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Sample records for nutrition stress management

  1. Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perea, Sally

    2012-05-01

    There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

  2. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management is to observe the quality improvement in the discharge reports for the patients admitted, including the nutritional diagnosis within the section for the main diagnosis, and also the administration of artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral) in the section on procedures. With all of these measures we will improve the quality of the hospitals' information systems and contribute directly to ensuring that our activities in clinical nutrition have an impact on the overall results of the hospital when measured in terms of effectiveness, efficacy or quality. PMID:15211719

  3. Nutrition and Food Management (Intermediate). Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This nutrition and food management curriculum guide includes resources within two sections. The first section (Unit I) emphasizes food management and stresses resource management, time management, and coordination of departmental resources. A variety of forms are provided to facilitate recordkeeping, budgeting, and departmental organization. The…

  4. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  5. Stress Management for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Stress management for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stress management should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…

  6. Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869

  7. Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Erin L; Ney, Denise M

    2010-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU - lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869

  8. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  9. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two

  10. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  11. Stress Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... intensity? Seasonal Fitness Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down When is the best time of day ... Stress Four Ways to Deal With Stress Quit Smoking Quitting Smoking Why Quit Smoking? Smoking: Do you ...

  12. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  13. How Coaches Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, M. Karen

    1991-01-01

    Presents stress management strategies for coaches, focusing on what stress is, how it affects the body, and what to do to minimize the effects of stress on health. The article explains on- and off-the-job stress factors so coaches can recognize potential stress situations and handle them as they occur. (SM)

  14. Nutritional management of acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B

    1998-10-01

    Despite recommendations from several bodies such as the World Health Organization and others that feeding should be continued during diarrhea, the practice of withholding food during the early stages of diarrhea is still widespread. This contributes to a deterioration in patients' nutritional state. The principal controversy in the nutritional therapy of acute gastroenteritis centers on the relative risks of cows'-milk feeds. The two things that need to be considered in determining the optimum approach to feeding the child with acute diarrhea are the optimum timing for feeding children in relation to the onset of and recovery from symptoms and, secondly, the effects of specific food ingredients in the diet. Recent studies have demonstrated that the vast majority of young children with acute diarrhea can be successfully managed with continued feeding of undiluted non-human milk. Routine dilution of milk and routine use of lactose-free formula are not necessary, especially when oral rehydration therapy and early feeding (in addition to milk) form the basic approach to the clinical management of diarrhea in children. Confounding factors are the severity of the diarrhea, coexistent malnutrition, and young age (< 1 y); such infants are much more likely to have complications from early feeding with undiluted milk and some would advocate use of specifically designed lactose-free formula in such children. Children who are fed exclusively with human milk and those who receive solid foods with or without human milk may safely continue to receive their usual diets during diarrhea. Those who are fed exclusively with non-human milk--especially when very young and with severe diarrhea or malnutrition--should be closely observed if they continue to consume milk or they should receive a special formulation (e.g., a cereal-milk mixture or fermented milk product). The use of nutrient-dense mixtures of common foods may be advisable to promote compensatory growth in those who lose weight during illness or because of anorexia or malabsorption. PMID:9785356

  15. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  16. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery A Patient’s Guide Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is a treatment ... This guide for patients is based on The Endocrine Society’s practice guidelines for physicians that focus on ...

  17. Peri-operative nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2011-08-01

    The metabolic response to surgical trauma is mainly characterised by an increase in BMR, a negative N balance, increased gluconeogenesis and increased synthesis of acute-phase proteins. These reactions aim at ensuring the availability of endogenous substrates for healing wounds while the synthesis of acute-phase proteins enhances the scavenging process and helps repair. However, if this process is excessive or continues for too long, it leads to a progressive depletion of body compartment with a consequent adverse outcome. Obviously, the severity of such depletion is magnified if the patient is starving or is already malnourished and the consumption of lean body mass is not compensated by an exogenous supply of nutrients. The nutritional control of this metabolic reaction represents the traditional rationale for nutritional support of surgical patients. Subsequent data have shown that the negative effects of starvation are not simply due to the starvation per se but due to the starving gut, and peri-operative enteral nutrition has proven successful in blunting the metabolic response after injury and improving protein kinetics, net balance and amino acid flux across peripheral tissue and consequently in decreasing the complications. Finally, further clinical research has shown that many post-operative infections may result from immune suppression and that such state might be reversed to some degree by modulation of the immune response through specialised nutritional support in surgical patients, regardless of their nutritional status. This paper will focus on the updated evidence-based research on peri-operative nutrition (parenteral, enteral and immune-enhancing) in patients undergoing major surgery. PMID:21781357

  18. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…

  19. Helping Children Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  20. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation. PMID:23844276

  1. Correlations among Stress, Physical Activity and Nutrition: School Employee Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie; Zannis, Marie; Bowers, Ashley; Brewer, Julie; Russell, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Employee health promotion programs increase work productivity and effectively reduce employer costs related to health care and absenteeism, and enhance worker productivity. Components of an effective worksite health program include stress management, exercise and nutrition and/or weight management classes or counseling. Few studies have documented…

  2. Nutritional management of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission. PMID:23634187

  3. Influence of stress and nutrition on cattle immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have known for decades that "stress" and inadequate nutrition can have detrimental effects on the immune system. However, what had not been distinguished until recently are the divergent effects of "acute" stress compared to long-term or "chronic" stress. As scientists expanded their scop...

  4. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

  5. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An

  6. ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '€œSpace Nutrition' - Duration: 12 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'€™s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."€ T...

  7. Nutritional Recommendations for the Management of Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Morley, John E.; Argiles, Josep M.; Evans, William J.; Bhasin, Shalender; Cella, David; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Doehner, Wolfram; Fearon, Ken C. H.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lochs, Herbert; MacDonald, Neil; Mulligan, Kathleen; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ponikowski, Piotr; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Schambelan, Morrie; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Schuster, Michael W.; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Sarcopenia, Cachexia, and Wasting Disease convened an expert panel to develop nutritional recommendations for prevention and management of sarcopenia. Exercise (both resistance and aerobic) in combination with adequate protein and energy intake is the key component of the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Adequate protein supplementation alone only slows loss of muscle mass. Adequate protein intake (leucine-enriched balanced amino acids and possibly creatine) may enhance muscle strength. Low 25(0H) vitamin D levels require vitamin D replacement. PMID:20627179

  8. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E; Argiles, Josep M; Evans, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Cella, David; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Doehner, Wolfram; Fearon, Ken C H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hellerstein, Marc K; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lochs, Herbert; MacDonald, Neil; Mulligan, Kathleen; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ponikowski, Piotr; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Schambelan, Morrie; Schols, Annemie M W J; Schuster, Michael W; Anker, Stefan D

    2010-07-01

    The Society for Sarcopenia, Cachexia, and Wasting Disease convened an expert panel to develop nutritional recommendations for prevention and management of sarcopenia. Exercise (both resistance and aerobic) in combination with adequate protein and energy intake is the key component of the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Adequate protein supplementation alone only slows loss of muscle mass. Adequate protein intake (leucine-enriched balanced amino acids and possibly creatine) may enhance muscle strength. Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels require vitamin D replacement. PMID:20627179

  9. Nutrition assessment and management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marlia M; Osecheck, Matt; Joyce, Nanette C

    2012-11-01

    In recent years nutrition assessment and management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have drawn increased attention. Frequent evaluation of nutrition status is warranted in ALS, given the common occurrence of dysphagia and hypermetabolism and varying disease progression rates. Nutrition management includes dietary and swallow strategies, possible gastrostomy tube placement, and recommendations for vitamin and mineral supplementation. Strategies to assess and optimize nutrition status and prolong survival in ALS patients are reviewed with recommendations based on current research. PMID:23137736

  10. Nutritional Management in Enterocutaneous Fistula. What is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    BADRASAWI, Manal; SHAHAR, Suzana; SAGAP, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The management of Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) is challenging. It remains associated with morbidity and mortality, despite advancements in medical and surgical therapies. Early nutritional support using parenteral, enteral or fystuloclysis routs is essential to reverse catabolism and replace nutrients, fluid and electrolyte losses. This study aims to review the current literature on the management of ECF. Fistulae classifications have an impact on the calories and protein requirements. Early nutritional support with parenteral, enteral nutrition or fistuloclysis played a significant role in the management outcome. Published literature on the nutritional management of ECF is mostly retrospective and lacks experimental design. Prospective studies do not investigate nutritional assessment or management experimentally. Individualising the nutritional management protocol was recommended due to the absence of management guidelines for ECF patients. PMID:26715903

  11. ROOT PLASTICITY TO NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN MEDITERRANEAN SEA BEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of root adaptive responses to nutritional stress is required to improve yield stability of sugarbeet. The aim of this research was a comparative study of the root morpho-physiological plasticity among two sea beet populations collected on poor- and nutrient-rich habitats of the Adriatic co...

  12. Management of Hyperglycemia and Enteral Nutrition in the Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia Ann; Wien, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased attention on the importance of identifying and distinguishing the differences between stress-induced hyperglycemia (SH), newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH), and hyperglycemia in persons with established diabetes mellitus (DM). Inpatient blood glucose control is now being recognized as not only a cost issue for hospitals but also a concern for patient safety and care. The reasons for the increased incidence of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients include preexisting DM, undiagnosed DM or prediabetes, SH, and medication-induced hyperglycemia with resulting transient blood glucose variability. It is clear that identifying and documenting hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with and without a previous diagnosis of DM and initiating prompt insulin treatment are important. Agreement on the optimum treatment goals for hyperglycemia remains quite controversial, and the benefits of intensive glucose management may be lost at the cost of hypoglycemia in intensive care unit patients. Nutrition support in the form of enteral nutrition (EN) increases the risk of hyperglycemia in both critical and non-critically ill hospitalized patients. Reasons for beginning a tube feeding are the same whether a person has NDH or DM. What differs is how to incorporate EN into the established insulin management protocols. The risk for hyperglycemia with the addition of EN is even higher in those without a previous diagnosis of DM. This review discusses the incidence of hyperglycemia, the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, factors contributing to hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient, glycemic management goals, current glycemic management recommendations, and considerations for EN formula selection, administration, and treatment. PMID:26084507

  13. Long-Term Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques enabling faculty to decrease stress to more reasonable and productive levels are discussed, including management of chemical stressors, physical activities, relaxation, coping strategies for disappointment, emotional support, assertiveness, and time management. (MSE)

  14. How to Manage Managerial Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brief, Arthur P.

    1980-01-01

    Role conflict and role ambiguity are two primary causes of stress in managers. Some form of goal-setting program, a viable performance appraisal system, and a formalized reward system will do much to reduce stress. In some cases, however, a role management process (such as described in this article) is necessary. (Author/IRT)

  15. Nutrition in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Broderick, Timothy; Turner, Maryann; Stevens, Stacie; O'Keefe, J Sebastian

    2003-07-01

    Comparative trials have shown that enteral feeding (EN) is better than total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in acute pancreatitis. However, the following case report of a 64-year-old man with necrotizing pancreatitis suggests that EN may cause complications in patients with ductular damage. In the second week, this patient with acute pancreatitis developed >50% pancreatic necrosis, resulting in gastroduodenal obstruction and pain, leading to the use of TPN. A trial of EN delivered past the obstruction was associated with increased abdominal pain, leukocytosis, and pancreatic fluid accumulation. Measurement of the pancreatic response to feeding showed a 90% reduction in enzyme secretion compared to healthy volunteers, but no change in the uptake of stable isotope labeled amino acids into secreted trypsin. This suggests that enzymes were being synthesized by the remaining pancreatic tissue, but that some of the secretions were leaking into the inflammatory mass. Symptoms resolved after reinstitution of TPN and bowel rest. A further trial of EN was successful when the tube was advanced to the distal jejunum to avoid pancreatic stimulation. After 3 weeks of home EN, he was readmitted for surgical evacuation of an infected fluid collection. Although enteral feeding is generally better than TPN in the nutritional management of acute pancreatitis, there may be a subgroup of patients with ductular damage due to necrotizing disease in whom TPN and pancreatic rest may be safer. PMID:15017674

  16. Experimental Evidence for Nutrition Regulated Stress Resistance in Drosophila ananassae

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, Seema; Singh, Bashisth N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The amount and quality of nutrients consumed by organisms have a strong impact on stress resistance, life-history traits and reproduction. The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is crucial to the survival and reproductive success of animals. The ability of organisms to adjust their development, physiology or behavior in response to environmental conditions, called phenotypic plasticity, is a defining property of life. One of the most familiar and important examples of phenotypic plasticity is the response of stress tolerance and reproduction to changes in developmental nutrition. Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life-history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult. Principal Findings Here we investigate the effect of larval nutrition on desiccation, starvation, chill-coma recovery, heat resistance as well as egg to adult viability, egg production and ovariole number in Drosophila ananassae. We raised larvae on either protein rich diet or carbohydrate rich diet. We found that flies consuming protein rich diet have higher desiccation and heat shock resistance whereas flies developed on carbohydrate rich diet have higher starvation and cold resistance. Egg production was higher in females developed on protein rich diet and we also found trade-off between egg production and Egg to adult viability of the flies. Viability was higher in carbohydrate rich diet. However, sex specific viability was found in different nutritional regimes. Higher Egg production might be due to higher ovariole number in females of protein rich diet. Conclusion Thus, Drosophila ananassae adapts different stress tolerance and life-history strategies according to the quality of the available diet, which are correlated with phenotypic adjustment at anatomical and physiological levels. PMID:23049693

  17. Nutritional approaches to modulate oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pocernich, C B; Lange, M L Bader; Sultana, R; Butterfield, D A

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is characterized by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) deposits, neurofibrillary tangles, synapse loss, and extensive oxidative stress. Aβ-induced oxidative stress is indexed by protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, DNA oxidation and neuronal cell death. Oxidative stress is combated by antioxidants. Antioxidants and nutrition have long been considered as an approach to slow down AD progression. In this review, we focus on antioxidants that have been shown to protect against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, particularly vitamin E, ferulic acid, various polyphenols, including quercetin and resveratrol, α-lipoic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and γ-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (GCEE). Brain-accessible antioxidants with both radical scavenging properties and ability to induce protective genes are hypothesized to be helpful in treatment for AD. PMID:21605052

  18. The need for additional training for nutritional management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carney, Trish; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' and nursing students'knowledge and perceived role in assisting patients with the nutritional management of diabetes. Three focus groups were conducted and the results were used to modify a previously developed survey regarding the nutritional management of diabetes. The survey was administered via an online survey tool and completed by 231 nurses and students. Over 70% of respondents agreed that nurses have an important role in reinforcing patient nutritional education. Results indicated,however, that knowledge gaps in the nutritional management of diabetes exist among nurses, including not knowing the carbohydrate content of 120ml of orange juice, a common treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%), not knowing where to locate carbohydrate content on a food label (60%), and not identifying the correct treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%). These results indicate that there may be a need to improve the nutritional education of nurses with respect to diabetes management. PMID:23752631

  19. [Nutritional repercussions and management of chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Botella Romero, F; Alfaro Martínez, J J

    2008-05-01

    The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that releases water, bicarbonate and digestive enzymes by the main pancreatic duct (MPD) into the duodenum. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is typically caused, in adults, by chronic alcohol abuse and, less frequently hypertriglyceridemia, primary hyperparathyroidism or cystic fibrosis. Exocrine dysfunction results in malabsorption of fat and subsequent steatorrhea. Damage to pancreatic endocrine function is a late finding in CP and results in hyperglycaemia or overt diabetes mellitus. Care of patients with CP principally involves management of pain. A significant change in the pain pattern or the sudden onset of persistent symptoms suggests the need to rule out other potential etiologies, including peptic ulcer disease, biliary obstruction, pseudocysts, pancreatic carcinoma, and pancreatic duct stricture or stones, then is important to establish a secure diagnosis. Management of pain should then proceed in a judicious stepwise approach avoiding opioids dependence. Patients should be advised to stop alcohol intake. Fat malabsorption and other complications may also arise. Management of steatorrhea should begin with small meals and restriction in fat intake. Pancreatic enzyme supplements can relieve symptoms and reduce malabsorption in patients who do not respond to dietary restriction. Enzymes at high doses should be used with meals. Treatment with acid suppression to reduce inactivation of the enzymes from gastric acid are recommended. Supplementation with medium chain triglycerides and fat soluble vitamin replacement may be required. Management of other complications (such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction, pancreatic ascites, splenic vein thrombosis and pseudoaneurysms) often requires aggressive approach with the patient kept on total parenteral nutrition to minimize pancreatic stimulation. PMID:18714412

  20. Stress and microbial endocrinology: prospects for ruminant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Freestone, P; Lyte, M

    2010-07-01

    The feed efficiency of ruminant meat and dairy livestock can be significantly influenced by factors within their living environments. In particular, events perceived by the animals as stressful (such as parturition, transport or handling) have been found to affect susceptibility to infection. It has been well documented that even minor stress such as weighing can result in an increase in colonisation and faecal shedding of enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Such infections affect both ruminant overall health and therefore performance, and are a particular problem for the meat production industries. Prior explanations for stress enhancing the likelihood of infection is that activation of the sympathetic nervous system under stress leads to the release of neuroendocrine mediators such as the catecholamine stress hormones noradrenaline and adrenaline, which may impair innate and adaptive immunity. More recently, however, another equally compelling explanation, viewed through the lens of the newly recognised microbiological discipline of microbial endocrinology is that the myriad of bacteria within the ruminant digestive tract are as responsive to the hormonal output of stress as the cells of their host. Work from our laboratories has shown that enteric pathogens have evolved systems for directly sensing stress hormones. We have demonstrated that even brief exposure of enteric pathogens to physiological concentrations of stress hormones can result in massive increases in growth and marked changes in expression of virulence factors such as adhesins and toxins. Happy, less stressed ruminants may therefore be better-nourished animals and safer sources of meat. This article reviews evidence that stress, as well as affecting nutrition, in ruminants is correlated with increased risk of enteric bacterial infections, and examines the molecular mechanisms that may be at work in both processes. PMID:22444620

  1. Managing Teacher Stress and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis; Hammond, Janice

    This monograph offers a practical guide for identifying and managing those stressors that are in the specific domain of the individual--exercise, diet, sleep, interpersonal relations, time and conflict management, and relaxation. The first section covers stress theory; methods to identify and clarify stressors; restoration of a balanced…

  2. [Importance of compliance in nutritional management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mikulka, Ilona

    2016-04-10

    Disease-related malnutrition is usually caused by the joint action of the underlying disease itself and dietary deficiency. The consequences of malnutrition, if left untreated, are serious, causing a marked decline in physical and psychological health and function, and an increased rate of complications and decreased effectiveness of the medical treatments. In case a functional gastrointestinal tract is present, the recommended form of nutritional management is the use of oral nutritional supplements. However, just like to any other therapy, compliance to oral nutritional supplements is highly influenced by the consistency, taste, smell, volume consumed, and side effects. The aim of the present case report is to illustrate that nutritional management is a successful and effective treatment option of disease-related malnutrition when the selection of the oral nutritional supplement takes into consideration patient's preferences as well. PMID:27039999

  3. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  4. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  5. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  6. Electrolyte and drug management in nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, V; Meyer-Tettambel, O M

    1993-03-01

    Interventional nutritional support is a complex therapeutic entity. Metabolic complications associated with this therapy are numerous. It is imperative to monitor electrolytes very closely during parenteral and enteral nutritional support and to correct deficiencies or to compensate for increases in serum concentrations when appropriate. It is also critical to observe patients receiving drug therapy to avoid untoward drug-nutrient interactions and to be able to compensate for adverse metabolic effects of medications. To achieve successful nutritional support, careful monitoring of electrolytes and drugs is necessary. PMID:8448000

  7. [Nutritional management of healing pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    di Valentin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Wounds or pressure ulcers resulting from hospitalisation are a permanent feature of health care institutions. Treatment comprises several elements including nutritional care. This article offers an overview of a basic notion. PMID:23785863

  8. Economics, management, and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, T

    1977-02-01

    Research has shown that including a nutritional functional area in comprehensive health care delivery can reduce the total cost per registrant. The savings occur when nutritionists substitute for more costly medical personnel in a team-care setting. Further research has demonstrated that the cost of nutritional care is related to the performance of nutritional staff, i.e., productivity, which may be improved as much as 25 to 70% through simple managerial techniques. The implications for nutritional planning and operations are discussed. Nevertheless, the greatest potential for improving nutritional health rests with the patient himself. Thus, the future orientation in public health nutrition must be directed toward the problems of shifting the major part of the responsibility from the provider to the patient, with accompanying competence in self-care and health maintenance. A promising approach to the idea of greater patient responsibility and autonomy is the so-called Vinland Center concept. Originally developed in Norway, a center incorporating the principles is now being planned in Minnesota and is expected to begin operation in 1979. Funds for the planning effort were given to the U.S. as a Bicentennial gift from Norway. The concept is explained. PMID:402409

  9. [Stress management for office workers].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi

    2002-09-01

    The environment which surrounds office workers has undergone a big transformation with the collapse of lifetime employment, the shift from the long employment principle to meritocracy, the results principle, the introduction of flexible work hours, outsourcing and dispatch work. Today's office worker stressor include 1. VDT work, 2. meritocracy, 3. management by objective, 4. excessive load on the middle and advanced age generations, 5. the collapse of the lifetime employment system and 6. non-employee changes. (1) VDT work management, (2) the use of Information technology, (3) Improvement of office environments, (4) Management of long overtime work and (5) Support of superiors and colleagues are thought as stress management. PMID:12402462

  10. Effect of Multiple Stresses (Thermal, Nutritional, and Walking Stress) on the Reproductive Performance of Malpura Ewes

    PubMed Central

    Sejian, V.; Maurya, V. P.; Kumar, K.; Naqvi, S. M. K.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of multiple stresses (thermal, nutritional, and walking stress) on the reproductive performance of Malpura ewes. The study was conducted for a period of 35 days covering two estrous cycles during summer season (April-May). The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of twelve animals each namely, GI (n=12; Control), and GII (n=1 2; Multiple stresses). GI ewes were maintained in the shed, while GII ewes were subjected to multiple stresses (thermal, nutritional, and walking stress). The estrus % differed significantly (P< 0.05) between the groups. Estrus duration also showed similar trend to that of estrus %. Both conception and lambing rate also differed significantly (P< 0.05) between the control and multiple-stress group. In addition plasma estradiol and progesterone also showed significant difference between the groups. The study proved the detrimental effects of multiple-stresses on various reproductive parameters studied. Hence it is very pertinent to conclude that when two or more than two stressors occur simultaneously, the total impact may be severe on reproductive functions of the animals. PMID:22448337

  11. Nutritional management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Silani, V; Kasarskis, E J; Yanagisawa, N

    1998-08-01

    Although respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the management of nutritional status is important to enhancing the quality of life and optimising the timing of interventive techniques. Progressively weakening muscles impair the patient's ability to eat, and nearly all patients with ALS develop severe dysphagia. If nutritional support is not provided, food and fluid consumption may be greatly restricted, leading to weight loss and malnutrition. This may be compounded by impaired respiratory functions, which place increased energy demands on the patient. This paper describes the nutritional needs of ALS patients from a worldwide and cross-cultural perspective. In particular, the differences between a paternalistic and a patient-centred approach to treatment are addressed. The need for further study into the nutritional status of ALS patients and the issue of parenteral and enteral nutritional therapy, particularly percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, are discussed. PMID:9747929

  12. Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Daniel I

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index <20 kg/m(2) without weight loss and when forced vital capacity is >50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is <50%, a radiologically inserted gastrostomy is the preferred means of enteral placement due to lessened aspiration and respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage. PMID:23466470

  13. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals. PMID:16335759

  14. Nutritional management of short bowel syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Aparna; Koutkia, Polyxeni; Apovian, Caroline M

    2002-03-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) comprises the sequelae of nutrient, fluid, and weight loss that occurs subsequent to greatly reduced functional surface area of the small intestine. Signs and symptoms of SBS include electrolyte disturbances; deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, vitamin B12, or fat-soluble vitamin deficiency; malabsorption of carbohydrates, lactose, and protein; metabolic acidosis, gastric acid hypersecretion; formation of cholesterol biliary calculi and renal oxalate calculi; and dehydration, steatorrhea, diarrhea, and weight loss. Thorough nutritional management is the key factor in achieving an optimal outcome in SBS. Total parenteral nutrition is necessary in the early stages, as is replacement of excess fluid and electrolyte losses. Nutritional management of SBS has traditionally been divided into three phases: an acute phase when total parenteral nutrition is usually begun, an adaptation phase, and a maintenance phase. Recommendations regarding the need for parenteral nutrition vary depending on the presence or absence of certain factors: the ileocecal valve, jejunum, and functional colon. Patients with residual small bowel length of 100 cm or less usually require the administration of parenteral nutrition at home with good results. The total parenteral nutrition diet should consist of a majority of calories from fat, followed by protein, and the remaining as carbohydrates. Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements should also be added accordingly. Although total parenteral nutrition is initially necessary, treatment goals should focus on early transition to enteral nutrition followed by oral feeds. Other recent advances in the medical management of SBS include pharmacologic treatment and the use of specific nutrients and growth factors to stimulate intestinal absorption and adaptation. Both animal studies and clinical trials in humans have shown much promise in supplementation with growth factors and hormones. This strategy is likely to play a greater role in the treatment of SBS in the future. PMID:11873098

  15. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  16. Nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Groetch, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the latest information on the nutritional management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), focusing on the foods implicated and how to avoid these whilst maintaining a nutritionally sound diet. Recent findings A number of foods are implicated in FPIES such as milk, soy and grains, particularly rice. The number of foods implicated in FPIES per individual differs, but the majority of reported cases have two or fewer food triggers involved. Summary FPIES is a complex presentation of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Dietary management is complicated as both common food allergens as well as atypical food allergens can trigger FPIES. Sound nutritional advice is required to ensure appropriate food avoidance, adequate consumption of other foods and sufficient nutritional intake to maintain and ensure growth and development. PMID:24699338

  17. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation

  18. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  19. Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients. PMID:24966599

  20. Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients. PMID:24966599

  1. Natural malaria infection reduces starvation resistance of nutritionally stressed mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lalubin, Fabrice; Delédevant, Aline; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    In disease ecology, there is growing evidence that environmental quality interacts with parasite and host to determine host susceptibility to an infection. Most studies of malaria parasites have focused on the infection costs incurred by the hosts, and few have investigated the costs on mosquito vectors. The interplay between the environment, the vector and the parasite has therefore mostly been ignored and often relied on unnatural or allopatric Plasmodium/vector associations. Here, we investigated the effects of natural avian malaria infection on both fecundity and survival of field-caught female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, individually maintained in laboratory conditions. We manipulated environmental quality by providing mosquitoes with different concentrations of glucose-feeding solution prior to submitting them to a starvation challenge. We used molecular-based methods to assess mosquitoes' infection status. We found that mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium had lower starvation resistance than uninfected ones only under low nutritional conditions. The effect of nutritional stress varied with time, with the difference of starvation resistance between optimally and suboptimally fed mosquitoes increasing from spring to summer, as shown by a significant interaction between diet treatment and months of capture. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes had similar clutch size, indicating no effect of infection on fecundity. Overall, this study suggests that avian malaria vectors may suffer Plasmodium infection costs in their natural habitat, under certain environmental conditions. This may have major implications for disease transmission in the wild. PMID:24286465

  2. Stress-management program: intervention in nursing student performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Godbey, K L; Courage, M M

    1994-06-01

    This study measured the effect of an individualized stress-management program on nursing students who identified anxiety as interfering with academic performance in the nursing program. The quasi-experimental longitudinal study used a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, control group design. Data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVAS). In a 6-week counseling program students identified personal stress reactions and adapted coping strategies related to nutrition, exercise, progressive relaxation, cognitive control, time management, and testing skills to personal use. The program was effective in significantly increasing self-esteem and decreasing depression and anxiety. Grades improved sufficiently for student retention. PMID:8080308

  3. A Stress Management Primer for College Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of stress and college administrators looks at two types of stress (eustress and distress), stress and the autonomic nervous system, the need for regular exercise as well as stress reduction activities, the influence of personality on stress, the sources and stages of burnout, and stress management for administrators. (MSE)

  4. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  5. Switchgrass: Establishment, Management, Yield, Nutritive Value, and Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document reports results from 26 studies addressing the establishment, cell wall content, cultivar improvement, defoliation management, nutritive value and utilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as pasture, or its conservation as hay or silage or harvested as biomass. Both lowland and...

  6. Nutritional management of the female with phenylketonuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pueschel, S M; Hum, C; Andrews, M

    1977-07-01

    This paper discusses a rational approach to appropriate nutritional management of the pregnant woman with phenylketonuria (PKU). Special food items, including new formulas and low-phenylalanine products, as well as allowable nutral foods are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the nutritional adequacy of this PKU diet during pregnancy. Such a diet should be palatable and tolerated well and should also take into consideration important economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. Clinics caring for PKU individuals should be so prepared because many otheir females are approaching childbearing age. PMID:879079

  7. Acute Management of Nutritional Demands after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven; Singer, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding nutritional management in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested. PMID:20373845

  8. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  9. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition Would you like to have more energy, stronger ... may be easier than you think! In our nutrition information section you can learn how to eat ...

  10. Changing perspectives in the nutritional management of disease.

    PubMed

    Madden, Angela M

    2003-11-01

    There have been substantial changes in the nutritional management of many diseases in the last 20 years, which have been accompanied by a growing recognition of its importance. Many of the changes in clinical nutrition have been associated with the introduction of standards, clinical audit and the implementation of evidence-based practice, which has led to a re-evaluation of some established dietary interventions using a hierarchy-of-evidence approach. Although there are few randomised controlled trials on which to base such work, the examination of other, often less-robust, evidence has led to some traditional dietary interventions being modified. Examples in gastroenterology include the use of low-fat diets in gall bladder disease and the restriction of protein in hepatic encephalopathy, where the current evidence suggests that neither should be used routinely in clinical practice. Where therapeutic dietary restrictions are required, as with low-Na diets in ascites, there is very little information on how these restrictions influence total nutrient intake and, if intake is impaired, how the detrimental effects of an inadequate intake should be balanced with the therapeutic effects of restriction. Studies are required to ensure that nutritional interventions are not only effective but also free from undesirable side effects. The mode and timing of the delivery of nutritional support has also been re-evaluated and the benefits of early enteral feeding have been recognised. The delivery of dietary advice is a new area that is being considered, with practitioners in clinical nutrition using behaviour-change skills to facilitate optimum nutrition rather than simply providing patients with advice. For such developments to continue in clinical nutrition it is essential that all practice should be systematically evaluated and, where necessary, modified in the light of sound current research findings, and that gaps in our present knowledge base are identified and addressed. PMID:15018473

  11. How Can I Manage Stress?

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s important to learn how to recognize how stress affects you, learn how to deal with it, and ... stress properly. How does stress make you feel? Stress affects each of us in different ways. You may ...

  12. A nutrition support service web application to manage patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mirtallo, Jay M; Hawksworth, Kim; Payne, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a complex therapy that requires expertise and experience to avoid errors in prescribing and management. Because of care coordination issues, one medical center has developed and implemented a Web-based application to manage PN patients. PN orders have already been programmed into the physician order entry system, but the nutrition support service (NSS) consult and daily PN management have been performed using paper forms. The Web system is developed for ease of use by clinicians and accessibility at any computer within the medical center. The database consists of 12 tables interrelated by the patient medical record number, admission number, or location. The NSS consult is the main table used to navigate to the other tables. Update of the laboratory and PN formula table must be done through the consult table. The system is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act guidelines, and has been developed so that the forms that are required to be placed in the patient's permanent record can be printed. Demographic information and laboratory data are automatically populated via a link to the medical center's medication management system. At present, there are 1393 patients in the database and 21,000 pages are viewed each month during daily PN management by clinicians. Data can be easily retrieved for management reports. Data elements can be exported directly from the database to worksheets. This function has been used for projects designed to improve the efficiency of this PN system. PMID:19605799

  13. Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test.

    PubMed

    Stroeve, Johanna H M; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Kremer, Bas H A; van Ommen, Ben; Wopereis, Suzan

    2015-05-01

    Nutrition research is struggling to demonstrate beneficial health effects, since nutritional effects are often subtle and long term. Health has been redefined as the ability of our body to cope with daily-life challenges. Physiology acts as a well-orchestrated machinery to adapt to the continuously changing environment. We term this adaptive capacity "phenotypic flexibility." The phenotypic flexibility concept implies that health can be measured by the ability to adapt to conditions of temporary stress, such as physical exercise, infections or mental stress, in a healthy manner. This may offer a more sensitive way to assess changes in health status of healthy subjects. Here, we performed a systematic review of 61 studies applying different nutritional stress tests to quantify health and nutritional health effects, with the objective to define an optimal nutritional stress test that has the potential to be adopted as the golden standard in nutrition research. To acknowledge the multi-target role of nutrition, a relevant subset of 50 processes that govern optimal health, with high relevance to diet, was used to define phenotypic flexibility. Subsequently, we assessed the response of biomarkers related to this subset of processes to the different challenge tests. Based on the obtained insights, we propose a nutritional stress test composed of a high-fat, high-caloric drink, containing 60 g palm olein, 75 g glucose and 20 g dairy protein in a total volume of 400 ml. The use of such a standardized nutritional challenge test in intervention studies is expected to demonstrate subtle improvements of phenotypic flexibility, thereby enabling substantiation of nutritional health effects. PMID:25896408

  14. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  15. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  16. Stress Management Training for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdelle, Debra A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A group of dental students participated in a stress management program that included instruction in self-relaxation and time management, exercise and leisure planning, and cognitive modification techniques. The importance of stress-management training for dental students and suggestions for future research are discussed. (MLW)

  17. Nutritional management of diarrhea in HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, G

    1998-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a major contributor to malabsorption and malnutrition in people with HIV, and damage to the intestines from diarrhea can lead to a worsening of the condition. Patients need to protect themselves against acquiring new pathogens via food-borne sources, unsanitary practices, or unsafe anal sex. Dietary modifications can be helpful in managing diarrhea. Starches with insoluble starches should be avoided, and lactose-intolerant patients should use lactase enzyme tablets. Reducing fat content in the diet, and using only well-cooked fruits and vegetables may help. Dietary supplements that contain high calories and high protein may help patients with chronic diarrhea to ingest adequate nutrients. PMID:11365027

  18. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Munns, Craig F.; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L.; Thacher, Tom D.; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M. Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M.; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. Evidence: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Process: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. Results: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Conclusion: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required. PMID:26745253

  19. Leadership Development and Training for Head Start Coordinators of Nutrition and Cook Managers. Nutrition and Food Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    This publication contains a curriculum model developed to train cook managers and nutrition coordinators of the nutrition component of Head Start programs. Designed to be offered in a university setting, the 2-week (60 hour) course consists of: (1) a brief overview of the Head Start program, (2) on-site observations of Head Start programs to…

  20. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  1. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rani H.; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L.; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B.; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Genet Med 16 2, 121–131. PMID:24385075

  2. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:24385075

  3. Nutritional management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ney, D; Hollingsworth, D R

    1981-01-01

    The important role of diet in the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes has been recognized since the nineteenth century. In this historical review we have traced the evolution of the diabetic diet from the pre-insulin era, when diabetic pregnancies were not only rare, but accompanied by high maternal mortality and fetal loss to 1981, when the nutritional management of carbohydrate intolerance during gestation is again raising provocative questions. Our recent understanding of diabetes as a heterogeneous syndrome, the 1979 dietary guidelines of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the 1980 revised Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for pregnant and lactating women are summarized as representative of the current approach to the nutritional management of diabetic pregnancies. Many questions remain unanswered. These include the hundred-year-old debate concerning the optimal amount of carbohydrate in the diabetic diet, the possible beneficial role of large amounts of dietary fiber, and the nagging concern about total caloric intake in type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) versus type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) pregnant diabetic women. We suggest that nutritional counseling during gestation in the future may need to be more highly individualized as metabolic distinctions between different types of patients with carbohydrate intolerance are more clearly delineated. PMID:6290158

  4. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  5. [Practical management of nutritional and food problems in crisis situations].

    PubMed

    Belchior-Bellino, V

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most consistent problems arising during crisis situations, i.e., food shortage. The author first presents the international context conducive to natural or man-made famine. He emphasizes the importance of early detection and the need for an evaluation phase using public health survey skills to determine the objectives of relief. He then describes strategies for management of alimentary and nutritional requirements in famine-stricken populations in function of the different types of malnutrition encountered. The article ends with a presentation of preventive measures that must be implemented in association with crisis management. PMID:12534175

  6. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  7. Managing the patient journey through enteral nutritional care.

    PubMed

    Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed. PMID:16697502

  8. Stress Management Skill for Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Edward A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of a stress management program for nursing students. The stress management group effectively reduced trait anxiety and showed a reduction in state (test-taking) anxiety from mid-semester to final examinations, while the control group showed a slight increase. (Author)

  9. Stress Management Training in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…

  10. A Review of Nutritional Factors in Hypertension Management

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha; Odelola, Olaide A.; Rangaswami, Janani; Amanullah, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Its attendant morbidity and mortality complications have a great impact on patient's quality of life and survival. Optimizing blood pressure control has been shown to improve overall health outcomes. In addition to pharmacological therapies, nonpharmacological approach such as dietary modification plays an important role in controlling blood pressure. Many dietary components such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium have been studied substantially in the past decades. While some of these nutrients have clear evidence for their recommendation, some remain controversial and are still of ongoing study. Dietary modification is often discussed with patients and can provide a great benefit in blood pressure regulation. As such, reviewing the current evidence will be very useful in guiding patients and their physician and/or dietician in decision making. In this review article of nutritional factors in hypertension management, we aim to examine the role of nutritional factors individually and as components of whole dietary patterns. PMID:23691281

  11. Life-History Consequences of Chronic Nutritional Stress in an Outbreaking Insect Defoliator

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Enric; Bauce, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Food shortage is a common situation in nature but little is known about the strategies animals use to overcome it. This lack of knowledge is especially true for outbreaking insects, which commonly experience nutritional stress for several successive generations when they reach high population densities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the life history consequences of chronic nutritional stress in the outbreaking moth Choristoneura fumiferana. Larvae were reared on two different artificial diets that emulate nutritional conditions larvae face during their natural population density cycle (low and medium quality artificial diets). After four generations, a subset of larvae was fed on the same diet as their parents, and another on the opposite diet. We explored larval life-history strategies to cope with nutritional stress, its associated costs and the influence of nutritional conditions experienced in the parental generation. We found no evidence of nutritional stress in the parental generation increasing offspring ability to feed on low quality diet, but the contrary: compared to offspring from parents that were fed a medium quality diet, larvae from parents fed a low quality diet had increased mortality, reduced growth rate and reduced female reproductive output. Our results support a simple stress hypothesis because the negative effects of malnutrition accumulated over successive generations. Density-dependent deterioration in plant quality is thought to be an important factor governing the population dynamics of outbreaking insects and we hypothesize that chronic nutritional stress can be a driver of outbreak declines of C. fumiferana, and of forest insects in general. PMID:24505368

  12. The open abdomen: definitions, management principles, and nutrition support considerations.

    PubMed

    Friese, Randall S

    2012-08-01

    The use of the "open abdomen" as a technique in the management of the complex surgical patient stems from the concept of damage control. Damage control principles underscore the importance of an abbreviated laparotomy focused on control of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal contamination in patients presenting with significant physiologic compromise. Definitive repair of injuries is postponed and the abdomen is temporarily "closed" using one of a number of different techniques. The ultimate goal is formal abdominal fascial closure within 48-72 hours of the initial laparotomy. Frequently, daily trips to the operating room are required for incremental closure of the abdominal fascia. However, in some cases, fascial closure is not possible secondary to ongoing visceral edema and loss of the peritoneal domain. In these cases, the patient is left with an "open abdomen" until skin grafting over the exposed peritoneal organs can be performed. Patients with an open abdomen have peritoneal contents exposed to the atmosphere and require a complex dressing to maintain fascial domain and provide protection to exposed organs. These patients are typically critically ill and managed in the intensive care unit early in the disease process. The open abdomen has become an important tool for the management of physiologically unstable patients requiring emergent abdominal surgical procedures. These patients present unique challenges to the critical care and nutrition support teams. Careful attention to fluid and electrolyte management, meticulous wound care, prevention of enteroatmospheric fistula, and individualized nutrition support therapy are essential to successful recovery in this patient population. PMID:22714062

  13. Stress Management as a Pacifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Wylie, Mary Lou

    While numerous studies have identified economic, social, and environmental conditions related to stress, greater stress has been found to be related to poverty, unemployment, assembly line work, crowding, and chronic exposure to noise. These stressful situations most frequently confront people with little personal, economic, or political resources…

  14. Consultation Stressors and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Sandy Kosub

    A high incidence of occupational stress has been demonstrated in the mental health and social service professions and appears to be a major factor contributing to low worker morale, absenteeism, high job turnover, and other indices of job stress. A study was conducted to examine the issue of occupational stress among psychological consultants.…

  15. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group housing (commingling). Alternate commingling strategies and nutritional supplements may help with this transition, but more research is needed to explore feasible alternatives. Optimizing the calf's health and well-being at these early stages may improve its long-term health and welfare. PMID:26805993

  16. Recommendations for nutrition best practice in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Executive summary (1).

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition therapy is an integral part of the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Four leading nutrition and diabetes organizations, the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), Dietitians of Canada (DC), Diabète Québec (DQ), and the Ordre professionnel des diététistes du Québec (OPDQ), formed a partnership to develop evidence-based nutrition practice guidelines for the management of GDM. It was generally agreed that nutrition requirements during pregnancy are similar for women with or without diabetes. However, evidence supporting current nutrition therapy practice specific to these clients remains limited. Nutrition recommendations for the management of GDM provided here are built on the available evidence and the principles, practices and treatment goals of the Canadian Diabetes Association 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. They identify areas where additional research is needed to support optimal nutrition therapy. PMID:17150144

  17. Assessment and management of nutrition and growth in Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Helen; Ravikumara, Madhur; Baikie, Gordon; Naseem, Nusrat; Ellaway, Carolyn; Percy, Alan; Abraham, Suzanne; Geerts, Suzanne; Lane, Jane; Jones, Mary; Bathgate, Katherine; Downs, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We developed recommendations for the clinical management of poor growth and weight gain in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. Methods Initial draft recommendations were created based upon literature review and 34 open-ended questions where the literature was lacking. Statements and questions were made available to an international, multi-disciplinary panel of clinicians in an online format and a Microsoft Word formatted version of the draft via email. Input was sought using a 2-stage modified Delphi process to reach consensus agreement. Items included clinical assessment of growth, anthropometry, feeding difficulties and management to increase caloric intake, decrease feeding difficulties and consideration of gastrostomy. Results Agreement was achieved on 101/112 statements. A comprehensive approach to the management of poor growth in Rett syndrome is recommended that takes into account factors such as feeding difficulties and nutritional needs. A BMI of approximately the 25th centile can be considered as a reasonable target in clinical practice. Gastrostomy is indicated for very poor growth, if there is risk of aspiration and if feeding times are prolonged. Conclusions These evidence- and consensus-based recommendations have the potential to improve care of nutrition and growth in a rare condition and stimulate research to improve the current limited evidence base. PMID:24084372

  18. Nutrition services in managed care: new paradigms for dietitians.

    PubMed

    Laramee, S H

    1996-04-01

    Managed care systems are transforming the health care system in the United States. Dietitians will need to review practice opportunities in new and different settings, and develop additional skills to make a successful transition to the transformed health care environment. The shift in health care financing from a fee-for-service model to a capitated system will have the most dramatic impact on the profession. Not all the answers are available, but the focus for the future is clear--customer satisfaction, outcomes research, and cost-effective nutrition services. PMID:8598432

  19. Resistance to nutritional stress in ants: when being fat is advantageous.

    PubMed

    Dussutour, Audrey; Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Buhl, Jerome; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-03-15

    In ants, nutrient acquisition for the whole colony relies on a minority of workers, the foragers, which are often old and lean. Some studies have shown that the link between age, physiology and foraging activity is more flexible than once thought, especially in response to colony or environmental perturbations. This great plasticity offers the intriguing possibility to disentangle the effect of age, behaviour and physiology on the ants' abilities to cope with nutritional stresses. In this paper, we first looked at the capacity of groups of foragers and inner-nest workers to resist starvation and macronutrient imbalance. Second, we investigated whether behavioural task reversion modified the tolerance to nutritional stresses and by extension, changed mortality rate. We found that inner-nest workers live longer than foragers under nutritional stresses but not under optimal conditions. The reversion from foraging to inner-nest activities is followed by an increase in fat content and longevity. Finally, we demonstrated that changes in fat content associated with behavioural transition are highly flexible and strongly correlated to tolerance of nutritional stress. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the population dynamics of social insects under adverse nutritional conditions. PMID:26985052

  20. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  1. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  2. Purification and use of glycomacropeptide for nutritional management of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Laclair, Caitlin E; Ney, Denise M; MacLeod, Erin L; Etzel, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) and must adhere to a low-Phe diet in which most dietary protein is provided by a Phe-free amino acid formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the only naturally occurring protein that does not contain Phe, and is of interest as a source of protein for dietary management of PKU. However, commercially available GMP contains too much Phe from residual whey proteins and does not contain adequate levels of all the indispensable amino acids to provide a nutritionally complete protein. The aim of this study was to increase purity of GMP and develop a mass balance calculation for indispensable amino acid supplementation of GMP foods. Cation exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration/diafiltration, and lyophilization were used at the pilot plant scale to decrease Phe. Enough purified GMP (5 kg) was manufactured to provide 15 PKU subjects with a 4-d diet in which the majority of protein was from GMP foods. A mass balance was used to supplement GMP foods so that all indispensable amino acids met or exceeded the daily recommended intake. GMP foods were tested in a human clinical trial as a replacement for the traditional amino acid formula. Nutritionally complete GMP foods created with high purity GMP provide individuals with PKU with more options to manage PKU, which may lead to improved compliance and quality of life. PMID:19490325

  3. Purification and Use of Glycomacropeptide for Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    LaClair, Caitlin E.; Ney, Denise M.; MacLeod, Erin L.; Etzel, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) and must adhere to a low-Phe diet in which most dietary protein is provided by a Phe-free amino acid formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the only naturally occurring protein that does not contain Phe, and is of interest as a source of protein for dietary management of PKU. However, commercially available GMP contains too much Phe from residual whey proteins and does not contain adequate levels of all the indispensable amino acids to provide a nutritionally complete protein. The aim of this study was to increase purity of GMP and develop a mass balance calculation for indispensable amino acid supplementation of GMP foods. Cation exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration/diafiltration, and lyophilization were used at the pilot plant scale to decrease Phe. Enough purified GMP (5 kg) was manufactured to provide 15 PKU subjects with a 4-d diet in which the majority of protein was from GMP foods. A mass balance was used to supplement GMP foods so that all indispensable amino acids met or exceeded the daily recommended intake. GMP foods were tested in a human clinical trial as a replacement for the traditional amino acid formula. Nutritionally complete GMP foods created with high purity GMP provide individuals with PKU with more options to manage PKU, which may lead to improved compliance and quality of life. PMID:19490325

  4. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Pediatric Obesity: Nutrition Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael M.; Kolbash, Stacy; Cohen, Gail M.; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obesity are rapidly evolving. Thought to be caused by an imbalance of caloric intake and expenditure, obesity requires a comprehensive evaluation of patient, familial, environmental, genetic, and cultural characteristics so clinicians can design successful interventions. Quantitative nutrition assessment of caloric intake is difficult and time consuming and should be used only in isolated settings, such as in the research setting, or if initial approaches to management have been unsuccessful. As an alternative, providers should identify dietary patterns or behaviors that have been linked to obesity and are promising targets for change. Clinicians should tailor interventions by considering patient and family motivation and readiness to change. Current guidelines recommend stepwise increases in treatment plans, and multidisciplinary treatment teams are recommended for patients who require intense intervention. Providers involved at the multidisciplinary level must incorporate their area of expertise into that of the team to develop a comprehensive management plan. This article reviews current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of pediatric obesity with a focus on nutrition evaluation as part of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:20702836

  5. Multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric obesity: nutrition evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael M; Kolbash, Stacy; Cohen, Gail M; Skelton, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obesity are rapidly evolving. Thought to be caused by an imbalance of caloric intake and expenditure, obesity requires a comprehensive evaluation of patient, familial, environmental, genetic, and cultural characteristics so clinicians can design successful interventions. Quantitative nutrition assessment of caloric intake is difficult and time consuming and should be used only in isolated settings, such as in the research setting, or if initial approaches to management have been unsuccessful. As an alternative, providers should identify dietary patterns or behaviors that have been linked to obesity and are promising targets for change. Clinicians should tailor interventions by considering patient and family motivation and readiness to change. Current guidelines recommend stepwise increases in treatment plans, and multidisciplinary treatment teams are recommended for patients who require intense intervention. Providers involved at the multidisciplinary level must incorporate their area of expertise into that of the team to develop a comprehensive management plan. This article reviews current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of pediatric obesity with a focus on nutrition evaluation as part of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:20702836

  6. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  7. Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Samuel F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

  8. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  9. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

  10. Stress Management. A Challenge for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trollan, Constance

    The goal for the adult educator in modern society is to help individuals gain the competencies to function adequately with perpetual change. Adult education should plan and implement stress management programs as an educational activity that is a basis upon which people can learn to adapt to societal stress and rapid social evolution. The health…

  11. Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…

  12. Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential

  13. Giving nutrition support to critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs. PMID:26182552

  14. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p < 0.01), rating of current stress level and confidence to manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme. PMID:23897838

  15. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  16. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  17. Oral habits--part 1: the dental effects and management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mihiri; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive sucking and non-nutritive sucking are among the most commonly reported oral habits in children. These habits generally cease around four years of age as interaction with other children increases. However, prolonged habits may alter dento-skeletal development, leading to orthodontic problems, which may persist into the permanent dentition. Rewards, reminder therapy, and appliance therapy have been described for the management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. Reminder therapy includes the use of gloves, thumb-guards, mittens, and tastants applied to fingers. When other modes of treatment have failed, appliance therapy, such as palatal cribs or Bluegrass appliances, may be necessary to prevent the placement of the digit in its sucking position. These tools are very effective and are associated with few adverse effects; however, they must be used with the cooperation of the child and never as punishment. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians about nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits in children and their impact on dental/skeletal development, and management options. PMID:25514257

  18. Usability of a web-based personal nutrition management tool.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gulkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal; Karaağaoglu, Nilgun; Saka, Osman

    2011-12-01

    'Personal Nutrition Management Tool' (PENUMAT) is an interactive web-based application which aims to help individuals seeking nutrition information on the Internet. However, little is known about the usability of such applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of PENUMAT using multi-method approach. For an in-depth usability analysis, using a multi-method approach involving protocol analysis, interviews and a system usability scale (SUS) was adopted. The sample consisted of 10 healthy (five males and five females) volunteers between the ages of 22 and 60. The overall usability score was calculated; usability problems and users' opinions were obtained. All usability problems were classified according to the heuristics and listed with their frequencies. Overall, the usability score ranged from 77.5 to 100, with a median of 88.7. In-depth usability analysis exposed several usability problems mostly related to content, navigation and interactivity. Interview results showed that 'being personal and private' (70%) and 'providing personal feedbacks' (60%) were the most appreciated characteristics of the tool. Although the tool has an acceptable overall usability score, several unnoticed usability problems of the interface design were realised with the in-depth analysis. Therefore, the importance of using a multi-method analysis of usability was pointed out. PMID:21345010

  19. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... required health education course in middle schools or high schools. • Among classes in which nutrition and dietary behavior ... 18.3 27.3 * Among elementary, middle, and high schools. † Among middle and high schools. 1 Selected changes ...

  20. Managing stress and change during service reviews.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    Service reviews occur throughout the National Health Service from time to time, and changes in commissioning policies have recently led many Primary Care Trusts to hold reviews of the community health services. Although reviews can provide opportunities for fresh thinking, the process can be a time of considerable stress and apprehension for many staff as current systems and ways of working are challenged and possibly changed. If this stress is not managed appropriately, staff may suffer ill health leading to possible staff absences and pressure on services. Leaders and managers are ideally placed to manage this time of stress, if they have the necessary skills and qualities. Self-help measures are also beneficial and recommended as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article discusses how change can affect people in different stages of their life and how it can be managed more positively in the workplace. PMID:19517944

  1. [BALANCED SCORECARD AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN CLINICAL NUTRITION].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez López, Cristina; Mauriz, Jose L; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, balanced scorecards have updated traditional management systems in the business sector. In this way, Kaplan and Norton propose performance measurement through several perspectives with a logical sequence: internal processes and learning impact client services, so that financial performance is affected. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the main characteristics of balanced scorecard when it is applied to non-for-profit companies and, specifically to the health sector in the clinical nutrition field. This model improves the economic vision of management with clinical indicators that represent healthcare professional's perspective. The balanced scorecard would allow a proper monitoring and tracking system for the main healthcare indicators. This contributes to a better control in comparison with standards that are associated with adequate quality assistance. Owing to the role of management accounting and cost calculations, the definition of healthcare professionals as clients or users, and clinical results relevance, it is necessary to adapt the balanced scorecard to the specific characteristics of the clinical field, redefining both perspectives and indicators. PMID:26262746

  2. Occupational stress, working condition and nutritional status of military police officers.

    PubMed

    Santana, Angela Maria C; Gomes, Josiane Keila V; De Marchi, Dione; Girondoli, Yassana M; Rosado, Lina E F P de Lima; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; de Andrade, Isabel Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress, working conditions and the nutritional status of 53 military police officers in a Southeast city of Brazil. In order to evaluate the symptomatology and the stress phase, the Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp for Adults - ISSL was utilized. The assessment of the working conditions was performed by means of socio-demographic questionnaire, direct observation and interviews. The nutritional and health conditions were assessed through anthropometric measures, biochemical tests, blood pressure measurements and cardiovascular disease risk calculator. The sample is of the male gender (92.5%) and aging below 40 years old (73.6%). From these, 35.8% showed stress and 68.4% were in the resistance phase, with 31.6% almost burned out. Through the calculation of Chi-square we could find positive association between the BMI and tiredness (P = 0.0188), between the BMI and irritation (P = 0.0005) and the BMI and the appearance of nervous system problems or emotional problems (P = 0.0304), indicating that these statuses or problems could be related to work. We can conclude then, the stress is present among military police officers. No case of critical stress was found, and the stress phases identified are still susceptible to intervention. PMID:22317161

  3. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment. PMID:26853727

  4. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  5. Nutritional management of PKU with glycomacropeptide from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Gleason, S T; van Calcar, S C; MacLeod, E L; Nelson, K L; Etzel, M R; Rice, G M; Wolff, J A

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet to prevent neurological impairment. Compliance with the low-Phe diet is often poor owing to restriction in natural foods and the requirement for consumption of a Phe-free amino acid formula or medical food. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a natural protein produced during cheese-making, is uniquely suited to a low-Phe diet because when isolated from cheese whey it contains minimal Phe (2.5-5 mg Phe/g protein). This paper reviews progress in evaluating the safety, acceptability and efficacy of GMP in the nutritional management of PKU. A variety of foods and beverages can be made with GMP to improve the taste, variety and convenience of the PKU diet. Sensory studies in individuals with PKU demonstrate that GMP foods are acceptable alternatives to amino acid medical foods. Studies in the PKU mouse model demonstrate that GMP supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provides a nutritionally adequate source of protein and improves the metabolic phenotype by reducing concentrations of Phe in plasma and brain. A case report in an adult with classical PKU who followed the GMP diet for 10 weeks at home indicates safety, acceptability of GMP food products, a 13-14% reduction in blood Phe levels (p<0.05) and improved distribution of dietary protein throughout the day compared with the amino acid diet. In summary, food products made with GMP that is supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provide a palatable alternative source of protein that may improve dietary compliance and metabolic control of PKU. PMID:18956251

  6. Nutritional management of PKU with glycomacropeptide from cheese whey

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, S. T.; van Calcar, S. C.; MacLeod, E. L.; Nelson, K. L.; Etzel, M. R.; Rice, G. M.; Wolff, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet to prevent neurological impairment. Compliance with the low-Phe diet is often poor owing to restriction in natural foods and the requirement for consumption of a Phe-free amino acid formula or medical food. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a natural protein produced during cheese-making, is uniquely suited to a low-Phe diet because when isolated from cheese whey it contains minimal Phe (2.5–5 mg Phe/g protein). This paper reviews progress in evaluating the safety, acceptability and efficacy of GMP in the nutritional management of PKU. A variety of foods and beverages can be made with GMP to improve the taste, variety and convenience of the PKU diet. Sensory studies in individuals with PKU demonstrate that GMP foods are acceptable alternatives to amino acid medical foods. Studies in the PKU mouse model demonstrate that GMP supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provides a nutritionally adequate source of protein and improves the metabolic phenotype by reducing concentrations of Phe in plasma and brain. A case report in an adult with classical PKU who followed the GMP diet for 10 weeks at home indicates safety, acceptability of GMP food products, a 13–14% reduction in blood Phe levels (p<0.05) and improved distribution of dietary protein throughout the day compared with the amino acid diet. In summary, food products made with GMP that is supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids provide a palatable alternative source of protein that may improve dietary compliance and metabolic control of PKU. PMID:18956251

  7. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  8. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898

  9. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals. PMID:25700740

  10. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  11. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  12. Psychoeducational Interventions for Stress Management and Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes importance of educating students about stress and stress management, because students will confront stressors throughout their life span. Summarizes major stress theories and shows how stress theory and stress management strategies can be integrated into existing school curricula. (Author/NB)

  13. Life-history consequences of adaptation to larval nutritional stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kolss, Munjong; Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Schwaller, Geraldine; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2009-09-01

    Many animal species face periods of chronic nutritional stress during which the individuals must continue to develop, grow, and/or reproduce despite low quantity or quality of food. Here, we use experimental evolution to study adaptation to such chronic nutritional stress in six replicate Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for the ability to survive and develop within a limited time on a very poor larval food. In unselected control populations, this poor food resulted in 20% lower egg-to-adult viability, 70% longer egg-to-adult development, and 50% lower adult body weight (compared to the standard food on which the flies were normally maintained). The evolutionary changes associated with adaptation to the poor food were assayed by comparing the selected and control lines in a common environment for different traits after 29-64 generations of selection. The selected populations evolved improved egg-to-adult viability and faster development on poor food. Even though the adult dry weight of selected flies when raised on the poor food was lower than that of controls, their average larval growth rate was higher. No differences in proportional pupal lipid content were observed. When raised on the standard food, the selected flies showed the same egg-to-adult viability and the same resistance to larval heat and cold shock as the controls and a slightly shorter developmental time. However, despite only 4% shorter development time, the adults of selected populations raised on the standard food were 13% smaller and showed 20% lower early-life fecundity than the controls, with no differences in life span. The selected flies also turned out less tolerant to adult malnutrition. Thus, fruit flies have the genetic potential to adapt to poor larval food, with no detectable loss of larval performance on the standard food. However, adaptation to larval nutritional stress is associated with trade-offs with adult fitness components, including adult tolerance to nutritional stress. PMID:19473389

  14. Dietary Management in Hypertension. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  15. Dietary Management for Alcoholic Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  16. Dietary Management in Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  17. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  18. Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  19. Dietary Management in Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  20. A Review of Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) in China Using a Nutritional Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...

  1. Nutritional considerations in the management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Slowie, L A; Paige, M S; Antel, J P

    1983-07-01

    This study examines the nutritional status of patients with ALS based on data derived from a dietary history, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical assessment. Twenty patients, 11 men and 9 women, were studied to determine nutritional status in order to differentiate appropriate therapy and monitor prognosis. The study suggests that nutritional support of these patients may help allay weight loss and retard muscle atrophy. Nutritional management involves (a) early detection and correction of inadequate nutrient intake, particularly of kilocalories; (b) concurrent modification in consistency of food intake with development of bulbar involvement; and (c) determination of optimal time to institute alternate feeding routes in cases of bulbar involvement. PMID:6863783

  2. [Nutritional approaches to modulate oxidative stress that induce Alzheimer's disease. Nutritional approaches to prevent Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Lara, Humberto Herman; Alanís-Garza, Eduardo Javier; Estrada Puente, María Fernanda; Mureyko, Lucía Liliana; Alarcón Torres, David Alejandro; Ixtepan Turrent, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the world; symptoms first appear after age 65 and have a progressive evolution. Expecting an increase on its incidence and knowing there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, it is a necessity to prevent progression. The change in diet due to globalization may explain the growth of the incidence in places such as Japan and Mediterranean countries, which used to have fewer incidences. There is a direct correlation between disease progression and the increased intake of alcohol, saturated fats, and red meat. Therefore, we find obesity and higher serum levels in cholesterol due to saturated fat as a result. A way to decrease the progression of Alzheimer's is through a diet rich in polipheno/es (potent antioxidants), unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), fish, vegetable fa t, fruits with low glycemic index, and a moderate consumption of red wine. Through this potent antioxidant diet we accomplish the prevention of dementia and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This article emphasizes the food and other components that have been demonstrated to decrease the oxidative stress related to these progressive diseases. PMID:25946535

  3. Stress Management in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dennis T.; And Others

    This paper on designing and implementing a stress management program in the workplace begins by defining stress. A brief overview of the relationship of stress to health and personal style follows. The subsequent discussion of the relationship between stress and work focuses on these topics: work contributes to stress; stress affects work…

  4. Nutritional management after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Luís Carlos do Rego

    Changes in the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery markedly change patients' eating patterns. Malnutrition is a significant risk associated with all bariatric procedures, which can lead to dangerous nutritional deficiencies. However, if correct patient selection is conducted and if patients receive thorough preoperative nutrition education and postoperative nutritional follow-up, these deficiencies are largely preventable. Nurses are important members of the multidisciplinary team; assisting in patient selection, providing hands-on care, and educating the patient on the surgical process and post-operative dietary restrictions. It is critical for nurses to understand immediate and projected nutritional consequences of surgery, in order to monitor the patient for diet tolerance and nutrient deficiency symptoms, to encourage dietary compliance, and to reinforce the long-term dietary restrictions. With appropriate supplementation and patient compliance, all nutritional deficiencies can be avoided or corrected. PMID:20505602

  5. Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  6. Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157876.html Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients When ... March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of stress management training can make cardiac rehabilitation programs more ...

  7. Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy. PMID:23267362

  8. Management of rowers with rib stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Wajswelner, Henry

    1996-01-01

    Stress fractures of the ribs in rowers occur mostly along the anterior axillary line, but also anteriorly and posteriorly. Management has previously consisted of rest, but symptoms can recur on return to training. Earlier return to rowing can be achieved with management that includes ice and TENS for pain relief, pulsed magnetic field therapy and passive mobilisation of the thoracic spine and costovertebral joints. Aerobic fitness is maintained with stationary cycling. Rowing is progressively introduced according to symptoms and strapping is used to support the ribs during training. Posture and technique is reviewed with the coach to eliminate unusual movements of the shoulder girdle. PMID:11676647

  9. Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:25755550

  10. Stress management strategies for women doctoral students.

    PubMed

    Kenty, J R

    2000-01-01

    When women return to school part-time for the doctorate while continuing to work full-time, they face many changes in their lives. Adding the role of doctoral student to existing roles at work and home can be challenging for women. By using stress-reducing strategies aimed at managing role changes, time pressures, and education issues, women can successfully integrate the student role into their daily lives. PMID:16646205

  11. Vestibular Stimulation for Stress Management in Students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sai Sailesh; Rajagopalan, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although several methods are developed to alleviate stress among college students, logistic limitations in adopting them have limited their utility. Aim Hence, we aimed to test a very practical approach to alleviate stress among college students by achieving vestibular stimulation using swings. Materials and Methods In this study 60 male and female participants were randomly assigned into vestibular stimulation or control groups. Depression, anxiety, stress scores, sleep quality, heart rate, blood pressure, Autonomic functions, respiratory, haematological, cognitive function, Quality of life were recorded before and after 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th days of vestibular stimulation. Results STAI S and STAI T scores were significantly improved on day 28th following vestibular stimulation. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly decreased and remained within normal limits in vestibular group on day 28th following vestibular stimulation. Postural fall in blood pressure was significantly improved on day 14 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. Respiratory rate was significantly improved on day 7 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. PSQI sleep disturbance, PSQI sleep latency, PSQI total score and bleeding time was significantly improved following vestibular stimulation. Conclusion Our study supports the adoption of vestibular stimulation for stress management. Hence, placement of swings in college campuses must be considered, which may be a simple approach to alleviate stress among college students. PMID:27042457

  12. The Nurturing Teacher: Managing the Stress of Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles the concerns of stressed teachers. Whether from nurturance suffering (stress related to caring for students) or from the piles of paperwork yet to be tackled, this text helps the reader sort through the causes of stress, the emotional, physical and social reactions to stress and how one can begin to plan a stress management plan.…

  13. Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. ERIC Digest #E488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.

    Presented in a question-and-answer format, this digest offers guidelines to help gifted students manage stress effectively. The following questions are considered: What is stress? How can a youngster experience stress when nothing bad is happening? Is a gifted student more likely to feel stress than others? What are some stresses on a gifted…

  14. Pregnancies complicated by obesity: clinical approach and nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, I; Devlieger, R; Vansant, G

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis indicated by a literature review and a prospective study that maternal obesity is associated with serious complications for both mother and child. This is a problem since already 9% of the pregnant women at the antenatal department of the University Hospital Leuven was obese during 2006. A prospective study with 142 women showed that maternal obesity is also associated with a lower diet quality during pregnancy compared to normal weight pregnant women. To reduce the high prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain among obese pregnant women and to improve their low diet quality, a randomized controlled trial with 2 intervention groups with a different intensity of nutritional guidance was set up. Both interventions improved dietary habits, but affecting physical activity level and gestational weight gain remains a challenge. During this thesis 2 practical tools for all pregnant women and their health care providers were developed: weight gain percentile charts for each body mass index category and a website giving information on nutrition, physical activity, and weight gain during pregnancy. Besides obese pregnant women, pregnant women with a history of bariatric surgery are also a high-risk population. Even though the obesity related pregnancy complications decrease after the surgery induced weight loss, other complications such as internal hernias and nutritional deficiencies with potential lethal consequences have been identified. A multidisciplinary follow-up during pregnancy with routine screening for nutritional deficiencies with attention for the fat-soluble vitamins and patient tailored nutritional supplementation seems required. PMID:21409953

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-1: Occupational Opportunities Related to Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Mary

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on occupational opportunities related to foods and nutrition is the first in a set of three modules on occupational education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  16. Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis: Prevention and Management.

    PubMed

    Beath, Sue V; Kelly, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    When cholestasis occurs in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition, it is the result of many pathogenic pathways converging on the hepatic acinus. The result may be a temporary rise in liver function tests. The resulting fibrosis, portal hypertension, and jaundice are hallmarks of type 3 intestinal-associated liver disease to which children are more susceptible than adults. The key to prevention is in identifying high-risk scenarios, meticulous monitoring, and personalized prescription of parenteral nutrition solutions combined with an active approach in reducing the impact of inflammatory events when they occur by prompt use of antibiotics and line locks. PMID:26593297

  17. Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P; Feakins, R; Domizio, P; Murphy, J; Bevins, C; Wilson, J; McPhail, G; Poulsom, R; Dhaliwal, W

    2004-02-01

    Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection. PMID:14738460

  18. Stress, Food, and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology and Nutrition at the Cutting Edge

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would certainly be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can impact mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen NF-κB activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community. PMID:20410248

  19. [Management of nutrition--and endocrine metabolism-related complications of bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Pan, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Bariatric surgery has increasingly been applied for patients with severe obesity. By dramatically reducing body weight and producing favorable effects on disorders in endocrine metabolism, bariatric surgery has shown to be able to lower the overall mortality. However, this intervention involves a profound change in digestive physiology and may cause nutrition and endocrinal metabolism-related severe complications, which mainly result from the deficiency or unbalance of macronutrients and micronutrients. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a fixed management procedure which includes routine perioperative nutritional consultation, regular monitoring, and early preventive nutritional support, so as to prevent metabolic complications and achieve better outcomes. PMID:21718599

  20. Stress management by autophagy: Implications for chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Zhou, Li; Chen, Zhibin; Nice, Edouard C; Huang, Canhua

    2016-07-01

    Development of chemoresistance, which limits the efficiency of anticancer agents, has long been a major problem in cancer therapy and urgently needs to be solved to improve clinical outcomes. Factors contributing to chemoresistance are various, but a key factor is the cell's capability for stress management. Autophagy, a favored survival strategy that organisms employ to get over many kinds of stress, is emerging as a crucial player in drug resistance. It has been shown that autophagy facilitates the resistance of tumor cells to anticancer agents, and abrogation of autophagy could be therapeutically beneficial in some cases, suggesting autophagy could be a promising target for cancer treatments. Thus, defining the roles of autophagy in chemoresistance, and the mechanisms involved, will be critical to enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy and develop novel anticancer strategy interventions. PMID:26757106

  1. Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

  2. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  3. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  4. The Pro-Survival Role of Autophagy Depends on Bcl-2 Under Nutrition Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Dan; Gu, Jin-Hua; Ge, Jian-Bin; Wu, Jun-Chao; Han, Rong; Liang, Zhong-Qin; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy can be induced under nutrition stress conditions. Bcl-2 is a pro-survival protein which inhibits apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of Bcl-2 in autophagy regulation and cell survival under nutrition deprivation has not been fully understood. This study sought to investigate if Bcl-2 upregulation is essential in limiting autophagic activity and prevent cell death under nutrition deprivation conditions. Autophagic activity was monitored by the changes in GFP-LC3 localization and protein levels of Beclin1, LC3-II, cathepsin D and p62 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells underwent serum deprivation. Manipulation of Bcl-2 function was achieved with siRNAs and small molecular inhibitors. The cell viability and apoptosis were assessed with MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. The results showed that serum starvation increased protein levels of LC3-II and Beclin1 but decreased autophagy substrate p62. Autophagy activation induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin was accompanied by an upregulation of Bcl-2 protein levels. When Bcl-2 was knocked down with siRNA or inhibited with HA 14-1 or ABT-737, serum starvation induced profound cell death and enhanced autophagic flux under nutrition deprivation conditions, while knockdown of autophagic gene Beclin1 or autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and E64D), rescued cell death. In contrast, overexpression of Bcl-2 inhibited autophagy and blocked cell death in response to serum deprivation. These data suggest that Bcl-2 plays an essential role in limiting autophagy activation and preventing initiation of programmed cell death. Thus Bcl-2 may be an important mechanism for balancing beneficial and detrimental impacts of autophagy on cell survival. PMID:23658815

  5. Co-option of developmentally regulated plant SWEET transporters for pathogen nutrition and abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Divya

    2015-07-01

    Plant sugar will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET) sugar transporters have been implicated in various developmental processes where sugar efflux is essential, including sucrose loading of phloem for long-distance sugar transport, nectar secretion, embryo and pollen nutrition, and maintenance of sugar homeostasis in plant organs. Notably, these transporters are selectively targeted by pathogens to gain access to host sugars. In most cases, when SWEET function is blocked, the growth and virulence of the pathogen is also reduced. There is growing evidence to suggest that the lifestyle of the pathogen may dictate which SWEET or set of SWEET genes are recruited for pathogen growth and proliferation. Furthermore, SWEET transporters may also play a role in abiotic stress tolerance by enabling plant growth under unfavorable environmental conditions. This review provides an overview of the diverse functions of SWEET proteins in plant development, pathogen nutrition, and abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, utility of the model legume Medicago truncatula as a tool to elucidate SWEET function in diverse host-microbe interactions is discussed. PMID:26179993

  6. Lipidomic analysis of lipid droplets from murine hepatocytes reveals distinct signatures for nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Chitraju, Chandramohan; Trtzmller, Martin; Hartler, Jrgen; Wolinski, Heimo; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Kfeler, Harald C; Spener, Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritional stress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritional stress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights. PMID:22872753

  7. Oxidative stress, protein glycation and nutrition--interactions relevant to health and disease throughout the lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Lean, Michael E J; Combet, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Protein glycation has been studied for over a century now and plays an important role in disease pathogenesis throughout the lifecycle. Strongly related to diabetic complications, glycation of Hb has become the gold standard method for diabetes diagnosis and monitoring. It is however attracting attention in normoglycaemia as well lately. Longitudinal studies increasingly suggest a positive relationship between glycation and the risk of chronic diseases in normoglycaemic individuals, but the mechanisms behind this association remain unclear. The interaction between glycation and oxidative stress may be particularly relevant in the normoglycaemic context, as suggested by recent epidemiological and in vitro evidence. In that context nutritional and lifestyle factors with an influence on redox status, such as smoking, fruit and vegetable and antioxidants consumption, may have the capacity to promote or inhibit glycation. However, experimental data from controlled trials are lacking the quality and rigour needed to reach firm conclusions. In the present review, we discuss the importance of glycation for health through the lifecycle and focus on the importance of oxidative stress as a driver for glycation. The importance of nutrition to modulate glycation is discussed, based on the evidence available and recommendations towards higher quality future research are made. PMID:24877772

  8. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy. PMID:24741961

  9. Creative stress-management techniques for self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, D

    2001-02-01

    The daily stress and pressure of today's nurses are profound. As workloads escalate and staffing declines, nurses must be proactive and develop healthier lifestyles. Creative stress management techniques offer health-promoting strategies to manage stress in nurses' lives. PMID:11917296

  10. Stress Management Model for the Elementary/Middle/High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    The Matthews Stress Management formula is a stress management model for use in schools. This effective, practical, and inexpensive model entails the awareness of the physiology of stress, perception of tangible bases of motivation for children, appropriate and simplified techniques, applicability to other areas, and full recognition of the

  11. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

  12. A Stress-Management Guide for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Bettie B.

    This document presents a comprehensive guide to help young people understand and cope with stress, pressure, and anxiety. Adolescent readers are introduced to the concept of stress, the ways that stress can affect them, and the skills and techniques needed to help them learn effective ways to reduce and manage stress. The guide begins by defining…

  13. Nutrition economics: an innovative approach to informed public health management.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Mark; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The role of nutrition to optimize the use of scarce resources through its linkage with health and welfare should be considered of interest by healthcare decision makers. A favorable impact of food on non-communicable disorders and general health status will improve healthcare expenditure and quality of life.In health economics, an analysis of the costs and effects of a healthcare technology by means of a cost-effectiveness analysis has become an established tool. Projections about the effectiveness and expected costs of an intervention can be modeled using realistic and explicit assumptions based on outcomes from randomized clinical studies. However, the use of health economic techniques to assess costs and effects is not solely restricted to classic healthcare products such as medicines. To illustrate this we used two published cost-effectiveness studies, which consider respectively a preventive treatment against severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children at high risk of hospitalization and the use of prebiotics for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis.These examples illustrate that there is a parallel between the methodologies for extrapolation of intermediate outcomes to long-term outcomes between a cost-effectiveness analysis for pharmaceutical or nutrition, as long as the clinical evidence for nutrition fulfils the requirements for pharmaceuticals. Another requirement is that there is clinical widely accepted evidence that matches a comparable level of epidemiological observations about the link between short-term and long-term outcomes.Better understanding of how nutritional status and behavior may interplay with the socioeconomic environment will ultimately contribute to preserving the sustainability of healthcare provisions. PMID:21810421

  14. Sugars and starch in the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kelley, David E

    2003-10-01

    Nutritional recommendations, long recognized as an important aspect of diabetes mellitus treatment, have also been an area of persistent controversy, particularly regarding the proportions and types of carbohydrate and fat. This review addresses the role of sugars within medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus. Nutritional recommendations for diabetes mellitus treatment were revised recently. The new guidelines do not specifically restrict intake of sugars, although general recommendations are made for including fiber, whole grains, vegetables, and fruits within dietary selections containing starches. For carbohydrates, the principle focus is on overall caloric amounts. In type 1 diabetes the most effective approach to the control of postprandial hyperglycemia continues to be adjustment of premeal doses of insulin on the basis of carbohydrate counting. In type 2 diabetes, in addition to a focus on caloric content of carbohydrate, consideration continues to be given to the role of the glycemic index as a determinant of postprandial hyperglycemia and overall metabolic control. Nevertheless, consensus recommendations do not support widespread use of the glycemic index. An area of some change is a more clear endorsement of including monounsaturated fatty acids. Current recommendations are that monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates combined should provide 60-70% of daily energy intake, with individual flexibility in the respective proportions, whereas intake of saturated fats is limited to < 10% of energy intake. This new emphasis reflects greater awareness of the importance of responding to individual and cultural dietary preferences and the need to address treatment of both hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus. PMID:14522750

  15. Dysphagia in the elderly: management and nutritional considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia. PMID:22956864

  16. Social relationships and the management of stress.

    PubMed

    Sachser, N; Dürschlag, M; Hirzel, D

    1998-11-01

    Two different types of social relationships exist in mammalian social systems: dominance relationships and social bondings. This article shows that both are crucial for the management of stress. The following general conclusions are derived: (1) In stable social systems, established dominance relationships result in predictable behaviour. As a consequence, low positions in the hierarchy do not necessarily lead to enhanced endocrine stress responses. Under conditions of instability, however, distinct increases in the activities of the pituitary-adrenocortical- and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary systems are found; (2) The ability to establish and to respect dominance relationships is a prerequisite to build up stable social systems. Whether this ability is realized, however, depends on social experiences made during behavioural development. The time around puberty seems to be essential for the acquisition of those social skills needed to adapt to unfamiliar conspecifics in a non-stressful and non-aggressive way; (3) Stress responses can be ameliorated by the presence of members of the same species. This phenomenon is called social support. In general, social support cannot be provided by any conspecific, but the ability to give social support is restricted to bonding partners. In most mammalian species mothers are important bonding partners for their infants. In some species bondings also occur between adult individuals; and (4) On a physiological level the bonding partner reduces the activities of the pituitary-adrenocortical- and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary systems. On a psychological level he/she can be regarded as a 'security-giving and arousal-reducing structure'. This is true irrespective of whether the bonding partner is the mother, in the case of an infant, or a male or a female in the case of an adult individual. PMID:9924743

  17. Nutritional management of a patient with brain damage and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bildsten, C; Lamid, S

    1983-08-01

    Few reports on nutritional management of patients with both brain damage and spinal-cord-injury appear in the literature. We present a case of a 20-year-old male quadriplegic, C4 complete, who also sustained brain damage secondary to cerebral anoxia. When the patient was transferred to our rehabilitation unit, deterioration in nutritional status was noted, as evidenced by weight loss and depressed serum albumin and hemoglobin. Nutritional rehabilitation consisted of weaning from nasogastric tube feedings to an oral diet providing snacks and commercial supplements. This resulted in a positive nitrogen balance. Other factors, such as mobilization, exercises, and closure of a pressure sore, contributed favorably to improvement of nutritional status. PMID:6411046

  18. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Managing Your Stress Know When to Get Help Sometimes things become ... anger, or desires revenge; or shows signs of stress (listed on this page) for several days or ...

  19. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S.; Chabot, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary nutrition screening and intervention, and the surgical/oncological team should include nutrition professionals in managing these patients in the perioperative period. PMID:25713805

  20. Nutritional management of infants with inborn metabolic errors.

    PubMed

    Morrow, G

    1975-09-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism can dramatically manifest themselves in the new born period or remain completely undetected. Awareness on the part of the physician, with every attempt being made to arrive at an early diagnosis, is the basis for a favorable outcome. Many approaches to therapy are possible but the most frequently used is that of substrate restriction in the form of dietary control. Frequent monitoring of growth as well as of plasma biochemical analysis can result in adequate nutritional status as well as in normal development. PMID:1102228

  1. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying mechanisms of protection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25451133

  2. Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Raffatellu, Manuela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Tjalsma, Harold

    2014-11-01

    Iron is abundantly present on earth, essential for most microorganisms and crucial for human health. Human iron deficiency that is nevertheless highly prevalent in developing regions of the world can be effectively treated by oral iron administration. Accumulating evidence indicates that excess of unabsorbed iron that enters the colonic lumen causes unwanted side effects at the intestinal host-microbiota interface. The chemical properties of iron, the luminal environment and host iron withdrawal mechanisms, especially during inflammation, can turn the intestine in a rather stressful milieu. Certain pathogenic enteric bacteria can, however, deal with this stress at the expense of other members of the gut microbiota, while their virulence also seems to be stimulated in an iron-rich intestinal environment. This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health. We aim to present an unpreceded view on the dynamic effects and impact of oral iron administration on intestinal host-microbiota interactions to provide leads for future research and other applications. PMID:25205464

  3. Nutritional strategies to counter stress to the immune system in athletes, with special reference to football.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2006-07-01

    Although epidemiological data indicate that athletes are at increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during periods of heavy training and the 1 - 2 week period following endurance race events, there is very limited information on the responses to football training and match-play. For several hours after heavy exertion, components of both the innate (e.g. natural killer cell activity and neutrophil oxidative burst activity) and adaptive (e.g. T and B cell function) immune system exhibit suppressed function. Although such responses to football training and competition do not appear to be as pronounced, variations in immune cell numbers and function are reported in professional footballers over the course of a season. Attempts have been made through nutritional means (e.g. glutamine, vitamins C and E, and carbohydrate supplementation) to attenuate immune changes following intensive exercise and thus lower the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Carbohydrate supplementation during heavy exercise has emerged as a partial countermeasure and attenuates increases in blood neutrophil counts, stress hormones, and inflammatory cytokines, but has little effect on decrements in salivary IgA output or natural killer cell function. Animal research indicates that other nutritional components such as beta-glucan, quercetin, and curcumin warrant human investigations to determine if they are effective countermeasures to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:16766504

  4. Stress management in dental students: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226

  5. Perceptions of School Nutrition Directors and Managers Regarding Their Role in School Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Lofton, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the perceptions of school nutrition (SN) directors and managers regarding their role in school wellness, the responsibility of SN professionals for serving as positive role models, and factors contributing to greater involvement in school wellness. Methods: A survey assessing the…

  6. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  7. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  8. Study of Food Service Management Companies in School Nutrition Programs. Contract Review Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price Waterhouse, Washington, DC. Office of Government Services.

    In fall 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with Price Waterhouse to complete a study of the use of food-service management companies (FSMCs) by school districts that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the Tentative findings include: (1) contracts between school…

  9. IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

  10. Nutrition knowledge of rural older populations: can congregate meal site participants manage their own diets?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lionel; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Congregate meal sites were funded to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural older individuals in improving their health-related practices. Although the participants in the program are largely female, the meals are designed to meet one third of the daily caloric intake of a 70-year-old male, and to satisfy his recommended dietary allowances for total fat, fiber, calcium, and sodium. The actual percentage of the required nutrient intake contributed by meals served at congregate sites is indefinite. Moreover, the ability of congregate meal participants to manage their diets and their receptiveness to helpful nutrition information in that regard is unknown. Our objective was to promote nutritional knowledge in economically disadvantaged, rural older participants by studying its impact on their ability to benefit from congregate meal programs. We used a test, intervention, retest methodology to examine the effect of short-term nutrition interventions on congregate meal site participants' nutrition knowledge. The objective was to determine the participants' potential for managing their own diets (e.g., their ability to determine what diet behaviors are appropriate for specific chronic conditions). We found that while congregate meal site participants have knowledge of nutrition recommendations, their ability to apply this information in helping themselves to prevent or control their chronic conditions remains in question. PMID:20711926

  11. Enteral nutrition in the management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Anne M

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive feeding of defined formula diets has been used successfully as an alternative to corticosteroid treatment of active Crohn's disease, but the mechanism of efficacy remains conjectural. Recognition that polymorphisms in the NOD2/CARD15 gene confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease has increased appreciation of the interactions between the innate immune system and enteric bacteria, which lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. The 2 major goals of this workshop are: first, in light of current understanding of pathogenesis, to examine possible mechanisms of action of enteral nutrition as primary therapy; and second, to make evidence-based recommendations concerning its use in the new era of biologic therapies, when mucosal healing has become a realistic goal. Factors influencing efficacy, including duration, location of intestinal inflammation, and formula composition require consideration. PMID:15980272

  12. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  13. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Contributions to Teacher Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Susan G.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that irrational beliefs are significantly related to teacher stress levels and that teacher stress management interventions having most evidence of effectiveness employ cognitive restructuring components based on rational-emotive therapy procedures. Notes that programs use stress inoculation training framework and provide behavioral and…

  14. MODELLING THE COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK STRESS FOR PRECISION ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An individual animal’s stress level is the summation of stresses from three areas: the environment, animal, and management. A model is being developed to summarize components of each of these three areas to determine the overall stress on the animal. The purpose of the model will be three-fold. F...

  15. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  16. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Blgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tcnica del Norte, aged 43 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  17. Hepatic mitochondrial alterations and increased oxidative stress in nutritional diabetes-prone Psammomys obesus model.

    PubMed

    Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M Nieves; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; El-Mir, M Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R; Detaille, Dominique; Koceïr, E Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species. PMID:22675340

  18. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  19. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and

  20. Pharmacotherapy prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Radmila; Silverman, Jon B; Catella, Jennifer G; Rybak, Iwona; Jolin, Hina; Isom, Kellene

    2013-07-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure. It is associated with nutritional deficiencies due to gastric reduction, intestinal bypass, reduced caloric intake, avoidance of nutrient-rich foods, noncompliance with supplementation and poor food tolerability. Although there are multiple publications on this topic, there is a lack of consistent guidance for the healthcare practitioner caring for the bariatric patient. This article will encompass literature reviewing the pharmacotherapy approach to prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies since the American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery guidelines were published in 2008. PMID:23558789

  1. [Nutritional management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A medical and ethical stake].

    PubMed

    Lehricey, Guillaume; Le Forestier, Nadine; Dupuis, Luc; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jsus; Meininger, Vincent; Pradat, Pierre-Franois

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition and dehydration are common and result from swallowing disorders secondary to degeneration of brainstem motor neurons. Recent knowledge argues in favor of the associated primary metabolism abnormalities. Though muscle atrophy, a paradoxical hypermetabolism at rest has often been observed. Hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance are more frequent than in general population. The heterogeneity of the nutritional assessment of patients in published series is due, partially at least, to the use of disparate criteria and evaluating procedures. Weight lost is an independent negative survival prognostic factor. Overweight may be beneficial for the survival of ALS patients. A specific nutritional management for ALS is an essential point in the multidisciplinary support. The criteria leading to artificial nutrition indication are medical, mainly based on percentage of weight loss, but also psychological and ethical. PMID:22137288

  2. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... GAD) Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ... Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Conference Why Attend? Continuing Education About ADAA Mission & ...

  3. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited. PMID:24360757

  4. Stress Management for Educators. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, William T.

    Educators at all levels find stress a reality in their professional lives. But an educational system free of stress would make for a profession without achievement. While it is important to make sure that stress does not become so intense that it endangers or impairs mental or physical health, it can be a positive force when properly understood…

  5. Counseling Students and Faculty for Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Libby; Walz, Garry R.

    This monograph was written to enhance the college or university faculty member's understanding of stress as it impacts upon both students and faculty, and to help faculty members cope with the stressors in their own lives and intervene with students to reduce stress. Stress is defined and sources of distress are identified. Research is cited which…

  6. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory

  7. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  8. Strategies in the Nutritional Management of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Teri L.; Anderson, Molly A.; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Friedman, Jacob E.; Barbour, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the optimal macronutrient composition for dietary management of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) has enormous potential to improve perinatal outcomes. Diet therapy may result in significant cost savings if effective in deterring the need for expensive medical management within this growing population. In only 6 randomized controlled trials(RCTs) in 250 women, data suggest that a diet higher in complex carbohydrate and fiber, low in simple sugar, and lower in saturated fat may be effective in blunting postprandial hyperglycemia, preventing worsened insulin resistance and excess fetal growth. The use of diet in GDM remains an area in grave need for high-quality RCTs. PMID:24047934

  9. Nutritional ecology of ursids: A review of newer methods and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Felicetti, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The capability to understand the nutritional ecology of free-ranging bears has increased dramatically in the last 20 years. Advancements have occurred because (1) managers and biologists recognized the need to link habitat quality, productivity, and variability with bear movements, home ranges, and demographic parameters like reproductive output, survival, and population growth, and (2) several research teams are using new methods to build on the results of earlier field studies. Our ability to couple new field methods and empirical field research with controlled experiments using captive bears has been central to our increased understanding of bear nutrition. Newer methods include the use of stable isotopes to quantify assimilated diet and nutrient flows within ecosystems, bioelectrical impedance to measure body composition, and naturally occurring mercury to estimate fish intake. Controlled experiments using captive bears have been integral to developing methods, isolating specific variables by controlling the environment, and providing additional nutritional understanding necessary to interpret field observations. We review new methods and apply our increased understanding of bear nutritional ecology to 3 management issues: (1) the importance of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) to brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Pacific Northwest, (2) the consequences of the closure of the Yellowstone garbage dumps to grizzly bears, and (3) the relocation of problem bears.

  10. Early identification and management of critical incident stress.

    PubMed

    Caine, Randy M; Ter-Bagdasarian, Levon

    2003-02-01

    Everyone experiences stress. That stress may be related to work (internal), community (external), or family; it may be cumulative or related to a particular critical incident. The cost related to treating acute stress is staggering, both to individuals and to organizations. Critical care nurses are well educated in the physiological responses to the stress of acute illness. Recognizing the emotional impact of stress and the techniques to manage it in themselves and in those with whom they work is equally as important. CISD is widely advocated as an intervention after critical incidents. Although debriefing in and of itself is effective, a single-session semistructured crisis intervention will not prevent posttraumatic stress; thus, the use of CISD as part of a comprehensive multifaceted approach to the management of acute stress related to a critical incident is recommended. PMID:12640960

  11. Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. PMID:25412151

  12. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean. PMID:25667936

  13. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) have greater blood volumes, higher diving metabolic rates and a longer aerobic dive limit when nutritionally stressed.

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammal foraging behaviour inherently depends on diving ability. Declining populations of Steller sea lions may be facing nutritional stress that could affect their diving ability through changes in body composition or metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether nutritional stress (restricted food intake resulting in a 10% decrease in body mass) altered the calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL) of four captive sea lions diving in the open ocean, and how this related to changes in observed dive behaviour. We measured diving metabolic rate (DMR), blood O2 stores, body composition and dive behaviour prior to and while under nutritional restriction. We found that nutritionally stressed sea lions increased the duration of their single long dives, and the proportion of time they spent at the surface during a cycle of four dives. Nutritionally stressed sea lions lost both lipid and lean mass, resulting in potentially lower muscle O2 stores. However, total body O2 stores increased due to rises in blood O2 stores associated with having higher blood volumes. Nutritionally stressed sea lions also had higher mass-specific metabolic rates. The greater rise in O2 stores relative to the increase in mass-specific DMR resulted in the sea lions having a longer cADL when nutritionally stressed. We conclude that there was no negative effect of nutritional stress on the diving ability of sea lions. However, nutritional stress did lower foraging efficiency and require more foraging time to meet energy requirements due to increases in diving metabolic rates and surface recovery times. PMID:24198263

  14. Nutrition in the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dashman, T; Sansaricq, C

    1993-06-01

    The determination of specific nutrients is important in the diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-known example. In this case, the nutrient, phenylalanine, is assayed to confirm a diagnosis and is routinely measured to monitor therapy, which consists of a diet low in this particular amino acid. Although many of the described inborn errors of metabolism are uncommon, or even rare, in occurrence, the laboratory plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of these diseases. PMID:8319427

  15. [Dyslipidemia management with medical nutrition therapy: current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Sucato, Vincenzo; Triolo, Oreste Fabio; Bronte, Enrico; Trovato, Rosaria Linda; Tona, Giuseppe Riccardo; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, patients with dyslipidemia account for 15-20% of the adult population with major healthcare and socio-economic impact. According to the ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias, desirable cholesterol and triglyceride levels can be achieved with a synergy between drug treatment and adequate diet therapy. However, what diets should be adopted? In this review article, different types of dietary treatments are compared, with a special focus on diet education. The new scientific frontier of nutrigenetics is also discussed. PMID:24121943

  16. Health of the non-elites at Tombos: Nutritional and disease stress in New Kingdom Nubia.

    PubMed

    Buzon, Michele R

    2006-05-01

    During the New Kingdom period, Egypt succeeded in occupying most of Nubia. Colonial towns were built, which served as centers of government and redistribution. This paper uses a bioarchaeological approach to address the effects of this cultural contact on non-elites. Skeletal remains from the site of Tombos (N = 100), a cemetery in Upper Nubia dating to this important time, are analyzed, in addition to 1,082 individuals from contemporaneous Egyptian and Nubian sites, in order to shed light on the social, political, and economic processes at play and to determine how the people at Tombos were affected during this transitional period. In many ways, the Tombos population appears to have been affected by similar stressors as the other populations under study. However, a few small differences in the subadult frequencies of pathological lesions, especially remodeling rates, are significant in the overall picture of health at Tombos. These analyses suggest that, although the people of Tombos may have been integrated into the Egyptian colonial network, the additional resources they may have obtained could not protect them from nutritional and disease stress. A lower childhood survival through bouts of ill health at Tombos is suggested. While status may have played a role in the differences seen in the comparative populations, it is likely that parasites and/or other infections led to childhood illness and death. PMID:16353219

  17. The 2014 ESPEN Arvid Wretlind Lecture: Metabolism & nutrition: Shifting paradigms in COPD management.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-12-01

    COPD is a chronic disease of the lungs, but heterogeneous with respect to clinical manifestations and disease progression. This has consequences for health risk assessment, stratification and management. Heterogeneity can be driven by pulmonary events but also by systemic consequences (e.g. cachexia and muscle weakness) and co-morbidity (e.g. osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease). This paper shows how a metabolic perspective on COPD has contributed significantly to understanding clinical heterogeneity and the need for a paradigm shift from reactive medicine towards predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. These insights have also lead to a paradigm shift in nutritional therapy for COPD from initial ignorance or focusing on putative adverse effects of carbohydrate overload on the ventilatory system to beneficial effects of nutritional intervention on body composition and physical functioning as integral part of disease management. The wider implications beyond COPD as disease have been as clinical model for translational cachexia research. PMID:26474814

  18. Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons

    PubMed Central

    Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly. PMID:16558676

  19. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed d15N and d13C daynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stress is a major abiotic stress factor, resulting in a major yield loss and poor seed quality. Little information is available on the effects of B nutrition on seed composition under water stress. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutr...

  20. MyStudentBody-Stress: an online stress management intervention for college students.

    PubMed

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Brevard, Julie; Thum, Christina; Thurn, Christina; Decembrele, Stacey; Lord, Sarah

    2008-09-01

    College students who have high stress levels tend to experience an increased risk of academic difficulties, substance abuse, and emotional problems. To enhance student stress management and health promoting behaviors, an online stress management intervention called MyStudentBody-Stress (MyStudentBody-Stress) was developed and tested. College students at six U.S. colleges were randomized to one of three conditions: MyStudentBody-Stress, a control health information website, or no intervention. The differences between groups on stress control and health behavior measures were compared at baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after baseline. Although there were no between-group differences on primary outcome variables, secondary analyses indicated that MyStudentBody-Stress participants were more likely to increase weekly physical activity, use specific stress management methods, and exhibit decreased anxiety and family problems. These findings indicate some potentially beneficial effects of online stress management programming for college students. Implications for college health practitioners are discussed. PMID:18726812

  1. Nutritional overview on the management of type 2 diabetes and the prevention of its complications.

    PubMed

    Pegklidou, Kyriaki; Nicolaou, Ioannis; Demopoulos, Vassilis J

    2010-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing world health problem; particularly the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has assumed epidemic dimensions in Western industrialized societies. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. Several epidemiological studies have linked over nutrition and lack of physical activity with type 2 diabetes. Indeed, the excessive consumption of energy dense foods as source of carbohydrates and fats along with ineffective medical management has negative impact on controlling blood glucose levels and on insulin response. This usually leads to a hyperglycemic state, which is associated with the development of the devastating secondary complications. Dietary guidelines have always been important for people with diabetes mellitus. Nutrition management aims to improve health quality maintaining blood glucose levels in normal range so as to reduce the risk for diabetes complications. A well-balanced diet that provides the essential macro- and micro-nutrients is always an impaired need for a patient with diabetes. In this article nutrition recommendations will be displayed for the management of diabetes type 2 and the prevention of its complications. Particular emphasis will be given to the important role of micronutrients such as trace elements and vitamins as well as to the potentiality of some dietary agents to inhibit aldose reductase enzyme, implicated in the etiology of diabetes complications. PMID:20879970

  2. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We Should"…

  3. A Stress Management Course To Prevent Teacher Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Saul Neves; Conboy, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a stress management course for teachers that taught sharing professional experiences with colleagues, identifying specific stress factors and possible coping strategies, replacing irrational beliefs with more appropriate beliefs, analyzing strategies for dealing with student discipline and motivation problems, and assertiveness and…

  4. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  5. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

  6. Creative Stress Management: "Put Your Own Oxygen Mask On First."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenberg, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Describes creative stress management techniques for early childhood practitioners. Presents a model whereby the caregiver identifies the problem; conducts a personal scan to identify symptoms and reactions that form behavior patterns; chooses from options to alleviate stress reactions related to the body, emotions, actions/behavior, or the mind;…

  7. Decreasing Stress among Nurse Managers: A Long-Term Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Sharon K.; Ingram, Melba

    2002-01-01

    Hospital nursing managers (n=31) in a rural Texas hospital completed a self-paced module on stress and hardiness (beliefs related to control, commitment, and challenge). Pre/posttest scores showed the module had a significant effect on understanding of stress and coping and increased their hardiness levels. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  8. Parent Stress Management Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Lee; Tripp, Gail; Baird, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stress management program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…

  9. Sources of Faculty Stress and Strategies for Its Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Paul; Clagett, Craig

    Views on sources of stress on college faculty and strategies for its management were obtained at small-group sessions in the 1980 faculty orientation at Prince George's Community College, Maryland. Sixteen faculty groups generated 218 responses expressing sources of job stress, a complete listing of which is appended. The responses were aggregated…

  10. Work-related Stress Management by Finnish Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    KINNUNEN-AMOROSO, Maritta; LIIRA, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees’ risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its’ great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective. PMID:24583512

  11. No Trade-Offs between Lipid Stores and Structural Growth in Juvenile Zebra Finches Undergoing Nutritional Stress during Development.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional conditions during development can affect both structural growth and body fat deposition. Body size and body fat each have significant consequences for fitness, yet few studies have investigated how young birds balance resource allocation between structural growth and fat reserves. We raised zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in consistently high- or low-food conditions until posthatch day 35 (PHD 35). From this age until PHD 62, half of the birds in each condition were switched to the other treatment, while the rest were maintained on the same conditions. Body mass, lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length were measured before (PHD 25) and after (PHD 55) nutritional independence. Precise measures of body composition were obtained noninvasively at both ages using quantitative magnetic resonance analysis. At PHD 25, birds in the high treatment had more body mass and lean mass than birds in the low treatment, but nutritional treatments did not affect body fat at this age. Unexpectedly, the strategic response of birds that experienced deteriorating food availability was to maintain body mass by increasing body fat and decreasing lean mass. Birds that experienced an improvement in food availability significantly increased body mass by increasing lean mass and not body fat. Birds maintained on a low diet throughout did not significantly increase body mass, lean mass, or body fat. Tarsus length was not affected by nutritional manipulations. These findings indicate that nutritional stress did not affect the relationship between skeletal growth and body fat deposition because lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length can be independently regulated at different developmental periods depending on nutritional conditions. PMID:25730275

  12. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  13. Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity—The Dietitians Role

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

  14. Mammary gland immunology around parturition. Influence of stress, nutrition and genetics.

    PubMed

    Waller, K P

    2000-01-01

    Adequate immune functions are essential for the defence against udder infections. Detailed knowledge about the immune response and important defence factors is essential in order to find new ways for the prevention and treatment of udder infections leading to mastitis. Work should be concentrated on ways of minimising the negative influence on immune functions and/or ways of stimulating these functions, especially during periods of immune suppression. A depression of important immune functions has been reported around parturition and there is a higher prevalence of clinical mastitis and other diseases during this period. Immunosuppression is often associated with high levels of glucocorticoids in blood, a common finding around parturition and during stressful conditions. A number of stressors are present around calving, e.g. parturition, onset of lactation and changes in feeding and management regimes. Adequate management including feeding strategies and routines are important for the immune functions. Metabolic stress as well as deficiencies in vitamins and minerals around parturition and during the first month of lactation can have a negative influence on the immune functions and thereby increase the risks for udder infections and mastitis. There seem to be a genetic variability in certain immune functions among periparturient cows. This might indicate a possibility to find markers for genetic selection of individuals with a well-developed immune system without negative effects on milk productivity. PMID:10959432

  15. [Evaluation of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) in food and nutritional management services in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rolim, Mara Diana; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the SISVAN as a tool for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the Unified Health System (SUS). It involved a cross-sectional study composed of a stratified random sample of the municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. The subjects of the research were municipal officials of SISVAN who filled out a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed with the construction of simple and bivariate tables. It was observed that those responsible for SISVAN, collect (50%) and input (55%) weight, height, and food consumption data; whereas 53%, 59% and 71% do not analyze and do not recommend or perform nutrition actions, respectively. This being the case, most of those responsible do not use the information for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition traits. The findings show that the SISVAN is not used to its full potential; the data generated have not been used for planning, management and evaluation of nutrition services in primary healthcare in the SUS. PMID:26221801

  16. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  17. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  18. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  19. Role of Medical Nutrition Therapy in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Cristina; Mauricio, Didac; Hernandez, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays an important role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and accordingly, it has a significant impact on women and newborns. The primary objective of MNT is to ensure adequate pregnancy weight gain and fetus growth while maintaining euglycemia and avoiding ketones. However, the optimal diet (energy content, macronutrient distribution, its quality and amount, among others) remains an outstanding question. Overall, the nutritional requirements of GDM are similar for all pregnancies, but special attention is paid to carbohydrates. Despite the classical intervention of restricting carbohydrates, the latest evidence, although limited, seems to favor a low-glycemic index diet. There is general agreement in the literature about caloric restrictions in the case of being overweight or obese. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to investigate the optimal MNT for GDM; this knowledge could yield health benefits and cost savings. PMID:26879305

  20. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  1. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  2. Impact of a stress management program on stress perception of nurses working with psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sailaxmi, Gandhi; Lalitha, Krishnasamy

    2015-04-01

    Nurses caring for psychiatric patients may have to face violent emotions and unpredictable behaviour which can be quite stressful. A stress management program may equip nurses with skills to cope effectively with the stress. A one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted to test this hypothesis. Both gender nurses caring for psychiatric patients were invited to undergo 10 consecutive, one hour sessions of a stress management program. The DCL Stress scale (The De Villiers, Carson & Leary Stress Scale; Carson et al., 1997a,b,c) was used to collect data immediately after intervention and four weeks later. RM ANOVA with spss 16 showed that pre-intervention mean stress reduced significantly (p=0.000) from 57.45±16.42 to 41.06±16.51 immediately following the intervention and 26.43±12.82 (p=0.000) four weeks after the intervention. The stress management strategies positively impacted on nurses' stress levels. PMID:25703040

  3. Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

  4. Stress management: a new path to pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Pera, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    Two recent papers in Nature describe a remarkable new technique for reprogramming somatic cells back to the embryonic state. Obokata et al. (2014a, 2014b) show that applying stressful stimuli can convert mature cells into progenitors capable of generating all three embryonic germ layer lineages, as well as placental tissue. PMID:24607402

  5. Immune system function, stress, exercise and nutrition profile can affect pregnancy outcome: Lessons from a Mediterranean cohort

    PubMed Central

    MPARMPAKAS, D.; GOUMENOU, A.; ZACHARIADES, E.; PADOS, G.; GIDRON, Y.; KARTERIS, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with major physiological and future psychosocial changes, and maternal adaptation to these changes is crucial for normal foetal development. Psychological stress in pregnancy predicts an earlier birth and lower birth weight. Pregnancy-specific stress contributes directly to preterm delivery. The importance of nutrition and exercise during pregnancy with regard to pregnancy outcome has long been acknowledged. This importance has only been further emphasized by the recent changes in food quality and availability, lifestyle changes and a new understanding of foetal programming’s effects on adult outcomes. We hypothesised that for a successful pregnancy certain events at a nutritional, immune, psycho-emotional and genetic level should be tightly linked. Therefore, in this study we followed an ‘integrative’ approach to investigate how maternal stress, nutrition, pregnancy planning and exercise influence pregnancy outcome. A key finding of our study is that there was a significant reduction in the intake of alcohol, caffeine-containing and sugary drinks during pregnancy. However, passive smoking in the household remained unchanged. In terms of immune profile, a significant inverse correlation was noted between difficulty to ‘fight’ an infection and number of colds (r=−0.289, P=0.003) as well as the number of infections (r=−0.446, P<0.0001) during pregnancy. The vast majority of the pregnant women acquired a more sedentary lifestyle in the third trimester. In planned, but not in unplanned, pregnancies stress predicted infant weight, independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Notably, in mothers with negative attitudes towards the pregnancy, those with an unplanned pregnancy gave birth to infants with significantly higher weights than those with planned pregnancies. Collectively these data suggest that there is a higher order of complexity, possibly involving gene-environment interactions that work together to ensure a positive outcome for the mother as well as the foetus. PMID:23404257

  6. Nutritional support of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, S

    1989-05-01

    Effective nutritional support requires sound knowledge of both basic and clinical nutrition of dogs and cats as well as familiarity with products and delivery systems. Case management includes assessment of nutritional status and estimation of fuel sources. Most starved or stressed patients use fatty acids for over 70 per cent kcalME and protein for over 20 per cent kcalME. Approximate kcal needs are calculated from maintenance energy equations. Most patients respond best to enteral nutrition. Meat-based pet foods, liquid enteral products, and nutrient modules are offered in slurries or are tube-fed. Management includes careful monitoring of patients and gradual transitions to diets with more complex nutrient sources. PMID:2658286

  7. COPD - managing stress and your mood

    MedlinePlus

    Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vancouver (WA): Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD); ...

  8. Interactions between nutrition and reproduction in the management of the mature male ruminant.

    PubMed

    Martin, G B; Blache, D; Miller, D W; Vercoe, P E

    2010-07-01

    In mature male sheep and goats, changes in feed intake seem to have little effect on gonadal endocrine function but induce profound changes on sperm production. These outcomes are due to changes in size of the seminiferous tubules and in spermatogenic efficiency. Except with severe underfeeding, there are only minor changes in the endocrine function of the testis (testosterone production) unless season-long treatments are imposed. For cattle, nutrition clearly affects testicular development and the production of spermatozoa in young bulls, as it does in other species but, after the period of rapid growth has ended, there appears to be little or no response to nutrition. We are developing a clear picture of the metabolic signals, neuroendocrine processes and hormonal control systems that are involved, particularly for the mature male sheep. The energetic components of the diet, rather than protein, seem to be responsible, so we have envisaged a model of the relationship between energy balance and reproduction that has 4 'dimensions': genotype, structure (organs), communication (chemical and neural signals, nutrient sensing) and time (dynamics, metabolic memory, programming). We have linked these perspectives to 'resource allocation theory' and incorporated them into strategies for 'clean, green and ethical animal production'. In contrast to the clear outcomes with respect to spermatogenesis, the effects of nutrition on sexual behaviour are more difficult to define, perhaps because the behaviour is affected by a complex mix of physiological factors and because of flawed methods for quantifying male behaviour. For example, sexual behaviour is compromised by severe feed restriction, but male sexual behaviour requires intensive motor activity so a decline in libido could be caused by general weakness rather than specific nutritional limitations. The interaction between sexual activity and feeding behaviour also complicates the issue under field conditions. At the other end of the scale, overweight males can show reduced sexual success because they have difficulty courting and mounting. For this reason, exercise can enhance the fertilising capacity of rams. This will be important in extensive mating systems where males need to assemble and guard a harem and then mate many times for several weeks. For artificial insemination centres, there seems to be very few data on the nutritional management of males, but problems with overfed animals appear to be a risk. Future research should concentrate on the intra-testicular systems mediating the effects of nutrition on the production of spermatozoa. PMID:22444618

  9. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:25053754

  10. Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-κB/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chávez, Araceli Amaya; Alanís, Adriana Garduño; Ferreyra, María del Carmen Colín; Benítez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán; Castañeda, Violeta Saraí Morales; García, Ma. Victoria Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-κB, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-κB and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-κB expression (1, p≤0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p≤0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-κB/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta. PMID:23772281

  11. Contributions of ATP, GTP, and Redox State to Nutritional Stress Activation of the Bacillus subtilis σB Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Haldenwang, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis is induced by activation of the σB transcription factor. σB activation occurs when one of two phosphatases responds to physical or nutritional stress to activate a positive σB regulator by dephosphorylation. The signal that triggers the nutritional stress phosphatase (RsbP) is unknown; however, RsbP activation occurs under culture conditions (glucose/phosphate starvation, azide or decoyinine treatment) that reduce the cell's levels of ATP and/or GTP. Variances in nucleotide levels in these instances may be coincidental rather than causal. RsbP carries a domain (PAS) that in some regulatory systems can respond directly to changes in electron transport, proton motive force, or redox potential, changes that typically precede shifts in high-energy nucleotide levels. The current work uses Bacillus subtilis with mutations in the oxidative phosphorylation and purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathways in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors to better define the inducing signal for RsbP activation. The data argue that a drop in ATP, rather than changes in GTP, proton motive force, or redox state, is the key to triggering σB activation. PMID:16267279

  12. Bioenergetic response of the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Kelly, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70{degrees}C, and dilution rate of 0.05h{sup {minus}1}) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins. At 70{degrees}C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a {triangle}p of approximately -190 to -200{sub m}V, the result of an intracellular {sub p}H of 5.4 (extracellular {sub p}H, 2.0) and a {triangle}{Psi} of +40 to +50 {sub m}V, (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85{degrees}C, {triangle}{Psi} decreased to nearly 0 {sub m}V and internal {sub p}H approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from ;70 to 80{degrees}C were shifted back to 70{degrees}C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal {sub p}H increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, {triangle}{Psi} remained close to 9 {sub m}V, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79{degrees}C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73{degrees}C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Acid stress management by Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Cummins, Conor; Deasy, Thérèse; Clifford, Tanya; Begley, Máire; Hill, Colin

    2014-05-16

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogenic microorganism associated with sporadic cases of neonatal meningitis, necrotising enterocolitis, septicaemia, bloody diarrhoea and brain abscesses acquired through the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). This study aimed to investigate the growth of C. sakazakii DPC6529, a particularly stress tolerant clinical isolate, in acidified laboratory media and PIF. The possibility of a stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) was also investigated. C. sakazakii DPC6529 grew in LB broth acidified to pH4.2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and was capable of relatively fast growth in PIF acidified to pH5.0 with HCl, representing the stomach pH reported for newborns and infants. Moreover, bacterial growth in LB broth supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose gave rise to a stationary-phase ATR which resulted in enhanced survival against a subsequent acid challenge at pH3.0. A transposon mutagenesis approach was used to shed light on some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response C. sakazakii DPC6529 to normally lethal acid exposures. The data suggests that repairing damage in proteins and nucleic acids, posttranscriptional modification of tRNA molecules and maintenance of the integrity of the cellular envelope are key processes in the defence against acid stress. Clones carrying transposon insertions in genes encoding the envelope stress response regulators CpxR and OmpR were identified as acid-sensitive mutants. Further analyses of the ompR defective mutant and its complemented counterpart evidenced that OmpR is a key player in the response of C. sakazakii to acid stress, although it was not essential to mount an active stationary-phase ATR, at least under the tested conditions. The ability of C. sakazakii DPC6529 to grow in acid environments and to develop an adaptive stationary-phase ATR may allow for its survival or even proliferation within the infant gastrointestinal tract after consumption of contaminated milk formulae. PMID:24667315

  14. Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    King, Caleb K; Glass, Roger; Bresee, Joseph S; Duggan, Christopher

    2003-11-21

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common illness among infants and children throughout the world. Among children in the United States, acute diarrhea accounts for >1.5 million outpatient visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and approximately 300 deaths/year. In developing countries, diarrhea is a common cause of mortality among children aged <5 years, with an estimated 2 million deaths annually. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. Although ORT has been instrumental in improving health outcomes among children in developing countries, its use has lagged behind in the United States. This report provides a review of the historical background and physiologic basis for using ORT and provides recommendations for assessing and managing children with acute diarrhea, including those who have become dehydrated. Recent developments in the science of gastroenteritis management have substantially altered case management. Physicians now recognize that zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease, and an ORS of reduced osmolarity (i.e., proportionally reduced concentrations of sodium and glucose) has been developed for global use. The combination of oral rehydration and early nutritional support has proven effective throughout the world in treating acute diarrhea. In 1992, CDC prepared the first national guidelines for managing childhood diarrhea (CDC. The management of acute diarrhea in children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR 1992;41[No. RR-16]), and this report updates those recommendations. This report reviews the historical background and scientific basis of ORT and provides a framework for assessing and treating infants and children who have acute diarrhea. The discussion focuses on common clinical scenarios and traditional practices, especially regarding continued feeding. Limitations of ORT, ongoing research in the areas of micronutrient supplements, and functional foods are reviewed as well. These updated recommendations were developed by specialists in managing gastroenteritis, in consultation with CDC and external consultants. Relevant literature was identified through an extensive MEDLINE search by using related terms. Articles were then reviewed for their relevance to pediatric practice, with emphasis on U.S. populations. Unpublished references were sought from the external consultants and other researchers. In the United States, adoption of these updated recommendations could substantially reduce medical costs and childhood hospitalizations and deaths caused by diarrhea. PMID:14627948

  15. Managing heat and immune stress in athletes with evidence-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Guy, Joshua H; Edwards, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Heat and immune stress can affect athletes in a wide range of sports and environmental conditions. The classical thermoregulatory model of heat stress has been well characterized, as has a wide range of practical strategies largely centered on cooling and heat-acclimation training. In the last decade evidence has emerged of an inflammatory pathway that can also contribute to heat stress. Studies are now addressing the complex and dynamic interplay between hyperthermia, the coagulation cascade, and a systemic inflammatory response occurring after transient damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Damage to the intestinal mucosal membrane increases permeability, resulting in leakage of endotoxins into the circulation. Practical strategies that target both thermoregulatory and inflammatory causes of heat stress include precooling; short-term heat-acclimation training; nutritional countermeasures including hydration, energy replacement, and probiotic supplementation; pacing strategies during events; and postevent cooling measures. Cooperation between international, national, and local sporting organizations is required to ensure that heat-management policies and strategies are implemented effectively to promote athletes' well-being and performance. PMID:24911928

  16. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management. PMID:25775201

  17. Micro(RNA)managing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Andrew E.; Brewer, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cellular disturbances that cause accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to a condition referred to as “ER stress” and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway that attempts to restore ER homeostasis. The complexity of UPR signaling can generate adaptive and apoptotic outputs, depending on the nature and duration of the ER stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that typically repress gene expression, have recently emerged as key gene regulators of the pro-adaptive/pro-apoptotic molecular switch emanating from the ER. Importantly, select miRNAs have been shown to directly regulate key UPR components. PMID:23554021

  18. Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

    2008-08-01

    The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

  19. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-08-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs' apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and 'necroapoptophagy'. The concept of 'necroapoptophagy' is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967

  20. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a unique form of cellular regeneration, potentially conferring open-ended lifespans. PMID:23789967

  1. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

  2. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  3. Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Components and Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, V.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, moderate in alcohol consumption, and lower in refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk and improve glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. Several healthful dietary patterns emphasizing the overall diet quality can be adapted to appropriate personal and cultural food preferences and calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although considerable progress has been made in developing and implementing evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted global efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  4. The Involvement of Glutamate Metabolism in the Resistance to Thermal, Nutritional, and Oxidative Stress in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Rocha, Sandra C.; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Silber, Ariel M.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition of some glutamate metabolic pathways could lead to diminished parasite survival. In this study, the effects of L-methionine sulfoximine (MS), DL-methionine sulfone (MSO), and DL-methionine sulfoxide (MSE), three glutamate analogs, on several biological processes were evaluated. We found that these analogs inhibited the growth of epimastigotes cells and showed a synergistic effect with stress conditions such as temperature, nutritional starvation, and oxidative stress. The specific activity for the reductive amination of α-ketoglutaric acid, catalyzed by the NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, showed an increase in the NADP+ levels, when MS, MSE, and MSO were added. It suggests an eventual conversion of the compounds tested by the T. cruzi cells. The fact that trypomastigote bursting was not significantly inhibited when infected cells were treated with these compounds, remarks the existence of relevant metabolic differences among the different life-cycle stages. It must be considered when proposing a new therapeutic drug. PMID:21629861

  5. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  6. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1) as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  7. Managing acute stress response to major trauma.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia J; Friedman, Matthew J; Ruzek, Josef I; Norris, Fran

    2002-08-01

    In this article, the authors review the current empiric literature on early interventions. Findings on the effects, course, help-seeking, and recovery from disasters are first reviewed, with recommendations given that are pertinent to intervention following mass casualties. In reviewing the most commonly used interventions, it is clear that evidence from well-controlled studies showing that early intervention can help prevent longer-term problems is limited. The authors discuss the approaches that have received the most attention or empiric support as early interventions following trauma, which include psychologic debriefing, cognitive-behavioral interventions, eye movement desensitization and processing (EMDR) and other neoteric approaches, and psychopharmacology. At this time, the most promising results for prevention of psychopathology have been achieved with brief four- or five-session cognitive-behavioral therapy. In contrast, randomized clinical trials on psychologic debriefing currently suggest that this approach is either ineffective at preventing psychopathology, or contributive to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Research support is currently lacking for EMDR and pharmacotherapy as early interventions. A major challenge to the field is to integrate the practical experience and knowledge of professional responders with well-controlled, timely intervention research, and to effectively disseminate these findings to practitioners in the field. PMID:12126592

  8. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  9. Stress and Reproductive Hormones in Grizzly Bears Reflect Nutritional Benefits and Social Consequences of a Salmon Foraging Niche

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  10. Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. Results: A third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. Conclusion: Hospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention. PMID:24596858

  11. Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required. PMID:22576135

  12. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Świeca, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  13. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  14. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  15. Psychological and Physiological Effects of a Stress Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Robert J.; Munz, David C.

    Interest in health promotion has resulted in various programs designed to enhance health and prevent disease through changes in lifestyles. The effects of a widely used stress management program were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, office employees in treatment (N=21) and control (N=24) groups were administered the State-Trait Anxiety…

  16. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported

  17. The Use of Stress-Management Training for Obese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Daniel; Del Porto, Delbert

    Stress management training contributes to weight loss, maintenance of weight loss and improved social and occupational functioning in obese women. Data from the Beck Depression Inventory and the Assertiveness Questionnaire indicate that obese persons have poor self-concepts which result in depression which is inversely related to assertiveness.…

  18. Employee Assistance Programmes: The Emperor's New Clothes of Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Andrew R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the employee assistance program (EAP), a benefit increasingly provided by United Kingdom employers that claims to reduce the effects of stress on individuals and organizations, provide a management tool to improve workplace performance and productivity, and respond to critical incidents. Describes EAPs, their history, development and…

  19. Stress Management in Medical Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shauna L.; Shapiro, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Gary E. R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of clinical studies providing empirical data on stress management programs in medical education found that student participants in such programs demonstrated improved immunologic functioning, decreased depression and anxiety, increased spirituality and empathy, enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies, improved knowledge of stress…

  20. Private College Capital Resource Management during Fiscal Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Reed M.

    1984-01-01

    The president of Wesley College, Delaware, offers management guidelines for coping in a period of severe financial stress which include involve the board, examine past audit reports, talk to personnel, install an energy control system, and examine business office computer sheets and ledger books. (MLF)

  1. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

  2. The ABCs of Stress Management: A Little Stress Is Good For You, If You Know How To Handle It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2005-01-01

    Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to manage stress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…

  3. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling performance under xeric outplanting conditions. However, fertilization increased growth under mesic conditions, whereas drought hardening decreased growth. We conclude that drought hardening and N fertilization applied under typical container nursery operational conditions exert opposite effects on the physiological stress tolerance of P. pinea seedlings. While drought hardening increases overall stress tolerance, N nutrition reduces it and yet has no effect on the drought acclimation capacity of seedlings. PMID:23370549

  4. [Management of stressing events and prevention of post-traumatic stress in the railroad setting].

    PubMed

    del Nord, P

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the proper management of events that can lead to post traumatic stress, that are the situations where: the person experienced or witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. This document results from a collation of the knowledge acquired by railway undertakings and infrastructure managers on the management and prevention of post-traumatic stress. Having surveyed the various strategies for the management of post-traumatic stress as these are applied in the participating countries, a number of recommendations and best practices were identified and these are presented in this guide. This guide comprises two parts: * A theoretical document comprising several parts: Part one deals with the fundamental notions involved in post-traumatic stress and potentially traumatic events; Part two deals with a strategy for managing potentially traumatic events and sets out a reference framework to this end. This strategy is broken down into five key phases: risk assessment, preparation and prevention, intervention, post-intervention and follow-up, appraisal, including reports from experience. Practical "check sheets" stating the key messages to be understood and/or the specific actions to be taken before, during or after a potentially traumatic event. These sheets are intended for operational staff, managers, directors and support workers. This guide was prepared by a working group under the supervision of the UIC Safety Platform's Occupational Health and Safety Group (OHSG). The working group brought together psychologists, occupational physicians, ergonomists, safety experts, managers and safety directors. It is the fruit of interdisciplinary collaboration, marrying the concerns, needs and knowledge of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers from a variety of European countries. PMID:23405657

  5. High-Risk Stress Fractures: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Kelly C; Ramey, Lindsay N

    2016-03-01

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes. They occur during periods of increased training without adequate rest, disrupting normal bone reparative mechanisms. There are a host of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including biochemical and biomechanical, that put athletes at risk. In most stress fractures, the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with imaging indicated at times, and management focused on symptom-free relative rest with advancement of activity as tolerated. Overall, stress fractures in athletes have an excellent prognosis for return to sport, with little risk of complication. There is a subset of injuries that have a greater risk of fracture progression, delayed healing, and nonunion and are generally more challenging to treat with nonoperative care. Specific locations of high-risk stress fracture include the femoral neck (tension side), patella, anterior tibia, medial malleolus, talus, tarsal navicular, proximal fifth metatarsal, and great toe sesamoids. These sites share a characteristic region of high tensile load and low blood flow. High-risk stress fractures require a more aggressive approach to evaluation, with imaging often necessary, to confirm early and accurate diagnosis and initiate immediate treatment. Treatment consists of nonweight-bearing immobilization, often with a prolonged period away from sport, and a more methodic and careful reintroduction to athletic activity. These stress fractures may require surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is essential to avoid delayed diagnosis and optimize outcomes in this subset of stress fractures. PMID:26972260

  6. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism☆

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C.; Parisi, Melissa A.; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M.; Ershow, Abby G.; Frazier, Dianne M.; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R. Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States’ funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

  7. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

  8. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Haboubi, Nadim

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements. PMID:20711440

  9. Occupational Stress in Secondary Education in Cyprus: Causes, Symptoms, Consequences and Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjisymeou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    The survey attempted to look into the causes, symptoms and consequences that occupational stress has on teachers in Secondary Education in Cyprus and find ways to manage it. Thirty eight schools with 553 teachers participated in the survey. The sample chosen is a result of a simple random sampling and it is representative of the country's…

  10. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  12. Evaluating physical and nutritional stress during mycelial growth as inducers of tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation in Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

    2008-11-01

    Elevated tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat may be induced in conidia produced on fungi exposed during mycelial growth to sublethal stresses other than heat or UV-B. This is due to a phenomenon referred to as 'cross-protection'. Several mechanisms are associated with this increased conidial tolerance, one of which is the accumulation of trehalose and mannitol within conidia. In the present study, conidia of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were produced on mycelium subjected to nutritive, heat-shock, osmotic, or oxidative stress. The tolerance levels to UV-B radiation and heat of the conidia from stressed mycelium were evaluated, and the amounts of trehalose and mannitol accumulated in conidia were quantified. Conidia produced under nutritive stress (carbon and nitrogen starvation) were two-times more heat and UV-B tolerant than conidia produced under rich (non-stress) nutrient conditions [potato-dextrose agar with yeast extract (PDAY)], and they also accumulated the highest concentrations of trehalose and mannitol. Conidia produced on heat-shock stressed PDAY cultures had higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat than conidia produced without heat shock; however, both the UV-B tolerance and trehalose/mannitol concentrations in conidia produced on heat-shocked mycelium were less than those of conidia produced under nutritive stress. Conidia produced under osmotic stress (sodium or potassium chloride added to PDAY) had elevated heat and UV-B tolerances similar to those of conidia produced under nutritive stress; however, they had the lowest levels of mannitol and trehalose, which indicates that accumulation of these compounds is not the only mechanism used by M. anisopliae for protection from heat and UV-B radiation. Oxidative stress from UV-A irradiation or hydrogen peroxide did not produce conidia with elevated UV-B or heat tolerances. Conidia produced under oxidative stress generated by menadione had increased or unchanged tolerances to heat or UV-B, respectively. The levels of mannitol or trehalose in conidia were similar to those in the unstressed controls. Conidial yield was reduced, in some cases severely, by nutritive and osmotic stress; whereas oxidative and heat-shock stress did not alter levels of spore production. PMID:18938068

  13. The economic value of enteral medical nutrition in the management of disease-related malnutrition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freijer, Karen; Bours, Martijn J L; Nuijten, Mark J C; Poley, Marten J; Meijers, Judith M M; Halfens, Ruud J G; Schols, Jos M G A

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations for medical nutrition, such as oral nutritional supplements (ONS), are relatively uncommon compared with other health technologies, and represent an area that has not been reviewed so far. In this systematic review, economic evaluations of enteral medical nutrition in the management of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) were reviewed and qualified to estimate the economic value. Initially, 481 studies were found, of which 37 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and were rated on their quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. The final review focused on the high QHES quality economic evaluation studies. As both the studied medical nutrition intervention and the form of the economic evaluation varied, a quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) was not attempted but a critical analysis and comparison of the individual study results were performed. ONS was the most studied intervention, covering several patient populations and different health care settings. Outcomes included cost savings (n = 3), no significant extra costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement (n = 1), or significantly higher costs per unit of clinical and/or functional improvement but still cost-effective for the used threshold (n = 4). This review shows that the use of enteral medical nutrition in the management of DRM can be efficient from a health economic perspective. PMID:24239013

  14. Bacteria modulate the degree of amphimix of their symbiotic entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterohabditis spp) in response to nutritional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincones, Johana; Mauléon, Hervé; Jaffe, Klaus

    2001-06-01

    Facultatively sexual entomopathogenic nematodes are a promising model for the experimental study of the adaptive values of sex. Our experiments in the laboratory showed that entomopathogenic nematodes display at least two different strategies in regulating the degree of amphimix as a response to nutritional stress. One strategy promotes the production of males, amphimix and the genetic variability of the offspring, improving the chances for a successful new adaptation. Another strategy increases the production of hermaphrodites at the expense of males, increasing the total number of reproductive individuals and thus the total number of offspring produced. Surprisingly, the strategy used depends upon the strain of symbiotic bacteria the nematodes are growing. The relevance of the results, in helping to discriminate between rival theories for the evolutionary maintenance of sex, is discussed.

  15. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  16. Critical incident stress debriefings for crisis management in post-traumatic stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, C L; de Chesnay, M

    1994-01-01

    Critical incident stress debriefings (CISDs) are a form of crisis management for rescuers such as police officers, fire-fighters and others involved in rescue efforts during natural disasters. This article describes a qualitative evaluation study of one police department's CISD implementation. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten police officers involved in violent incidents. Results indicated that CISD was perceived as helpful by the officers in alleviating the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder they experienced after the violent incidents. PMID:8065245

  17. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  18. Worksite Stress Management for Medical Care Personnel: Results from a Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvell, Nancy; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Pilot program on stress management, consisting of eight weekly group sessions, was implemented with 12 respiratory therapists. Findings support view that variety of stress management techniques can be effective in enhancing emotional functioning. Discusses practical problems and recommendations for stress management in a group worksite program.…

  19. Trait Anxiety Reductions in a Substance Abuse Population Trained in Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George

    1982-01-01

    Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…

  20. Trait Anxiety Reductions in a Substance Abuse Population Trained in Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George

    1982-01-01

    Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and

  1. Nutritional and Pharmacological Management during Chemotherapy in a Patient with Propionic Acidaemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma Botryoides.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, E; Quijada-Fraile, P; Oliveros-Leal, L; García-Silva, Mt; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Baro-Fernández, M; Pérez-Alonso, V; Vivanco, Jl

    2012-01-01

    We present the nutritional and pharmacological management of a 2-year-old girl with a severe form of propionic acidaemia and a genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This association has not been described before, nor the utilization of chemotherapy in patients with propionic acidaemia.The patient is a girl with neonatal onset of propionic acidaemia, homozygous for the c.2041-2924del3889 mutation in PCCA gene. At 23 months of age she was diagnosed with genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Conservative surgery, brachytherapy and nine cycles of chemotherapy with iphosphamide, vincristine and actinomycin were recommended by oncologists. Due to the possibility that the child could present decompensations, we elaborated three different courses of treatment: when the patient was stable (treatment 1), intermittent bolus feeding through gastrostomy, containing 70 kcal/kg/day and 1.4 g/kg/day of total protein (0.6 g/kg/day of natural protein and 0.8 g/kg/day of amino acid-based formula) was prescribed; on the chemotherapy-days (treatment 2), diet consisted on continuous feeding, with the same energy and amino acid-based formula but half of natural protein intake; in case of decompensation (treatment 3), we increased by 10% the energy intake, and completely stopped natural protein in the diet but maintaining the amino acid-based formula. On chemotherapy- days carnitine was increased from 100 mg/kg/day to 150 mg/kg/day, and N-carbamylglutamate was added.Through the 7 months with chemotherapy the patient did not suffer decompensations, while she maintained good nutritional status.Enteral continuous feeding by gastrostomy, amino acid-based formula, and preventive use of N-carbamylglutamate during chemotherapy-days are the principal measures we propose in these situations. PMID:23430942

  2. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, Viswanathan; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-01

    In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than is the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in wholegrains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts; moderate in alcohol consumption; and lower in refined grains, red or processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and improve glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. With an emphasis on overall diet quality, several dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, low glycaemic index, moderately low carbohydrate, and vegetarian diets can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although much progress has been made in development and implementation of evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted worldwide efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  3. Nutrigenomic profiling of transcriptional processes affected in liver and distal intestine in response to a soybean meal-induced nutritional stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Bartie, Kerry L; Olsen, Rolf E; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress. The transcriptome was analyzed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine, with the hypothesis being that the liver transcriptome would be characterized by gene expression responses related to overall growth and health performance, whereas intestinal gene expression would be dominated by specific responses to SBM. A set of 133 genes was differentially expressed in liver including 44 genes in common with the intestinal response. The liver-specific response included up-regulation of genes involved in protein digestion, energy metabolism and immune functions, whereas genes in other metabolic pathways were generally anabolic and down-regulated. These responses may be more related to general nutritional stress than to SBM per se. The transcriptomic profile in the distal intestine was consistent with the enteritis response as described previously. This study provides a comprehensive report on the profiles of liver and distal intestine transcriptomes, specifically highlighting the role of the liver in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress. PMID:25916579

  4. Occurrence of 20S RNA and 23S RNA replicons in industrial yeast strains and their variation under nutritional stress conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Victoria; Gil, Rosario; Vicente Carbonell, José; Navarro, Alfonso

    2002-04-01

    We have characterized industrial yeast strains used in the brewing, baking, and winemaking industries for the presence or absence of cytoplasmic single-stranded 20S and 23S RNAs. Furthermore, the variation of intracellular concentrations of these replicons in brewing and laboratory strains under nutritional stress conditions was determined. Our results show a correlation between the relative abundance of these replicons and exposure of yeast to nutritionally stressful conditions, indicating that these RNAs could be employed as molecular probes to evaluate the exposure of 20S(+) and/or 23S(+) yeast strains to stress situations during industrial manipulation. During this study, several 20S(-)23S(+) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated and identified. This is the first time that a yeast strain containing only 23S RNA has been reported, demonstrating that 20S RNA is not required for 23S RNA replication. PMID:11921103

  5. Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

  6. Nutritional immunomodulation as an approach to decreasing the negative effects of stress in poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress can lead to changes in the immune response resulting in both increased and decreased resistance to opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Growth-promoting antibiotics have been a major tool in modulating host-pathogen interactions and limiting clinical and sub-clinical bacterial infection in conf...

  7. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. PMID:26468001

  8. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia. PMID:20543263

  9. Management of intestinal failure in inflammatory bowel disease: Small intestinal transplantation or home parenteral nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Allan, Philip; Ramu, Amrutha; Vaidya, Anil; Travis, Simon; Lal, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease in particular, is a common cause of intestinal failure. Current therapeutic options include home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. For most patients, home intravenous therapy including parenteral nutrition, with a good probability of long-term survival, is the favoured choice. However, in selected patients, with specific features that may shorten survival or complicate home parenteral nutrition, intestinal transplantation presents a viable alternative. We present survival, complications, quality of life and economic considerations that currently influence individualised decision-making between home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. PMID:24696601

  10. Follow up of Stress Management Groups in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Gutman, Gloria M.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-six registrants (70 females, 26 males, mean age 36.4) were trained in seven standard autogenic training groups for management of stress-related disorders by a family physician in a community health centre. Comparisons were made before and after six training weeks, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire about physical and psychological symptoms, drug, tobacco and alcohol use. As in a previous study, state and trait anxiety scores and symptoms related to stress were decreased in a majority of subjects. Effects were maintained in a subgroup followed for 12 months. Problems of data collection over time in clinical settings and of establishing the impact of health education measures are discussed. PMID:21283343

  11. Nutrition Management of School Age Children with Special Needs: A Resource Manual for School Personnel, Families, and Health Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White

    This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the introduction,…

  12. The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Barragán Mejía, Gerardo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Hernández Martínez, Nancy; García Cruz, Edna; Morales Ramírez, Aline; Labra Ruiz, Norma; Esquivel Jiménez, Gabriela; Osnaya Brizuela, Norma; García Álvarez, Raquel; Ontiveros Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected to a protocol that resembles malnutrition (MN) by feeding them with 60% of the daily food consumption of the control group (WN) and later to nutritional recovery with regular rodent feed (RFR) or added with cocoa (10 g of cocoa powder/kg of regular rodent feed) (CCR). Animals fed with regular rodent food showed significant reduction in brain glutathione: RFR (84.18 ± 6.38 ng/mg protein) vs. CCR (210.61 ± 50.10 ng/mg protein) and WN (186.55 ± 33.18 ng/mg protein), but with similar level to that of MN (92.12 ± 15.60 ng/mg protein). On the contrary, lipid peroxidation in RFR-fed animals increased RFR (1.32 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), CCR (0.86 ± 0.07 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), WN (0.89 ± 0.09 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), but their thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration is similar to that of MN group (1.50 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue). Consumption of cocoa powder as a source of antioxidants favors the restoration of the concentration of glutathione and reduces the damage caused by oxidative stress during nutritional recovery in rat brain. PMID:21826449

  13. Coordinated gene networks regulating Arabidopsis plant metabolism in response to various stresses and nutritional cues.

    PubMed

    Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2011-04-01

    The expression pattern of any pair of genes may be negatively correlated, positively correlated, or not correlated at all in response to different stresses and even different progression stages of the stress. This makes it difficult to identify such relationships by classical statistical tools such as the Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, dedicated bioinformatics approaches that are able to identify groups of cues in which there is a positive or negative expression correlation between pairs or groups of genes are called for. We herein introduce and discuss a bioinformatics approach, termed Gene Coordination, that is devoted to the identification of specific or multiple cues in which there is a positive or negative coordination between pairs of genes and can further incorporate additional coordinated genes to form large coordinated gene networks. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by providing a case study in which we were able to discover distinct expression behavior of the energy-associated gene network in response to distinct biotic and abiotic stresses. This bioinformatics approach is suitable to a broad range of studies that compare treatments versus controls, such as effects of various cues, or expression changes between a mutant and the control wild-type genotype. PMID:21487096

  14. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G.; Curtis, Tanya Y.; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

  15. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

  16. Comprehensive modified diet simplifies nutrition management of adults with short-bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lykins, T C; Stockwell, J

    1998-03-01

    Short-bowel syndrome (SBS) is a complex condition resulting from massive surgical resection of the intestinal tract. Nutrient malabsorption and metabolic alterations occur as a function of the portions of bowel removed and the length of remaining bowel segment. The nutrition management of SBS is challenging; many dietary restrictions are described, but inconsistently, throughout the literature. We compiled the restrictions and developed a comprehensive diet to reestablish adult patients with SBS on oral intake after surgery. Our purpose was to simplify the task of instructing patients with SBS in a diet that restricts all categories of food substances that may be poorly absorbed: fat, lactose, insoluble fiber, oxalates, and concentrated sweets. Suggestions to increase the transit time of ingested foods are included with the diet. Patients are taught the SBS diet after surgery and have bimonthly contact with the dietitian after leaving the hospital. Categories of restricted food substances, such as lactose, may be attempted and added back to the diet if they are tolerated. Bowel adaptation enhances tolerance to various dietary components over time. If sufficient bowel adaptation occurs, some patients are eventually able to return to an unrestricted diet. PMID:9508014

  17. Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea. PMID:24971280

  18. Nutritional management of very low birthweight infants: effects of different feeding regimens on calcium absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who have health problems that require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings. The effects of these changes on growth, calcium ...

  19. Enteral diet in Crohn's disease. Nutritional and therapeutic implications in patient's management.

    PubMed

    Valentini, G; Capristo, E; Scarfone, A; Mingrone, G; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, G

    2002-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are often characterized by impairment of nutritional status. Crohn's disease (CD) patients, especially in the active phase of disease, show a reduced body weight, due to the reduction of lipid stores, in spite of lean mass depletion. Fat mass reduction has been correlated to an increased utilization of lipids as fuel substrate. The alterations of nutritional status are able, in turn, to influence, as independent factors, the disease course and patient prognosis. A disease's treatment based only on pharmacologic therapy, especially on corticosteroid use in the active phases, often does not take into account the relevant need for preserving a normal nutritional status. In this connection, enteral nutrition has been shown to be able to improve nutritional status and induce and maintain remission. We present some of the possible mechanisms of efficacy of enteral feeding and some rules to attempt to treat patients with IBD, especially those with Crohn's disease. PMID:16484973

  20. Hardiness, stress, and use of ill-time among nurse managers: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Judkins, Sharon; Massey, Christy; Huff, Burlean

    2006-01-01

    Intense job-related demands often result in effects on job performance and increased use of ill-time. In this study, associations between hardiness, stress, and use of ill-time among nurse managers were examined. High-hardy/low-stress managers used 27% less ill-time than those low-hardy/high-stressed. PMID:16967889

  1. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  2. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.

  3. A Stress Management Classroom Tool for Teachers of Children with BD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James T.; Owens, James L.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how stress may affect the lives of children with behavior disorders, provides educators with a model for introducing stress management techniques, and closes with strategies for managing stress in the classroom, including listening to relaxing music, manipulating the environment, and providing a morning physical education…

  4. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

  5. Cow-calf reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management to improve the sustainability of whole beef production systems.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Brady, M; Capper, J L; McNamara, J P; Johnson, K A

    2015-06-01

    Optimizing efficiency in the cow-calf sector is an important step toward improving beef sustainability. The objective of the study was to use a model to identify the relative roles of reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management in minimizing beef production systems' environmental impact in an economically viable, socially acceptable manner. An economic and environmental diet optimizer was used to identify ideal nutritional management of beef production systems varying in genetic and reproductive technology use. Eight management scenarios were compared to a least cost baseline: average U.S. production practices (CON), CON with variable nutritional management (NUT), twinning cattle (TWN), early weaning (EW), sire selection by EPD using either on-farm bulls (EPD-B) or AI (EPD-AI), decreasing the calving window (CW), or selecting bulls by EPD and reducing the calving window (EPD-CW). Diets to minimize land use, water use, and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were optimized under each scenario. Increases in diet cost attributable to reducing environmental impact were constrained to less than stakeholder willingness to pay for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Baseline land use, water use, and GHG emissions were 188 m, 712 L, and 21.9 kg/kg HCW beef. The NUT scenario, which assessed opportunities to improve sustainability by altering nutritional management alone, resulted in a simultaneous 1.5% reduction in land use, water use, and GHG emissions. The CW scenario improved calf uniformity and simultaneously decreased land use, water use, and GHG emissions by 3.2%. Twinning resulted in a 9.2% reduction in the 3 environmental impact metrics. The EW scenario allowed for an 8.5% reduction in the 3 metrics. The EPD-AI scenario resulted in an 11.1% reduction, which was comparable to the 11.3% reduction achieved by EPD-B in the 3 metrics. Improving genetic selection by using AI or by purchasing on-farm bulls based on their superior EPD demonstrated clear opportunity to improve sustainability. When genetic and reproductive technologies were adopted, up to a 12.4% reduction in environmental impact was achievable. Given the modeling assumptions used in this study, optimizing nutritional management while concurrently improving genetic and reproductive efficiency may be promising avenues to improve productivity and sustainability of U.S. beef systems. PMID:26115306

  6. Counseling for Stress Management. Searchlight Plus: Relevant Resources in High Interest Areas, 43+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Penny

    A review of the ERIC literature on stress is presented, revealing counselors' incorporation of stress management techniques into their work with clients as well as their own coping mechanisms for dealing with stress in their personal and professional lives. The materials provide an overview of stress, its effects on students, women, families,…

  7. Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, A M; Chilibroste, P

    2013-03-01

    The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated dairy production systems. Whether sustainable production methods will be implemented also depends on macro-economic conditions and awareness of regional and global environmental concerns. PMID:23031652

  8. Stressful Dieting: Nutritional Conditions but Not Compensatory Growth Elevate Corticosterone Levels in Zebra Finch Nestlings and Fledglings

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Mariam; Goymann, Wolfgang; Naguib, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species. As nestlings (day 0–17) or fledglings (day 17–35), subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding. PMID:20927394

  9. Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Plowright, Raina K; Field, Hume E; Smith, Craig; Divljan, Anja; Palmer, Carol; Tabor, Gary; Daszak, Peter; Foley, Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. We also investigated whether seasonal changes in host behaviour, physiology and demography affect host–pathogen dynamics. Data showed that pregnant and lactating females had significantly higher risk of infection, which may explain previously observed temporal associations between HeV outbreaks and flying fox birthing periods. Age-specific seroprevalence curves generated from field data imply that HeV is transmitted horizontally via faeces, urine or saliva. Rapidly declining seroprevalence between two field seasons suggests that immunity wanes faster in LRFF than in other flying fox species, and highlights the potentially critical role of this species in interspecific viral persistence. The highest seroprevalence was observed when animals showed evidence of nutritional stress, suggesting that environmental processes that alter flying fox food sources, such as habitat loss and climate change, may increase HeV infection and transmission. These insights into the ecology of HeV in flying fox populations suggest causal links between anthropogenic environmental change and HeV emergence. PMID:18198149

  10. Examining occupational stress, sources of stress and stress management strategies through the eyes of management consultants: a multiple correspondence analysis for latent constructs.

    PubMed

    von Humboldt, Sofia; Leal, Isabel; Laneiro, Tito; Tavares, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    To date, little research has yet focused in broad assessment for management consultancy professionals. This investigation aims to analyse management consultants' self-perceptions of occupational stress (SPoOS), sources of stress (SoS) and stress management strategies (SMS) and to find latent constructs that can work as major determinants in consultants' conceptualization of SPoOS, SoS and SMS. Measures were completed, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 39 management consultants, 53.8% male and aged between 23 and 56 years (M = 38.0; SD = 9.2). The data were subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analysed by a multiple correspondence analysis. Results indicated that 'intellectual disturber' (31.4%) was the most referred SPoOS, 'high workload' (15.1%) was identified as the most prevalent perceived SoS and 'coaching' (19.0%) was the most mentioned SMS. No significant differences between the two gender groups were found regarding the three total scores. SPoOS was explained by a two-factor model: 'organization-oriented' and 'person-oriented'. A three-dimension model formed by 'job concerns', 'organizational constraints' and 'career expectations' was indicated as a best-fit solution for SoS, and SMS was best explained in a three-dimension model by 'group dynamics strategies', 'organizational culture strategies' and 'individual support strategies'. This research makes a unique contribution for a better understanding of what defines SPoOS, SoS and SMS for management consultants. PMID:23401311

  11. Nutritional management of infants and children with specific diseases or other conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystic fibrosis is characterized by progressive deterioration of pulmonary and pancreatic function. The former may increase nutrient requirements somewhat, but probably affects nutrition more by adversely affecting intake, particularly during acute exacerbations and in older children with severe pul...

  12. Improved nutritional management of phenylketonuria by using a diet containing glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids

    PubMed Central

    van Calcar, Sandra C; MacLeod, Erin L; Gleason, Sally T; Etzel, Mark R; Clayton, Murray K; Wolff, Jon A; Ney, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) requires a lifelong low-phenylalanine diet that provides the majority of protein from a phenylalanine-free amino acid (AA) formula. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein formed during cheese production, contains minimal phenylalanine. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effects of substituting GMP food products for the AA formula on acceptability, safety, plasma AA concentrations, and measures of protein utilization in subjects with PKU. Design: Eleven subjects participated in an inpatient metabolic study with two 4-d treatments: a current AA diet (AA diet) followed by a diet that replaced the AA formula with GMP (GMP diet) supplemented with limiting AAs. Plasma concentrations of AAs, blood chemistries, and insulin were measured and compared in AA (day 4) and GMP diets (day 8). Results: The GMP diet was preferred to the AA diet in 10 of 11 subjects with PKU, and there were no adverse reactions to GMP. There was no significant difference in phenylalanine concentration in postprandial plasma with the GMP diet compared with the AA diet. When comparing fasting with postprandial plasma, plasma phenalyalanine concentration increased significantly with the AA but not with the GMP diet. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower, which suggests decreased ureagenesis, and plasma insulin was higher with the GMP diet than with the AA diet. Conclusions: GMP, when supplemented with limiting AAs, is a safe and highly acceptable alternative to synthetic AAs as the primary protein source in the nutritional management of PKU. As an intact protein source, GMP improves protein retention and phenylalanine utilization compared with AAs. PMID:19244369

  13. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  14. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  15. Evaluation of the owner's perception in the use of homemade diets for the nutritional management of dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michele C C; Brunetto, Márcio A; da Silva, Flávio L; Jeremias, Juliana T; Tortola, Letícia; Gomes, Marcia O S; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Many dog owners see homemade diets as a way of increasing the bond with their pets, even though they may not have the convenience of commercial diets. Modifications of ingredients, quality and proportion might change the nutritional composition of the diet, generating nutritional imbalances. The present study evaluated how dog owners use and adhere to homemade diets prescribed by veterinary nutritionists over an extended period of time. Forty-six owners of dogs fed a homemade diet for at least 6 months were selected for the present study. Owners were invited to answer questions by first reading all possible answers and then selecting the one that best indicated their opinion. The results were evaluated through descriptive statistics. Thirty-five owners (76·1 %) found that the diets are easy to prepare. Fourteen owners (30·4 %) admitted to modifying the diets, 40 % did not adequately control the amount of provided ingredients, 73·9 % did not use the recommended amounts of soyabean oil and salt, and 34·8 % did not correctly use the vitamin, mineral or amino acid supplements. Twenty-six owners (56·5 %) reported that their dogs refused to eat at least one food item. All of these alterations make the nutritional composition of the diets unpredictable and likely nutritionally imbalanced. Although homemade diets could be a useful tool for the nutritional management of dogs with certain diseases, not all owners are able to appropriately use this type of diet and adhere to it for an extended period of time and this limitation needs to be considered when recommending the use of homemade diets. PMID:26101592

  16. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. PMID:25908606

  17. Reprint of: Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications☆

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:26041952

  18. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  19. Critical Difference and Biological Variation in Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Nutritional Status in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathan A.; Newell, John; Burden, Richard; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal monitoring of oxidative stress (OS) in athletes may enable the identification of fatigued states and underperformance. The application of OS biomarker monitoring programs in sport are hindered by reliability and repeatability of in-the-field testing tools, the turnaround of results, and the understanding of biological variation (BV). Knowledge of BV and critical difference values (CDV) may assist with data interpretation in the individual athlete. Methods: We aimed firstly to assess the repeatability of the clinical point of care redox test, Free Oxygen Radical Test (FORT) and the Free Oxygen Radical Defence (FORD) in trained participants and elite athletes and secondly to calculate the analytical, BV, CDV and index of individuality (II) for FORT, FORD, red blood cell glutathione, lutein, α and γ–tocopherol. Part 1: Fifteen elite athletes were sampled in duplicate for calculation of the repeatability of the FORT and FORD tests. Part 2: Twelve well-trained athletes had venous samples drawn every 2 hours from 0800 to 1800 for calculation of BV, CDV, II for FORT, FORD, RBC GSH, lutein, α-tocopherol and γ–tocopherol. Results: Repeatability of the FORT and FORD assay was 3.9% and 3.7% respectively. Biomarker CDV ranged from 12.8% to 37%, with a circadian effect for FORT, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (p<0.01), with all biomarker indices of individuality < 0.8 arbitrary units. Conclusion: We report that the use of the novel redox test in athletes is practical, and the generation of BV and CDV for biomarkers of OS enhances the interpretation of physiologically meaningful changes in individuals above the use of clinical reference ranges alone. PMID:26930475

  20. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  1. Worksite stress management training: moderated effects and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Paul E; Bond, Frank W

    2010-10-01

    Psychologically healthy participants may dilute the observed effects of worksite stress management training (SMT) programs, therefore hiding the true effectiveness of these interventions for more distressed workers. To examine this issue, 311 local government employees were randomly assigned to SMT based on acceptance and commitment therapy (SMT, n = 177) or to a waitlist control group (n = 134). The SMT program consisted of three half-day training sessions, and imparted a mixture of mindfulness and values-based action skills. Across a 6-month assessment period, SMT resulted in a significant reduction in employee distress. As predicted, the impact of SMT was significantly moderated by baseline distress, such that meaningful effects were found only among a subgroup of initially distressed workers. Furthermore, a majority (69%) of these initially distressed SMT participants improved to a clinically significant degree. The study highlights the importance of accounting for sample heterogeneity when evaluating and classifying worksite SMT programs. PMID:21058850

  2. Management of recurrent stress incontinence following a sling.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Geneviève; Herschorn, Sender

    2014-08-01

    Management of recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence (RSI) following primary insertion of a synthetic midurethral sling (MUS) remains a challenge for the urologist since no consensus is available to favor one treatment over another. Complete workup should be carried out, including cystoscopy, urodynamics and potentially a pelvic floor ultrasound as a diagnostic adjunct. Various surgical options have been described for RSI, apart from another MUS, including tightening of or shortening a previously placed MUS, a mini-sling, a salvage spiral sling, a colposuspension, the ACT® system, an artificial urinary sphincter or ultimately a urinary diversion. Treatment depends ultimately on the experience and the expertise of the surgeon but it appears most reasonable to offer a repeat MUS (retropubic or transobturator), a pubovaginal sling or bulking agents to women with RSI. Appropriate counseling of patients to set realistic outcomes is key as it may be more practical to aim more for symptomatic improvement than cure. PMID:24930033

  3. Experts stress both wellness and amenity aspects of food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been no consensus on best practices in food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities (ALFs) for older adults. We documented experts’ views on optimal food and nutrition services emphases in ALFs, and factors affecting their views. One hundred thirty-five national experts speci...

  4. The Response of the Mediterranean Gorgonian Eunicella singularis to Thermal Stress Is Independent of Its Nutritional Regime

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Leïla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola; Buttler, Alexandre; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, sessile benthic organisms from the Mediterranean Sea have suffered from the global warming of the world's oceans, and several mass mortality events were observed during warm summers. It has been hypothesized that mortality could have been due to a nutrient (food) shortage following the stratification of the water column. However, the symbiotic gorgonian Eunicella singularis has also presented a locally exceptional mortality, despite its autotrophic capacities through the photosynthesis of its dinoflagellate symbionts. Thus, this study has experimentally investigated the response of E. singularis to a thermal stress (temperature increase from 18 to 26°C), with colonies maintained more than 2 months under four nutritional diets: autotrophy only (AO), autotrophy and inorganic nitrogen addition (AN), autotrophy and heterotrophy (AH), heterotrophy only (HO). At 18°C, and contrary to many other anthozoans, supplementation of autotrophy with either inorganic nitrogen or food (heterotrophy) had no effect on the rates of respiration, photosynthesis, as well as in the chlorophyll, lipid and protein content. In the dark, heterotrophy maintained the gorgonian's metabolism, except a bleaching (loss of pigments), which did not affect the rates of photosynthesis. At 24°C, rates of respiration, and photosynthesis significantly decreased in all treatments. At 26°C, in addition to a decrease in the lipid content of all treatments, a bleaching was observed after 1 week in the AO treatment, while the AH and AN treatments resisted three weeks before bleaching. These last results suggest that, temperatures above 24°C impair the energetic reserves of this species and might explain the mortality events in the Mediterranean. PMID:23667711

  5. Role of Nutrition in the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy in End-Stage Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, and is considered a significant prognostic factor affecting quality of life, outcome, and survival. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of nutrition by trafficking the metabolism of nutrients, their distribution and appropriate use by the body. Nutritional consequences with the potential to cause nervous system dysfunction occur in liver failure, and many factors contribute to malnutrition in hepatic failure. Among them are inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased protein losses, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, inflammation/infection, and hyponatremia. Patients at risk of malnutrition are relatively difficult to identify since liver disease may interfere with biomarkers of malnutrition. The supplementation of the diet with amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins as well as probiotics in addition to meeting energy and protein requirements may improve nutritional status, liver function, and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver failure. PMID:21234351

  6. Training Programmes for Stress Management in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treven, Sonja; Potocan, Vojko

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present: the problem of stress employees might encounter; the individual inclination to stress; the individual methods for reducing stress; and the authors' model of training for stress prevention. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper uses both descriptive and analytical approaches to research and…

  7. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management. PMID:25819519

  8. Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

    2014-05-01

    The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

  9. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management. PMID:26857771

  10. Principals Responding to Constant Pressure: Finding a Source of Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article presents a review of the research concerning the stress level of principals over the past three decades, with emphasis on the occupational stress that principals encounter because of heightened accountability and expectations for student achievement. Mindfulness meditation, as a stress management intervention, provides the

  11. Coping with Stress. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The twelve items in this annotated bibliography are entries in the ERIC system intended to help administrators in coping with stress. The publications cited deal with causes of stress, how to manage stress, how to make life style changes, how to recognize stressors, and work patterns associated with Type A behavior. The publications listed also

  12. Principals Responding to Constant Pressure: Finding a Source of Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article presents a review of the research concerning the stress level of principals over the past three decades, with emphasis on the occupational stress that principals encounter because of heightened accountability and expectations for student achievement. Mindfulness meditation, as a stress management intervention, provides the…

  13. Theoretical Foundations of Yoga Meditation: A Contribution to Self-Actualization and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowiak, John J.

    Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stress management techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…

  14. Stages of Learning during a Self-Directed Stress Management Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Karl L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to document the stages of learning reflected through student journaling during a self-directed experience in stress management, and the relationship of those stages to a historical model. Methods: College students participating in a full-semester course in stress management theory were required to select a…

  15. Defoliation Management of Bahiagrass Germplasm Affects Dry Matter Yeild and Herbage Nutritive Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) cultivars are daylength-sensitive and have minimal cool-season production. A new genotype is less daylength sensitive and more cold tolerant, but its dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value responses to defoliation treatments are unknown. A 3-yr field experimen...

  16. Effects of Forage Management on the Nutritive Value of Stockpiled Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] located near Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertilization rate (0, 37, 74, or 111 kg N ha-1) on the nutritive value of f...

  17. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163

  18. Stress and Primary Headache: Review of the Research and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This review begins with a discussion of the nature of stress and then presents the functional model of primary headache as a framework for conceptualizing the complex relationship between stress and headaches. Research is reviewed on stress as a trigger of headaches and how stress can play a role in the developmental and psychosocial context of headaches. Clinical management of headaches from a stress perspective is considered both at the level of trials of behavioral interventions that broadly fit into the stress management category and the additional strategies that might be useful for individual cases based on the research demonstrating associations between stress and headaches. The review concludes by suggesting that although some researchers have questioned whether stress can trigger headaches, overall, the literature is still supportive of such a link. Advances in methodology are discussed, the recent emphasis on protective factors is welcomed, and directions for future research suggested. PMID:27215628

  19. Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Only in recent years have researchers begun to study stress in the workplace. Psychologists and other stress analysts have discovered that the most trying professions are those that involve high pressure and serious responsibilities, often beyond the control of the individuals employed. Most interesting, the American Institute of Stress revealed…

  20. Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Only in recent years have researchers begun to study stress in the workplace. Psychologists and other stress analysts have discovered that the most trying professions are those that involve high pressure and serious responsibilities, often beyond the control of the individuals employed. Most interesting, the American Institute of Stress revealed

  1. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  2. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  3. Nutritional requirements in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Rogers, R

    1990-06-01

    Nutritional management of elderly persons can be difficult because of illness, drug-nutrient interactions, socioeconomic factors, and lack of precise information regarding nutrient requirements. Dietary intake and requirements, nutritional assessment, and guidelines for nutritional management of the elderly population are reviewed. PMID:2194954

  4. Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  5. Nutrition: a promising route for prevention and management of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses - in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. PMID:25460293

  6. [Nutrition and fluid management in palliative medicine: do food and drink keep body and soul together?].

    PubMed

    Gaser, E; Meissner, W

    2012-01-01

    Induction, implementation and continuation of an invasive nutrition or fluid administration in patients with advanced, life-limiting illnesses is an often controversial but also very emotionally discussed topic. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge based mainly on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines and is intended as a simple guide for clinical practice. In the early phase of disease the induction of an invasive food and fluid administration may be indicated in order to prevent undernutrition and cachexia, to enhance compliance with anti-tumor treatment, to control some adverse effects of anti-tumor therapy and to improve the quality of life. If oral or enteral feeding is possible this should be preferred. Patients in the final stage of a disease rarely suffer from hunger or thirst. In this phase of the disease other things, such as monitoring of patients and relatives play a much more important role. PMID:22273825

  7. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  8. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  9. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research

  10. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…

  11. Caregiver Stress and Physical Health: The Case for Stress Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, C.; Krisztal, E.; Rabinowitz, Y.; Gillispie, Z.; Oportot, M.; Tse, C.; Singer, L.; Gallagher-Thompson, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that providing care for a loved one with memory problems puts a person at risk for both mental and physical health problems. In the last several decades, research on chronic stress suggests that the body's physical response to stress becomes severely dysregulated as a result of chronic stress lifestyles such as caregiving. This…

  12. Teacher Participation in Stress Management through Different Theoretical Lenses: A Study Conducted in the Mahikeng Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelser, A. M. F.; van Wyk, C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported in this article was to place the known facts of the topic of teacher participation in stress management in the context of management and leadership in education. The emphasis in the conceptual and theoretical framework was on showing points of connection between leadership and management on the one hand and…

  13. Membrane-Bound CYB5R3 Is a Common Effector of Nutritional and Oxidative Stress Response Through FOXO3a and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Siendones, Emilio; SantaCruz-Calvo, Sara; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Cascajo, María V.; Ariza, Julia; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Villalba, José M.; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Membrane-bound CYB5R3 deficiency in humans causes recessive hereditary methaemoglobinaemia (RHM), an incurable disease that is characterized by severe neurological disorders. CYB5R3 encodes for NADH-dependent redox enzyme that contributes to metabolic homeostasis and stress protection; however, how it is involved in the neurological pathology of RHM remains unknown. Here, the role and transcriptional regulation of CYB5R3 was studied under nutritional and oxidative stress. Results: CYB5R3-deficient cells exhibited a decrease of the NAD+/NADH ratio, mitochondrial respiration rate, ATP production, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activities, which were associated with higher sensitivity to oxidative stress, and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Overexpression of either forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) or nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like2 (Nrf2) was associated with increased CYB5R3 levels, and genetic ablation of Nrf2 resulted in lower CYB5R3 expression. The presence of two antioxidant response element sequences in the CYB5R3 promoter led to chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, which showed that cellular stressors enhanced the binding of Nrf2 and FOXO3a to the CYB5R3 promoter. Innovation: Our findings demonstrate that CYB5R3 contributes to regulate redox homeostasis, aerobic metabolism, and cellular senescence, suggesting that CYB5R3 might be a key effector of oxidative and nutritional stress pathways. The expression of CYB5R3 is regulated by the cooperation of Nrf2 and FOXO3a. Conclusion: CYB5R3 is an essential gene that appears as a final effector for both nutritional and oxidative stress responses through FOXO3a and Nrf2, respectively, and their interaction promotes CYB5R3 expression. These results unveil a potential mechanism of action by which CYB5R3 deficiency contributes to the pathophysiological underpinnings of neurological disorders in RHM patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1708–1725. PMID:24450884

  14. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. PMID:23994504

  15. A Delphi survey on diagnosis and management of stress velopharyngeal insufficiency in wind musicians.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alison; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify current trends in clinical assessment and management of stress velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in wind musicians. This was an online two-round Delphi survey of health practitioners familiar with assessing and treating musicians with stress VPI. Fourteen specialists (seven otolaryngologists and seven speech-language pathologists) from four countries participated in the Delphi survey. From the first round questionnaire, 32 items were identified as being causes, assessment tools, diagnostic indicators, and treatment methods for stress VPI. The second round questionnaire revealed that prolonged exposure to high intra-oral pressures was important in determining the cause of stress VPI. The most important assessment tools for stress VPI were case history and nasendoscopy. The most important indicator for stress VPI was self-reported symptoms. There was no clear agreement identified on the management methods for stress VPI for musicians. However, the trend followed by most of the survey participants was a combination of conservative management approaches (including rest or watch and wait, speech-language pathology intervention, velopharyngeal muscle training, and changes to the instrument or reed), and then, if symptoms persist, to use injection pharyngoplasty or pharyngeal flap. This survey demonstrates that no standard management protocol currently exists for musicians diagnosed with stress VPI, but provides current trends in the assessment and management which can be used in future guidelines for health professionals who treat wind musicians. PMID:24007387

  16. Student Well-Being Interventions: The Effects of Stress Management Techniques and Gratitude Journaling in the Management Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…

  17. Strategies for the Management of Lecturer Stress in Feedback Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The process of providing students with individual feedback on assessed work was identified as a source of lecturer stress (Stough and Emmer, 1998). An action research approach was used to address the following research question. What approaches to providing students with feedback minimize lecturer stress? Data were collected using written feedback…

  18. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  19. Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Roger J.

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…

  20. Management of heat stress in the livestock industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress costs the animal industry over $1.7 billion annually. Annual losses average $369 million in the beef cattle industry and $299 million in the swine industry. The impacts of a single heat stress event on individual animals are quite varied. Brief events often cause little or no effect. ...

  1. Towards the Identification and Management of Stress in British Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marie; Ralph, Sue

    In many countries today teaching has been identified as one of the most stressful occupations. The total annual cost of stress to the British Education Service has been estimated as high as 360 million U.S. dollars. The objective of this research study with teachers in the Department of Education at the University of Manchester was to identify…

  2. Causal Model of Stress and Coping: Women in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested model of managerial women's (n=249) stress. Model was developed from Lazarus's theoretical framework of stress/coping and incorporated causal antecedent constructs (demographics, sex role attitudes, agentic traits), mediating constructs (environment, appraisals, engagement coping, disengagement coping), and outcomes (work performance,

  3. Managing Stress for College Success through Self-Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrese, Marie A.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)

  4. [Nutrition therapy in enterocutaneous fistula; from physiology to individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Rodrguez Cano, Ameyalli Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is the most common of all intestinal fistulas. Is a condition that requires prolonged hospital stay due to complications such as electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, metabolic disorders and sepsis. Nutritional support is an essential part of the management; it favors intestinal and immune function, promotes wound healing and decreases catabolism. Despite the recognition of the importance of nutrition support, there is no strong evidence on its comprehensive management, which can be limiting when establishing specific strategies. The metabolic imbalance that a fistula causes is unknown. For low-output fistulas, energy needs should be based on resting energy expenditure, and provide 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/d of protein, while in high-output fistulas energy requirement may increase up to 1.5 times, and provide 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg of protein. It is suggested to provide twice the requirement of vitamins and trace elements, and between 5 and 10 times that of Vitamin C and Zinc, especially for high-output fistulas. A complete nutritional assessment, including type and location of the fistula, are factors to consider when selecting nutrition support, whether is enteral or parenteral nutrition. The enteral route should be preferred whenever possible, and combined with parenteral nutrition when the requirements cannot be met. Nutritional treatment strategies in fistulas may include the use of immunomodulators and even stress management. PMID:24483960

  5. Traumatic stress disorders: a classification with implications for prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2000-06-01

    The management and prevention of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders are current themes of great importance to the defense health services of many nations. Currently, between 2% and 8% of service members deployed on combat operations, United Nations peacekeeping tasks, and humanitarian and disaster relief operations present with one or more stress disorders within 3 years of deployment. The management of acute stress disorders and the prevention and management of post-traumatic stress disorders necessitate an understanding of the nosology of this group of illnesses. Research into some preventive options--such as critical incident stress debriefing--also necessitates the selection of syndrome-specific subjects during case finding if controversies about the efficacy of such interventions are to be resolved. Diagnostic features, a summary of the nosological evolution, and key points of differential treatment options are presented for 5 acute operational stress disorders (acute combat stress disorder, conversion reactions, the counter-disaster syndrome, peacekeeper's acute stress syndrome, and the Stockholm syndrome) and for 11 post-traumatic disorders, including classic post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, Gulf War syndrome, peacekeeper's stress syndrome, survivor's guilt syndrome, and the syndrome of lifestyle and cultural change. PMID:10870357

  6. Changes in glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones as indicators of nutritional stress and subsequent refeeding in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    du Dot, Tiphaine Jeanniard; Rosen, David A S; Richmond, Julie P; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Zinn, Steven A; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-04-01

    Physiological responses to changes in energy balance are tightly regulated by the endocrine system through glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones. Changes in these hormones were studied in eight captive female Steller sea lions that experienced changes in food intake, body mass, body composition, and blood metabolites during summer and winter. During a period of energy restriction, one group of sea lions was fed reduced amounts of Pacific herring and another was fed an isocaloric diet of walleye pollock, after which both groups returned to their pre-experimental diets of herring. Cortisol was negatively and IGF-I was positively associated with changes in body mass during periods of energy restriction (mass loss associated with increase in cortisol and decrease in IGF-I) and refeeding (body mass maintenance associated with stable hormone concentrations in summer and compensatory growth linked to decrease in cortisol and increase in IGF-I in winter). Cortisol and IGF-I were also correlated with changes in lipid and lean mass, respectively. Consequently, these two hormones likely make adequate biomarkers for nutritional stress in sea lions, and when combined provide indication of the energetic strategy (lipid vs lean mass catabolism) animals adopt to cope with changes in nutrient intake. Unlike type of diet fed to the sea lions, age of the animals also impacted hormonal responses, with younger animals showing more intense hormonal changes to nutritional stress. Thyroid hormones, however, were not linked to any physiological changes observed in this study. PMID:19146974

  7. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

  8. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LONG-TERM RESPONSES TO ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION STRESS IN A MARINE DIATOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influences of nutrition status on the photoinhibitory effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR:290 to 320nm)on the specific growth rates (Uobs )and biomass of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined using nutrient-replete batch cultures and nutrient-limited continuous cultures....

  9. Cognitive-behavioral stress management for individuals with substance use disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Back, Sudie E; Gentilin, Stephanie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2007-08-01

    Stress-induced craving and stress reactivity may influence risk for substance use or relapse to use. Interventions designed to attenuate stress-induced craving and stress reactivity may serve as excellent adjuncts to more comprehensive treatment programs. The purpose of this study was to (1) tailor an existing, manualized, cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention for use in individuals with substance use disorders and (2) preliminarily evaluate the effects of the intervention using an experimental stress-induction paradigm. Twenty individuals were interviewed and then completed a psychological stress task, the Mental Arithmetic Task (MAT). After this, participants were assigned to either the CBSM intervention group or a nontreatment comparison group. Approximately 3 weeks later, participants completed a second MAT. In contrast to the comparison group, the CBSM group demonstrated significantly less stress-induced craving (p<.04) and stress (p<.02), and reported greater ability to resist urges to use (p<.02) after the second MAT. These findings are among the first to report on the use of an intervention to attenuate craving and stress reactivity among individuals with substance use disorders. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that systematic investigation of interventions specifically targeting stress management in individuals with substance use disorders should be undertaken. PMID:17700298

  10. [Use of spirulina supplement for nutritional management of HIV-infected patients: study in Bangui, Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Yamani, E; Kaba-Mebri, J; Mouala, C; Gresenguet, G; Rey, J L

    2009-02-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected persons including nutritional management is a major concern in Africa and in particular in the Central African Republic (CAR). This six-month randomized prospective longitudinal study was carried out at the Friends of Africa Center that was a facility for comprehensive management of persons infected and affected by HIV in Banqui, CAR. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of spirulina supplement on clinical and laboratory findings in HIV-infected patients who were not indications for ARV treatment. A total of 160 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 (n=79) received 10 grams of spirulina per day on a regular basis while patients in group 2 (n = 81) received a placebo. In addition patients in both groups received dietary products supplied by the World Food Program (WFP). Follow-up of the 160 patients at three and six months showed that 16 patients had been lost from follow-up and 16 had died, with no difference in distribution between the two groups. A significant improvement in the main follow-up criteria, i.e., weight, arm girth, number of infectious episodes, CD4 count, and protidemia, was observed in both groups. No difference was found between the two groups except with regard to protidemia and creatinemia that were higher in the group receiving spirulina supplement. From a clinical standpoint results were less clear-cut since the Karnofsky score was better in the group receiving spirulina than in the group receiving the placebo at 3 months but not at 6 months and fewer patients presented pneumonia at six months. Further study over a longer period will be needed to determine if spirulina is useful and to evaluate if higher doses can have beneficial nutritional and immunitary effects without adverse effects, in particular renal problems. PMID:19499738

  11. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.

  12. The Effects of a Stress Management Course on Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Holly; Abel, Annette; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a stress management course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Alternative Stress Management Interventions in Persons with HIV Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…

  14. The Effects of a Stress Management Course on Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Holly; Abel, Annette; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a stress management course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent…

  15. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  16. Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

    High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

  17. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  18. Coping with Workplace Stress: A Multiple-Group Comparison of Female Managers and Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.

    1998-01-01

    A causal model of workplace stress was refined and cross-validated. Multivariate analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were used to investigate the effects of social roles on patterns of coping with workplace stress and job satisfaction. Differences found between managers (n=249) and clerical workers (n=214) suggest power and…

  19. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30mg CdCl2kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  20. TechTuning: Stress Management For 3D Through-Silicon-Via Stacking Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojcic, Riko; Nowak, Matt; Nakamoto, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The concerns with managing mechanical stress distributions and the consequent effects on device performance and material integrity, for advanced TSV based technologies 3D are outlined. A model and simulation based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) type of a flow for managing the mechanical stresses throughout Si die, stack and package design is proposed. The key attributes of the models and simulators required to fuel the proposed flow are summarized. Finally, some of the essential infrastructure and the Supply Chain support items are described.

  1. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  2. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  3. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-2: Operations and Activities of a Food Service Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waskey, Frank

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on operations and activities of a food service operation is the second in a set of three modules on occupational education relating to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and

  4. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module I-C-5: Influences on Food Prices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Jill

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on influences on food prices is the fifth in a set of five modules on consumer education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019…

  5. The physician's role in managing acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kavan, Michael G; Elsasser, Gary N; Barone, Eugene J

    2012-10-01

    Acute stress disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that may occur in patients within four weeks of a traumatic event. Features include anxiety, intense fear or helplessness, dissociative symptoms, reexperiencing the event, and avoidance behaviors. Persons with this disorder are at increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder. Other risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder include current or family history of anxiety or mood disorders, a history of sexual or physical abuse, lower cognitive ability, engaging in excessive safety behaviors, and greater symptom severity one to two weeks after the trauma. Common reactions to trauma include physical, mental, and emotional symptoms. Persistent psychological distress that is severe enough to interfere with psychological or social functioning may warrant further evaluation and intervention. Patients experiencing acute stress disorder may benefit from psychological first aid, which includes ensuring the patient's safety; providing information about the event, stress reactions, and how to cope; offering practical assistance; and helping the patient to connect with social support and other services. Cognitive behavior therapy is effective in reducing symptoms and decreasing the future incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing aims to mitigate emotional distress through sharing emotions about the traumatic event, providing education and tips on coping, and attempting to normalize reactions to trauma. However, this method may actually impede natural recovery by overwhelming victims. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of drugs in the treatment of acute stress disorder. Short-term pharmacologic intervention may be beneficial in relieving specific associated symptoms, such as pain, insomnia, and depression. PMID:23062092

  6. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Absaln-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Jurez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3??0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions. PMID:22193940

  7. Nutritional management of very low birth weight infants: effects of different feeding regimens on calcium absorption and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The effects of these nutritional c...

  8. Successful management of congenital chylous ascites with early octreotide and total parenteral nutrition in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Claudio; Nanni, Lorenzo; Masini, Lucia; Pintus, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Congenital chylous ascites (CCA) is a rare disease that results from maldevelopment of the intra-abdominal lymphatic system. Few cases have been described and no gold standard treatment has been defined so far. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used for the treatment of CCA, but always after a failed conservative approach with fasting, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or medium chain triglyceride (MCT) feeds. We report the case of a newborn with CCA treated by fasting, TPN and octreotide for a period of 15 days until the abdominal distension was successfully reduced at which point treatment was switched to an MCT formula. On day 25 the patient was breastfed and was discharged on day 33. No recurrence of chylous ascites was noted. Our experience highlights the successful treatment with TPN and octreotide as the first step for the conservative approach of CCA in a newborn, reducing the length of treatment and hospitalisation. PMID:23010459

  9. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  10. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to

  11. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:26142998

  12. Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty acid composition of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2013-10-01

    In birds, fatty acids (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their composition affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA composition of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA composition of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA composition of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA composition of triglycerides, but not the composition of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA composition in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic acid (18:1) and arachidonic acid (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822

  13. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. PMID:26896551

  14. Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance. PMID:25373105

  15. Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations. PMID:21860667

  16. The management of sacral stress fractures: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Longhino, Valentina; Bonora, Cristina; Sansone, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sacral stress fractures are an unusual but curable cause of low-back pain that should be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in elderly osteoporotic patients. Rarely, they may occur in young women during the last trimester of pregnancy or a few weeks after delivery. Encompassing fatigue and insufficiency fractures, the occurrence of sacral stress fractures appears to be relatively under-reported, because of the general lack of awareness of this condition and the non-specificity of symptoms. Plain radiographs of the pelvis are the first exam performed but they are often inconclusive, whereas MRI and CT scans are the examinations of choice to establish the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness of this condition so that clinicians may consider sacral stress fracture in the differential diagnosis of low-back and pelvic pain, particularly in elderly patients without a history of trauma. PMID:22461824

  17. Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for stress management: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Stress has become a global public health problem. Yoga offers one possible way of reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from 2011 to May 2013 and examine whether yoga can be an efficacious approach for managing stress. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for quantitative articles involving all schools of yoga. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six of these were from the United States, 3 from India, 2 from the United Kingdom, and 1 each from Australia, Brazil, Germany, Iraq, Sweden, and Taiwan. Of the 17 studies, 12 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to stress. Despite the limitations, not all studies used a randomized controlled design, had smaller sample sizes, had different outcomes, had nonstandardized yoga intervention, and had varying lengths, yoga appears to be a promising modality for stress management. PMID:24647380

  18. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  19. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Strhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the

  20. 'People-Work': Emotion Management, Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sandi

    2004-01-01

    Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers whilst perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be…

  1. Managing Environmental Stress: An Evaluation of Environmental Management of the Long Point Sandy Barrier, Lake Erie, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreutzwiser; Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    / This paper assesses the extent to which key geomorphic components, processes, and stresses have been reflected in the management of a coastal sandy barrier environment. The management policies and practices of selected agencies responsible for Long Point, a World Biosphere Reserve along Lake Erie, Canada, were evaluated for consistency with these principles of environmental management for sandy barriers: maintaining natural stresses essential to sandy barrier development and maintenance;protecting sediment sources, transfers, and storage; recognizing spatial variability and cyclicity of natural stresses, such as barrier overwash events; and accepting and planning for long-term evolutionary changes in the sandy barrier environment. Generally, management policies and practices have not respected the dynamic and sensitive environment of Long Point because of limited mandates of the agencies involved, inconsistent policies, and failure to apply or enforce existing policies. This is particularly evident with local municipalities and less so for the Canadian Wildlife Service, the federal agency responsible for managing National Wildlife Areas at the point. In the developed areas of Long Point, landward sediment transfers and sediment storage in dunes have been impacted by cottage development, shore protection, and maintenance of roads and parking lots. Additionally, agencies responsible for managing Long Point have no jurisdiction over sediment sources as far as 95 km away. Evolutionary change of sandy barriers poses the greatest challenge to environmental managers. PMID:10552103

  2. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  3. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole research laboratory and has not yet been put to a definitive high-field test. The TAMU Physics Accelerator Research Laboratory has constructed a Nb 3Sn dipole, TAMU3, that is specially designed to provide a test bed for high-field stress management.

  4. Review: managing posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Capehart, Bruce; Bass, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Military deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq have been associated with elevated prevalence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among combat veterans. The diagnosis and management of PTSD when a comorbid TBI may also exist presents a challenge to interdisciplinary care teams at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and civilian medical facilities, particularly when the patient reports a history of blast exposure. Treatment recommendations from VA and Department of Defense's (DOD) recently updated VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress are considered from the perspective of simultaneously managing comorbid TBI. PMID:23015586

  5. Atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide enhances tolerance to salt stress and improves nutritional quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Shao-Ting; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ran-Ran

    2015-04-15

    The increased salinity in greenhouses has become a problem of great concern. In this study, it was observed that the salt-induced oxidative damages (indicated by MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes, including POD, SOD and CAT) could be alleviated by application of NO gas. Consequently, although both photosynthesis and growth in plants were inhibited by NaCl stress, they were restored by NO gas application, and the fresh and dry biomasses of edible parts increased by 60% and 27% over NaCl stress treatment, respectively. Furthermore, gaseous NO application also significantly elevated the levels of several antioxidation-associated compounds such as proline, ascorbate, glutathione, total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (indicated by DPPH scavenging activity) in NaCl-treated plants. Keeping in mind all of the above, we concluded that atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide gas could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and nutrition quality in spinach under salt stress. PMID:25466105

  6. Managing Stress among Adult Women Students in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lorraine G.; Schwartz, Robert A.; Bower, Beverly L.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and a campus-based study found high levels of stress resulting from parenting, financial, age and health concerns for adult women students enrolled at community colleges. Presents recommendations and suggestions to help: day care, orientation, academic and financial aid advising, peer advisers, healthy…

  7. Managing Premature Infant Stress: Training Does Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, M. Virginia; And Others

    The Nurse-Parent Training Project, developed in cooperation with Children's Hospital of Buffalo (New York), was designed to provide developmental supportive care for premature infants, and to reduce stress while optimizing neurobehavioral development. A program was conducted to train nurses working in neonatal intensive care nurseries, to enable…

  8. Relaxation Training: A Stress Management Model for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.; Justice, Christine

    Research findings produce a positive argument for the inclusion of relaxation training in the school curriculum. Since today's children face a great deal of stress, they must learn coping techniques. Learning to relax at will is one method of learning to survive, because the relaxation response is incompatible with anxiety; the child learns to…

  9. Comparison of two percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in the nutritional management of ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Turner, Martin R; Shaw, Ashley S; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Chris E; Leigh, P Nigel; Sidhu, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    Patient care and minimizing complications post gastrostomy have to date received little attention in ALS patients. We compare the complications associated with pigtail and mushroom type percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in this patient group. Patients requiring PRG received either Wills-Oglesby or the skin level Entristar. Retrospective review of the clinical notes was performed capturing demographic data, peristomal infection, tube displacement, tube failure, nutritional status, site of disease onset, and survival. Thirty-five patients (Group 1) had the Wills-Oglesby tube of which 14 (40%) tubes required replacement. The Entristar tube was inserted in 29 patients (Group 2) where 8 (28%) required replacement (NS). The incidence of infection was significantly lower with the Entristar tube, (p<0.001). The mean time to tube removal in Group 2 was 223 days (SD 147; range 71-494 days) due to 'buried bumper syndrome'. We conclude that the Entristar skin level gastrostomy tube is associated with a reduction in peristomal infection, tube failure and blockage compared with the Wills-Oglesby tube. PMID:16183559

  10. Meta-analysis and functional validation of nutritional requirements of solventogenic Clostridia growing under butanol stress conditions and coutilization of D-glucose and D-xylose.

    PubMed

    Heluane, Humberto; Evans, Matthew R; Dagher, Sue F; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2011-07-01

    Recent advances in systems biology, omics, and computational studies allow us to carry out data mining for improving biofuel production bioprocesses. Of particular interest are bioprocesses that center on microbial capabilities to biotransform both the hexose and pentose fractions present in crop residues. This called for a systematic exploration of the components of the media to obtain higher-density cultures and more-productive fermentation operations than are currently found. By using a meta-analysis approach of the transcriptional responses to butanol stress, we identified the nutritional requirements of solvent-tolerant strain Clostridium beijerinckii SA-1 (ATCC 35702). The nutritional requirements identified were later validated using the chemostat pulse-and-shift technique. C. beijerinckii SA-1 was cultivated in a two-stage single-feed-stream continuous production system to test the proposed validated medium formulation, and the coutilization of D-glucose and D-xylose was evaluated by taking advantage of the well-known ability of solventogenic clostridia to utilize a large variety of carbon sources such as mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides containing pentose and hexose sugars. Our results indicated that C. beijerinckii SA-1 was able to coferment hexose/pentose sugar mixtures in the absence of a glucose repression effect. In addition, our analysis suggests that the solvent and acid resistance mechanisms found in this strain are differentially regulated compared to strain NRRL B-527 and are outlined as the basis of the analysis toward optimizing butanol production. PMID:21602379

  11. Meta-Analysis and Functional Validation of Nutritional Requirements of Solventogenic Clostridia Growing under Butanol Stress Conditions and Coutilization of d-Glucose and d-Xylose ▿

    PubMed Central

    Heluane, Humberto; Evans, Matthew R.; Dagher, Sue F.; Bruno-Bárcena, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in systems biology, omics, and computational studies allow us to carry out data mining for improving biofuel production bioprocesses. Of particular interest are bioprocesses that center on microbial capabilities to biotransform both the hexose and pentose fractions present in crop residues. This called for a systematic exploration of the components of the media to obtain higher-density cultures and more-productive fermentation operations than are currently found. By using a meta-analysis approach of the transcriptional responses to butanol stress, we identified the nutritional requirements of solvent-tolerant strain Clostridium beijerinckii SA-1 (ATCC 35702). The nutritional requirements identified were later validated using the chemostat pulse-and-shift technique. C. beijerinckii SA-1 was cultivated in a two-stage single-feed-stream continuous production system to test the proposed validated medium formulation, and the coutilization of d-glucose and d-xylose was evaluated by taking advantage of the well-known ability of solventogenic clostridia to utilize a large variety of carbon sources such as mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides containing pentose and hexose sugars. Our results indicated that C. beijerinckii SA-1 was able to coferment hexose/pentose sugar mixtures in the absence of a glucose repression effect. In addition, our analysis suggests that the solvent and acid resistance mechanisms found in this strain are differentially regulated compared to strain NRRL B-527 and are outlined as the basis of the analysis toward optimizing butanol production. PMID:21602379

  12. Tolerating Uncertainty: The Exploration of a 10-Week Stress Management Course which Supports a Process of Recovery, Personal Change and Educational Development for People Experiencing Stress and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue

    2002-01-01

    A 10-week stress management and relaxation course helped anxious students develop skills and strategies derived from self-awareness. Course included stress theory, organizational skills (time management, goal setting), personal transformation, tolerance for uncertainty, and metacognition, with an emphasis on self-efficacy and autonomy. (Contains…

  13. Tolerating Uncertainty: The Exploration of a 10-Week Stress Management Course which Supports a Process of Recovery, Personal Change and Educational Development for People Experiencing Stress and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue

    2002-01-01

    A 10-week stress management and relaxation course helped anxious students develop skills and strategies derived from self-awareness. Course included stress theory, organizational skills (time management, goal setting), personal transformation, tolerance for uncertainty, and metacognition, with an emphasis on self-efficacy and autonomy. (Contains

  14. Enhanced biofuel production potential with nutritional stress amelioration through optimization of carbon source and light intensity in Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-03-01

    Microalgal mixotrophic cultivation is one of the most potential ways to enhance biomass and biofuel production. In the present study, first of all ability of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 to utilize various carbon sources under mixotrophic growth condition was evaluated followed by optimization of glucose concentration and light intensity to obtain higher biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized condition i.e. 4 g/L glucose and 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity, Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 produced 1.2g/L dry cell weight containing 23.62% total lipid and 42.68% carbohydrate. Addition of glucose shown nutritional stress ameliorating effects and around 70% carbohydrate and 25% total lipid content was found with only 21% reduction in dry cell weight under nitrogen starved condition. This study shows potential application of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 for bioethanol and biodiesel production feed stock. PMID:25579231

  15. Bibliotherapy Revisited: Issues in Classroom Management. Developing Teachers' Awareness and Techniques to Help Children Cope Effectively with Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Marilyn N. Malloy

    2006-01-01

    Are teachers aware of the stress in their classrooms? Do teachers plan for stress control? Educators need to understand why stress is a part of classroom life and how it affects the teacher-student relationship. Bibliotherapy can be an intervention in stress management through books. The use of appropriate reading material to help solve emotional…

  16. Beneficial Effects of a Q-ter® Based Nutritional Mixture on Functional Performance, Mitochondrial Function, and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y.; Vorobyeva, Darya A.; Carter, Christy S.; Anton, Stephen D.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter® based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn®) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q10 (Q-ter®), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn® supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn® supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. Conclusions/Significance These data imply that Eufortyn® is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn® supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age. PMID:20485503

  17. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

  18. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (−2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (−1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

  19. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K; Smith, James R; Reddy, Krishna N

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (-2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (-1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

  20. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. PMID:24251710

  1. Management of climatic heat stress risk in construction: a review of practices, methodologies, and future research.

    PubMed

    Rowlinson, Steve; Yunyanjia, Andrea; Li, Baizhan; Chuanjingju, Carrie

    2014-05-01

    Climatic heat stress leads to accidents on construction sites brought about by a range of human factors emanating from heat induced illness, and fatigue leading to impaired capability, physical and mental. It is an occupational characteristic of construction work in many climates and the authors take the approach of re-engineering the whole safety management system rather than focusing on incremental improvement, which is current management practice in the construction industry. From a scientific viewpoint, climatic heat stress is determined by six key factors: (1) air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) radiant heat, and (4) wind speed indicating the environment, (5) metabolic heat generated by physical activities, and (6) "clothing effect" that moderates the heat exchange between the body and the environment. By making use of existing heat stress indices and heat stress management processes, heat stress risk on construction sites can be managed in three ways: (1) control of environmental heat stress exposure through use of an action-triggering threshold system, (2) control of continuous work time (CWT, referred by maximum allowable exposure duration) with mandatory work-rest regimens, and (3) enabling self-paced working through empowerment of employees. Existing heat stress practices and methodologies are critically reviewed and the authors propose a three-level methodology for an action-triggering, localized, simplified threshold system to facilitate effective decisions by frontline supervisors. The authors point out the need for "regional based" heat stress management practices that reflect unique climatic conditions, working practices and acclimatization propensity by local workers indifferent geographic regions. The authors set out the case for regional, rather than international, standards that account for this uniqueness and which are derived from site-based rather than laboratory-based research. PMID:24079394

  2. Management of posttraumatic stress disorder: diagnostic and therapeutic issues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J R; Connor, K M

    1999-01-01

    Although the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are clear, this disorder is not always properly diagnosed. Reasons for misdiagnosis include a high rate of comorbidity, patient denial or minimization, overly high diagnostic thresholds set by clinicians, or failure to take a trauma history. There are a number of challenges associated with the treatment of PTSD. Patients with PTSD may not respond to pharmacotherapy in the same manner, and it is unclear whether this is related to gender, trauma type, or other factors. Antidepressants, particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are the most effective form of pharmacotherapy for patients with PTSD. Patients also may respond to therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants. Psychosocial techniques, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or stress inoculation training, are effective and may be considered as adjunctive therapy with medication. As awareness of PTSD increases, more patients should receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy. PMID:10487254

  3. Maternal nutritional status and its effect on the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, P. S.

    1962-01-01

    The dietary, clinical and biochemical investigations reported in this paper revealed that the large majority of the subjects—pregnant women of the low socio-economic group in South India—underwent the nutritional stress of gestation without adequate preparation or protection either before or during pregnancy. The subjects suffered from varying degrees of calorie-protein deficiency and a large number showed manifestations of vitamin B complex deficiency and anaemia. Their nutritional status was possibly reflected in the high percentage of premature termination of pregnancy. Those babies born alive at term had a low average birth weight, nearly one-third of them weighing less than 2500 g at birth. It is suggested that these small-sized under-weight infants, even if they are physiologically and functionally mature and manage to live, probably possess very little nutritional reserves and become potential subjects for the development of nutritional deficiency and its consequences during the early months of life. PMID:13925322

  4. The Endosymbiont Hamiltonella Increases the Growth Rate of Its Host Bemisia tabaci during Periods of Nutritional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci. PMID:24558462

  5. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was associated with higher indexes of oxidative stress and inflammation and hyperinsulinemia. CoQ10 supplementation prevented liver fibrosis accompanied by downregulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:26718412

  6. Resistance and resilience: the final frontier in traumatic stress management.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Welzant, Victor; Jacobson, Jodi M

    2008-01-01

    This paper asserts that the constructs of resistance and resilience represent a domain rich in potential for a wide variety of applications in the field of traumatic stress. Resilience holds great potential for those working in applied settings such as public health planning and preparedness, Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and business continuity, as well as transportation, law enforcement, fire suppression, emergency medical services, pre-deployment training for military and other high risk professional groups. Additionally, its application to "the war on terrorism" cannot be denied. Finally, the construct of resilience may have direct applicability to businesses and organizations wherein there is perceived value in preparing a workforce to effectively function under adverse or high stress conditions. The putative value of resistance and resiliency in such applied settings resides in their ability to protect against stress-related behavioral morbidity, as well as counterproductive behavioral reactions. Given its importance, the question arises as to whether resilience is an innate trait or an acquired skill. This paper will report on preliminary data suggesting resiliency may be an attribute that can be acquired through participation in a relatively brief training program. PMID:19278142

  7. Stress management using UMTS cellular phones: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Preziosa, Alessandra; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    One of the best strategies for dealing with stress is learning how to relax. However, relaxing is difficult to achieve in typical real world situations. For this study, we developed a specific protocol based on mobile narratives - multimedia narratives experienced on UMTS/3G phones - to help workers in reducing commuting stress. In a controlled trial 33 commuters were randomly divided between three conditions: Mobile narratives (MN); New age music and videos (NA); no treatment (CT). In two consecutive days the MN and NA samples experienced during their commute trip 2 x 2 6-minute multimedia experiences on a Motorola A925 3G phone provided by the "TRE" Italian UMTS carrier: the MN sample experienced a mobile narrative based on the exploration of a desert beach; the NA sample experienced a commercial new age video with similar visual contents. The trials showed the efficacy of mobile narratives in reducing the level of stress experienced during a commute trip. No effects were found in the other groups. These results suggest that 3G mobile handsets may be used as relaxation tool if backed by a specific therapeutic protocol and meaningful narratives. PMID:16404099

  8. VINEYARD FLOOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AFFECT SOIL PROPERTIES & MICROBIOLOGY, WATER RELATIONS, AND CROP NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term comparison of various vineyard floor management practices (weed control and cover crops) indicates that weed control treatments had no impact on soil microbial biomass, but had a significant interactive effect with the rye cover crop on mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots, presum...

  9. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  10. Organic Highbush Blueberry Production Systems Research – Management of Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Requirements, and Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...

  11. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate factorial management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. The practices include: flat and raised planting beds; feather meal and fish emulsion fertilizer applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N; sawdust mulch, compost topped with sawdust ...

  12. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria João; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (δ-, γ-, α-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For δ- and γ- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies. PMID:25028959

  13. Variation in broccoli cultivar phytochemical content under organic and conventional management systems: implications in breeding for nutrition.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Erica N C; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T; Myers, James R; Paulo, Maria João; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (δ-, γ-, α-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For δ- and γ-tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41-13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies. PMID:25028959

  14. Prevention and management of gastrointestinal infections in infants from a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This article considers infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This is a complex organ, which exists in a range of environments. Despite containing defence mechanisms against microorganisms, GI infections are common throughout infancy; however, the risk of infection can be reduced through careful hygiene and the encouragement of breast-feeding. Although research into the role of dietary factors in preventing or treating GI infection is in its early days, there is some evidence for the use of prebiotics and probiotics. The role of health care professionals is to give parents and carers advice to manage these infections, and to differentiate those infants at risk of dehydration, or those where diarrhoea and vomiting signifies something more serious. Informing parents and carers about the treatment and management of minor ailments will also help avoid unnecessary demand on the health service associated with regular consultation about these conditions. PMID:20120883

  15. A Web-Based Mindfulness Stress Management Program in a Corporate Call Center

    PubMed Central

    Allexandre, Didier; Bernstein, Adam M.; Walker, Esteban; Hunter, Jennifer; Roizen, Michael F.; Morledge, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week web-based, mindfulness stress management program (WSM) in a corporate call center and added benefit of group support. Methods: One hundred sixty-one participants were randomized to WSM, WSM with group support, WSM with group and expert clinical support, or wait-list control. Perceived stress, burnout, emotional and psychological well-being, mindfulness, and productivity were measured at baseline, weeks 8 and 16, and 1 year. Results: Online usage was low with participants favoring CD use and group practice. All active groups demonstrated significant reductions in perceived stress and increases in emotional and psychological well-being compared with control. Group support improved participation, engagement, and outcomes. Conclusion: A self-directed mindfulness program with group practice and support can provide an affordable, effective, and scalable workplace stress management solution. Engagement may also benefit from combining web-based and traditional CD delivery. PMID:26949875

  16. Stress management for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: a holistic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Debra Rose

    2010-02-01

    Among the many sequelae of childhood sexual abuse is a maladaptive response to stress. Stress has been linked to a reduction in the immune system's ability to resist disease. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-method study is to examine the experience of stress management training for 35 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Data gathered for analysis include pre- and postintervention saliva samples for sIgA, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a postintervention qualitative interview. Stress management strategies enhance immunity (increase in salivary immunoglobulin A, p < .05) and coping (less distancing, p < .001; less escape-avoidance, p < .001; more planful problem solving, p < .01; and more positive reappraisal, p < .001). Grounded theory analysis finds three themes emerging: hypervigilance , an outward-focused hyperawareness; somatic detachment, a lack of inward focus on self; and healing pathway, the process of healing from the abuse. Healing is possible. PMID:19955101

  17. Skilled Work in an Era of Management-by-Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mike

    1998-01-01

    If the labor movement is to survive technological change and lean-work reorganization schemes, it must address the issues of skilled work, particularly training; how management organizes work; and the relationship between skilled workers and the rest of the labor movement. (Author)

  18. The Effect of Stress Management Model in Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Women

    PubMed Central

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Falsafinejad, Mohammad Reza; Akbari, Mohammd Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer associates with severs severe distress and stress. Since Because of that, the stress management program can train necessary skills to cope with stress; therefore, the current study investigates the effectiveness of stress management on enhancement of quality of life. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to examine the effectiveness of stress management model in quality of life for breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with pre and post-tests. The 21 subjects were selected from cancer institute of Imam Khomeini in Tehran in 2014. The participants were allocated to two matched groups based on their pre-test scores. They were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Stress management was conducted with the experimental group during 10 sessions. Then the questionnaire was administered at post-test. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test and analysis of variance. The research instrument was the core quality of life questionnaire QLQ-C30. Results: The results of the independent t-test showed that there is a significant difference between the pretest and post-test scores in the experimental group (P < 0.05). Also, there is no significant difference between means of quality of life subscales and socio demographic of the patients such as; age, education and disease stage (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate that stress management can change the irrational and distortion thoughts. So, it enhances the quality of life in breast cancer patients. PMID:26478793

  19. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  20. Yin Yang 1 and Adipogenic Gene Network Expression in Longissimus Muscle of Beef Cattle in Response to Nutritional Management

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS. PMID:23700364

  1. Four years of North American registry home parenteral nutrition outcome data and their implications for patient management

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, L.; Heaphey, L.; Fleming, C.R.; Lininger, L.; Steiger, E. )

    1991-07-01

    The OASIS Registry started annual collection of longitudinal data on patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in 1984. This report describes outcome profiles on 1594 HPN patients in seven disease categories. Analysis showed clinical outcome was principally a reflection of the underlying diagnosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, ischemic bowel disease, motility disorders, radiation enteritis, and congenital bowel dysfunction all had a fairly long-term clinical outcome, whereas those with active cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a short-term outcome. The long-term group had a 3-year survival rate of 65 to 80%, they averaged 2.6 complications requiring hospitalization per year, and 49% experienced complete rehabilitation. The short-term group had a mean survival of 6 months; they averaged 4.6 complications per year and about 15% experienced complete rehabilitation. The registry data also indicated HPN was used for 19,700 patients in 1987 with therapy growth averaging about 8% per year. This growth was chiefly from new cancer patients. The number of new patients with long-term disorders in whom HPN was initiated appeared rather constant. The authors conclude that these clinical outcome assessments justify HPN for long-term patients, but the utility and appropriateness of HPN for the cancer and AIDS patients remains uncertain and requires further study. Medical, social, and fiscal aspects of HPN management in long-term and short-term patients appear to involve quite separate considerations.

  2. Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which D-penicillamine is the most commonly used. D-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous D-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1 months (range, 5.9-39 months) after being effectively treated with D-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.30.3 mg copper/1000 kcal and 64.35.9 mg zinc/1000 kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6 months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800 mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with D-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

  3. Evaluation of two diets in the nutritional management of cats with naturally occurring chronic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dorothy S; Long, Grace M

    2004-01-01

    Feeding either a highly digestible, moderate-carbohydrate diet or a highly digestible, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet resulted in significant (P < .05) improvements in fecal scores in 71% of cats with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea. Approximately 58% of the cats improved on either diet, with no significant differences between the two diets regarding the percentage of cats responding or the degree of response. These results suggest that dietary management may be helpful in cats with chronic diarrhea. If cats do not respond within 1 month, an alternative diet should be considered. PMID:15150729

  4. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry. PMID:25179925

  5. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  6. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait environment interactions. The objective of this research was to i...

  7. Diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Grinage, Bradley D

    2003-12-15

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating anxiety disorder that may cause significant distress and increased use of health resources, the condition often goes undiagnosed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in the United States is 8 to 9 percent, and approximately 25 to 30 percent of victims of significant trauma develop PTSD. The emotional and physical symptoms of PTSD occur in three clusters: re-experiencing the trauma, marked avoidance of usual activities, and increased symptoms of arousal. Before a diagnosis of PTSD can be made, the patient's symptoms must significantly disrupt normal activities and last for more than one month. Approximately 80 percent of patients with PTSD have at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid disorders include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Treatment relies on a multidimensional approach, including supportive patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, and psychopharmacology. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment. PMID:14705759

  8. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  9. Stress Management in Thin-Film Gas-Permeation Barriers.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Andreas; Meyer, Jens; van de Weijer, Peter; Gahlmann, Tobias; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Gas diffusion barriers (GDB) are essential building blocks for the protection of sensitive materials or devices against ambient gases, like oxygen and moisture. In this work, we study the mechanics of GDBs processed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate that a wide range of ALD grown barrier layers carry intrinsic mechanical tensile stress in the range of 400-500 MPa. In the application of these GDBs on top of organic electronic devices, we derive a critical membrane force (σ · h)crit = 1200 GPaÅ (corresponding to a layer thickness of about 300 nm) for the onset of cracking and delamination. At the same time, we evidence that thicker GDBs would be more favorable for the efficient encapsulation of statistically occurring particle defects. Thus, to reduce the overall membrane force in this case to levels below (σ · h)crit, we introduce additional compressively strained layers, e.g., metals or SiNx. Thereby, highly robust GDBs are prepared on top of organic light emitting diodes, which do not crack/delaminate even under damp heat conditions 85 °C/85% rh. PMID:26790836

  10. Nutrition and feed management strategies to reduce nutrient excretions and odors from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2004-01-01

    Manipulation of the pig's diet to reduce nutrient excretions and odors is feasible and practical. Avoiding excessive dietary protein, using high quality protein sources, and feeding low protein, amino acid supplemented diets are practices that will reduce the N in excreta. Avoiding excessive overages of dietary P, balancing diets on an available P basis, and use of phytase as a dietary supplement offers potential for further reducing the P in manure. Use of reduced or organic forms of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg will reduce excretion of these nutrients in manure. Feeding management technologies that will enhance feed efficiencies and reduce nutrient excretion include feeding for phase, sex and genetic ability of the animal. Reducing the intact protein levels in diets and balancing with synthetic amino acids, use of low levels of specific non-starch polysaccharides (NSP; soybean hulls, sugar beet pulp), and maintaining the proper acid-base balance and buffering in the diet can significantly reduce odorous compounds. Greater nutrient reductions may be possible through the development of specialty feed ingredients that will be used for specific animal diets. Research to fine-tune the diets for production systems is needed. PMID:15137450

  11. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  12. The Frazzled Principal's Wellness Plan: Reclaiming Time, Managing Stress, and Creating a Healthy Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen; Queen, Patsy S.

    2004-01-01

    This wellness guide for today's busy principals, school leaders, supervisors, and administrators has been custom crafted by the authors to address the stresses of managing workplace environments, juggling time and competing priorities, learning to delegate, balancing personal and professional agendas, and creating win-win situations. Special

  13. On the Horizon. Biofeedback and Self-Management of Stress in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Edward W.; Walton, Wilbur T.

    1979-01-01

    The use of biofeedback in the self management of stress in school children is discussed. Educational research on biofeedback suggests that biofeedback training can help children to learn relaxation skills, reduce school-related anxiety, and gain a measure of self-discipline and confidence. (PHR)

  14. How Stress Management Improves Quality of Life after Treatment for Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Kazi, Aisha; Wimberly, Sarah R.; Sifre, Tammy; Urcuyo, Kenya R.; Phillips, Kristin; Gluck, Stefan; Carver, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    The range of effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life among women with breast cancer remains uncertain. Furthermore, it is unclear which components of multimodal interventions account for such effects. To address these issues, the authors tested a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention among 199 women…

  15. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:

  17. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  18. How Stress Management Improves Quality of Life after Treatment for Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Kazi, Aisha; Wimberly, Sarah R.; Sifre, Tammy; Urcuyo, Kenya R.; Phillips, Kristin; Gluck, Stefan; Carver, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    The range of effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life among women with breast cancer remains uncertain. Furthermore, it is unclear which components of multimodal interventions account for such effects. To address these issues, the authors tested a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention among 199 women

  19. The Frazzled Principal's Wellness Plan: Reclaiming Time, Managing Stress, and Creating a Healthy Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen; Queen, Patsy S.

    2004-01-01

    This wellness guide for today's busy principals, school leaders, supervisors, and administrators has been custom crafted by the authors to address the stresses of managing workplace environments, juggling time and competing priorities, learning to delegate, balancing personal and professional agendas, and creating win-win situations. Special…

  20. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot

  1. Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Colleen K.

    2006-01-01

    A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

  2. Stress Management and Anxiety Reduction Through EMG Biofeedback/Relaxation Training upon Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Darrel

    The effectiveness of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback/relaxation training on the stress management and anxiety levels of 18 eighth-grade students was tested. Chapter I serves as an introduction and presents information on the need for the study, hypotheses, limitations, and definition of terms. Chapter II contains a review of related…

  3. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  4. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  5. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Interventions for Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reynard, Alison K.; Rae-Grant, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify stress-management interventions used for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and systematically evaluate the efficacy of these interventions. Methods: Several strategies were used to search for studies reported in articles published up to 2013. Results: Our initial search retrieved 117 publications, of which 8 met our criteria for review. Of the eight studies, one provided Class I evidence, five provided Class III evidence, and two provided Class IV evidence for the efficacy of stress-management interventions according to the evidence classification established by the American Academy of Neurology. Most studies showed positive changes in outcomes assessed; however, the range of methodological quality among the published studies made it difficult to draw conclusions. Conclusions: The promising findings for stress-management interventions highlight the need for future studies. Additional large, prospective, multicenter studies will help to define the role of stress-management interventions in the treatment and course of MS. Furthermore, including outcome measures based on biological and clinical markers of disease will prove useful in understanding potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25337056

  6. Adapting Critical Incident Stress Management to the Schools: A Multi-Agency Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortorici, Joanne; Johnson, Luna Kendall

    2004-01-01

    The need for school-appropriate applications of critical incident stress management (CISM) is noted in the literature on school crisis response. This paper presents preliminary data suggesting a School Crisis Response Team's (SCRT) usage and team needs. The SCRT was dispatched for a variety of critical incidents. Self-dispatch, followed by…

  7. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Li-Pin; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lai, Yu-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Saint Shiou-Sheng; Chiu, Allen W

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. Methods Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients’ state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. Results There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03). Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02). Conclusion Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia. PMID:26929606

  8. Size matters: management of stress responses and chronic stress in beaked whales and other marine mammals may require larger exclusion zones.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Deak, Terrence; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527

  9. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. PMID:22293018

  10. Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training for Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, R. D.; Zbozinek, T. D.; Hentschel, P. G.; Smith, S, M.; O'Brien J.; Oftedal, A.; Craske, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Stress and anxiety-related problems are among the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society, and for those working in operational environments (i.e. astronauts, flight controllers, military) this can seriously impact crew performance, safety, and wellbeing. Technology-based interventions are effective for treating behavioral health problems, and can significantly improve the delivery of evidence-based health care. This study is evaluating the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of a self-guided multimedia stress management and resilience training program in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. The intervention, SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance), is a six-session, cognitive behavioral-based computer program that uses self-guided, interactive activities to teach skills that can help individuals build resilience and manage stress. In a prior RCT with a sample of stressed but otherwise healthy individuals, SMART-OP reduced perceived stress and increased perceived control over stress in comparison to an Attention Control (AC) group. SMART-OP was rated as "highly useful" and "excellent" in usability and acceptability. Based on a-amylase data, individuals in SMART-OP recovered quicker and more completely from a social stress test as compared to the AC group [1]. In the current study, flight controllers are randomized either to receive SMART-OP training, or to a 6-week waitlist control period (WLC) before beginning SMART-OP. Eligible participants include JSC flight controllers and instructors without any medical or psychiatric disorder, but who are stressed based on self-report. Flight controllers provide a valid analog sample to astronauts in that they work in an operational setting, use similar terminology to astronauts, are mission-focused, and work under the same broader work culture. The study began in December 2014, and to date 79 flight controllers and instructors have expressed interest in the study, 49 of those were cleared for participation, we have screened 44 for eligibility, and 23 have met inclusion criteria. Recruitment is ongoing and the study will continue until December 2016. Outcome measures include perceived stress, perceived control over stress, resilience, mood, personality, emotion regulation, sleep, health behaviors, and psychophysiological data such as 24-hour heart rate, alpha amylase, and urinary and salivary cortisol. We are also collecting user feedback such as usability, working alliance, usefulness, and treatment credibility.

  11. Web-Based and Mobile Stress Management Intervention for Employees: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Work-related stress is highly prevalent among employees and is associated with adverse mental health consequences. Web-based interventions offer the opportunity to deliver effective solutions on a large scale; however, the evidence is limited and the results conflicting. Objective This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of guided Web- and mobile-based stress management training for employees. Methods A total of 264 employees with elevated symptoms of stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10, PSS-10≥22) were recruited from the general working population and randomly assigned to an Internet-based stress management intervention (iSMI) or waitlist control group. The intervention (GET.ON Stress) was based on Lazarus’s transactional model of stress, consisted of seven sessions, and applied both well-established problem solving and more recently developed emotion regulation strategies. Participants also had the opportunity to request automatic text messages on their mobile phone along with the iSMI. Participants received written feedback on every completed session from an e-coach. The primary outcome was perceived stress (PSS-10). Web-based self-report assessments for both groups were scheduled at baseline, 7 weeks, and 6 months. At 12 months, an extended follow-up was carried out for the iSMI group only. Results An intention-to-treat analysis of covariance revealed significantly large effect differences between iSMI and waitlist control groups for perceived stress at posttest (F 1,261=58.08, P<.001; Cohen’s d=0.83) and at the 6-month follow-up (F 1,261=80.17, P<.001; Cohen’s d=1.02). The effects in the iSMI group were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions This Web- and mobile-based intervention has proven effective in reducing stress in employees in the long term. Internet-based stress management interventions should be further pursued as a valuable alternative to face-to-face interventions. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS): 00004749; http://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/ drks_web/setLocale_EN.do (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6e8rl98nl) PMID:26818683

  12. [Pteridine pattern in the urine of swine of different breeds and halothane genotypes in relation to nutrition and stress].

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M; Eichinger, H; Otten, W; Merkenschlager, M

    1991-10-01

    Urinary pteridine patterns and creatinine concentrations were determined in pigs of the breeds Piétrain, Deutsche Landrasse and their crossbreds. Also the influence of the halothane genotypes, of different feeding and of treadmill exercise was examined. We conclude that creatinine concentration in pig urine is not a reliable reference parameter for the pteridine excretion. Creatinine values were significantly influenced by breed and feeding. The pteridine pattern of pigs' urine depends on the breed and correlates with other metabolic parameters. Stress is reflected by altered pteridine concentrations. PMID:1759264

  13. Effects of a Stress-Management Program for Inpatients With Mental Disorders: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Ignacio, Jeanette; He, Hong-Gu; Lau, Ying; Ngooi, Bi Xia; Koh, Soo Quee David

    2016-03-01

    Stress-management interventions have been integrated into treatments for people with mental disorders. Nevertheless, most studies on these interventions have been conducted on patients with schizophrenia in Western countries, and limited studies have used objective measurements of stress. We developed a group-based, four-session stress-management (S-Manage) program for people with mental disorders, consisting of two major components: psychoeducation and relaxation practice. This single-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental study was undertaken to test the initial effects and determine the effect sizes of the program. A convenience sample of 55 inpatients were recruited from a mental health ward at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Self-report questionnaires and physiological measures of stress (skin temperature and salivary immunoglobulin A [SIgA]) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Most participants were Singaporean, female, single, and employed. Diagnoses included schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and mixed diagnoses. All received standard care provided by the hospital. Participants had significant reductions in objective stress, measured by skin temperature (effect size = 0.54) and SIgA (effect size = 0.16), and subjective stress (effect size = 0.16) as well as improved psychological health (effect size = 0.40) in response to the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the positive effects of the S-Manage program on people with mental disorders. Future studies should further test the efficacy of the program using more rigorous methods such as randomized controlled trial and multicenter study. PMID:26183182

  14. Weekly Iron Folate Supplementation in Adolescent Girls – An Effective Nutritional Measure for the Management of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohan; Gumashta, Raghvendra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nutritional anaemia in India is common morbidity seen in late adolescent and young female population. There are many conflicting opinions regarding dosage of iron folic acid supplementation for managing this simple nutritional deficiency disorder. Hence, this ‘Randomized Controlled Trial’ was undertaken in adolescent girls suffering from Iron Deficiency Anaemia visiting ‘Urban Health and Training Centre’ situated in urban slum area. The aim of this study was to assess the (a) Impact of weekly iron folic acid supplementation in comparison with daily iron supplementation for the management of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in adolescent girls visiting ‘Urban Health and Training Centre’; (b) Adverse drug reaction profile in ‘Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ and ‘Daily Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ regimes; (c) Compliance profile for ‘Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ and ‘Daily Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ regimes in adolescent girls. Methods and Material: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in adolescent girls visiting ‘Urban Health and Training Centre’ during the study period June, 2011 to October, 2012. The 120 anaemic (Haemoglobin < 12 gm%) adolescent girls (10-19 years) were distributed randomly by block randomization in two groups; one receiving daily Iron and Folic Acid supplementation and in other group receiving weekly Iron and Folic Acid supplementation for 3 months. All the study subjects were given de-worming (Albendazole 400 mg) and required health education separately. Both the groups were monitored for Haemoglobin estimation, compliance and adverse drug reactions, if any. Open-Epi Statistical Software was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of study subjects in ‘Daily Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation’ and ‘Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation’ group was 13.48 and 13.55 years respectively. Their mean pre intervention Haemoglobin was 10.1±1.1 gm/dl and 10.4±1.1 gm/dl respectively. The mean rise in Haemoglobin after lean period of 1 month in respective groups was almost equal i.e. 1.0±0.7 gm/dl and 1.0±0.8 gm/dl. Adverse Drug Reactions were 8.3% in weekly regime as compared to 13.35% in daily regime, abdominal pain being the commonest adverse drug reaction seen. The compliance calculated as mean of unconsumed ‘Iron and Folic Acid’ tablets was 6.1±10.98 in ‘Daily Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ group, while it was 1.3±3.15 in ‘Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation’ group (p=0.0012), making weekly regime more promising than daily regime with better treatment compliance. Conclusions: Weekly supplementation of ‘Iron and Folic Acid’ in ‘Iron Deficiency Anaemia’ patients is as good as daily supplementation with added benefits of less adverse reactions and better compliance. PMID:23618489

  15. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose

  16. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  17. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  18. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week

  19. Job stress and burnout among Canadian managers and nurses: an empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Jamal, M; Baba, V V

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of job stress with burnout and its three dimensions (emotional exhaustion, lack of accomplishment and depersonalization), job satisfaction, organizational commitment and psychosomatic health problems. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from Canadian managers (N = 67) and nurses (N = 173). Pearson correlation and moderated multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Job stress was significantly correlated with overall burnout and its three dimensions and job satisfaction in both samples. In the nursing sample, job stress was also significantly correlated with psychosomatic health problems and organizational commitment. Moderated multiple regression only marginally supported the role of gender as a moderator of stress-burnout relationship. PMID:11200738

  20. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Razbadauskas, Artūras; Sąlyga, Jonas; Martinkėnas, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65), music (50), and control (65). The geothermal group was administered 108 g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduction in the number and intensity of stress-related symptoms, a reduction in pain and general, physical, and mental fatigue, and an improvement in stress-related symptoms management, mood, activation, motivation, and cognitive functions with effect size from 0.8 to 2.3. In the music therapy group, there were significant positive changes in the number of stress symptoms, intensity, mood, pain, and activity with the effect size of 0.4 to 1.1. The researchers did not observe any significant positive changes in the control group. The comparison between the groups showed that balneotherapy was superior to music therapy and no treatment group. Conclusions. Balneotherapy is beneficial for stress and fatigue reduction in comparison with music or no therapy group. Geothermal water baths have a potential as an efficient approach to diminish stress caused by working or living conditions. PMID:27051455