV is transmitted horizontally via faeces, urine or saliva. Rapidly declining seroprevalence between two field seasons suggests that immunity wanes faster in LRFF than in other flying fox species, and highlights the potentially critical role of this species in interspecific viral persistence. The highest seroprevalence was observed when animals showed evidence of nutritionalstress, suggesting that environmental processes that alter flying fox food sources, such as habitat loss and climate change, may increase HeV infection and transmission. These insights into the ecology of HeV in flying fox populations suggest causal links between anthropogenic environmental change and HeV emergence.
Prevalence and risk factors for the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth is well described in the literature. However, its management and treatment has only begun to be investigated. The aim of this article is to describe the studies that examine the effects of interventions on PTSD after childbirth. MedLine, PILOTS, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials, pilot studies and case studies using key words related to PTSD, childbirth, treatment and intervention. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also used to supplement the search. A total of nine studies were retrieved. Seven studies that examined debriefing or counselling were identified; six randomised controlled trials and one pilot study. Also found were one case report describing the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on two women, and one pilot study of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). Overall, there is limited evidence concerning the management of women with PTSD after childbirth. The results agree with the findings from the non-childbirth related literature: debriefing and counselling are inconclusively effective while CBT and EMDR may improve PTSD status but require investigation in controlled trials before conclusions could be drawn. PMID:20653342
Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n = 48, 43 ± 4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (P < 0.05) in HS compared with TN pigs, while jejunum TER decreased 30% (P < 0.05) and LPS APP increased 2-fold (P < 0.01). Furthermore, d 7 HS pigs tended (P = 0.06) to have increased LPS APP (41%) compared with PFTN controls. Lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased (46 and 59%, respectively; P < 0.05) over time in HS pigs, while the immune cell marker, myeloperoxidase activity, was increased (P < 0.05) in the jejunum at d 3 and 7. These results indicate that both HS and reduced feed intake decrease intestinal integrity and increase endotoxin permeability. We hypothesize that these events may lead to increased inflammation, which might contribute to reduced pig performance during warm summer months. PMID:23989867
Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K
This study investigated the effects of a workshop fee on stressmanagement skills and workshop evaluations of women participants. Thirty-four women who chose to participate in a two-evening stressmanagement workshop were randomly assigned to one of two groups: $30 fee (treatment) or no fee (control). At the conclusion of training, all clients completed two state anxiety inventories, a cognitive
Nursing students need to be prepared for a highly complex and challenging profession. This article describes an experiential course where students learn stressmanagement skills and develop a stressmanagement plan. These skills can be used during their nursing education and then transferred to clinical practice. PMID:22864297
|This paper examines the benefits of a metaphorical graphical user interface (GUI) and discusses how metaphorical interfaces can be used to deliver instruction on stressmanagement. A computer-based instructional (CBI) program for college students was developed on the fundamentals of stress and the role of time management as a coping strategy. The…
Stressmanagement (SM) subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 6 widely used occupational SM interventions (relaxation, physical fitness, cognitive restructuring, meditation, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation) on the basis of 10 practicality criteria and 7 effectiveness objectives. Relaxation was evaluated overall as the most practical intervention, while meditation and stress inoculation were judged as the least practical. Physical fitness was chosen
|Investigated the effects of a workshop fee on stressmanagement skills and workshop evaluations of women participants. Those paying for the workshop scored significantly higher in content recall of stress reduction techniques and significantly lower in follow-up stress levels. (Author/MCF)|
|This paper provides a conceptual framework for identifying high-stress, negative community college work environments and offers suggestions for managers who are willing to make the changes necessary to turn a stress-laden environment into a positive, more productive one. The paper begins with a discussion of workplace stress and the conditions,…
|Created guidelines for stressmanagement intervention by investigating the relationship of 12 factors with stress reactions and feelings of mastery among 826 Swedish teachers in 27 comprehensive schools. Teacher stress reactions were best predicted by perceived work demands, student misbehavior, and negative feedback, while mastery feelings were…
This paper explores the problems faced by parents of disabled children with respect to stress-related factors. Parents of disabled children experience tremendous stress in the responsibilities and problems that they face. Counselors who become involved with parents of disabled children need to be capable of assisting these parents in developing and implementing stressmanagement programs. The counselor needs to teach
|Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stressmanagement techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…
Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stressmanagement techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…
Background Physicians often experience work-related stress that may lead to personal harm and impaired professional performance. Biofeedback has been used to managestress in various populations. Objective To determine whether a biofeedback-based stressmanagement tool, consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device, reduces physician stress. Design Randomized controlled trial measuring efficacy of a stress-reduction intervention over 28 days, with a 28-day open-label trial extension to assess effectiveness. Setting Urban tertiary care hospital. Participants Forty staff physicians (23 men and 17 women) from various medical practices (1 from primary care, 30 from a medical specialty and 9 from a surgical specialty) were recruited by means of electronic mail, regular mail and posters placed in the physicians’ lounge and throughout the hospital. Intervention Physicians in the intervention group were instructed to use a biofeedback-based stressmanagement tool three times daily. Participants in both the control and intervention groups received twice-weekly support visits from the research team over 28 days, with the intervention group also receiving re-inforcement in the use of the stressmanagement tool during these support visits. During the 28-day extension period, both the control and the intervention groups received the intervention, but without intensive support from the research team. Main outcome measure Stress was measured with a scale developed to capture short-term changes in global perceptions of stress for physicians (maximum score 200). Results During the randomized controlled trial (days 0 to 28), the mean stress score declined significantly for the intervention group (change –14.7, standard deviation [SD] 23.8; p = 0.013) but not for the control group (change –2.2, SD 8.4; p = 0.30). The difference in mean score change between the groups was 12.5 (p = 0.048). The lower mean stress scores in the intervention group were maintained during the trial extension to day 56. The mean stress score for the control group changed significantly during the 28-day extension period (change –8.5, SD 7.6; p < 0.001). Conclusion A biofeedback-based stressmanagement tool may be a simple and effective stress-reduction strategy for physicians.
Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E; Lewin, Adriane M; de Grood, Jill; Schaefer, Jeffrey P
Emotional stress has been associated with the development and progression of several chronic medical conditions. Recently, researchers have assessed the impact of stress-management interventions on patients' psychological functioning, quality of life, and various disease outcomes, including survival. This review summarizes the value of stress-management techniques in the treatment of two important, life-threatening conditions: coronary heart disease and cancer. Results from
|Descriptions are given of the terms "stress" and "stressors." Stressful life events, the physiological symptoms of stress, and individual perceptions of what constitutes stressful events and how they are determined by personality type, are discussed. Five coping skills are listed and described: (1) cognitive restructuring; (2) deep breathing; (3)…
|From birth--and possibly before--children are likely to encounter a considerable amount of stress generated by society. This book explains what adults can do to prevent and/or minimize the harmful consequences of stress for children. Part 1, "Understanding Stress in Children," explores the general causes of stress, with particular emphasis on…
This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management. PMID:20126376
Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan
The present study examined effects of a 3-h stressmanagement program for Japanese hospital staffs that included relaxation and assertion training. Twenty-seven hospital staffs (mean age: 29.4 yr) in a stressmanagement group and 28 hospital staffs (mean age: 29.5 yr) in a wait-list group answered evaluation surveys at both pre- and post-intervention. Self-administered questionnaires including items on job stress, coping strategies, and interpersonal behaviors were evaluated. The stressmanagement program was given six different participant groups: 3 groups were the stressmanagement group and 3 groups were the wait-list group. The program increased active coping and decreased dependent behavior scores significantly in the stressmanagement group, while decreasing assertive behavior scores in the wait-list group. A comparison of the education sub-groups showed that the first group had significantly increased assertiveness and decreased dependency scores. The second group had significantly decreased depression-anxiety scores. The data analyzed for men and women separately showed the stressmanagement intervention significantly improved active coping and assertive behavior in men and dependent behavior in women. A brief one-time stressmanagement program can be effective in improving active coping and assertive behaviors as well as reducing dependent behavior in hospital staffs. Sex differences were noteworthy. PMID:23047085
Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, and is considered a significant prognostic factor affecting quality of life, outcome, and survival. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of nutrition by trafficking the metabolism of nutrients, their distribution and appropriate use by the body. Nutritional consequences with the potential to cause nervous system dysfunction occur in liver failure, and many factors contribute to malnutrition in hepatic failure. Among them are inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased protein losses, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, inflammation/infection, and hyponatremia. Patients at risk of malnutrition are relatively difficult to identify since liver disease may interfere with biomarkers of malnutrition. The supplementation of the diet with amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins as well as probiotics in addition to meeting energy and protein requirements may improve nutritional status, liver function, and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver failure.
Bemeur, Chantal; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.
As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents. PMID:22054044
De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan
Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice.
Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.
'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] located near Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertilization rate (0, 37, 74, or 111 kg N ha-1) on the nutritive value of f...
The California Connections Project, a federally funded Maternal and Child Health demonstration project (MCJ # 06R005) conducted a comprehensive needs assessment survey in California (1995–96), to define the current status of preventive services (nutrition, oral and mental health, family support), as well as areas of potential concern, and to gain information regarding provider training needs. Project staff, in collaboration with
This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stressmanagement skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stressmanagement training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stressmanagement training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT.
This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stressmanagement skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stressmanagement training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stressmanagement training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370
Researchers have suggested that dispositional optimism is related to both stress and stress outcomes (E. C. Chang, K. L. Rand, & D. R. Strunk, 2000). However, the nature of this relationship has not fully been explained. The authors contributed to a better understanding of this relationship by evaluating dispositional optimism, stress, overall life satisfaction, and job burnout in a sample
We all encounter various forms of stress every single day. Stress can be caused by family issues, relationships, children and especially work. With the ever-growing demands that are placed on Healthcare Security professionals today, career burnout associated with stress is becoming more and more common. In this article, the author discusses some signs and symptoms, as well as giving some stress reduction exercises that may be able to help your officers reduce their stress. PMID:23513709
Advanced prostate cancer (APC) is associated with disruptions that compromise health related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment often includes androgendeprivation therapy (ADT), which results in a range of side effects (e.g., fatigue, urinary dysfunction) that further impact HRQOL. Despite these challenges, there are limited evaluations of the impact of stress and stressmanagement skills on HRQOL among APC survivors on ADT. This study evaluated relationships among stress, stressmanagement skills, and HRQOL, and it was hypothesized that better stressmanagement skills would relate to greater physical and emotional well-being by mitigating perceived stress levels. Participants (N = 77) were 69.7 years old (SD = 9.8), 18.6 months post-treatment (SD = 17.5), and ethnically diverse (65 % Non-Hispanic White, 13 % Hispanic, 21 % African-American). Measures included the Measure of Current Status for stressmanagement skills, the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress, and the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS SF-36; physical functioning and emotional well-being subscales) for HRQOL. Direct effects and mediation models were evaluated to determine the relationships between perceived stress, stressmanagement skills, and HRQOL domains, controlling for relevant covariates. Stressmanagement skills and perceived stress were significantly associated with physical functioning (? = .24, p < .05 and ? = -.43, p < .01, respectively) and emotional well-being (? = .35, p < .01 and ? = -.64, p < .01, respectively). Regression analyses supported the hypothesis that reduced perceived stress mediated the relationship between stressmanagement skills and both physical functioning and emotional well-being. These results demonstrate that one way stressmanagement skills may impact HRQOL is by lessening ongoing perceptions of stress. PMID:22739661
Penedo, Frank J; Benedict, Catherine; Zhou, Eric S; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce R; Soloway, Mark; Czaja, Sara; Antoni, Michael H
Advances in the nutritional support of hospitalized patients in the early 1970s led to the recognition that tools were needed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients. The observation that malnutrition in patients receiving dialysis was associated with increased morbidity and mortality prompted many expert groups to develop nutritional scoring systems to be applied in these patients. Given the diverse and confusing terminologies that emerged from these publications, the International Society of Renal Nutritional and Metabolism convened an expert panel to recommend a new nomenclature and preferred methods to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The new and inclusive term protein-energy wasting (PEW) refers to a systematically defined condition based on certain criteria and reflects malnutrition and wasting caused not only by inadequate nutrient intake but also by depletion resulting from the inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions that prevail in this population. Serial assessment of nutritional status for detection and management of PEW is recommended using old and new scoring tools, including the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), and PEW definition criteria. These tools, which are reliable methods and predictors of outcomes, are reviewed in this article. PMID:23611546
|Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…
Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.
Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905
Induction, implementation and continuation of an invasive nutrition or fluid administration in patients with advanced, life-limiting illnesses is an often controversial but also very emotionally discussed topic. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge based mainly on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines and is intended as a simple guide for clinical practice. In the early phase of disease the induction of an invasive food and fluid administration may be indicated in order to prevent undernutrition and cachexia, to enhance compliance with anti-tumor treatment, to control some adverse effects of anti-tumor therapy and to improve the quality of life. If oral or enteral feeding is possible this should be preferred. Patients in the final stage of a disease rarely suffer from hunger or thirst. In this phase of the disease other things, such as monitoring of patients and relatives play a much more important role. PMID:22273825
Diabetes and obesity have each become a national health crisis in recent years. The number of people who have diabetes and\\u000a prediabetes continues to grow with a predicted number of 336 million people worldwide with type 2 diabetes by 2030. The prevalence\\u000a of diabetes has risen in parallel with the increased prevalence of obesity. The optimal nutrition therapy for the
The application of fertilizer is a nearly universal practice in the production of commercial crops. The association between levels and availability of macro- and microelements, and changes in disease severity, plant vigour, and yield have long been recognized. As well, the effects of mineral nutrition on pre-harvest toxin contamination in some host\\/pathogen interactions are well-documented (Wilson et al. 1989). Two
Objective Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is greatly increased in women infected with sexually transmitted Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and who are co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Factors associated with promotion of HPV to CIN in these women include degree of immunosuppression and preventable behavioral factors such as tobacco smoking and psychological stress. Interventions such as cognitive behavioral stressmanagement (CBSM) decrease stress and modulate disease activity in HIV-infected men though effects have not been established in HIV-infected women. This study examined the effects of CBSM on life stress and CIN in HIV+ minority women. Methods Participants were 39 HIV+ African American, Caribbean and Hispanic women with a recent history of an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Participants underwent colposcopic examination, psychosocial interview, and peripheral venous blood draw at study entry and 9 months after being randomly assigned to either a 10-week CBSM group intervention (n = 21) or a one-day CBSM workshop (n = 18). Results Women assigned to the 10-week CBSM intervention reported decreased perceived life stress and had significantly lower odds of CIN over a 9-month follow-up, independent of CIN at study entry, HPV type, CD4+CD3+ cell count, HIV viral load, and tobacco smoking. Women free of CIN at follow-up reported decreases in perceived stress over time while those with CIN reported increases in perceived stress over the same period. Conclusion Although preliminary these findings suggest that stressmanagement decreases perceived life stress and may decrease the odds of CIN in women with HIV and HPV.
Antoni, Michael H.; Pereira, Deidre B.; Marion, Ilona; Ennis, Nicole; Peake, Michele; Rose, Rachel; McCalla, Judith; Simon, Trudi; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Lucci, Joseph; Efantis-Potter, Jonell; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo
HIV+women have unique psychosocial stressors, but few interventions have been designed for this population. To address this gap in the literature, we developed a brief, theory-guided, computer-administered, stressmanagement intervention for HIV+ women. To obtain initial evidence of the intervention's efficacy, we recruited 60 HIV+ female participants (70% African American) and randomized them to an immediate or delayed intervention condition. Psychological functioning, perceived stress, coping self-efficacy, and stressmanagement knowledge were assessed at baseline and at a one month follow-up. Compared with the delayed treatment control group, women who received the intervention demonstrated improved stressmanagement knowledge at the follow-up (p<0.01). However, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy did not differ between the immediate and delayed intervention groups (ps>0.05). Computerized psychosocial interventions require continued refinement to meet the needs of HIV+ women. PMID:22117123
Brown, Jennifer L; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Elin, Larry
In this program the measurement of stresses in ceramics using their optical fluorescence is being developed. The technique is based on the phenomena of piezospectroscopy, namely the shift in optical fluorescence of a material produced by a stress. In the course of the program to data we have derived for the first time a general relationship between an observed shift in fluorescence frequency and the state of stress, applied it to the determination of both applied and residual stresses in single crystal and polycrystalline materials, and begun to exploit the technique to the measurement of stresses in a variety of composite materials. These are described in detail in the accompanying technical reports appended here. As part of this investigation we have also found that in ruby (Chromium(3+) doped sapphire) the observed optical fluorescence shift as a function of chromium concentration is a direct measure of the 'image stress'.
|Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…
Job stress has become a pervasive problem in Navy recruiting, affecting personnel at all levels of the organization. While stress has many positive aspects, excessive job stress or an inept response to it is inimical to quality of personal and family life...
|Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…
Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan
It is well known that providing care for a loved one with memory problems puts a person at risk for both mental and physical health problems. In the last several decades, research on chronic stress suggests that the body's physical response to stress becomes severely dysregulated as a result of chronic stress lifestyles such as caregiving. This…
Long, C.; Krisztal, E.; Rabinowitz, Y.; Gillispie, Z.; Oportot, M.; Tse, C.; Singer, L.; Gallagher-Thompson, D.
Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…
|It is well known that providing care for a loved one with memory problems puts a person at risk for both mental and physical health problems. In the last several decades, research on chronic stress suggests that the body's physical response to stress becomes severely dysregulated as a result of chronic stress lifestyles such as caregiving. This…
Long, C.; Krisztal, E.; Rabinowitz, Y.; Gillispie, Z.; Oportot, M.; Tse, C.; Singer, L.; Gallagher-Thompson, D.
The second phase of development of a new high-field dipole technology has been completed. A model dipole employing wind\\/react Nb 3Sn cable and stress-managed block coil geometry was fabricated and will soon be tested at LBNL. The dipole features stress-strain management in its internal windings and metal-filled bladder preload. Pending validation of performance of these new features, the new technology
P. Noyes; R. Blackburn; N. Diaczenko; T. Elliott; W. Henchel; A. Jaisle; A. McInturff; P. McIntyre; A. Sattarov
The concerns with managing mechanical stress distributions and the consequent effects on device performance and material integrity, for advanced TSV based technologies 3D are outlined. A model and simulation based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) type of a flow for managing the mechanical stresses throughout Si die, stack and package design is proposed. The key attributes of the models and simulators required to fuel the proposed flow are summarized. Finally, some of the essential infrastructure and the Supply Chain support items are described.
The effects of a stressmanagement course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent…
|The effects of a stressmanagement course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7…
High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stressmanagement program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…
|Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stressmanagement interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…
McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney
Describes StressManagement Consultation (SMC), short-term group intervention designed to enable social workers in Israel during Persian Gulf War to work through stress reactions and model method workers could use with their own target populations. Presents qualitative feedback from participants and administrators indicating that SMC model was…
|A project was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the stress-management training given to students in the jumpmaster training course at Fort Benning, Georgia. The course, which trains airborne personnel to conduct landings of men and equipment, features relatively stressful training programs during which instructors grade the performance…
Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stressmanagement interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…
McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney
Evaluates a stressmanagement program, "Balancing Out," that seeks to target the needs of the local community. Quantitative results indicate that the sample had significantly higher stress levels then the norm at the beginning of the program and below population norms at program completion. Qualitative responses indicated that respondents had…
|This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…
We have designed a stressmanagement biofeedback mobile service for everyday use, aiding users to reflect on both positive and negative patterns in their behavior. To do so, we embarked on a complex multidisciplinary design journey, learning that: detrimental stress results from complex processes related to e.g. the subjective experience of being able to cope (or not) and can therefore
Pedro Sanches; Kristina Höök; Elsa Kosmack Vaara; Claus Weymann; Markus Bylund; Pedro Ferreira; Nathalie Peira; Marie Sjölinder
|Describes StressManagement Consultation (SMC), short-term group intervention designed to enable social workers in Israel during Persian Gulf War to work through stress reactions and model method workers could use with their own target populations. Presents qualitative feedback from participants and administrators indicating that SMC model was…
|This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…
|Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…
Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)
Background: Nursing is one of the most stressful jobs. The present study aimed to determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioral stressmanagement training program based on PRECEDE model on stress reduction among nurses. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, which was conducted in 2010, 58 female nurses in Hamadan, northwest Iran were enrolled in the study and were divided into two equal groups included 29 nurses from one Hospital and 29 nurses from the other as intervention and control groups respectively. The data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics and nursing stress scale (NSS). In addition, a questionnaire based on PRECEDE model was used in order to assess predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors. The intervention was a training program including five sessions during three weeks in which relaxation and problem-solving training was thought. A pre-test and a post-test were performed 1.5 months apart. The t-test, Mann Whitney and Willxocon statistical tests were used for data analysis at 95% significant level using SPSS 13. Results: The baseline score average of job stress was 113.0 and 109.8 for intervention and control groups respectively (P=0.250). After intervention, score average of job stress decreased to 94.0 in experimental group while that of control group remained relatively unchanged (109.2), (P<0.001). A significant difference was found in PRECEDE model constructs and stressmanagement behaviors in intervention group compared to control group after training interventions (P<0.001). Conclusion: Training programs based on PRECEDE model might be effective on decreasing job stress in nurses. PMID:22911962
Moeini, Babak; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Zahra; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
Type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related so-called "lifestyle" diseases, including obesity, and cardiovascular and chronic renal disease, are very prevalent in Australian Aboriginal people and contribute to their high rates of chronic illness and premature mortality. An Aboriginal-driven, community-based health protection, health promotion and improved disease detection, management and care program was introduced in four remote, discrete communities in the far north of Western Australia (WA) in order to attempt to prevent these disorders through community-based lifestyle modification. More energetic screening for early risk factors is involved as well as early dietary and exercise interventions and medical treatment, when indicated. Distinctive features of this program include its Aboriginal initiatives and perspectives, committed partnerships between the communities, the Unity of First People of Australia of Australia (UFPA) and its carers, the communities' health care providers, external clinical specialists, other external agencies and a locally-operated point-of-care (POC) pathology testing capability that is conducted by local and UFPA personnel. The POC component is quality managed by Flinders University. These features have ensured the viability of the program in three of the communities; the other one decided not to continue with the program despite risks of serious long-term health consequences. The pre-program prevalence of diabetes in screened adults was almost 40% and in adults aged (35 years was almost 60%. After several months of the program's operation, there have been positive changes in knowledge about food, nutrition, exercise and disease and altered attitudes and behaviours related to dietary and exercise patterns. There have also been improvements in weight control and in pathology test results relevant to the risk of subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:16672201
Gracey, Michael; Bridge, Ernie; Martin, David; Jones, Timothy; Spargo, Randolph M; Shephard, Mark; Davis, Elizabeth A
The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University is constructing TAMU3, a model dipole which implements StressManagement within its windings to prevent strain degradation of advanced superconductors under large Lorentz forces. A pier-and-beam support structure is integrated within the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner windings and bypass it around the outer windings. TAMU3 will be the first rendering into practice of StressManagement and may open the way to fields of 16 Tesla and beyond for future hadron colliders, muon colliders, and other applications.
Heat stress is a common and, therefore, an important environmental impact on cells and organisms. While much attention has been paid to severe heat stress, moderate temperature elevations are also important. Here we discuss temperature sensing and how responses to heat stress are not necessarily dependent on denatured proteins. Indeed, it is clear that membrane lipids have a pivotal function. Details of membrane lipid changes and the associated production of signalling metabolites are described and suggestions made as to how the interconnected signalling network could be modified for helpful intervention in disease. PMID:23684645
Balogh, Gábor; Péter, Mária; Glatz, Attila; Gombos, Imre; Török, Zsolt; Horváth, Ibolya; Harwood, John L; Vígh, László
Although surgery is the usual treatment of choice for pancreatic trauma with disruption of the main pancreatic duct, we report herein the case of a patient in whom blunt pancreatic trauma with disruption of the proximal main pancreatic duct was successfully managed by conservative treatment. An 18-year-old women presented with abdominal pain 22 days after being involved in a car accident in which her upper abdomen was thrust against the steering wheel. Computed tomography revealed a pancreatic pseudocyst and a prevertebral pancreatic fracture, and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography showed complete disruption of the main pancreatic duct at the neck. Considering that the patient had been clinically stable since the accident, we elected to continue with conservative management and placed her on total parenteral nutrition. Rapid recovery followed and 6 years later, the patient remains well without any exocrine or endocrine insufficiency despite atrophy of the distal pancreas. This experience indicates that selected cases of main pancreatic duct disruption following blunt trauma may be amenable to conservative management. PMID:7749295
Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritionalmanagement for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3?±?0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions. PMID:22193940
Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L
Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations.
Providing nourishment to the sick is one of the basic tenets of nursing practice. Today, as this fundamental human need is met through the modern technology of parenteral nutrition, nursing's role in providing nutritional care for patients has become more significant. Conscientious nursing management of the patient receiving TPN is essential for preventing complications and for ensuring that therapeutic goals are met. PMID:2498847
Functional vision problems caused by or associated with nearpoint vision stress include: accommodative disorders (insufficiency, ill-sustained, infacility); abnormal heterophorias (esophoria, high exophoria); and vergence disorders. These vision disorders cause problems with acuity, comfort, and performance (efficiency). A combination of lens prescribing, vision therapy, and work/study visual hygiene recommendations can eliminate or greatly reduce nearpoint stress-induced vision problems. PMID:4014426
\\u000a Residual stresses (RS) can significantly affect engineering properties of materials and structural components, notably fatigue\\u000a life, distortion, dimensional stability, corrosion resistance. RS play an exceptionally significant role in fatigue of welded\\u000a elements. The influence of RS on the multi-cycle fatigue life of butt and fillet welds can be compared with the effects of\\u000a stress concentration. Even more significant are the
Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty.
Recent surveys have highlighted sources of stress for UK general practitioners (GPs). Interventions to reduce stress in general practice have been introduced at both an individual and an organizational level, but there is little published evidence of their effectiveness. This paper systematically reviews the literature and reports that the research evidence from stressmanagement programmes employed with other workforces is equivocal. Results so far suggest that relaxation and cognitive behavioural skills are helpful and that group methods are both more cost-effective and more beneficial than individual counselling. It is important for scientific, practical, and financial reasons that stressmanagement programmes be properly evaluated. This paper suggests possible avenues for future interventions to alleviate stress.
|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
Military deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq have been associated with elevated prevalence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among combat veterans. The diagnosis and management of PTSD when a comorbid TBI may also exist presents a challenge to interdisciplinary care teams at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and civilian medical facilities, particularly when the patient reports a history of blast exposure. Treatment recommendations from VA and Department of Defense's (DOD) recently updated VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress are considered from the perspective of simultaneously managing comorbid TBI. PMID:23015586
The late gestation period is often viewed as a rest period between lactations. Management programs for the pregnant dry cow often reflect this view resulting in poor to marginal management and feeding programs being enacted. In contrast, current research suggests the concept of the late gestation period being a critical component to lactation preparation rather than an insignificant rest period
Summary Introduction: Malnutrition is associated with a higher morbidity resulting in an increased need for medical resources and economic expenses. In order to ensure sufficient nutritional care it is mandatory to identify the effect of malnutrition and nutritional care on direct cost and reimbursement. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the economic effect of a nutritional screening
J. Ockenga; M. Freudenreich; R. Zakonsky; K. Norman; M. Pirlich; H. Lochs
Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The effects of these nutritional c...
A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed to compare the frequency of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in seriously burned patients treated with either cimetidine and antacids or enteral nutrition for ulcer prophylaxis. Five hundred and twenty-six seriously burned patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit of the BG Trauma Centre Ludwigshafen during a 4-year period were included
Influences of nutrition status on the photoinhibitory effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR:290 to 320nm)on the specific growth rates (Uobs )and biomass of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined using nutrient-replete batch cultures and nutrient-limited continuous cultures....
Purpose – This paper aims to review the concept of mindfulness and to show how it can be extended from psychology into management. Also, it seeks to introduce a new model of the psyche which incorporates two types of mindfulness (“meta-mindfulness” and “supra-mindfulness”) which can be used by managers to increase their capacity to handle emotional reactivity and to reduce
Animals display protective patterns of behaviour. Adoption of such protective patterns requires the assessment of risks posed by the environment and subsequent avoidance of high-risk locations. We hypothesized that adverse experiences lead to formation of a context-specific memory, thus changing the pattern of exploratory behaviours in response to specific cues associated with this experience. Here we examined exploratory movement patterns and compared approach/avoidance behaviours in rats following a stressful experience in the same versus a different environment. Using an open table exploration task, we compared exploratory movements in rats that were either stressed by restraint in a different environment or stressed in the test environment. The following day rats were allowed to explore the open table environment. Different test situations were provided in which rats were given access to a refuge or a large visual object as placed in the vicinity to the open table. The results indicate that stressed rats avoid the specific location associated with a stressful experience. However, when provided with a refuge in this location the salience of the stressful memory is reduced and the refuge will become a preferred location. Exploratory patterns and avoidance behaviours were correlated with corticosterone levels. Behavioural changes were not related to dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex (layer III). The results provide insights into risk avoidance strategies in rats and suggest that environmental intervention can reverse stress-related changes in behaviour. PMID:23305801
Context Chronic tension-type headaches are characterized by near-daily headaches and often are difficult to manage in primary practice. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies each appear modestly effective, but data are lacking on their separate and combined effects. Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological therapies, singly and combined, for chronic tension-type headaches. Design and Setting Randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted from August 1995 to January 1998 at 2 outpatient sites in Ohio. Participants Two hundred three adults (mean age, 37 years; 76% women) with diagnosis of chronic tension-type headaches (mean, 26 headache d/mo). Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive tricyclic antidepressant (amitriptyline hydrochloride, up to 100 mg/d, or nortriptyline hydrochloride, up to 75 mg/d) medication (n=53), placebo (n=48), stressmanagement (eg, relaxation, cognitive coping) therapy (3 sessions and 2 telephone contacts) plus placebo (n=49), or stressmanagement therapy plus antidepressant medication (n=53). Main Outcome Measures Monthly headache index scores calculated as the mean of pain ratings (0?10 scale) recorded by participants in a daily diary 4 times per day; number of days per month with at least moderate pain (pain rating ?5), analgesic medication use, and Headache Disability Inventory scores, compared by intervention group. Results Tricyclic antidepressant medication and stressmanagement therapy each produced larger reductions in headache activity, analgesic medication use, and headache-related disability than placebo, but antidepressant medication yielded more rapid improvements in headache activity. Combined therapy was more likely to produce clinically significant (?50%) reductions in headache index scores (64% of participants) than antidepressant medication (38% of participants; P=.006), stressmanagement therapy (35%; P=.003), or placebo (29%; P=.001). On other measures the combined therapy and its 2 component therapies produced similar outcomes. Conclusions Our results indicate that antidepressant medication and stressmanagement therapy are each modestly effective in treating chronic tension-type headaches. Combined therapy may improve outcome relative to monotherapy.
Holroyd, Kenneth A.; O'Donnell, Francis J.; Stensland, Michael; Lipchik, Gay L.; Cordingley, Gary E.; Carlson, Bruce W.
LEARNING OUTCOME: To quantify changes in nutritional knowledge in the WIC population when an alternative method of nutrition education was used.Nutrition education is a very important component of WIC program. It is aimed to further the nutritional knowledge of WIC participants resulting in improving general health of the entire family. New methods of nutrition education that involve an active participation
Summary Sacral stress fractures are an unusual but curable cause of low-back pain that should be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in elderly osteoporotic patients. Rarely, they may occur in young women during the last trimester of pregnancy or a few weeks after delivery. Encompassing fatigue and insufficiency fractures, the occurrence of sacral stress fractures appears to be relatively under-reported, because of the general lack of awareness of this condition and the non-specificity of symptoms. Plain radiographs of the pelvis are the first exam performed but they are often inconclusive, whereas MRI and CT scans are the examinations of choice to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness of this condition so that clinicians may consider sacral stress fracture in the differential diagnosis of low-back and pelvic pain, particularly in elderly patients without a history of trauma.
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of stressmanagement training in improving the ability of coping with stress in a large population. METHODS: Five cross-sectional studies using multistage cluster random sampling were performed on adults aged ? 19 years between 2000 to 2005 in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) as intervention cities and Arak, Iran as the control city within the context of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Stressmanagement training was adapted according to age and education levels of the target groups. In a 45-minute home interview, demographic data, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stressmanagement questionnaires were collected. Data was analyzed by t-test, linear regression and general linear model. RESULTS: Trends of both adaptive and maladaptive coping skills and GHQ scores from baseline to the last survey were statistically significant in both intervention and reference areas (P < 0.001). While adaptive coping skills increased significantly, maladaptive coping skills decreased significantly in the intervention areas. Furthermore, stress levels decreased significantly in the intervention compared to the reference area. CONCLUSION: Stressmanagement programs could improve coping strategies at the community level and can be considered in designing behavioral interventions
Objectives. This study tested whether collocation of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics at managed care provider sites improved health care for infants enrolled in Medicaid and WIC. Methods. Weights and immunization rates were studied for the 1997 birth cohort of African American infants enrolled in WIC and Medicaid in Detroit, Mich. Infants using traditional WIC clinics and health services were compared with those enrolled under Medicaid in 2 managed care organizations (MCOs), of whom about half obtained WIC services at MCO provider sites. Results. Compared with other infants, those who used collocated WIC sites either were closer to their age-appropriate weight or had higher immunization rates when recertified by WIC after their first birthday. Specific benefits (weight gain or immunizations) varied according to the priorities at the collocated sites operated by the 2 MCOs. Conclusions. Collocation of WIC clinics at MCO sites can improve health care of low-income infants. However specific procedures for cooperation between WIC staff and other MCO staff are required to achieve this benefit. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:399–403)
Kendal, Alan P.; Peterson, Alwin; Manning, Claudine; Xu, Fujie; Neville, Loretta J.; Hogue, Carol
|An extensive review of the literature and a campus-based study found high levels of stress resulting from parenting, financial, age and health concerns for adult women students enrolled at community colleges. Presents recommendations and suggestions to help: day care, orientation, academic and financial aid advising, peer advisers, healthy…
Johnson, Lorraine G.; Schwartz, Robert A.; Bower, Beverly L.
|Research findings produce a positive argument for the inclusion of relaxation training in the school curriculum. Since today's children face a great deal of stress, they must learn coping techniques. Learning to relax at will is one method of learning to survive, because the relaxation response is incompatible with anxiety; the child learns to…
|The literature on coping with stressful life events and the literature on parental issues related to the birth of a handicapped child suggest that such variables as understanding of the nature, intensity, and duration of parental responses figure prominently in their adjustment to the disability. The development of support programs designed to…
... Healthy Living > Nutrition > Childhood Nutrition Healthy Living Listen Childhood Nutrition Article Body Hey , What’s to Eat? Unless ... loop, it’s likely you’ve heard about the childhood obesity epidemic. Nearly 1 in 3 children in ...
The results are described of a combined nutritional (supplemented diet) and dialytic (once a week hemodialysis) therapy, employed in 17 selected chronic uremics for a mean period of 18.2 months/patient. The clinical findings, blood chemical abnormalities and changes of renal function were examined and compared with those of patients on the standard thrice-a-week dialysis schedule and free diet. The clinical findings were not significantly different in the two groups. The residual renal function of patients on combined therapy declined faster than in patients on conservative treatment, but at a slower rate than in those on thrice-a-week dialysis. The time averages of serum urea, methylguanidine and phosphate concentrations and their postdialytic rebounds were lower in the patients on combined therapy than in those on thrice-a-week dialysis, whereas the time averages of the serum creatinine concentration were higher, and those of serum bicarbonate and serum oxalate were not significantly different in the two groups. It is concluded that this combined therapy is a valid alternative to the conventional thrice-a-week hemodialysis and free diet for selected patients and for periods of time whose duration is conditioned by the rate of decline of the residual renal function. PMID:3683685
Patient care and minimizing complications post gastrostomy have to date received little attention in ALS patients. We compare the complications associated with pigtail and mushroom type percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in this patient group. Patients requiring PRG received either Wills-Oglesby or the skin level Entristar. Retrospective review of the clinical notes was performed capturing demographic data, peristomal infection, tube displacement, tube failure, nutritional status, site of disease onset, and survival. Thirty-five patients (Group 1) had the Wills-Oglesby tube of which 14 (40%) tubes required replacement. The Entristar tube was inserted in 29 patients (Group 2) where 8 (28%) required replacement (NS). The incidence of infection was significantly lower with the Entristar tube, (p<0.001). The mean time to tube removal in Group 2 was 223 days (SD 147; range 71-494 days) due to 'buried bumper syndrome'. We conclude that the Entristar skin level gastrostomy tube is associated with a reduction in peristomal infection, tube failure and blockage compared with the Wills-Oglesby tube. PMID:16183559
Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Turner, Martin R; Shaw, Ashley S; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Chris E; Leigh, P Nigel; Sidhu, Paul S
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587
An hydroponic experiment with a simulated water stress induced by PEG (6000) was conducted in a greenhouse to study the effects\\u000a of nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?), ammonium (NH4\\u000a +) and the mixture of NO3\\u000a ? and NH4\\u000a +, on water stress tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice (Shanyou 63) was grown under non- or simulated water stress condition (10% (w\\/v) PEG, MW6000)
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a 46 kDa glyco- protein that associates with triglyceride-rich and high density lipoproteins. Blood levels of apoA-IV generally correlate with triglyceride levels and are increased in diabetic pa- tients. This study investigated the mechanisms regulating the in vivo expression of apoA-IV in the liver and intestine of mice in response to changes in nutritional status. Fast-
Elyhisha A. Hanniman; Gilles Lambert; Yusuke Inoue; Frank J. Gonzalez; Christopher J. Sinal
This trial was carried out to study the nutritional and productive behavior generated by modifications in the salt concentration in the nutrient solution for Cordyline fruticosa var. Red Edge plants. The anions studied were chloride (Cl), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Four treatments were tested: T1 [control, 1.5 dS m, 14.3 mmol L sodium chloride (NaCl)], T2 (2.5 dS m,
The aim of this trial was to study the nutritional behavior generated by modifications in the salt concentration in the nutrient solution used for the fertigation of Cordyline fruticosa var. Red Edge plants. Four treatments were tested: T1 [control, 1.5 dS m, 14.3 mmol L sodium chloride (NaCl)]; T2 (2.5 dS m, 22.2 mmol L NaCl); T3 (3.5 dS m,
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OBJECTIVE--To establish whether stressmanagement had a larger effect than a control treatment on resting blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure, and left ventricular mass. DESIGN--A 12 week baseline period of habituation to measurement of blood pressure was followed by randomisation to either stressmanagement or mild exercise for six months and follow up six months later. SETTING--General practice, district general hospital, and medical school. PATIENTS--Of the 184 patients aged under 60 with mild primary hypertension who entered the baseline habituation period, 88 were excluded because they failed to meet the entry criteria or they withdrew from the study. The remaining 46 men and 50 women underwent treatment. INTERVENTIONS--10 clinical sessions and daily practice at home of either stressmanagement based on relaxation or non-aerobic stretching exercises. Mildly stressful 15 minute interviews before and after treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diastolic and systolic blood pressure in the clinic and during 12 hours of ambulatory recording, and left ventricular mass measured by echocardiography. RESULTS--The patients' blood pressure fell during habituation (systolic pressure from 152 mmHg to 140 mmHg, diastolic pressure from 98 to 93 mm Hg), but neither resting nor ambulatory blood pressure was changed by the treatments. Left ventricular mass was also unchanged. Blood pressure rose during the stressful interview, but this rise was reduced by stressmanagement (systolic pressure rose by 7.4 mmHg before treatment and by 3.7 mmHg after treatment). CONCLUSION--Stressmanagement of a type advocated for treating mild primary hypertension is ineffective in lowering blood pressure in patients who are well habituated to measuring blood pressure.
Johnston, D W; Gold, A; Kentish, J; Smith, D; Vallance, P; Shah, D; Leach, G; Robinson, B
Background and Purpose Chronic neck pain is prevalent in the workplace. Research suggests that psychosocial stress may contribute to the development of neck pain by causing excessive or prolonged muscle activity in some individuals. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rationale, development, and implementation of stressmanagement as an adjunct to standard physical therapist management of chronic neck pain in a female office worker who responded to psychosocial stress with elevated muscle activity prior to treatment. Case Description A 44-year-old female office employee with an 8-year history of chronic neck pain participated in this case report. The patient was selected from a group of research participants who demonstrated elevated electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle in response to simulated occupational stressors. The multidisciplinary intervention consisted of 8 physical therapy sessions, supplemented by 8 stressmanagement sessions that included EMG biofeedback and psychotherapy to facilitate muscle relaxation. Outcomes Neck disability decreased by 50%, trait anxiety decreased by 21%, and the duration of trapezius muscle rest in the workplace increased by 56% immediately after the 8-week intervention. These improvements were maintained 6 months after treatment, and the patient reported a complete absence of neck disability at the 2-year follow-up assessment. Discussion A sustained reduction in neck disability was observed for a patient with chronic neck pain after participating in a multidisciplinary intervention that combined physical therapy and stressmanagement approaches to facilitate muscle relaxation in the workplace. Future clinical trials are needed to assess whether stressmanagement is a useful adjunct therapy for patients with chronic neck pain who show elevated muscle activity in response to psychosocial stress.
Occupational stress is a pervasive problem among blue-collar workers, and women employees are especially vulnerable, yet this\\u000a population is rarely addressed. The study concerns a stressmanagement training program developed for female production workers\\u000a with little formal education, based on the cognitive approach of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Training (REBT). Several strategies\\u000a and teaching aids suitable for such a population are suggested. Twenty-seven
Purpose: This study was conducted to provide a statistical analysis of previously reported tarsal navicular stress fracture studies regarding the outcomes and effectiveness of conservative and surgical management.Study Design: Systematic review.Methods: A systematic review of the published literature was conducted utilizing MEDLINE through Ovid, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost. Reports of studies that provided the type of tarsal navicular stress fracture
Joseph S. Torg; James Moyer; John P. Gaughan; Barry P. Boden
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated. PMID:24051941
Introduction—A conservative method of treating four delayed union stress fractures of the anterior mid-tibia is described, with an illustrative case history. Methods—Once diagnosed each of the patients was treated in a pneumatic lower leg brace with modified rest. The mean (range) age of the patients was 28 (24–32) years and all were involved in professional or amateur sports. The mean (range) duration of symptoms before diagnosis and definitive treatment of the four fractures was 9 (3–14) months. Results—Use of this technique avoided the need for surgery in this group of patients and allowed return to unrestricted activity an average of 12 months from presentation. Conclusion—The treatment is cost effective and avoids the often uncertain results and morbidity associated with surgery for these difficult stress fractures. Key Words: overuse injury; leg; tibial; imaging; treatment; pneumatic brace
Stressful life events can increase the risk for developing a variety of physical disorders and emotional problems. A biopsychosocial\\u000a approach can help mental health professions to better understand and more effectively treat disorders that are related to\\u000a severe negative life events. Biological approaches focus on suppressing emotional reactions, usually through a reliance on\\u000a psychopharmacological interventions. Psychological approaches usually focus on
Premature culling of sows, primarily due to reproductive failure and lameness, remains a major constraint to capturing the potential lifetime productivity of replacement gilts. On many farms, a lifetime productivity of between 30 and 40 piglets per sow is the norm and only a few sows will achieve the potential of 60 or more. Current feeding and management recommendations for
A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...
Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness.
Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and "weekend warrior" athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of "shin splints," one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. "Active" rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573
The focus of the MARC Environmental Stress Laboratory has been on effects of production facility management and the thermal environment on animal well-being, genetic potential, and nutrition factors. Effects of heat stress on beef cattle include adaptations of body temperature, respiration rate, he...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an elaborate cellular organelle essential for cell function and survival. Conditions that interfere with ER function lead to the accumulation and aggregation of unfolded proteins which are detected by ER transmembrane receptors that initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal ER function. If the ER stress is prolonged, or the adaptive response fails, apoptotic cell death ensues. Many studies have focused on how this failure initiates apoptosis, particularly because ER stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In this review we aim to shed light on the proteins that are not core components of the UPR signaling pathway but which can influence the course of the ER stress response by regulating the switch from the adaptive phase to apoptosis. PMID:22387231
Gorman, Adrienne M; Healy, Sandra J M; Jäger, Richard; Samali, Afshin
Although exercise may be used by some to decrease distress, little is known about how it may contribute to stressmanagement (SM) among patients receiving chemotherapy. We evaluated whether exercise separately or in combination with SM training is effective at increasing perceived ability to managestress. Patients receiving chemotherapy (N = 391) were randomized to receive usual care only (UCO), SM, exercise (EX), or stressmanagement and exercise (SMEX). They completed the Measure of Current Status prior to receiving chemotherapy and 12 weeks after the first infusion. We hypothesized that participants randomized to an intervention condition would report improvements in relaxation, awareness of tension, getting needs met and coping confidence compared with those receiving UCO. Results indicated significant group-by-time interactions for the following: relaxation (UCO versus SM, p = 0.008), awareness of tension (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.029 and UCO versus EX, p < 0.001), getting needs met (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.020) and Measure of Current Status total score (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.007 and UCO versus EX, p = 0.016). There were no group-by-time interactions for coping confidence (p-values >0.05). This study provides support for including an exercise component in SM interventions for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00740038). PMID:22972771
Phillips, Kristin M; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Tanvetyanon, Tawee; Roberts, William S; Jacobsen, Paul B
Objective To assess the the effect of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) provided by dietitians on medical and clinical outcomes for adults with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and to compare MNT administered according to practice guidelines nutrition care (PGC) to MNT administered with basic nutrition care (BC).Design A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial of two levels of MNT on metabolic control
MARION J FRANZ; ARLENE MONK; BARBARA BARRY; KATHRYN McCLAIN; TANYA WEAVER; NANCY COOPER; PAUL UPHAM; RICHARD BERGENSTAL; ROGER S MAZZE
Thermo-mechanical stresses are introduced in three dimensional integration structures employing TSVs during fabrication process. Stress analysis is required in order to manage the stress related performance and reliability issues in 3D TSV stacks. The TSV parasitic parameters need to be examined at the same time for system design optimization. In this paper, TCAD methodologies for process simulation, stress and parasitic modeling are demonstrated. The mechanical stress impact on the device performance and structural reliability for various materials and geometries is examined. The TSV parasitic parameters and their effects on performance are also analyzed. The correlation between these parameters is determined to achieve the design trade-offs necessary for optimal 3D integration.
Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind–body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stressmanagement model with the potential to positively influence the stress–disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease.
Robins, Jo Lynne W.; McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R.K.; Walter, Jeanne M.; McDade, Elizabeth
Recent advances in systems biology, omics, and computational studies allow us to carry out data mining for improving biofuel production bioprocesses. Of particular interest are bioprocesses that center on microbial capabilities to biotransform both the hexose and pentose fractions present in crop residues. This called for a systematic exploration of the components of the media to obtain higher-density cultures and more-productive fermentation operations than are currently found. By using a meta-analysis approach of the transcriptional responses to butanol stress, we identified the nutritional requirements of solvent-tolerant strain Clostridium beijerinckii SA-1 (ATCC 35702). The nutritional requirements identified were later validated using the chemostat pulse-and-shift technique. C. beijerinckii SA-1 was cultivated in a two-stage single-feed-stream continuous production system to test the proposed validated medium formulation, and the coutilization of D-glucose and D-xylose was evaluated by taking advantage of the well-known ability of solventogenic clostridia to utilize a large variety of carbon sources such as mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides containing pentose and hexose sugars. Our results indicated that C. beijerinckii SA-1 was able to coferment hexose/pentose sugar mixtures in the absence of a glucose repression effect. In addition, our analysis suggests that the solvent and acid resistance mechanisms found in this strain are differentially regulated compared to strain NRRL B-527 and are outlined as the basis of the analysis toward optimizing butanol production. PMID:21602379
Heluane, Humberto; Evans, Matthew R; Dagher, Sue F; Bruno-Bárcena, José M
Recent advances in systems biology, omics, and computational studies allow us to carry out data mining for improving biofuel production bioprocesses. Of particular interest are bioprocesses that center on microbial capabilities to biotransform both the hexose and pentose fractions present in crop residues. This called for a systematic exploration of the components of the media to obtain higher-density cultures and more-productive fermentation operations than are currently found. By using a meta-analysis approach of the transcriptional responses to butanol stress, we identified the nutritional requirements of solvent-tolerant strain Clostridium beijerinckii SA-1 (ATCC 35702). The nutritional requirements identified were later validated using the chemostat pulse-and-shift technique. C. beijerinckii SA-1 was cultivated in a two-stage single-feed-stream continuous production system to test the proposed validated medium formulation, and the coutilization of d-glucose and d-xylose was evaluated by taking advantage of the well-known ability of solventogenic clostridia to utilize a large variety of carbon sources such as mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides containing pentose and hexose sugars. Our results indicated that C. beijerinckii SA-1 was able to coferment hexose/pentose sugar mixtures in the absence of a glucose repression effect. In addition, our analysis suggests that the solvent and acid resistance mechanisms found in this strain are differentially regulated compared to strain NRRL B-527 and are outlined as the basis of the analysis toward optimizing butanol production.
Heluane, Humberto; Evans, Matthew R.; Dagher, Sue F.; Bruno-Barcena, Jose M.
This is a longitudinal randomized controlled study investigating the efficacy of a communication and stressmanagement skills training programme on medical residents' self-efficacy to communicate and to managestress in interviews, stress to communicate in interviews, and burnout. Ninety-six medical residents participated. Results showed a statistically significant increase in self-efficacy and decrease in stress to communicate. No changes were noted in burnout. Results of this training may encourage its compulsory organization in the medical curriculum. Further research is required to examine whether a programme associating person-directed and organization-directed interventions could have an impact on residents' burnout. PMID:20453053
Bragard, Isabelle; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Razavi, Darius
... learn to manage your stress through relaxation or stressmanagement techniques. (Be careful not to confuse stress with ... relaxation can help. If your stress is nonstop, stressmanagement classes can also help. Look for them at ...
Background Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter® based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn®) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q10 (Q-ter®), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn® supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn® supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. Conclusions/Significance These data imply that Eufortyn® is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn® supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.
Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y.; Vorobyeva, Darya A.; Carter, Christy S.; Anton, Stephen D.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010). PMID:22452098
Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella
Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionalmanagement on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS. PMID:23700364
Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J
Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionalmanagement on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS.
Moisa, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B.; Loor, Juan J.
The OASIS Registry started annual collection of longitudinal data on patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in 1984. This report describes outcome profiles on 1594 HPN patients in seven disease categories. Analysis showed clinical outcome was principally a reflection of the underlying diagnosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, ischemic bowel disease, motility disorders, radiation enteritis, and congenital bowel dysfunction all had a fairly long-term clinical outcome, whereas those with active cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a short-term outcome. The long-term group had a 3-year survival rate of 65 to 80%, they averaged 2.6 complications requiring hospitalization per year, and 49% experienced complete rehabilitation. The short-term group had a mean survival of 6 months; they averaged 4.6 complications per year and about 15% experienced complete rehabilitation. The registry data also indicated HPN was used for 19,700 patients in 1987 with therapy growth averaging about 8% per year. This growth was chiefly from new cancer patients. The number of new patients with long-term disorders in whom HPN was initiated appeared rather constant. The authors conclude that these clinical outcome assessments justify HPN for long-term patients, but the utility and appropriateness of HPN for the cancer and AIDS patients remains uncertain and requires further study. Medical, social, and fiscal aspects of HPN management in long-term and short-term patients appear to involve quite separate considerations.
Howard, L.; Heaphey, L.; Fleming, C.R.; Lininger, L.; Steiger, E. (Division of Clinical Nutrition, Albany Medical Center, New York (United States))
To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693
Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N
Objectives To estimate the rates of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery from 2000-2009 by type of procedure, year, age, and region of the country. Methods We utilized data between 2000 and 2009 from a database containing healthcare claims data from employer-based plans in the United States. We analyzed data for all women aged 18-64 years, identifying all SUI procedures in this population. Rates per 100,000 person-years and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated each year by procedure type, age and region. Results The study population included 32.9 million women aged 18-64 years observed for 74,007,937 person-years between 2000 and 2009. During that time, there were 182,110 SUI procedures for a rate of 246.1 per 1100,000 person-years (95%CI: 239.7, 252.6). The most common SUI surgery was sling (198.3 per 1100,000 person-years, 95%CI: 192.8, 203.9) followed by Burch (25.9 per 100,000 person-years, 95%CI 24.8, 27.2). There was a dramatic increase in slings with a corresponding decrease in Burch procedures from 2000-2009. Other SUI surgeries had lower rates. Although this trend was evident across all regions, the Northeast had the lowest rate of SUI surgery, while rates in the West, Midwest and South were 1.44, 1.76, and 2.09 times higher, respectively. Conclusions In a dramatic shift over the last decade, slings have become the dominant procedure for stress urinary incontinence among women aged 18-64 years. Although this trend was seen across the U.S., considerable variability exists in the SUI surgery rates by region.
Funk, Michele Jonsson; Levin, Pamela J.; Wu, Jennifer M.
In practice the secondary prevention of work-related upper extremity (WRUE) symptoms generally targets biomechanical risk factors. Psychosocial risk factors have also been shown to play an important role in the development of WRUE symptom severity and future disability. The addition of a stressmanagement component to biomechanically focused interventions may result in greater improvements in WRUE symptoms and functional limitations
Michael Feuerstein; Rena A. Nicholas; Grant D. Huang; Lennart Dimberg; Danielle Ali; Heather Rogers
|Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stressmanagement in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…
Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.
The range of effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life among women with breast cancer remains uncertain. Furthermore, it is unclear which components of multimodal interventions account for such effects. To address these issues, the authors tested a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stressmanagement intervention among 199 women…
Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Kazi, Aisha; Wimberly, Sarah R.; Sifre, Tammy; Urcuyo, Kenya R.; Phillips, Kristin; Gluck, Stefan; Carver, Charles S.
Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stressmanagement in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…
Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.
|The need for school-appropriate applications of critical incident stressmanagement (CISM) is noted in the literature on school crisis response. This paper presents preliminary data suggesting a School Crisis Response Team's (SCRT) usage and team needs. The SCRT was dispatched for a variety of critical incidents. Self-dispatch, followed by…
A Yoga for StressManagement Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…
The Critical Incident StressManagement (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…
Introduction: This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stressmanagement or coping skills in school children. Methods: Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) between baseline…
|This wellness guide for today's busy principals, school leaders, supervisors, and administrators has been custom crafted by the authors to address the stresses of managing workplace environments, juggling time and competing priorities, learning to delegate, balancing personal and professional agendas, and creating win-win situations. Special…
|The use of biofeedback in the self management of stress in school children is discussed. Educational research on biofeedback suggests that biofeedback training can help children to learn relaxation skills, reduce school-related anxiety, and gain a measure of self-discipline and confidence. (PHR)|
The study provides empirical evidence for the management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentage and chi-square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use…
The range of effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life among women with breast cancer remains uncertain. Furthermore, it is unclear which components of multimodal interventions account for such effects. To address these issues, the authors tested a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stressmanagement intervention among 199 women newly treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer, following them for 1 year after
Michael H. Antoni; Suzanne C. Lechner; Aisha Kazi; Sarah R. Wimberly; Tammy Sifre; Kristin Phillips; Stefan Glück; Charles S. Carver
We present anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) and provide a review of current evidence regarding the theory. ABDT is an application of terror management theory to explain diverse reactions to traumatic events and the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It posits that PTSD results from a disruption in one's anxiety-buffering mechanisms, which normally provide protection against anxiety
One specific type of stressmanagement training deve- loped to be used as a concurrent treatment for systemic hypertension, has been the object of studies that attempt to evaluate its efficacy, especially in regard to changes in life style, so fundamental for treatment adherence of chronic illnesses, such as hypertension. It was found that cardiovascular reactivity of borderline hypertensives, during
|The range of effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life among women with breast cancer remains uncertain. Furthermore, it is unclear which components of multimodal interventions account for such effects. To address these issues, the authors tested a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stressmanagement intervention among 199 women…
Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Kazi, Aisha; Wimberly, Sarah R.; Sifre, Tammy; Urcuyo, Kenya R.; Phillips, Kristin; Gluck, Stefan; Carver, Charles S.
Isolated systolic hypertension is common in the elderly, but decreasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) with- out lowering diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Although stressmanagement train- ing, in particular eliciting the relaxation response, reduces essential hypertension its efficacy in treating isolated systolic hypertension has not been evaluated. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial comparing 8 weeks of
Jeffery A. Dusek; Patricia L. Hibberd; Beverly Buczynski; Bei-Hung Chang; Kathryn C. Dusek; Jennifer M. Johnston; Ann L. Wohlhueter; Herbert Benson; Randall M. Zusman
Two hundred and nine pupils were randomly allocated to either a cognitive behaviourally based stressmanagement intervention (SMI) group, or a non-intervention control group. Mood and motivation measures were administered pre and post intervention. Standardized examinations were taken 8–10 weeks later. As hypothesized, results indicated that an increase in the functionality of pupils’ cognitions served as the mechanism by which
t The phenomenon of emotional intelligence is a growing topic for behavioural investigation as researchers strive to understand its influence on various social interactions. Recent research indicates that emotions play an integral par in Managingstress and Anxiety at workplace. A review of the literature highlights the need for examination of the relationship of emotional intelligence as an overarching concept
The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stressmanagement for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stressmanagement programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than
The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stressmanagement for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stressmanagement programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than
Although all professions are susceptible to work-related stress, the nursing profession has been identified as particularly stressful; indeed, oncology nursing is often described as being among the most stressful specialty areas. The current study tested the short-term effects of an innovative self-help stressmanagement training for oncology nurses supported by mobile tools. The sample included 30 female oncology nurses with permanent status employed in six oncology hospitals in Milan, Italy. The stress inoculation training (SIT) methodology served as the basis of the training, with the innovative challenge being the use of mobile phones to support the stressmanagement experience. To test the efficacy of the protocol, the study used a between-subjects design, comparing the experimental condition (SIT through mobile phones) with a control group (neutral video through mobile phones). The findings indicated psychological improvement of the experimental group in terms of anxiety state, anxiety trait reduction, and coping skills acquisition. This paper discusses implications for the implementation of this protocol in several contexts. PMID:23937091
Navicular stress injuries in athletes can be devastating. Clinical findings are frequently nonspecific until significant progression of the abnormality has occurred. The use of diagnostic imaging techniques early in the discovery period increases the likelihood of establishing an immediate diagnosis and avoids frank fracture of the navicular bone. Delayed diagnosis of navicular stress injuries in athletes can cause dire consequences. The physician must be aware of the injury in establishing a high index of clinical suspicion. The timing and sequencing of diagnostic imaging studies is essential in establishing a diagnosis to manage the patient and minimize time away from competition. This case study examines the history and management of an elite high school track athlete who sustained a navicular stress injury. The timing and use of diagnostic imaging studies is reviewed. PMID:21957277
Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527
ObjectiveThe present pilot study was designed to test the effects of a 12-week group-based cognitive behavioral stressmanagement (CBSM) intervention on stress, quality of life, and symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We hypothesized that participants randomized to CBSM would report improvements in perceived stress, mood, quality of life, and CFS symptomatology from pre- to postintervention compared to those receiving
Corina Lopez; Michael Antoni; Frank Penedo; Donna Weiss; Stacy Cruess; Mary-Catherine Segotas; Lynn Helder; Scott Siegel; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher
Difficult primary knees are fairly common in Asian countries, and tibial stress fractures in deformed osteoarthritic knees add to the challenge. Management options are ill-defined because of limited experience; for 5 years, 8 osteoarthritic knees with extra-articular tibial stress fractures ranging from unicortical stress lesions to frankly mobile fractures were managed by total knee arthroplasty. At mean 42.25 months follow-up,
Objectives Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stressmanagement skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stressmanagement skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. Methods In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stressmanagement skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Results Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p = .019) and emotional distress (p < .001), greater diurnal cortisol slope (p = .023) and lower IL-2 levels (p = .043). PSMS and emotional distress related to fatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. Discussion CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stressmanagement skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stressmanagement interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction.
Lattie, Emily G.; Antoni, Michael H.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy
Many people in today's age feel overworked, overwhelmed, and worn out. Emergency services personnel are not exempt from this distress. The general life stress in society, coupled with the specific stress associated with emergency responding, leave many emergency services personnel in search of better strategies to cope more effectively. This paper begins to address this need by noting some of the major sources of stress in today's age for enhanced understanding of what is occurring and then reviewing the findings from four major studies of adaptive problem-solvers. It closes with six guidelines for managingstress that arise from these four studies and which have proven effective in an age of time scarcity. PMID:15635901
A behavioral assessment interview procedure was used to identify sources of occupational stress, responses and effectiveness of these responses to stress. Seventy-three middle-level managers in three petrochemical companies in the Texas gulf area were interviewed. Six categories of stress were used to categorize the sources of stress obtained during the interview. The frequencies in sources of stress reported by managers were not significantly different among areas of the plants; however, there were significant differences among companies. The most frequent source of stress for all companies is factors intrinsic to the job. The responses the managers made to sources of stress were categorized. Some of the types of responses were: making new policy, seeking information, and not addressing the problem. Each manager rated the effectiveness of his response in terms of its ability to reduce stress. There is an advantage when subjects list their responses to stress and then rate the effectiveness of each response. In research of this type subjects do not consciously select their best response, but give their most frequent response and then rate its effectiveness. The results of this study indicate that the most frequent response to a source of stress and the most effective response in reducing stress are not always the same. The most frequent response is direct/delayed problem resolution, while the most effective response in reducing stress is prevention. There is a significant difference among the effectiveness ratings of middle-level managers' responses to stress. Not addressing the problem proved to be the least effective response in reducing middle-level managers' stress.
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or Type II diabetes, is characterized by two primary defects: insulin resistance and insulin secretion. The two major goals of management of NIDDM are to achieve near normal metabolic control and to prevent/delay the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Nutrition, exercise, and, if necessary, medication are the three primary treatment modalities used in NIDDM. Treatment regimens need to be individualized and developed with consideration for diabetes management goals and quality-of-life issues. Lean individuals with NIDDM should be encouraged to maintain their body weight and modify food composition and eating pattern to minimize glucose excursions. The primary treatment goal for an obese individual with NIDDM is weight loss. The process of teaching nutrition and meal planning involves developing a cooperative alliance, gathering information, setting realistic goals, intervention, and maintaining change. Nutrition intervention involves providing information in stages, beginning with "survival skill" information and progressing to in-depth information. The dietitian's responsibility is to promote continuity of learning by introducing new ideas and concepts and altering the learning environment. Dietitians can expand their role in the 1990s to that of a diabetes educator taking a leadership role to ensure that the individual with NIDDM receives comprehensive and individualized care. PMID:1991934
Beebe, C A; Pastors, J G; Powers, M A; Wylie-Rosett, J
A study was conducted to clarify the quantitative relationship between the alteration of protein metabolism and the severity of surgical stress to further understand the mechanisms of body nitrogen losses in surgical trauma. Twenty-one patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer (group E), and 22 undergoing gastrectomy or colorectal operations for gastric or colorectal cancer (Group GC) were studied. All patients
It has been suggested that alcohol-induced liver damage is dependent on development of oxidative stress resulting from ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1 to the hydroxyethyl radical (HER). In the current study we examined the effects of treatment with the dietary antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and ...
The nutrition dose truly absorbed by a patient is crucial information in the management or the investigation of nutrition during critical illness. In the present issue of Critical Care, assessment of nutritional losses in stools was studied. These losses together with enteral nutrition lost in gastric fluids and enteral nutrition prescribed but never infused make up the difference between the dose supposedly given to a patient and the amount effectively taken up. Additionally, the optimal dosing and timing of nutrition during critical illness are still debated. When enteral nutrition is insufficient, the options are limited.
Introduction: Increasing numbers of elderly individuals are now participating in marathons. With increased participation in running, there has been an increase in the diagnosis of stress fractures in the elderly population. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk due to osteoporosis. Discussion: There are numerous risk factors for stress fractures in the literature that need to be addressed to reduce the risk of injury and recurrence in postmenopausal women. Diagnostic tests include plain radiograph, ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and isotope bone scans; however, magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard. Treatment is based on risk stratification, with high-risk fractures managed aggressively with either non-weightbearing or surgical intervention. Although exercise is prescribed as a well-recognized treatment modality of poor bone density, balance is essential to avoid precipitating stress fractures. Conclusion: Optimal exercise programs should balance the beneficial effect of increasing bone mineral density through exercise with the detrimental effect of stress fractures. A useful algorithm is presented in this article to guide the clinician in the diagnosis and management of appropriate investigations and management of such injuries. This review article describes the pathophysiology and provides a review of the literature to determine the latest diagnostic and treatment strategies for this unique population. PMID:23528619
BACKGROUND: In Western societies, cardiovascular (CV) disease is the primary cause of mortality, and high blood pressure (BP) is the main reversible factor leading to CV disease. Dietary habits and psychosocial stress contribute to the establishment of hypertension, while its role in the control of high BP is currently examined. In this study, we examined the effect and feasibility of a combined intervention of dietary education and stressmanagement on the control of hypertension. Methodology A randomized, controlled pilot study was designed to evaluate the effect of combined education on stressmanagement techniques and dietary habits (Mediterranean diet principle) on office BP after eight weeks. RESULTS: Of the 45 randomized subjects, 36 were included in the final analysis (control group = 20 (age: 67 ± 12 years, 31.8%, males) and intervention group = 16 (age: 62 ± 12 years, 47%, males)). CV disease risk factors (except smoking), BP, dietary habits, perceived stress and physical activity (all assessed with validated questionnaires) were similar between the two groups at baseline. After eight weeks, office BP (systolic and diastolic) and perceived stress were significantly reduced, whereas the adherence in Mediterranean diet principle was significantly increased, but only in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: A combined intervention of stressmanagement techniques and Mediterranean diet education seems to be beneficial for BP reduction. Such interventions could possibly serve as a complementary treatment along with drug therapy or in the early treatment of high normal BP. A call to action for designing epidemiological studies and evaluating the efficacy of such non-pharmacological treatment strategies is therefore warranted. PMID:23425517
Katsarou, Alexia L; Vryonis, Marios M; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Achimastos, Apostolos; Papadogiannis, Dimitrios; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina
Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine metabolism, requires lifelong nutritionmanagement with a low-phenylalanine diet, which includes a phenylalanine-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual's protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents, and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet because it is naturally low in phenylalanine. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein use and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phenylalanine dietary protein for people with PKU. PMID:22818728
Nutritional depletion has been demonstrated to be a major determinant of the development of post-operative complications. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at risk of nutritional depletion from inadequate nutritional intake, surgical stress and the subsequent increase in metabolic rate. Fears of postoperative ileus and the integrity of the newly constructed anastomosis have led to treatment typically entailing starvation with administration of
Background Physician distress is common and related to numerous factors involving physicians’ personal and professional lives. The present\\u000a study was designed to assess the effect of a StressManagement and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for increasing resiliency\\u000a and quality of life, and decreasing stress and anxiety among Department of Medicine (DOM) physicians at a tertiary care medical\\u000a center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants Forty DOM physicians
Amit Sood; Kavita Prasad; Darrell Schroeder; Prathibha Varkey
Psychological Stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Following this view, that underlines the role of the situated experience of the patient in experiencing a stressor, the European Union funded Interstress project (http://www.interstress.eu) is exploring the possible use of the virtual simulation technology offered by SecondLife (http://www.secondlife.com) to administer a stressmanagement experiential training. The structure of the environment and the contents of the course are described and discussed. PMID:22357020
Combat-exposed troops and their family members are at risk for stress reactions and related disorders. Multimodal biopsychosocial training programs incorporating complementary and alternative self-management techniques have the potential to reduce stress-related symptoms and dysfunction. Such training can preempt or attenuate the posttraumatic stress response and may be effectively incorporated into the training cycle for deploying and redeploying troops and their families. A large systematic review was conducted to survey the literature on multimodal training programs for the self-management of emotional stress. This report is an overview of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in this systematic review. Select programs such as mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive Behavioral StressManagement, Autogenic Training, Relaxation Response Training, and other meditation and mind-body skills practices are highlighted, and the feasibility of their implementation within military settings is addressed.
Clausen, Shawn S.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Walter, Joan A. G.
Background Psychological adjustment and coping are central to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management. To improve HIV-infected patients’ ability to cope with stress, a variety of stressmanagement interventions have been designed and evaluated. Purpose This paper provides a review and critique of the stressmanagement literature, including a: (1) synthesis of core components of interventions for HIV-infected people, (2) summary of stress, coping, psychological, and health outcomes, and (3) methodological critique and guidance for future research. Methods We reviewed 21 stressmanagement interventions designed for HIV-infected individuals that included both cognitive and behavioral skills training. Results Most studies noted positive changes in perceived stress, depression, anxiety, global psychological functioning, social support, and quality of life. However, results were mixed for coping and health status outcomes, and a majority of studies employed only brief follow-up periods, focused on HIV-infected MSM, and did not address HIV-specific stressors. Conclusions Stressmanagement interventions for HIV-infected persons are a promising approach to facilitate positive adjustment. However, this literature is limited by measurement problems, research design features, a narrow focus on HIV-infected men who have sex with men, and feasibility concerns for intervention dissemination. Future stressmanagement interventions should address these limitations and the unique psychosocial needs of HIV-infected patients using briefer, more cost-effective formats.
The bacterial stringent response is a pleiotrophic physiological response that is evoked when bacteria are subjected to nutrient stress and is mediated through the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated guanine nucleotides ((p)ppGpp) which are synthesized by the combined action of the relA and spoT gene products. The relA and spoT genes were cloned from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain MS11 and various insertional and
Scott D. Fisher; Andrew D. Reger; Atalie Baum; Stuart A. Hill
Adequate regulation of mineral nutrients plays a fundamental role in sustaining crop productivity and quality under salt stress. We investigated the ameliorative role of potassium (K as K2SO4) in overcoming the detrimental effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) on sugarcane genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Four levels of NaCl (0, 100, 130 and 160 mM) were imposed in triplicate on plants grown
Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Afzal; Rashid Ahmad; Muhammad A. Maqsood; Sher M. Shahzad; Mukkram A. Tahir; Naeem Akhtar; Ahsan Aziz
Adequate regulation of mineral nutrients plays a fundamental role in sustaining crop productivity and quality under salt stress. We investigated the ameliorative role of potassium (K as K2SO4) in overcoming the detrimental effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) on sugarcane genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Four levels of NaCl (0, 100, 130 and 160 mM) were imposed in triplicate on plants grown
Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Afzal; Rashid Ahmad; Muhammad A. Maqsood; Sher M. Shahzad; Mukkram A. Tahir; Naeem Akhtar; Ahsan Aziz
The expression pattern of any pair of genes may be negatively correlated, positively correlated, or not correlated at all in response to different stresses and even different progression stages of the stress. This makes it difficult to identify such relationships by classical statistical tools such as the Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, dedicated bioinformatics approaches that are able to identify groups of cues in which there is a positive or negative expression correlation between pairs or groups of genes are called for. We herein introduce and discuss a bioinformatics approach, termed Gene Coordination, that is devoted to the identification of specific or multiple cues in which there is a positive or negative coordination between pairs of genes and can further incorporate additional coordinated genes to form large coordinated gene networks. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by providing a case study in which we were able to discover distinct expression behavior of the energy-associated gene network in response to distinct biotic and abiotic stresses. This bioinformatics approach is suitable to a broad range of studies that compare treatments versus controls, such as effects of various cues, or expression changes between a mutant and the control wild-type genotype.
Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.
This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been reported among OC users, and requirements of thiamine and riboflavin may be increased. In cases where the therapy is justified, the nutritional consequences can often be justified. However, every effort should be made to identify nutritional side effects by proper assessment procedures and to manage them by oral or parenteral supplementation where feasible. PMID:6764730
Sanitation being an important component of chemical-free management of stored-products pests, the nutritionalstress that results from a clean environment may prove advantageous to the use of microbial controls. Dietary stress by food deprivation or suboptimal diet increased susceptibility of the re...
After the purchase price of the animals, feed is the single largest cost associated with raising goats, typically accounting for 60 percent or more of to- tal production costs. Nutrition exerts a very large influence on flock reproduction, milk production, and kid growth. Late-gestation and lactation are the most critical periods for doe nutrition, with lactation placing the highest nutritional
|This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
|Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…
Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition
The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stressmanagement for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stressmanagement programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made.
Several approaches to preventing burnout are compared. One hundred and fifty-four nurses in five Hong Kong hospitals completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Organizational Socialization Inventory (OSI), and three measures of personal stressmanagement. Results indicated that favourable evaluations on the four OSI domains (job training, organizational understanding, coworker support and future prospects) yielded strong negative correlations with the burnout components. Also, the personal stressmanagement measures had strong negative correlations with depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment, but none were related to emotional exhaustion. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that training was the only (inverse) predictor of emotional exhaustion, whereas interpersonal skills and understanding were strong (inverse) predictors of depersonalization. Additionally, interpersonal skills and coworker support were excellent (inverse) predictors of decreased personal accomplishment. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to nursing administration. PMID:11051965
... Care Connection Health Care System Falls Short on StressManagement – Press release Sistema de salud se queda corto ... warning signs of stress Mind/body health: stressStressmanagement for caregivers Related Topics How stress harms your ...
In a 6-month follow-up study, telephone interviews were conducted with 31 male executives who were taught either a self-hypnosis or meditation exercise as part of a stress-management program. Use of and problems with the 2 exercises were similar, with the percentage of Ss using the techniques falling over 6 months from 90% to 42%. The exercises were used primarily for
David A. Soskis; Emily Carota Orne; Martin T. Orne; David F. Dinges
The use of injectable bulking agents is a well-established approach to management of patients with stress urinary incontinence\\u000a (SUI). No single bulking agent to date has been shown to be superior or consistently durable in the literature. Novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies, including the use of injectable, muscle-derived stem cell therapy, have shown promising results in investigational\\u000a stages. Urethral bulking agent therapy
Aisha Khalali Taylor; Elodi Dielubanza; John Hairston
The current managed healthcare environment stresses brief and effective short-term therapy. However, often this short-term\\u000a treatment does not lead to long-term behavioral changes and clients return to therapy many times for help with the same dysfunctional\\u000a behavioral patterns. The main problem with these traditional forms of treatment is the assumption that clients have the basic\\u000a skills to change their ineffective
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of residential multifactorial cardiac rehabilitation, outpatient multifactorial\\u000a rehabilitation, stressmanagement, and standard coronary rehabilitation, on cardiac risk reduction. Out of 144 eligible male\\u000a patients recently treated with percantaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG),\\u000a or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 132 were randomized into this study. All interventions
Örjan Sundin; Jan Lisspers; Claes Hofman-Bang; Åke Nygren; Lars Rydén; Arne Öhman
The role of self-efficacy, an individual difference variable, in occupational stress research is seldom discussed, and is even rarely examined in Chinese societies. This study investigates the relationships between stressors, managerial self-efficacy (MSE) and job strains (job satisfaction, physical strain, and psychological strain). A total of 450 enterprise managers in eight cities of the People’s Republic of China completed a
Cognitive behavioral stressmanagement (CBSM) has previously been found to reduce fatigue, depression, and cortisol response\\u000a to heavy exercise training among competitive collegiate athletes and to speed physical and psychological recovery from surgery\\u000a (1,2). Our study assessed the efficacy of a CBSM program to reduce the frequency of injury and illness among collegiate athletes\\u000a in a randomized, single-blind, controlled clinical
Frank M. Perna; Michael H. Antoni; Andrew Baum; Paul Gordon; Neil Schneiderman
Codon usage bias and relative abundances of tRNA isoacceptors were analysed in the obligate intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola from the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, using a dedicated 35mer oligonucleotide microarray. Buchnera is archetypal of organisms living with minimal metabolic requirements and presents a reduced genome with high-evolutionary rate. Codonusage in Buchnera has been overcome by the high mutational bias towards AT bases. However, several lines of evidence for codon usage selection are given here. A significant correlation was found between tRNA relative abundances and codon composition of Buchnera genes. A significant codon usage bias was found for the choice of rare codons in Buchnera: C-ending codons are preferred in highly expressed genes, whereas G-ending codons are avoided. This bias is not explained by GC skew in the bacteria and might correspond to a selection for perfect matching between codon-anticodon pairs for some essential amino acids in Buchnera proteins. Nutritionalstress applied to the aphid host induced a significant overexpression of most of the tRNA isoacceptors in bacteria. Although, molecular regulation of the tRNA operons in Buchnera was not investigated, a correlation between relative expression levels and organization in transcription unit was found in the genome of Buchnera. PMID:16963497
Objective To examine whether benefit finding was associated with better adjustment among adolescents with diabetes by buffering negative affective reactions to diabetes stress and by promoting positive affective reactions. Design Early adolescents aged 10-14 with type 1 diabetes (n=252) described recent diabetes stressors, affective reactions, and perceived coping effectiveness. They also completed measures of benefit finding, depressive symptoms, and adherence. Metabolic control (i.e., HbA1c) was obtained from medical records. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were perceived coping effectiveness, depressive symptoms, adherence, and HbA1c. Results Benefit finding was associated with lower depressive symptoms, higher perceived coping effectiveness and better adherence, and with higher positive as well as negative affective reactions to diabetes stress. Benefit finding interacted with negative affective reactions to predict depressive symptoms and HbA1c. Negative affective reactions to stress were associated with poorer adjustment among those with low benefit finding, but were unrelated or more weakly related to poor adjustment among those with high benefit finding. Positive affective reactions did not mediate associations between benefit finding and any outcome. Conclusions Consistent with a stress-buffering process, benefit finding may be a resource that buffers the disruptive aspects of negative affective reactions to stress for adolescents’ diabetes management.
Tran, Vincent; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Fortenberry, Katherine T.; Butler, Jorie M.; Berg, Cynthia A.
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The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.
PURPOSE: Enhancing Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation with StressManagement Training in Patients with Heart Disease (ENHANCED) is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by the NHLBI to evaluate the effects of stressmanagement training (SMT) on changes in biomarkers of risk and quality of life for patients enrolled in traditional exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). METHODS: One hundred fifty cardiac patients recruited from Duke University and the University of North Carolina will be evaluated and randomized to CR enhanced by SMT (including sessions devoted to relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, communication skills, and problem solving) or to standard exercise-based CR. Before and following 12 weeks of treatment, patients will undergo a battery of psychometric questionnaires and evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers including measures of flow-mediated dilation, heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, platelet function and inflammation, and ischemia during laboratory mental stress testing. The primary outcomes include a composite measure of stress (distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility and 24-hr urinary catecholamines and cortisol) and a composite measure of cardiac biomarkers of risk (vascular endothelial function, cardiac vagal control, inflammation, platelet function and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia). Secondary outcomes include measures of quality of life as well as clinical events including death, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, and revascularization procedures. RESULTS: This article reviews prior studies in the area and describes the design of the ENHANCED study. Several key methodological issues are discussed including the assessment of biomarkers of risk and barriers to the integration of SMT into traditional CR. CONCLUSIONS: The ENHANCED study will provide important information by determining the extent to which SMT combined with exercise-based CR may improve prognosis and quality of life in vulnerable cardiac patients.
Blumenthal, James A.; Wang, Jenny T.; Babyak, Michael; Watkins, Lana; Kraus, William; Miller, Paula; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew
Psychosocial stress is generally associated with adverse health behaviors and has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, an individual's sense of coherence (SOC), which is a concept that reflects the ability to cope with psychosocial stress, has been recognized as an essential component of long-term health and stressmanagement. The association between SOC and traditional and alternative atherosclerotic markers in a community sample, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we evaluated stressmanagement capability and psychological conditions using the Japanese version of the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13) Scale, supplemented by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) that screens for minor psychiatric disorders. The study subjects were 511 adults, median age 64 years (range 48-70), who participated in a regular medical screening program in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. We then correlated our findings with atherosclerotic risk factors in the same community sample, such as body mass index (BMI) and proper and regular sleeping habits. We found that close association between good stressmanagement capability and lower BMI and/or regular sleeping habits in elderly Japanese. This provides strong evidence that BMI and sleep management are contributory to SOC. If the ability to cope with psychosocial stress is important to the prevention of CVD, then weight control and proper sleep habits must be emphasized from a psychosocial stress-management perspective as well as a physical one. PMID:23196278
This manuscript examines the various factors that contribute to classroom teachers’ stress as they relate to classroom management, and their likeliness to seek consultation from school counselors on such issues. This study takes place in a suburban high school were the participants were teachers. Participants were asked to rank their level of stress on eight factors which current research identifies
The present study examines the relationship between receipt of stressmanagement training, ratings of the adequacy of the training, and several outcome variables of interest to the military, including physical symptoms, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), morale, leadership, retention intentions, and marital functioning. Results indicate that soldiers receiving training and rating the training as adequate also reported fewer negative
Eric S. McKibben; Thomas W. Britt; COL Charles W. Hoge; COL Carl Andrew Castro
Background - This study examined the effects of a universal stressmanagement program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children.\\u000aMethods - Fiftytwo schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003, and the winter of 2004. Given
Gerda Kraag; Gerard J. P. Van Breukelen; Gerjo Kok; Clemens Hosman
Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stressmanagement program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…
Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens
|Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stressmanagement program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…
Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens
AIM: To study the intestinal permeability (IP) following stress of abdominal operation and the different effects on IP of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Forty patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomized into EN group and PN group. Each group received nutritional support of the same nitrogen and calorie from postoperative day (POD) 3 to POD 11. On
The browse potential of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and thornless honey locust [Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis (L.) Zabel] has not been adequately tested. Our objective was to determine effects of fertilization and pollard height on biomass and foliar nutritive value in separate studie...
Six farms (A, B, C, D, E and F) of the intensive system type were selected. They were located 50 km south of Khartoum. Nutritional parameters with respect to metabolizable energy intake (MEI)and crude protein (CP) concentration of the diet were investigat...
The browse potential of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and thornless honey locust [Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis (L.) Zabel] has not been adequately tested. Our objective was to determine effects of fertilization and pollarding on biomass and foliar nutritive value in separate studies of black locust and thornless honey locust in Arkansas, USA. Shoots were sampled monthly for two consecutive
The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Balance intervention augmented with stressmanagement strategies (Lifestyle + Stress) or Lifestyle Alone. A trend toward greater percentage of baseline weight loss at 3-month data collection was observed in Lifestyle + Stress (-2.7 ± 3.6%) compared with Lifestyle Alone (-1.4 ± 2.3%; p = .17) and a greater reduction in salivary cortisol (Lifestyle + Stress: -0.2461 ± 0.3985 ng/mL; Lifestyle Alone: -0.0002 ± 0.6275 ng/mL; p = .20). These promising results suggest that augmenting a behavioral weight control intervention with stressmanagement components may be beneficial for overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels and merit further investigation with an adequately powered trial. PMID:22505570
Cox, Tiffany L; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, Sharhonda J; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y; Prewitt, T Elaine; West, Delia Smith
This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...
Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stressmanagement CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617
Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ?20-25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients' biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in patients with PEW, and highlights areas in need of further research. PMID:23636234
Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Objective. In a randomized trial of women with early stage breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy, two stressmanagement interventions, tai chi training and spiritual growth groups, were compared to a usual care control group, to evaluate psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QOL), and biological markers thought to reflect cancer- and treatment-specific mechanisms. Method. The sample consisted of 145 women aged 27–75 years; 75% were Caucasian and 25% African American. A total of 109 participants completed the study, yielding a 75% retention rate. Grounded in a psychoneuroimmunology framework, the overarching hypothesis was that both interventions would reduce perceived stress, enhance QOL and psychosocial functioning, normalize levels of stress-related neuroendocrine mediators, and attenuate immunosuppression. Results. While interesting patterns were seen across the sample and over time, the interventions had no appreciable effects when delivered during the period of chemotherapy. Conclusions. Findings highlight the complex nature of biobehavioral interventions in relation to treatment trajectories and potential outcomes. Psychosocial interventions like these may lack sufficient power to overcome the psychosocial or physiological stress experienced during the chemotherapy treatment period. It may be that interventions requiring less activity and/or group attendance would have enhanced therapeutic effects, and more active interventions need to be tested prior to and following recovery from chemotherapy.
Robins, Jo Lynne W.; McCain, Nancy L.; Elswick, R. K.; Walter, Jeanne M.; Gray, D. Patricia; Tuck, Inez
Objective. In a randomized trial of women with early stage breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy, two stressmanagement interventions, tai chi training and spiritual growth groups, were compared to a usual care control group, to evaluate psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QOL), and biological markers thought to reflect cancer- and treatment-specific mechanisms. Method. The sample consisted of 145 women aged 27-75 years; 75% were Caucasian and 25% African American. A total of 109 participants completed the study, yielding a 75% retention rate. Grounded in a psychoneuroimmunology framework, the overarching hypothesis was that both interventions would reduce perceived stress, enhance QOL and psychosocial functioning, normalize levels of stress-related neuroendocrine mediators, and attenuate immunosuppression. Results. While interesting patterns were seen across the sample and over time, the interventions had no appreciable effects when delivered during the period of chemotherapy. Conclusions. Findings highlight the complex nature of biobehavioral interventions in relation to treatment trajectories and potential outcomes. Psychosocial interventions like these may lack sufficient power to overcome the psychosocial or physiological stress experienced during the chemotherapy treatment period. It may be that interventions requiring less activity and/or group attendance would have enhanced therapeutic effects, and more active interventions need to be tested prior to and following recovery from chemotherapy. PMID:23762127
Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; Gray, D Patricia; Tuck, Inez
This article describes the development and implementation of a stressmanagement model for assisting hospital staff after critical incidents using an adaptation of Mitchell's model (J. Mitchell, 1983). A survey was conducted following the first major incident using M. Horowitz, N. Wilner, and W. Alvarez's (1979) Impact of Event Scale 10 days after and again 6 weeks following the incident to measure its emotional impact on staff. Outcomes included being symptom-free of critical incident stress after a 3-month period. The interventions were intended to help staff at a large metropolitan multispecialty hospital in Queensland in the immediate period following critical incidents. The implications of this program indicated the importance of emotional support at critical times for health professionals. PMID:22284076
Objective: This study examined the relationship between depression, anxiety and stress before and after a patient self-management intervention in a cohort of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A clinical trial on women diagnosed with breast cancer was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre. The experimental block underwent a 4-week self management program, followed by the control block who
This study revalidated three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI) and examined EI's contribution to social skills and stressmanagement skills among members of the National Automatic Merchandising (NAMA), representing executives of the vending, coffee services, and foodservice management industries. After performing Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a sample of 191 was spilt into high EI and low EI groups, based on respondents'
|A statewide effort to identify stressors in state-level social service institutions in Iowa led one state health agency to establish a stressmanagement project. A pilot program singularly focused on communication as the key tool in reducing stress and managingstress. A longitudinal study surveyed agency employees at the Iowa Veteran's Home in…
Purpose This study assessed the short-term and long-term efficacy of a presurgical stressmanagement intervention at reducing mood disturbance and improving quality of life (QOL) in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods One hundred fifty-nine men were randomly assigned to a two-session (plus two boosters) presurgical stressmanagement intervention (SM), a two-session (plus two boosters) supportive attention group (SA), or a standard care group (SC). Assessments occurred 1 month before surgery; 1 week before surgery; the morning of surgery; 6 weeks after surgery, and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results Results indicated significant group differences in mood disturbance before surgery (P = .02), such that men in the SM group had significantly less mood disturbance than men in the SC group (P = .006), with no significant differences between the SM and SA or SA and SC groups. In the year after surgery, there were significant group differences on Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form survey (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) scores (P = .004); men in the SM group had significantly higher PCS scores than men in the SC group (P = .0009), and there were no significant differences between the SM and SA or SA and SC groups. There were no group effects on prostate-specific QOL or SF-36 mental health scores. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a brief presurgical stressmanagement intervention in improving some short-term and long-term outcomes. If these results are replicated, it may be a useful adjunct to standard care for men with prostate cancer undergoing surgery.
Parker, Patricia A.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Babaian, Richard J.; Pisters, Louis L.; Miles, Brian; Fortier, Adoneca; Wei, Qi; Carr, Danielle D.; Cohen, Lorenzo
Objective: Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. Design This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults (N = 3,077). Main Outcome Measures Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Results Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s = 0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Conclusion Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week post-intervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and Caucasian participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration.
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.; Fielder, Robyn L.
This article presents a statewide initiative that was undertaken to develop regional Critical Incident StressManagement (CISM) teams among colleges and universities within a northeastern state. In light of the unique needs and culture of institutions of higher education, this initiative was intended to improve each member college or university's capacity to respond comprehensively and effectively to critical incidents that affect its community. A step-by-step description of the implementation of the initiative is presented as well as discussion of what was learned through the process and future directions. PMID:16944791
Cincinnati Public Schools Critical Incident StressManagement Team responded when a teenager who was in possession of a pellet gun was killed by police. The themes that emerged had more to do with rage than typical bereavement or trauma responses. The primary objective was the prevention of school and community violence. Strategic planning was critical in preventing violence and responding to the changing needs of students, staff and families during the weeks following this tragedy. Team members had to consider cultural differences related to interpretation of events, grieving rituals, and expectations for appropriate behavior when planning and providing interventions. PMID:21138151
Brief consultation and stressmanagement treatments to help insomniacs withdraw from sleep medication were evaluated with 12 drug-dependent women. The effects of treatment were assessed by all-night home polysomnographic recordings and questionnaires. All 12 subjects succeeded in withdrawing from sleep medication and showed a number of improvements independent of the treatment received: (a) decreased latency to sleep onset, (b) increased
Kathleen Kirmil-Gray; Jean R. Eagleston; Carl E. Thoresen; Vincent P. Zarcone
|This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…