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Sample records for nutrition transition obesity

  1. Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course

    PubMed Central

    Kac, G; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course. PMID:27152157

  2. Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course.

    PubMed

    Kac, G; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course. PMID:27152157

  3. Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. PMID:24979753

  4. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country’s stage in the nutrition transition increased one’s odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one’s weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants’ lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin’s nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin’s nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants’ perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect

  5. NOW AND THEN: The Global Nutrition Transition: The Pandemic of Obesity in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; Adair, Linda S.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2011-01-01

    Decades ago discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. Diets in the 1970’s began to shift toward increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away from home intake and greater use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reduced physical activity and increased sedentary time was seen also. These changes began in the early 1990-‘s in the low and middle income world but did not become clearly recognized until diabetes, hypertension and obesity began to dominate the globe. Urban and rural areas from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’s poorest countries to the higher income ones are shown to have experienced rapid increases in overweight and obesity status. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are documented. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy shifts are being explored in a few countries; however despite the major health challenges faced, few countries are serious in addressing prevention of the dietary challenges faced. PMID:22221213

  6. OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Renee D.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter collectively discusses two important topics related to patients with ARDS: 1) obesity and its potential contribution to clinical outcomes through proposed biologic mechanisms and 2) current literature on provision of nutrition and micronutrients. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing around the world, and more than one third of Americans are now obese. While obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent literature suggests that among critically ill patients including those with ARDS, the relationship between obesity and outcomes is quite complex. Observational data demonstrate that obese patients may be at greater risk of developing ARDS and of having longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay compared to normal weight patients. However, obesity is also associated with improved survival. Therefore, in contrast to what might be assumed by clinicians, although obesity may confer greater ICU morbidity, it appears to simultaneously decrease mortality. The mechanisms for these findings are not yet clear, but recent biologic data may begin to provide an explanation. Critical illness, and more specifically the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a catabolic state where patients demonstrate a profound inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction, and hypermetabolism. This is often accompanied by malnutrition, which can lead to further impairment of immune function and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past decade or more, as we have come to better understand immunologic effects of nutrition in critical illness, nutrition has begun to be thought of as therapeutic, rather than purely supportive. Additionally, the concept of pharmaconutrition has emerged. Fortunately, several recent large studies about nutrition in critical care, with some investigations specifically in patients with ARDS, have provided valuable new evidence. PMID:25453416

  7. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  8. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

  9. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  10. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  11. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  12. The Critical Care Obesity Paradox and Implications for Nutrition Support.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Rosenthal, Martin D; Miller, Keith R; Codner, Panna; Kiraly, Laszlo; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing and is associated with an increased risk for other co-morbidities. In the critical care setting, nearly one third of patients are obese. Obese critically ill patients pose significant physical and on-physical challenges to providers, including optimization of nutrition therapy. Intuitively, obese patients would have worse critical care-related outcome. On the contrary, emerging data suggests that critically ill obese patients have improved outcomes, and this phenomenon has been coined "the obesity paradox." The purposes of this review will be to outline the historical views and pathophysiology of obesity and epidemiology of obesity, describe the challenges associated with obesity in the intensive care unit setting, review critical care outcomes in the obese, define the obesity-critical care paradox, and identify the challenges and role of nutrition support in the critically ill obese patient. PMID:27422122

  13. 78 FR 20411 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... / Friday, April 5, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 RIN 0584-AE07 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Interim...

  14. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement. PMID:25686639

  15. The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2002-02-01

    The accelerated phase of industrialisation and urbanisation in recent decades has inevitably brought about changes in the lifestyle of Malaysians. Changes in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are known to be associated with changes in health and increased prevalence of chronic diseases in the population. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between demographic variables and food consumption patterns related to the nutrition transition in Malaysia. This review uses various reports and publications from several ministries and selected local studies. The statistics compiled over the last two decades have shown that as the population achieves affluence, intakes of calories, fats and sugars increase, which may account for the substantial increase in food importation bills over the same period. Similarly, the rapid growth of the fast food industry during the last decade has added another dimension to the change in food consumption patterns of Malaysians. With the exception of a study on adolescents, the prevalences of overweight and obesity in children and adults are not strictly comparable due to the difference in body mass index (BMI) cut-off points in children and the study protocol in adults, and hence should not be misinterpreted as trends. The recent recommendation to lower the BMI cut-off points for Asians would only increase the magnitude of the existing prevalence among adults. The need to promote healthy nutrition for the population must be pursued vigorously, as the escalation of nutrition-related chronic degenerative diseases - once an urban phenomenon--has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. This paper indicates that the problem is real and needs urgent attention because it may be just the tip of the iceberg. PMID:12027284

  16. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador. PMID:27275596

  17. Obesity in Rural Youth: Looking beyond Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Debra B.; Patterson, Patti J.; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging,…

  18. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  19. Emerging nutrition challenges: policies to tackle under-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Denise Costa; Rivera, Juan A; Uauy, Ricardo; Ding, Zong-Yi; Ruel, Marie T; Svensson, Per-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    On 19 May, 2008, Mexico's Secretary of Health, Dr José Angel Córdova Villalobos, hosted an event entitled Emerging Nutrition Challenges: Policies to Tackle Under-nutrition, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Held in conjunction with the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, nearly 100 delegates from over 30 countries attended. The International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers and the International Hospital Federation supported Mexico in its sponsorship of this event. Dr Villalobos provided opening remarks including an overview of Mexico's public policies to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Dr. Mauricio Hernández, Mexico's Undersecretary of Health, moderated as six experts from around the world spoke on issues relating to the nutrition "double burden" (i.e. malnourishment and obesity), successful interventions and policy opportunities for improving nutrition, preventing obesity and enhancing health outcomes. Following are abstracts from their presentations. PMID:19181025

  20. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries. PMID:22442643

  1. Obesity and nutritional behavior within a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Conti, A A; Lippi, D; Gensini, G F

    2004-06-01

    Obesity is an ever increasing pathological condition in Western countries. Genetic, metabolic, social and cultural factors play different roles in the varying pictures of obesity, together with nutritional behavior. This research proposes to formulate a comparison through the literary sources of the classical world, so as to determine the modalities with which obesity and nutritional habits have been perceived in the past. In Greek and Roman art, obesity often assumed the characteristics of caricature and of satire, confirmed by the elaboration of the stereotype of the sponger. Obesity generated irony and sarcasm; meanwhile the figure of the tyrant too was modelled on the physical type of the obesus, in whom the vice both of alimentary and sexual excess was concentrated. The evaluation of obesity, in the course of the time, has seen alternate phases, that propose different physical models and elaborate different aesthetical canons, but always closely related to a strong social factor as a distinctive sign: opulence. Nowadays obesity is seen, on the contrary, as an ever increasing nutritional disorder, both in prevalence and in incidence, and, to the ideal of the fat subject, very recent years have progressively substituted a different aesthetic typology, also because hyperalimentation has been qualified as a concomitant cause for a number of degenerative disorders. PMID:15722988

  2. Social valorisation of stoutness as a determinant of obesity in the context of nutritional transition in Cameroon: the Bamiléké case.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E; Boetsch, G; Palstra, F P; Pasquet, P

    2013-11-01

    Body size perceptions were assessed among members of the Bamiléké, an ethnic group in an urban setting in Cameroon with high rates of obesity, but also a positive perception of stoutness in its social representations. We first implemented a qualitative study (April 2007) to identify local representations of body weight among Bamiléké using semi-structured interviews. We then quantitatively assessed body size perceptions among a representative sample of Bamiléké (May to June 2007), employing a body image assessment scale and a questionnaire that included declarative body weight self-satisfaction, health status, and attempts to reduce weight. Results indicate Desired Body Size (DBS) for women, and particularly for men, was situated in the overweight category. Qualitative analyses show that overweight is considered as a normal and healthy body size in the Bamiléké. On the other hand, the quantitative study reveals that high rates of obesity, especially in women (40.8% obese), are associated with high blood pressure. Moreover, subjects who had a negative perception of their health status wanted to lose weight (p < 0.01). Unlike males, females have a DBS lower than their Current Body Size (p < 0.001). In addition, subjects (particularly males) who felt they were too lean, were older than those who felt too fat. We therefore conclude that the social valorisation of stoutness exposes Bamiléké, particularly males, to obesity. Although the women stated a desire to lose weight and present aesthetic criteria more oriented towards slimness, the attitude of the Bamiléké remained oriented toward stoutness appreciation. This preference can help protect against body image disturbances identified in Western societies, but may also increase of the incidence of obesity and its associated pathologies in this part of the world. PMID:24034948

  3. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade school children and their parents in three school districts in Bell Co...

  4. Obesity in rural youth: looking beyond nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Debra B; Patterson, Patti J; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging, nontraditional factors need to be addressed within the confines of current challenges faced by rural communities. An enhanced ecological model provides a framework for combining traditional and nontraditional factors into a more comprehensive approach that addresses the complexity of the issues contributing to youth obesity. PMID:21906552

  5. [Type 2 diabetes, obesity and nutrition, a paradigm shift].

    PubMed

    Bourcelot, Emilie; Combes, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are two complex and multifactorial chronic diseases. Nutritional management is based on an educational and bio-psycho-sensory approach centred on the patient using cognitive-behavioural and emotionally-focused therapy tools. PMID:27157552

  6. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program. PMID:27039409

  7. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described. PMID:25759691

  8. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    PubMed

    2006-10-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade schoolchildren and their parents in three school districts in Bell County and Harris County. Fourth-grade schoolchildren were surveyed at two times (T1, T2) during the spring semester of the 2004-2005 school year to assess their dietary intake, their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and their understanding and satisfaction with the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Participating students' parents also were surveyed. The overall obesity rate in surveyed children averaged 26.1%. No significant difference was found between HRQOL scores for obese and normal-weight children, although HRQOL scores for normal-weight children were significantly lower than those in previous population studies of healthy children. In addition, the HRQOL scores of obese and healthy children increased significantly from T1 to T2 for Bell County but only for healthy children in Harris County. Children from Bell County were more likely to eat food from the cafeteria while children from Harris County were more likely to eat food brought from home. Parents of minority children reported that they were more likely to change dietary habits at home as a result of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Obese children were less likely than normal-weight children to try to lose weight. This study suggests that lunch intake varies considerably in Texas, and state policy should try to institute more uniform nutrition guidelines for all school districts. Because minority children are at increased risk of obesity, the preliminary findings that their parents are more likely to change their dietary habits at home are very encouraging. PMID:17628963

  9. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  10. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  11. Nutrition and Immune System in Children with Simple Obesity.

    PubMed

    Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Janusz, Malgorzata; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrzak, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary factors in nutrition influencing the immune system of children and teenagers suffering from simple obesity. The study involved 100 children and teenagers aged 7-18 with simple obesity. Nutritional data were obtained from 3-day food records. The consumed nutrients, including immunomodulators and immunostimulants, were estimated based on the nutrition interview. The results were compared with the nutritional norms. On average, the proportion of n-6:n-3 fatty acids equalled 10:1. Among the amino acids, the highest intake values in the diet were observed for glutamine (13,694.6 mg/day). The study demonstrates inadequate intake levels of iron (73% of recommended dietary allowance, RDA), vitamin C (65% of RDA), and vitamin D (11% of RDA) taking into account the median values for the entire study group. The median daily intake of other nutrients exceeded the RDA values. The diets of the participants in this study were not properly balanced with respect to immunomodulators, which may contribute to the occurrence of immunological disorders and immunodeficiency in this group of patients. PMID:26269024

  12. Disparities in Early Transitions to Obesity in Contemporary Multi-Ethnic U.S. Populations

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Holliday, Katelyn M.; Chakladar, Sujatro; Engeda, Joseph C.; Hardy, Shakia T.; Reis, Jared P.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shay, Christina M.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Heiss, Gerardo; Lin, Dan Yu; Zeng, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined weight transitions in contemporary multi-ethnic populations spanning early childhood through adulthood despite the ability of such research to inform obesity prevention, control, and disparities reduction. Methods and Results We characterized the ages at which African American, Caucasian, and Mexican American populations transitioned to overweight and obesity using contemporary and nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (n = 21,220; aged 2–80 years). Age-, sex-, and race/ethnic-specific one-year net transition probabilities between body mass index-classified normal weight, overweight, and obesity were estimated using calibrated and validated Markov-type models that accommodated complex sampling. At age two, the obesity prevalence ranged from 7.3% in Caucasian males to 16.1% in Mexican American males. For all populations, estimated one-year overweight to obesity net transition probabilities peaked at age two and were highest for Mexican American males and African American females, for whom a net 12.3% (95% CI: 7.6%-17.0%) and 11.9% (95% CI: 8.5%-15.3%) of the overweight populations transitioned to obesity by age three, respectively. However, extrapolation to the 2010 U.S. population demonstrated that Mexican American males were the only population for whom net increases in obesity peaked during early childhood; age-specific net increases in obesity were approximately constant through the second decade of life for African Americans and Mexican American females and peaked at age 20 for Caucasians. Conclusions African American and Mexican American populations shoulder elevated rates of many obesity-associated chronic diseases and disparities in early transitions to obesity could further increase these inequalities if left unaddressed. PMID:27348868

  13. Relationships between nutritional knowledge, obesity, and sleep disorder severity.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shiho; Pretto, Jeffrey; Paul, Christine; Emmett, Brooke; Hensley, Michael; Henskens, Frans

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea affects 20% of the adult population. Weight control is considered the best non-medical means of managing the condition, therefore improving nutritional knowledge in individuals may be an appropriate strategy. This study aimed to describe the relationship between nutritional knowledge and: (i) sleep disorder severity; (ii) body mass index; and (iii) demographic characteristics in persons suspected of obstructive sleep apnea. Nutrition knowledge scores were also compared with the general population. Consecutive newly-referred patients attending the sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography were invited to participate. Those who consented (n = 97) were asked to complete a touchscreen survey. Apnea-hypopnea index to measure sleep disorder severity and anthropometric measurements were obtained from the clinic. A quarter of participants were diagnosed with severe obstructive sleep apnea; and a majority (88%) were classed as being overweight or obese. The overall mean nutrition knowledge score was 58.4 ± 11.6 (out of 93). Nutrition knowledge was not associated with sleep disorder severity, body mass index or gender. The only significant difference detected was in relation to age, with older (≥35 years) participants demonstrating greater knowledge in the 'food choices' domain compared with their younger counterparts (18-34 years; P < 0.030). Knowledge scores were similar to the general population. The findings suggest that nutrition knowledge alone is not an important target for weight control interventions for people with obstructive sleep apnea. However, given the complexities of sleep disorders, it may complement other strategies. PMID:26843133

  14. Nutrition Transition and the Global Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a rapid change in the nutrition transition toward increases in noncommunicable diseases. Underlying this transition are shifts in the agricultural system and the subsequent growth of the modern retail and food service sectors across all regions and countries, a change in technology affecting physical activity and inactivity, mass media access, urbanization, and penetration of modern food systems into all societies. The resulting major shifts in diet are toward increased refined carbohydrates, added sweeteners, edible oils, and animal-source foods and reduced legumes, other vegetables, and fruits. Most countries are seeing increases in body mass index (BMI), overweight, and waist circumference (WC), and an increased WC-BMI ratio appears to be emerging in many regions. The implications of these rapidly changing diets and body compositions include the prevalence and severity of diabetes in LMICs. PMID:26209940

  15. Nutrition Transition and the Global Diabetes Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2015-09-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a rapid change in the nutrition transition toward increases in noncommunicable diseases. Underlying this transition are shifts in the agricultural system and the subsequent growth of the modern retail and food service sectors across all regions and countries, a change in technology affecting physical activity and inactivity, mass media access, urbanization, and penetration of modern food systems into all societies. The resulting major shifts in diet are toward increased refined carbohydrates, added sweeteners, edible oils, and animal-source foods and reduced legumes, other vegetables, and fruits. Most countries are seeing increases in body mass index (BMI), overweight, and waist circumference (WC), and an increased WC-BMI ratio appears to be emerging in many regions. The implications of these rapidly changing diets and body compositions include the prevalence and severity of diabetes in LMICs. PMID:26209940

  16. [Nutrition transition: a review of Latin American profile].

    PubMed

    Barría, R Mauricio; Amigo, Hugo

    2006-03-01

    The nutrition situation has evolved in different ways in Latin-American countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional change and some conditions within Latin America in the last years. An electronic and manual search of articles published between 1995 and 2005 was made, selecting those that included the nutritional situation of Latin American countries. Additionally, data was collected from national surveys and international reports including information since 1990. The countries have evolved through different transition stages. For example, an increase of excess of weight, particularly in adult women, which exceeded 30% in some countries also reached up to 70% in others. Equally worrisome was the over 6% obesity level in children in five of the countries surveyed. There is a tendency to diminish the deficit of weight with seven of nine countries displaying a reduction of women with low weight while stunting diminished globally. An increase of the caloric availability in 17 of 20 countries was also observed. The total population that lives under the poverty line has diminished in 9 of 13 countries although some exceeded 60%. Some indicators of sedentary lifestyle have increased, the number of cars has been increasing in all countries and similar figures are recorded with respect to television and personnel computers. The evolution of the nutritional status is reflected through the action of set factors, the most important of which being the increase in caloric ingestion and sedentary activities in an urbanized environment, the promotion of the use of technologies that limit physical activity. There is also a reduction in food insecurity due to a fall in poverty levels although social inequalities still persist. PMID:16786728

  17. Role of nutrition planning in the treatment for obesity.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L

    1996-12-01

    The most sensible eating plans are those that involve a wide selection of foods with a modest percentage of kilocalories as fat. The dietary pyramid developed by the US Government is an excellent basis for the construction of an eating plan for life. Patients should be encouraged to develop healthy eating habits that they can maintain indefinitely, as the early inevitable consequence of finishing a diet is regain of any weight that has been lost when the patient goes back to their old eating habits. The unfortunate fact is that individuals with the disease of obesity must behave differently than those who do not. This usually means that obese persons must eat differently than lean persons, and they must do this for their entire lives. Food is a critical part of the social fabric of our society. The physician, usually in combination with a knowledgeable and empathetic dietitian or other nutritional education resource, can help obese patients choose the series of compromises in eating plans and activity levels that can be maintained for life but still allow a reasonable quality of life. PMID:8977055

  18. Nutrition transition and chronic diseases in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Atinmo, T

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition goes with industrialisation that fosters human development which is usually desirable, especially in developing nations. However, the health consequences of this development include high rates of preventable non-communicable diseases which are usually undermined in the quest for industrialisation. The goal of the present paper is to provide evidence-based information that will promote healthy lifestyle including healthy consumption pattern among urban dwellers. Relevant local and international literature was accessed and reviewed to harvest evidence-based information through the use of validated review guide in addition to observation from the field experience. Industrialisation promotes creation of more job opportunities and this facilitates proliferation of fast-food eateries in the cities. However, it was also observed that many of the available workplaces in urban areas are not health-promoting because employees have poor access to preventive health information and sensitisation to healthy lifestyle has been poorly considered. Ironically, weight gain among urban workers which may be linked with increased intake of high-energy foods and low participation in physical activities as a result of accessibility to many energy saving devices have been highlighted as some of the pull-pull factors that attract many people to the cities. Using the concept of health promoting workplace, the workforce in urban areas can be trained as agent of change in health-promoting lifestyle. Consumption of healthy indigenous foods through aggressive promotion of its health potentials should be seriously advocated through the use of existing structure of urban fast-food vendors who constitute a strong stakeholder in nutrition transition. PMID:26242780

  19. Feeding the critically ill obese patient: the role of hypocaloric nutrition support.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jerad P; Choban, Patricia Smith

    2006-12-01

    Obesity and its many metabolic and physiologic comorbidities are becoming more common. Thus, a strategy to approach the nutritional needs of obese critically ill patients is warranted. The adverse effect of obesity on the respiratory system is well established. The obesity may be an inciting event or merely an additional burden in the obese critically ill patient. A strategy of hypocaloric nutrition support avoids the many detrimental effects of overfeeding and has been considered for all critically ill patients. In the obese patient, the strategy addresses the additional problem of the excessive fat store and has the additional benefit of fat reduction while sparing lean body mass. In the patient with normal renal and hepatic function, hypocaloric nutrition support simplifies care and may improve outcome. PMID:17150433

  20. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals. PMID:25415804

  1. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P; Friel, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals. PMID:24735161

  2. Neighborhood Influences on Girls’ Obesity Risk Across the Transition to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kushi, Lawrence H.; Leung, Cindy W.; Nickleach, Dana C.; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara A.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Yen, Irene H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls. METHODS: Participants were 174 girls (aged 8–10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls’ Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl’s residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ≥95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P < .001) increased odds of being obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl’s home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence. PMID:25311606

  3. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  4. The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.

    PubMed

    Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the

  5. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. METHODS: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income–obesity relationships (r=−0.87, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. PMID:27152182

  6. Obesity: A Transgenerational Problem Linked to Nutrition during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Antonio E.; Grove, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The increased obstetric risks of maternal obesity have been well described. These include increased risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, stillbirth, and cesarean delivery. The fetal/neonatal consequences of prenatal maternal obesity have received less attention. In addition to an increased risk of stillbirth, the fetal/neonatal consequences include increased adiposity and a metabolic status that increases the lifetime risk of obesity and diabetes. This review focuses on the clinical obstetric consequences of maternal obesity and highlights recent mechanistic insights on fetal programming as well as evidence suggesting that prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to ameliorate these risks and decrease the cycle of childhood obesity. PMID:23074005

  7. Obesity: a transgenerational problem linked to nutrition during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    The increased obstetric risks of maternal obesity have been well described. These include increased risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, stillbirth, and cesarean delivery. The fetal/neonatal consequences of prenatal maternal obesity have received less attention. In addition to an increased risk of stillbirth, the fetal/neonatal consequences include increased adiposity and a metabolic status that increases the lifetime risk of obesity and diabetes. This review focuses on the clinical obstetric consequences of maternal obesity and highlights recent mechanistic insights on fetal programming as well as evidence suggesting that prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to ameliorate these risks and decrease the cycle of childhood obesity. PMID:23074005

  8. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest, quasiexperimental…

  9. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose

    2015-01-01

    Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries. Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search. PMID:26834976

  10. Thailand conquered under-nutrition very successfully but has not slowed obesity.

    PubMed

    Chavasit, V; Kasemsup, V; Tontisirin, K

    2013-11-01

    Under-nutrition in Thailand has been successfully controlled for over two decades. However, Thailand is now facing a double-burden malnutrition problem where under- and over-nutrition coexist. Overweight, obesity, and related diseases are the main nutritional challenges, leading to high costs for curative care. Thailand foresees that nutrition can be an effective strategy for preventing diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases, and the country aims to reduce costs for secondary and tertiary health care. Various organizations have conducted national programmes, focusing especially on nutrition education and public campaigns, which have been sustainable and not sustainable. Only milk and certain foods for children are mandated for nutrition labeling. Guideline daily amounts is now the nutrient profile mandated for snack foods in Thailand. To increase efficiency, Thailand's National Food Committee has been established to link food, nutrition and health via a multi-sectoral approach. PMID:24102927

  11. Preoperative nutritional deficiencies in severely obese bariatric candidates are not linked to gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Rahel; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Severely obese subjects have been found to show a high prevalence of distinct nutritional deficiencies even without any bariatric intervention but the underlying reasons remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with increased nutritional deficiency rates. Taking advantage of our large database, we identified 404 patients who had undergone a gastroscopy--as a standard diagnostic assessment before bariatric surgery--along with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies with concurrent nutritional blood measurements. Eighty-five (21 %) of the obese patients included in the study displayed a gastric H. pylori infection. Sex distribution, age and body mass index did not differ between H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients (P > 0.29). Referring to nutritional markers, neither serum levels of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, ferritin, zinc, copper, vitamin B12, folate and 25-OH vitamin D3 nor respective deficiency rates differed between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients group (all P > 0.13). Overall, 49.5 % of the bariatric candidates displayed at least one nutritional deficiency. Our data confirm previous reports on high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies in severely obese subjects. However, they do not provide evidence for a contributing role of gastric H. pylori infection to these nutritional alterations. PMID:23430478

  12. Obesity risk in urban adolescent girls: nutritional intentions and health behavior correlates.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls' intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were significantly associated with physical activity and sleep. These results suggest that healthy behaviors tend to occur in clusters, possibly extending the theory of planned behavior beyond individual behaviors to groups of related behaviors. Nurses can intervene with high-risk adolescent girls by promoting healthy diets, recommended levels of physical activity, and adequate sleep. PMID:22187861

  13. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  14. Morbid obesity and the transition from welfare to work.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less successful in transitioning from welfare to work. These women are less likely to work at any survey wave, spend a greater percentage of months between waves receiving cash welfare, and have lower monthly earnings at each wave. The magnitude of the difference in labor market outcomes between the morbidly obese and those who are less heavy is in some cases similar in magnitude to the differences in these labor market outcomes between high school dropouts and graduates. In contrast, we find no such labor market differences associated with morbid obesity for African-American respondents. This paper documents the relationship between weight and labor market outcomes for the first time among the welfare population. In addition, it investigates whether the correlation for White females is due to unobserved heterogeneity. We find that after controlling for individual fixed effects, the point estimate of the correlation of morbid obesity and each of the labor market outcomes falls considerably and is no longer statistically significant. These results are consistent with unobserved heterogeneity causing the correlation between morbid obesity and labor market outcomes. Findings are similar after controlling for the respondent's mental and physical health. PMID:16201057

  15. U.S. Migration, Translocality, and the Acceleration of the Nutrition Transition in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former’s community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role. PMID:22962496

  16. [Multifactorial etiology of obesity: nutritional and central aspects].

    PubMed

    Sengier, A

    2005-09-01

    World-wide obesity and its effects are public health problems. Research on way of life and eating habits give some indications of etiological factors. Breast feeding and quantity of proteins intake in formulas are factors influencing the risks of obesity later on in life. Research undertaken by Rolland Cachera shows us the importance of the curve of BMI and how the obesity rebound can be predictive of obesity in later years allowing early decisions of weight control. Energy intake and energy expenditure are regulated by the central nervous system. It is a complex mechanism of afferent and efferent systems through the hypothalamus. The inverse effects of ghreline and of leptine on energy balance are more and more studied and cases of precocious obesity are explained by the identification of rare forms of monogenic obesity linked to the metabolism of leptine. The importance of inherited genes has a role and genetic predisposition is a reality. This new approach allows a clinical, etiological and, in the future, probably therapeutic attitude in case of severe precocious obesity. PMID:16240862

  17. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  18. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The national nutrition safety net consists of 15 programs that provide millions of low-income Americans access to a healthy and nutritious diet. It has been observed that many low income individuals are both overweight and participants in one or more nutrition assistance programs. This has led some to question whether participation in the…

  19. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zourdos, Michael C.; Jo, Edward; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation. PMID:24324381

  20. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146

  1. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  2. The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative: Working to Reverse the Obesity Epidemic through Academically Based Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…

  3. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs. Family Programs. Report No. FSP-04-PO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Paul; Lee, Michael; Bell, Loren

    2005-01-01

    In September 2003, the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with ALTA Systems to conduct a project with the goal of providing a comprehensive overview of the relationship between poverty, program participation and obesity by conducting an in depth literature review; and convening an expert panel. The…

  4. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity. PMID:27625434

  5. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Gyun; Choi, Ho-Chun; Cho, Belong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW) and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals. Methods A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007–2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Results Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.57). The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19–3.21), 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46–4.24) and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39–5.40), respectively. Conclusions Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals. PMID:27494241

  6. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  7. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  8. An overview of the nutrition transition in West Africa: implications for non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosu, William K

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition landscape in West Africa has been dominated by the programmes to address undernutrition. However, with increasing urbanisation, technological developments and associated change in dietary patterns and physical activity, childhood and adult overweight, and obesity are becoming more prevalent. There is an evidence of increasing intake of dietary energy, fat, sugars and protein. There is low consumption of fruit and vegetables universally in West Africa. Overall, the foods consumed are predominantly traditional with the component major food groups within recommended levels. Most of the West African countries are at the early stages of nutrition transition but countries such as Cape Verde, Ghana and Senegal are at the latter stages. In the major cities of the region, children consume energy-dense foods such as candies, ice cream and sweetened beverages up to seven times as frequently as fruit and vegetables. Adult obesity rates have increased by 115 % in 15 years since 2004. In Ghana, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women has increased from 12·8 % in 1993 to 29·9 % in 2008. In Accra, overweight/obesity in women has increased from 62·2 % in 2003 to 64·9 % in 2009. The age-standardised proportion of adults who engage in adequate levels of physical activity ranges from 46·8 % in Mali to 94·7 % in Benin. The lingering stunting in children and the rising overweight in adults have resulted to a dual burden of malnutrition affecting 16·2 % of mother-child pairs in Cotonou. The prevalence of hypertension has been increased and ranges from 17·6 % in Burkina Faso to 38·7 % in Cape Verde. The prevalence is higher in the cities: 40·2 % in Ougadougou, 46·0 % in St Louis and 54·6 % in Accra. The prevalence of diabetes ranges from 2·5 to 7·9 % but could be as high as 17·9 % in Dakar, Senegal. The consequences of nutrition transition are not only being felt by the persons in the high socioeconomic class, but also in cities such as Accra and

  9. Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact.

    PubMed

    Prado, C M; Cushen, S J; Orsso, C E; Ryan, A M

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity. The combination of low muscle and high adipose tissue (sarcopenic obesity) is an emerging abnormal BC phenotype prevalent across the body weight, and hence BMI spectra. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in cancer are in most instances occult conditions, which have been independently associated with higher incidence of chemotherapy toxicity, shorter time to tumour progression, poorer outcomes of surgery, physical impairment and shorter survival. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood, the associations with poorer clinical outcomes emphasise the value of nutritional assessment as well as the need to develop appropriate interventions to countermeasure abnormal BC. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity create diverse nutritional requirements, highlighting the compelling need for a more comprehensive and differentiated understanding of energy and protein requirements in this heterogeneous population. PMID:26743210

  10. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity. PMID:24901796

  11. [Nutritional transition and non-communicable diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Maire, Bernard; Lioret, Sandrine; Gartner, Agnès; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition similar to that which occurred in industrialized countries in previous centuries. While infectious diseases are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a marked increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly in the most advanced developing countries, and these diseases are expected to take the lead in a decade or two. Most of these diseases, above all coronary heart diseases, stroke and diabetes, are related to diet and lifestyles, for example tobacco and alcohol consumption. As a matter of fact, these societies are also facing a growing epidemic of overweight and obesity, due to the frequent energetic imbalance between energy-dense food consumption and reduced daily physical expenditure. This health transition, favoured by demographic changes towards aging populations, is occurring at an increased pace in urban societies widely exposed to the modernization of lifestyle, sedentary occupation, and to lipid- and sugar-rich food, often poor in fibre and micronutrients. Increased world access to cheaper vegetable oil is thought to have triggered off this accelerated and generalized trend, though animal food, rich in saturated fat, and imported or locally-made industrialized food also play a role. While increased national and household incomes facilitate the initial change, as the transition advances poor people progressively become the main victims, as has been observed in the more advanced developing countries. Metabolic imprinting due to intra-uterine and infant malnutrition, which are still common in these societies, is also thought to play a significant role in the increase in the expression of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic diseases when these children are exposed to abundant food and modern lifestyle, later in life. Treatment and secondary prevention of nutrition-related chronic diseases and associated disabilities have an

  12. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community

    PubMed Central

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country’s population the ‘nutritional transition’ often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. Material and Methods 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate ‘adult equivalent’ per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. Results 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Conclusion Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2—probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status. PMID:26559817

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Nutrition as a Pharmacological Approach to Treat Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Barry; Ricordi, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial condition resulting from improper balances of hormones and gene expression induced by the diet. Obesity also has a strong inflammatory component that can be driven by diet-induced increases in arachidonic acid. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the molecular targets that can be addressed by anti-inflammatory nutrition. These molecular targets range from reduction of proinflammatory eicosanoids to the modulation of features of the innate immune system, such as toll-like receptors and gene transcription factors. From knowledge of the impact of these dietary nutrients on these various molecular targets, it becomes possible to develop a general outline of an anti-inflammatory diet that can offer a unique synergism with more traditional pharmacological approaches in treating obesity and its associated comorbidities. PMID:20953366

  14. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: Identifying leverage points for obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2–5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010–2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  15. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  16. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  17. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  18. [Nutrition in overweight and obesity with a specific focus on gender aspects].

    PubMed

    Dämon, Sabine; Schindler, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Manuel; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to optimize the diet in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity aim at long-term adaptation and reduction of energy intake according to age and physiological requirements while preserving the nutrient density with consideration of individual food preferences.As the nutritional habits of the average Austrian people are unfavorable for obesity prevention there is a clear need for action. Women are "disadvantaged" in weight control compared to men in terms of physiological conditions-and are confronted with specific needs during life course (e.g. pregnancy), whereas the average man or male adolescents present "unhealthier" behaviors and attitudes and are (still) less interested on nutrition or weight control.To achieve better nutrition a target-group specific, gender-sensitive guidance of the individual is needed, starting with pregnant women, but also habitat-oriented interventions for improved nutrition offers, which have to be sustainably assured through the support of a relevant legal and social framework. PMID:26832129

  19. Nutrition Education in an Era of Global Obesity and Diabetes: Thinking Outside the Box.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David M; Burgess, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    In an era when rates of obesity, diabetes, and other lifestyle-related diseases challenge medical educators and governments worldwide, it is necessary to consider novel educational strategies, both didactic and experiential, whereby current and future health professionals can be better prepared to proactively advise and teach patients enhanced self-care skills (e.g., diet, movement, stress management, and enhanced behavioral change).In this Perspective, the authors summarize current circumstances involving rising rates of obesity and diabetes worldwide, the lack of nutrition- and lifestyle-related curricular requirements for professional medical certification, societal trends regarding modern food culture and food availability in health care settings, and the misalignment of financial incentives to promote health.The authors assess what elements of self-care should or should not be required within future curricula and certification exams. They consider how best to educate trainees about diet and how to "translate" nutrition, exercise, and behavioral science knowledge into practical advice. They explore several ideas for reforming nutrition education, including "teaching kitchens" as required laboratory classes for nutrition and lifestyle instruction, wearable technologies for tracking behaviors and physiological data relating to lifestyle choices, and the prospect of hospitals and other medical venues serving as exemplars of healthy, delicious food options. Finally, the authors argue that "salutogenesis"-the study of the creation and maintenance of health and well-being-should assume its rightful position alongside the study of "pathogenesis"-disease diagnosis and treatment-in medical education and practice. PMID:25785680

  20. Chronic liquid nutrition intake induces obesity and considerable but reversible metabolic alterations in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mikuska, Livia; Vrabcova, Michaela; Tillinger, Andrej; Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropec, Jozef; Mravec, Boris

    2016-06-01

    We have previously described the development of substantial, but reversible obesity in Wistar rats fed with palatable liquid nutrition (Fresubin). In this study, we investigated changes in serum hormone levels, glycemia, fat mass, adipocyte size, and gene expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of Wistar rats fed by Fresubin (i) for 5 months, (ii) up to 90 days of age, or (iii) after 90 days of age to characterize metabolic alterations and their reversibility in rats fed with Fresubin. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test was also performed to determine levels of serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide in 2- and 4-month-old animals. In addition, mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue weight, adipocyte diameter, and gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines and other markers were determined at the end of the study. Chronic Fresubin intake significantly increased adipocyte diameter, reduced glucose tolerance, and increased serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide levels. Moreover, gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, CD68, and nuclear factor kappa B was significantly increased in mesenteric adipose tissue of Fresubin fed rats. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels increased in mesenteric adipose tissue only in the group fed Fresubin during the entire experiment. In epididymal adipose tissue, fatty acid binding protein 4 mRNA levels were significantly increased in rats fed by Fresubin during adulthood. In conclusion, chronic Fresubin intake induced complex metabolic alterations in Wistar rats characteristic of metabolic syndrome. However, transition of rats from Fresubin to standard diet reversed these alterations. PMID:26939586

  1. [Knowledges and beliefs related to nutrition of obese and overweight patients subjects: a study in Southern Italy].

    PubMed

    Cirillo, T; Albano, M G; Crozet, C; d'Ivernois, J F

    2006-03-29

    303 obese and overweight south Italian patients (240 women and 63 men), volunteers to participate in a patient education programme delivered by the university hospital of Foggia, have fullfiled a 50 items true/false test exploring the knowledges and the beliefs on obesity, nutrition, physical activities. The majority of the subjects has both low socio economical status and education level. Women have better performed than men (p<0.005) and obese patients, better than overweight subjects (p<0.005). The more frequent mistakes have concerned items on nutrition, meanwhile a better performance has been observed with the items on beliefs. PMID:16646367

  2. Nutritional and behavioral modification therapies of obesity: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet. PMID:22722432

  3. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Mar; Folgueira, Cintia; Sánchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Al-Massadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice), as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance. PMID:26568663

  4. A process to establish nutritional guidelines to address obesity: Lessons from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Charvel, Sofia; Cobo, Fernanda; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    In 2010, the Mexican government implemented a multi-sector agreement to prevent obesity. In response, the Ministries of Health and Education launched a national school-based policy to increase physical activity, improve nutrition literacy, and regulate school food offerings through nutritional guidelines. We studied the Guidelines' negotiation and regulatory review process, including government collaboration and industry response. Within the government, conflicting positions were evident: the Ministries of Health and Education supported the Guidelines as an effective obesity-prevention strategy, while the Ministries of Economics and Agriculture viewed them as potentially damaging to the economy and job generation. The food and beverage industries opposed and delayed the process, arguing that regulation was costly, with negative impacts on jobs and revenues. The proposed Guidelines suffered revisions that lowered standards initially put forward. We documented the need to improve cross-agency cooperation to achieve effective policymaking. The 'siloed' government working style presented a barrier to efforts to resist industry's influence and strong lobbying. Our results are relevant to public health policymakers working in childhood obesity prevention. PMID:26356071

  5. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  6. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity. PMID:27221478

  7. Nutrition in Transition: A Challenge to Cooperation and Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the newly formed Nutrition Coordinating Committee of the Department of Health Education and Welfare, is discussed. The need for nutrition information for consumers is described as well as a need for definitions of nutritional terms. (SA)

  8. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison M

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation. PMID:19698200

  9. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health

    PubMed Central

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5–11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health—Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of ‘Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  10. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    PubMed

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  11. Nutrition: a promising route for prevention and management of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses - in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. PMID:25460293

  12. Early childhood nutrition in an American Indian community: educational strategy for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffhines, Heather; Whaley, Kelleigh Dean; Blackett, Piers R; Palumbo, Karen; Campbell-Sternloff, Dana; Glore, Stephen; Lee, Elisa T

    2014-02-01

    Prevailing infant and toddler feeding practices in an American Indian community were assessed to explore the feasibility of improvement by implementation of a maternal education program. A survey of prevailing nutritional practice was the basis for design of an instruction program on infant nutrition for mothers during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments provided information on feasibility, and requirements for an effective program. Failure to sustain breast-feeding, low fruit and vegetable intake, low fiber intake, consumption of sweetened beverages, low milk consumption and low vitamin D intake were identified as persisting problems. We conclude that infant and toddler feeding practices are comparable to national trends, but suboptimal and conducive to promoting early obesity and diabetes in a susceptible community. A successful education-based intervention strategy beginning in pregnancy appears feasible if psychosocial, environmental, and economic barriers can be addressed. PMID:24761552

  13. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults. PMID:26850310

  14. The application of an occupational therapy nutrition education programme for children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Munguba, Marilene Calderaro; Valdés, Maria Teresa Moreno; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an occupational therapy nutrition education programme for children who are obese with the use of two interactive games. A quasi-experimental study was carried out at a municipal school in Fortaleza, Brazil. A convenient sample of 200 children ages 8-10 years old participated in the study. Data collection comprised a semi-structured interview, direct and structured observation, and focus group, comparing two interactive games based on the food pyramid (video game and board game) used individually and then combined. Both play activities were efficient in the mediation of nutritional concepts, with a preference for the board game. In the learning strategies, intrinsic motivation and metacognition were analysed. The attention strategy was most applied at the video game. We concluded that both games promoted the learning of nutritional concepts. We confirmed the effectiveness of the simultaneous application of interactive games in an interdisciplinary health environment. It is recommended that a larger sample should be used in evaluating the effectiveness of play and video games in teaching healthy nutrition to children in a school setting. PMID:18288771

  15. Attacking the Obesity Epidemic: The Potential Health Benefits of Providing Nutrition Information in Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Scot; Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Kees, Jeremy; Huggins, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to address how the provision of nutrition information on menus influences purchase intentions and reported preferences. Methods. For both the survey and experiment, data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. Results. Survey results showed that levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat in less-healthful restaurant items were significantly underestimated by consumers. Actual fat and saturated fat levels were twice consumers’ estimates and calories approached 2 times more than what consumers expected. In the subsequent experiment, for items for which levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat substantially exceeded consumers’ expectations, the provision of nutrition information had a significant influence on product attitude, purchase intention, and choice. Conclusions. Most consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium found in many menu items. Provision of nutrition information on restaurant menus could potentially have a positive impact on public health by reducing the consumption of less-healthful foods. PMID:16873758

  16. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. PMID:22898166

  17. Public health nutrition in the civil service (England): approaches to tackling obesity.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, J R

    2016-08-01

    The seriousness and scale of the physical, psychological, economic and societal consequences relating to poor diets, inactivity and obesity is unprecedented. Consequently, the contextual factors underpinning the work of a nutritionist in the civil service are complex and significant; however, there are real opportunities to make a difference and help improve the health of the nation. The present paper describes the delivery of public health nutrition through two work programmes, namely action to support young people develop healthier lifestyle choices and more recently the investigation and deployment of local insights to develop action to tackle obesity. Combining the application of nutrition expertise along with broader skills and approaches has enabled the translation of research and evidence into programmes of work to better the public's health. It is evident that the appropriate evaluation of such approaches has helped to deliver engaging and practical learning opportunities for young people. Furthermore, efforts to build on local intelligence and seek collaborative development can help inform the evidence base and seek to deliver public health approaches, which resonate with how people live their lives. PMID:26947185

  18. Nutritional intakes in children with Prader–Willi syndrome and non-congenital obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Daniela A.; Nowak, Jill; McLaren, Erin; Patiño, Monzeratt; Castner, Diobel M.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) have extremely regulated diets to prevent the development of morbid obesity. Objective This study evaluated potential deficiencies in macro and micronutrients in a cohort of youth with PWS and compared them to a group of children with non-congenital obesity and to US national recommendations. Design Participants were 32 youth with PWS (age=10.8±2.6 years, body fat=46.7±10.1%) and 48 children without PWS but classified as obese (age=9.7±1.2 years, body fat=43.4±5.7%). Participants’ parents completed a training session on food recording before completing a 3-day food record during a typical week including a weekend day and two weekdays, as well as a screening form indicating nutritional supplements use. Results Youth with PWS reported less calories (1,312±75 vs. 1,531±61 kcal, p=0.03), carbohydrate (175±10 vs. 203±8 g), and sugars (67±5 vs. 81±4 g; p=0.04 for both) than obese. Youth with PWS consumed more vegetables (1.1±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 cups) and more of them met the daily recommendation (p<0.01 for both). Likewise, youth with PWS consumed more calcium than obese (899±53 vs. 752±43 mg) and more of them met the recommended daily dose (p=0.04 for both). The majority of participants in this study did not meet the vitamin D recommendation. Conclusion Despite consuming less calories, youth with PWS had a similar proportion of macronutrients in their diet as children with obesity. Micronutrient deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D in youth with PWS were noted despite a third of youth with PWS consuming multivitamin supplements. Special attention must be paid to the diets of youth with PWS and with obesity to ensure they are meeting micronutrient needs during this period of growth and development. PMID:26652260

  19. Reading, writing, and obesity: America's failing grade in school nutrition and physical education.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Jason; Marian, Mary

    2011-10-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has left healthcare professionals and laymen alike questioning the best strategy to improve children's health in the future. To effectively combat childhood obesity, we must have a thorough understanding of the establishment and development of programs currently responsible for pediatric health. This article explores the history of two influential programs affecting children's diet and physical activity levels in schools: the National School Lunch Program and physical education classes. It is revealed that the National School Lunch Program contributes to the overall school nutrition environment, including the presence of fast food and vending machines on campuses. The history of physical education is traced back to ancient Greece, and it is shown that the familiar sports-based curriculum is an advent of the 19th century, with the roots of physical education originating from the founders of preventive medicine. Select childhood obesity and health intervention studies are reviewed with a focus on identifying notable features pertaining to the effectiveness of these programs. Future directions and recommendations, based on the history of these programs as well as evidence from current pediatric health studies, outlining the basis for a modernized health-based physical education curriculum designed to address today's public health concerns, are further discussed. PMID:21947638

  20. Exaggerated activity of HPA axis in obese rats fed normocaloric liquid nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Zeman, M; Mravec, B

    2014-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown alterations in activity of systems responsible for neuroendocrine stress response in obese individuals. Therefore we investigated the effect of palatable normocaloric liquid nutrition (Fresubin) on alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male Wistar rats of different developmental stages. Control rats (CON) received standard pellet chow all the time from weaning (21st day of age) to 150 days. Fresubin was administered throughout the experiment (LN), only in juvenility (from 21st to 90th day of age; LNJ) or only in adulthood (from 90th to 150th day of age; LNA). Body weight and energy intake were periodically monitored. Adrenal gland and fat tissue weight and plasma corticosterone levels (CORT) was determined after sacrification. Fresubin intake induced obesity in LN and LNA rats. In LN and LNA rats were observed elevated serum CORT levels, but only in LN rats with significant twofold increase compared to LNJ rats. However, the weight of adrenal glands did not differ between LN, LNJ and LNA experimental groups. Based on our results, we suggest, that obesity induced by Fresubin in LN and LNA rats is accompanied by increased HPA activity represented by elevated plasma CORT levels in these rats. PMID:25194732

  1. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Obesity, Reproduction, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G

    2016-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes. PMID:27017177

  2. Eating habits and opinions of teen-agers on nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, N A; Poznanski, R; Guggenheim, K

    1975-03-01

    Opinions about good nutrition, causes of obesity and its prevention, as well as certain eating habits, were studied in 482 Israeli children (251 boys and 231 girls), thirteen to fourteen years old. Height, weight, and triceps skinfolds were measured. Mean relative weight and relative logarithmic skinfold thickness were close to standard, although 8 per cent of the boys and 9 per cent of the girls weighed more than 120 per cent of standard weight for their age and sex. Weight was closely associated with skinfold thickness. Over two-thirds of both boys and girls believed that daily consumption of milk, bread, fruits, eggs, cheese, meat, and tomatoes is desirable, and about two-thirds stated that overeating is a cause of obesity. More overweight than thin and normal-weight children indicated that, to prevent obesity, all kinds of food are permissible, but only in limited amounts. Most children believed in the fattening value of cakes, sweets, fried and fatty food, potatoes, bread, and nuts. The belief in the fattening value of potatoes, bread, and nuts was shared by a higher percentage of overweight than of under- and normal-weight children. Overweight children, particularly girls, reported eating less bread, cake, and cream, adding less sugar to beverages, and eating sweets and ice cream less frequently than thin and normal-weight children. A higher percentage of the obese group reported skipping one meal and eating no snack at school. Overweight teen-agers appear to be more conscious of their food intake than under- and normal-weight children. PMID:1123503

  3. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  4. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  5. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  6. Morbid Obesity and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less…

  7. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  8. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons – a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  9. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study): methodological approach of the project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. Methods/design One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males) and 120 obese (61 males) subjects aged 18–50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry). 29–34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14–20% from protein, and 50–55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3%) subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%), low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%), low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%), job change 6 (10.2%), and lost interest 27 (45.8%). Discussion Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order that overweight and

  10. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    , significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups at the age of 16 (boys only) and 17 (girls only) were seen (p<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal and dental status appears to correlate with nutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene. PMID:27403385

  11. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  12. The obese gut microbiome across the epidemiologic transition.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Lara R; Fuller, Miles; Gilbert, Jack; Layden, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has emerged over the past few decades and is thought to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. A newly identified factor, the gut microbiota, which is a bacterial ecosystem residing within the gastrointestinal tract of humans, has now been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Importantly, this bacterial community is impacted by external environmental factors through a variety of undefined mechanisms. We focus this review on how the external environment may impact the gut microbiota by considering, the host's geographic location 'human geography', and behavioral factors (diet and physical activity). Moreover, we explore the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity with these external factors. And finally, we highlight here how an epidemiologic model can be utilized to elucidate causal relationships between the gut microbiota and external environment independently and collectively, and how this will help further define this important new factor in the obesity epidemic. PMID:26759600

  13. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Giacchero, Roberta; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI)) in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50)), triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25) mmol/L) and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21)), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11) mmol/L). Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26633492

  14. Errors and myths in feeding and nutrition: impact on the problems of obesity.

    PubMed

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-09-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence cannot be explained by a sudden and generalized change in human genome. It is certainly due to the modification of lifestyle habits and especially of the diet, as well as a lack of physical activity and sedentary living. Changes in the feeding pattern and the subsequent unbalance in the caloric profile of the diet may have had great importance in the occurrence of obesity. The social pressure in relation to the body image, the desire to have a slim body, and the fear to gain weight present in the current society have given way to the proliferation of myths and errors regarding pretentiously weight-losing foods and the appearance of miracle diets and dietary complements with magic results on weight loss. Weight-losing foods such as grapefruit, pineapple, apple, cucumber, wholemeal bread or drinking water while fasting are among the most popular and with less scientific evidence errors and myths. On the other hand, miracle diets cause more harm than good and their success is based on weight loss, but not fat loss, since they initially induce dehydration and a decrease in the muscle mass. The intervention study described here shows, once again, that when someone takes a hypocaloric diet he/she will lose weight and that the supplements tried with a satia - ting, lipolytic and supposedly weight-losing effect do not modify the weight loss produced by the hypocaloric diet. The main therapeutic tools available to fight against obesity are dietary therapy, which is a must in the pro - gram, education and behaviour modification, increased physical activity, to fight against sedendarism, and some pharmacological therapy available. The best solution to all these problems that have a great repercussion on the society surely is the development of wide and prolonged informational and educational campaigns in the field of nutrition. PMID:24010747

  15. Obesity status transitions across the elementary years: Use of Markov chain modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obesity status transition probabilities using first-order Markov transition models applied to elementary school children were assessed. Complete longitudinal data across eleven assessments were available from 1,494 elementary school children (from 7,599 students in 41 out of 45 school...

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Fossati, M; Amati, F; Painot, D; Reiner, M; Haenni, C; Golay, A

    2004-06-01

    An important problem with obese patients suffering from binge eating disorders (BED) is to treat their dysfunctional eating patterns while initiating a weight loss. We propose to assess a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity program. Our purpose is to verify that the addition of a nutritional and a physical program leads to a significant weight loss and enables psychological improvement. The patients (n=61) participated in a 12 weekly sessions group treatment of either a purely cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a cognitive-behavioral therapy associated to a nutritional approach mainly focused on fat restriction, or to a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity approach. The mean weight loss is significant (p<0.01) after the association of the cognitive-behavioral therapy and the nutritional education, but is even more significant (p<0.001) after the combination of a cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nutritional education and a physical activity program. Depression scores decrease in the three approaches, anxiety (p<0.05) results improve only in the combined nutritional, physical activity and cognitive-behavioral approach. Eating disorders improved significantly in all three approaches even if improvements in subscales seem more important in the combined approach. Finally, exercise seems to be a positive addition to the nutritional cognitive-behavioral therapy since it decreases negative mood, improves eating disorders and leads to an effective body weight loss. PMID:15330081

  17. Phenylthiocarbamide taste perception as a possible genetic association marker for nutritional habits and obesity tendency of people.

    PubMed

    Dastan, SevgiDurna; Degerli, Naci; Dastan, Taner; Yildiz, Fazilet; Yildir, Yavuz; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Atessahin, Dilek; Karan, Tunay

    2015-05-01

    Ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) a bitter molecule, is usually used to know the heritable characteristic in both genetic and physiological studies. So far, no research has yet attested whether PTC blindness relation with obesity and some nutrition behaviors of human. This study is the first attempt on a large scale to examine PTC sensitivity in healthy and overweight people in Turkish population to define in the perception of bitter senses which is associated with nutrition habits, body mass index, age, gender, and to be in stable weight. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting PTC solution filtered in a paper. The results showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81,8%) than nontasters (18,2%) in all population. A higher proportion of nontasters were observed in the quite fat individual group (BMI >40kg/m(2)). Alterations explained these differences in basic taste sensitivity, age, gender, BMI, individuals' family obesity situations, vegetarian nourishment. Increased frequency of nontasters allele is evident with obesity condition. This could be due to lack of preference for nutrition among nontasters. So the phenotypic variation in PTC sensitivity is genetic in origin; it may represent an association with obesity, dietary habits, regular weight, gender, and age. PMID:26051736

  18. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  19. Interrelationship between lymphocytes and leptin in fat depots of obese mice revealed by changes in nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lolmède, Karine; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Dray, Cedric; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Daviaud, Danièle; Burcelin, Rémy; Lafontan, Max; Galitzky, Jean; Bouloumié, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relationships between nutritional status and immunity remain to be fully characterized. The present study was undertaken to analyze by flow cytometry, in the context of diet-induced obesity, the status of immune cells in subcutaneous, and epididymal fat depots in wild-type and immunodeficient Rag2-/- mice submitted to nutritional challenge, i.e., 48-h fasting and 1-week refeeding. In parallel, the responsiveness of mature adipocytes and immune cells in bone marrow, lymph node, and liver were also analyzed. The results show that fasting in obese wild-type mice induces a prominent lipolysis in epididymal AT and immunosuppression restricted to both subcutaneous and epididymal AT, characterized by reduced number of CD4+ T and B lymphocytes and M1/M2 macrophages associated with reduced leptin and increased FGF21 expression in mature adipocytes. One-week refeeding was sufficient to reverse the fasting-induced effects. Obese immunodeficient mice under nutritional challenge exhibited no changes in adipocyte leptin expression and no marked trafficking of AT macrophages or NK cells, while the fasted-induced upregulation of FGF21 expression was maintained as well as the lipolytic responses. The present results demonstrate that, in a context of diet-induced obesity, fasting-induced immunosuppression is restricted to fat depots in immunocompetent mice. Lack of adipocyte leptin regulation and fasting-induced immunosuppression in obese immunodeficient mice strongly suggests that lymphocytes are involved in the modulation of adipocyte leptin expression on one hand and on the other that leptin is involved in the immune changes in AT according to nutritional status. PMID:25670497

  20. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  1. The sociology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  2. Nutrition, weight gain, and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has reached near epidemic proportions in the developed world. As reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the developing fetus must be investigated. In this review, we evaluated the experimental evidence relating maternal nutritional status and eat...

  3. The Relationship Between Obesity and Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Is Mental Health a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    CHAPARRO, M. PIA; HARRISON, GAIL G.; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WANG, MAY

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on adults from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigated whether mental health was a mediator in the association between obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The analyses included 1776 SNAP participants and eligible nonparticipants. SNAP participants had higher odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] =2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–4.36) and of reporting a mental health problem (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.68–8.44) than eligible nonparticipants; however, mental health was not a mediator in the association between SNAP participation and obesity. We recommend changes in SNAP to promote healthier food habits among participants and reduce the stress associated with participation. PMID:26413180

  4. Fetal and Infant Nutrition and Susceptibility to Obesity: Summary of a Workshop (Washington, D. C., February 28 and March 1, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop designed to review the current state of knowledge on prenatal and early postnatal determinants of obesity, and to identify areas for further research. The workshop was sponsored by the Committee on Nutrition of the Mother and Preschool Child, Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of…

  5. Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2012-01-01

    The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance. We assessed diet through 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey. We calculated prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7% to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet – specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles – was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention. PMID:23505203

  6. Energy and protein nutrition management of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Van Saun, Robert; Degaris, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this article are to briefly review some of the underlying physiology of changes that occur around calving, examine the potential to control the risk of disease in this period, increase milk production, and improve reproductive performance through better nutritional management. Practical guidelines for veterinarians and advisors are provided. PMID:23809895

  7. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  8. Intestinal epithelial MyD88 is a sensor switching host metabolism towards obesity according to nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Caesar, Robert; Van Hul, Matthias; Matamoros, Sébastien; Duparc, Thibaut; Denis, Raphael G. P.; Cochez, Perrine; Pierard, Florian; Castel, Julien; Bindels, Laure B.; Plovier, Hubert; Robine, Sylvie; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dumoutier, Laure; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Luquet, Serge; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Cani, Patrice D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders, low-grade inflammation and altered gut microbiota. Whether host metabolism is controlled by intestinal innate immune system and the gut microbiota is unknown. Here we report that inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of MyD88 partially protects against diet-induced obesity, diabetes and inflammation. This is associated with increased energy expenditure, an improved glucose homeostasis, reduced hepatic steatosis, fat mass and inflammation. Protection is transferred following gut microbiota transplantation to germ-free recipients. We also demonstrate that intestinal epithelial MyD88 deletion increases anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids, restores antimicrobial peptides production and increases intestinal regulatory T cells during diet-induced obesity. Targeting MyD88 after the onset of obesity reduces fat mass and inflammation. Our work thus identifies intestinal epithelial MyD88 as a sensor changing host metabolism according to the nutritional status and we show that targeting intestinal epithelial MyD88 constitutes a putative therapeutic target for obesity and related disorders. PMID:25476696

  9. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during early fetal kidney development specifically promotes renal lipid accumulation following juvenile obesity in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fainberg, H P; Sharkey, D; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Pope, M; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2013-01-01

    Reduced maternal food intake between early-to-mid gestation results in tissue-specific adaptations in the offspring following juvenile-onset obesity that are indicative of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to establish the extent to which renal ectopic lipid accumulation, as opposed to other markers of renal stress, such as iron deposition and apoptosis, is enhanced in obese offspring born to mothers nutrient restricted (NR) throughout early fetal kidney development. Pregnant sheep were fed either 100% (control) or NR (i.e. fed 50% of their total metabolisable energy requirement from 30-80 days gestation and 100% at all other times). At weaning, offspring were made obese and, at approximately 1 year, kidneys were sampled. Triglyceride content, HIF-1α gene expression and the protein abundance of the outer-membrane transporter voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC)-I on the kidney cortex were increased in obese offspring born to NR mothers compared with those born to controls, which exhibited increased iron accumulation within the tubular epithelial cells and increased gene expression of the death receptor Fas. In conclusion, suboptimal maternal nutrition coincident with early fetal kidney development results in enhanced renal lipid deposition following juvenile obesity and could accelerate the onset of the adverse metabolic, rather than cardiovascular, symptoms accompanying the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22951182

  10. THE DUAL BURDEN OF NUTRITION TRANSITION AMONG WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF UNDERWEIGHT IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Emina, Jacques B O

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition research has primarily focused on under-nutrition, particularly among vulnerable children. However, there is increasing evidence of an emerging nutrition transition with extremely high rates of obesity, and malnutrition in women may be a problem that is insufficiently recognized and inadequately documented. This analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which included 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual-level data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics and aggregated to the country's 37 states. A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-nutrition at the state level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. The results reveal that 12.0% of the population were underweight, while 20.9% were either overweight or obese, based on BMI. The northern states of Sokoto and Yobe/Borno and the southern state of Delta had the highest prevalence of underweight, while states in the centre had the lowest underweight prevalence. Underweight women were more likely to be from poorer households compared with their counterparts from the richest wealth index, which were consistently associated with lower odds of being underweight (posterior odds ratio (POR) and 95% credible region (CR): 0.56 [0.46, 0.70]). On the other hand Muslim women (1.61 [1.10, 2.23]), those of traditional religion (2.12 [1.44, 3.00]), those from the Fulani ethnic group (2.90 [1.64, 5.55]) and those living in Yobe state were all consistently associated with higher odds of being underweight. This study demonstrates that underweight is a major public health problem in Nigeria affecting adult females in the northern states of Nigeria. Identifying risk factors and the need to account for sex, spatial and socio-cultural issues are crucial to develop and implement evidence-informed strategies and interventions for lifestyle health promotion. PMID:26448573

  11. The Facts about Childhood Obesity and Overweightness. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of overweightness and obesity among children. Addresses the following: (1) magnitude of obesity and overweightness; (2) growth of the problem in recent years; (3) diet and other key roles; and (4) the relation of obesity to income, education, and ethnicity. (SD)

  12. Nutritional immunity: transition metals at the pathogen-host interface

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M. Indriati; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals occupy an essential niche in biological systems. Their electrostatic properties stabilize substrates or reaction intermediates in the active sites of enzymes, while their heightened reactivity is harnessed for catalysis. However, the latter property renders transition metals toxic at high concentrations. Bacteria, like all living organisms, must regulate the levels of these elements to satisfy their physiological needs while avoiding harm. It is therefore not surprising that the host capitalizes on both the essentiality and toxicity of transition metals to defend against bacterial invaders. This review will discuss established and emerging paradigms in nutrient metal homeostasis at the pathogen-host interface. PMID:22796883

  13. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Champagne, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed. PMID:26718656

  14. [A new proposal for nutritional education in a group of obese adolescents].

    PubMed

    Moriconi, V; Sulpizi, M T; Fabietti, P G; Monacelli, G; Santeusanio, F; Rosi, G; Ventura, M M

    1990-01-01

    A new "active" system of monitoring and dietary education was experimented in a group of 20 obese adolescents waiting to start diet therapy. Each subject was requested to record all food and drink consumed during two separate periods, each lasting 7 days, at a distance of 15 days from each other, at home using an optic reader and book of bar codes. On the basis of answers to a questionnaire which was completed at the beginning and end of the study, aimed at assessing the level of knowledge of basic food hygiene, the majority of participants considered the experience useful and amusing and were willing to repeat it; in addition, a greater knowledge of nutritional principles and of the rations consumed was shown at the end of the study. The results of the study were analysed using the Food Meter-Miles computerised system and showed daily calorie intakes of 1514 +/- 524.0, M +/- DS (protein 18.3 +/- 5.1%, lipids 33.7 +/- 6.2%, glucose 47.9 +/- 8.6%, total fibre 14.4 +/- 4.6 g) in female subjects, and 2096.1 +/- 80.8 (protein 16.1 +/- 3.6%, lipids 38.2 +/- 2.9%, glucose 45.7 +/- 3.9%, total fibre 18.1 +/- 2.0 g) in male subjects. The number of foods chosen was very low considering the range of foods available (277) and the length of time studied: 35.7 +/- 11.8 and 35.0 +/- 6.0 respectively for female and male subjects. With regard to the number and type of meals eaten, a high number of snacks was observed which supplemented or replaced main meals. PMID:2099991

  15. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  16. The Sequencing of a College Degree during the Transition to Adulthood: Implications for Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard Allen; Shanahan, Michael J.; Boardman, Jason; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider the health implications of the sequencing of a college degree vis-à-vis familial roles during the transition to adulthood. We hypothesize that people who earned a college degree before assuming familial roles will have better health than people who earned a college degree afterwards. To test this hypothesis, we focus on obesity and use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results show that marriage before completion of college was associated with a 50% higher probability of becoming obese when compared with marriage after completion of college. Parenthood before college completion was associated with a greater-than two-fold increase in the probability of becoming obese when compared to parenthood afterwards for Black men. These findings suggest that the well-established association of education with health depends on its place in a sequence of roles. PMID:26022787

  17. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  18. Cardiovascular diseases in mega-countries: the challenges of the nutrition, physical activity and epidemiologic transitions, and the double burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Medina, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There are today 11 mega-countries with more than 100 million inhabitants. Together these countries represent more than 60% of the world's population. All are facing noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) epidemic where high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are becoming the main public health concerns. Most of these countries are facing the double burden of malnutrition where undernutrition and obesity coexist, increasing the complexity for policy design and implementation. The purpose of this study is to describe diverse sociodemographic characteristics of these countries and the challenges for prevention and control in the context of the nutrition transition. Recent findings Mega-countries are mostly low or middle-income and are facing important epidemiologic, nutrition, and physical activity transitions because of changes in food systems and unhealthy lifestyles. NCDs are responsible of two-thirds of the 57 million global deaths annually. Approximately, 80% of these are in low and middle-income countries. Only developed countries have been able to reduce mortality rates attributable to recognized risk factors for NCDs, in particular high cholesterol and blood pressure. Summary Mega-countries share common characteristics such as complex bureaucracies, internal ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic heterogeneity, and complexities to implement effective health promotion and education policies across population. Priorities for action must be identified and successful lessons and experiences should be carefully analyzed and replicated. PMID:27389629

  19. Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Jacobsen, D J; Whatley, J E; Hill, J O; Swift, L L; Cherrington, A; Polk, B; Tran, Z V; Reed, G

    1996-05-01

    Obesity and low levels of physical and metabolic fitness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this investigation was to attenuate obesity and improve physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Schools have the opportunity, mechanisms, and personnel in place to deliver nutrition education, fitness activities, and a school food service that is nutritious and healthy. Cohorts from grades 3 to 5 in two school districts in rural Nebraska (Intervention/Control) participated in a 2-year study of physical activity and modified school lunch program. Data collection for aerobic capacity, body composition, blood chemistry, nutrition knowledge, energy intake, and physical activity was at the beginning and end of each year. Int received enhanced physical activity, grade specific nutrition education, and a lower fat and sodium school lunch program. Con continued with a regular school lunch and team sports activity program. At year 2, Int lunches had significantly less energy (9%), fat (25%), sodium (21%), and more fiber (17%). However, measures of 24-hour energy intake for Int and Con showed significant differences for sodium only. Physical activity in the classroom was 6% greater for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05) but physical activity outside of school was approximately 16% less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). Body weight and body fat were not different between schools for normal weight or obese children. No differences were found for cholesterol, insulin, and glucose; however, HDL cholesterol was significantly greater and cholesterol/HDL was significantly less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). It appears that compensation in both energy intake and physical activity outside of school may be responsible for the lack of differences between Int and Con. PMID:8732957

  20. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  1. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  2. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  3. “Now I Can Do Better”: A Study of Obese Women’s Experiences Following a Nonprescriptive Nutritional Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ulian, Mariana D; Gualano, Bruno; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia L; Roble, Odilon J; Modesto, Bruno T; Brito, Bruna C; Murakawa, Karina A; Torre, Mariana D; Tritto, Aline CC; Unsain, Ramiro F; de M Sato, Priscila; Scagliusi, Fernanda B

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed obese women’s experiences following a nonprescriptive nutritional intervention, implemented through a 1-year program based on the Health at Every Size® philosophy. We employed an action research method and conducted three focus groups during the intervention. We identified five interpretative axes across the focus groups, as follows: conflicts and perceptions; gaining motivation, perspective, and positioning; becoming autonomous eaters; acquiring tools; and the meetings between the nutritional therapist and participant. Our findings revealed varying levels of readiness among participants in adapting to the intervention and varying valuations of achievements related to eating and health, independent of body-weight changes. Participants reported benefiting from and expressed approval of the intervention. Participants reported positive behavioral and attitudinal changes to their diet and improvements to diet quality, diet structure, and consumption. Finally, participants seemed to show increased autonomy concerning diet and indicated increased confidence, comfort, flexibility, and positivity of attitude regarding eating. PMID:26417206

  4. Health and nutrition series--1. What do we know about ... childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Ottley, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of obesity among children in the UK has been increasing since the 1980s and is a "hot topic" among health professionals, Government, the media and some parents. It is an emotive subject which often attracts instant opinions and hasty solutions. To provide sound, balanced advice it is important that health professionals are aware of current evidence about the prevention and management of obesity in children, and differences between child and adult obesity. This article summarises the evidence and offers some practical tips. It also considers child obesity in the context of the family. PMID:15052886

  5. Prepuberal obesity (the adiposogenital syndrome): a transitional object pathology.

    PubMed

    Losso, R

    1997-09-01

    The adiposogenital syndrome develops during the puberal period starting from a particular family constellation, that is described. The origins of the pathological alteration are found at the first object relationships, where feeding is felt as self-feeding. Food normally plays the role of transitional object in child. In these cases, this role fails and ends by helping separation denial. Fat is laid on the intermediate space as a fetish object, a witness of the omnipotent fantasy of antistic feeding. The child develops a great ability to maintain this balance, making eating a highly pleasant activity. Difficulties encountered during treatment are commented. PMID:14655841

  6. Evaluation of different methods to handle misreporting in obesity research: evidence from the Canadian national nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-14

    The association of dietary exposures with health outcomes may be attenuated or reversed as a result of energy intake (EI) misreporting. This study evaluated several methods for dealing with implausible recalls when analysing the association between dietary factors and obesity. We examined data from 16 187 Canadians aged ≥12 years in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Under- and over-reporting were defined as the ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement 1·42, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression-generalised logit model was conducted to test the utility of different methods for handling misreporting, including (a) adjusting for variables related to misreporting, (b) excluding misreported recalls, (c) adjusting for reporting groups (under-, plausible and over-reporters), (d) adjusting for propensity score and (e) stratifying the analyses by reporting groups. In the basic model, EI showed a negative association with overweight (OR 0·988; 95% CI 0·979, 0·998) and obesity (OR 0·989; 95% CI 0·977, 0·999). Similarly, the association between total energy density and overweight (OR 0·670; 95% CI 0·487, 0·923) and obesity (OR 0·709; 95% CI 0·495, 1·016) was inverse. Among all methods of handling misreporting, adjusting for the reporting status revealed the most satisfactory results, where a positive association between EI and overweight (OR 1·037; 95% CI 1·019, 1·055) and obesity (OR 1·109; 95% CI 1·082, 1·137) was observed (P<0·0001), as well as direct positive associations between energy density and percentage energy from solid fats and added sugars with obesity (P<0·05). The results of this study can help advance knowledge about the relationship between dietary variables and obesity and demonstrate to researchers and nutrition policy makers the importance of adjusting for recall plausibility in obesity research, which is highly relevant in light of global obesity epidemic. PMID:26522666

  7. Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979

  8. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  9. Early factors leading to later obesity: interactions of the microbiome, epigenome, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lilly; Neu, Josef

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in the United States and many other countries. Childhood obesity rates have risen extensively over the last several decades with the numbers continuing to rise. Obese and overweight children are at high risk of becoming overweight adolescents and adults. The causes are multifactorial and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. This review aims to discuss a previously under-recognized antecedent of obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Specifically, we highlight the relationship of the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract during early development and the consequent effects on metabolism, epigenetics, and inflammatory responses that can subsequently result in metabolic syndrome. Although studies in this area are just beginning, this area of research is rapidly expanding and may lead to early life interventions that may have significant impacts in the prevention of obesity. PMID:26043042

  10. What's law got to do with it Part 2: Legal strategies for healthier nutrition and obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the most important opportunities for law lie in seeking to enhance the effectiveness of a population health approach. Part 2 of this article aims to provide a systematic review of the legal strategies that are most likely to emerge, or are worth considering, as part of a suite of policies designed to prevent population weight gain and, more generally, healthier nutrition. While the impact of any one intervention may be modest, their cumulative impact could be significant and could also create the conditions for more effective public education campaigns. This article addresses the key contenders, with particular reference to Australia and the United States. PMID:18533999

  11. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems ...

  12. CLINICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN OBESE WOMEN DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS, Tiago Dália; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo; de LEMOS, Maria da Conceição Chaves; CABRAL, Poliana Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinic care for morbid obesity is not very effective. Bariatric surgery is being considered the best way of intervention for this kind of obesity. Aim : Evaluate the clinical and nutritional evolution during the first year of obese women submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method : Retrospective series non-concurrent with 61 women. The variables were weight, BMI, weight loss percentage, loss of excessive weight percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, lipid profile, daily use of supplements, practice of physical exercise, occurrence of sickness, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, asthenia, alopecia, dry skin, cramps and brittle nails. Results : They presented significant weight and IMC reduction as well as improvement in their lipid profile, in all consultations. After one year they presented 36,6% loss of the initial weight and 75% loss of excessive weight. The waist circumference also presented a considerable reduction on all the moments, decreasing from 122,1±13,4 cm to 94,1±10,6 cm. Regarding the intercurrences, the most frequent were alopecia, asthenia, dry skin and cramps. Conclusion : The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in promoting and maintenance weight loss during the period of the first postoperative year. PMID:26537276

  13. Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing: Time-Related Dietary Approaches to Combat Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome1234

    PubMed Central

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. PMID:25770260

  14. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  15. [Obesity, an emerging problem in pediatrics. Inaugural Conference of the Eight National Congress of the Nutrition Spanish Society, Murcia, October 24-27, 2001].

    PubMed

    Tojo Sierra, R; Leis Trabazo, R

    2002-01-01

    Obesity in children and adolescents is a public health problem on the increase and is the most prevalent metabolic and nutritional disorder in developed countries. As a major non-transmissible disease, obesity has taken on epidemic proportions in developed countries and displaced malnutrition and infections as a major cause of deterioration in health and quality of life. Obesity has thus become one of the great health issues of the 21st century. The WHO recently declared obesity to be a new worldwide syndrome as it not only has a high prevalence in developed countries but also in the so-called emerging economies, the "newly westernized" or "Coca-Colanized" countries as in the case of China, Brazil and Eastern European states where obesity exists alongside malnutrition, as well as in under-developed countries where the prevalence is increasing among the better-off segments of the population. PMID:12048976

  16. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  17. Nutritional Status of Maintenance Dialysis Patients: Low Lean Body Mass Index and Obesity Are Common, Protein-Energy Wasting Is Uncommon

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed, Mette; Kromann, Charles Boy; Juliussen, Sophie Ryberg; Hvidtfeldt, Danni; Ekelund, Bo; Frandsen, Niels Erik; Marckmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in maintenance dialysis patients, and compared different methods of nutritional assessment. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, we performed anthropometry (body weight, skinfolds, mid-arm, waist, and hip circumferences), and determined plasma albumin and normalized protein catabolic rate in order to assess the prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in these patients. Results Seventy-nine eligible maintenance dialysis patients participated. The prevalence of protein-energy wasted patients was 4% (95% CI: 2–12) as assessed by the coexistence of low lean body mass index and low fat mass index. Low lean body mass index was seen in 32% (95% CI: 22–44). Obesity prevalence as assessed from fat mass index was 43% (95% CI: 32–55). Coexistence of low lean body mass index and obesity was seen in 10% (95% CI: 5–19). The prevalence of protein-energy wasting and obesity varied considerably, depending on nutritional assessment methodology. Conclusions Our data indicate that protein-energy wasting is uncommon, whereas low lean body mass index and obesity are frequent conditions among patients in maintenance dialysis. A focus on how to increase and preserve lean body mass in dialysis patients is suggested in the future. In order to clearly distinguish between shortage, sufficiency and abundance of protein and/or fat deposits in maintenance dialysis patients, we suggest the simple measurements of lean body mass index and fat mass index. PMID:26919440

  18. Nutrition Therapy in the Transition between Hospital and Home: An Investigation of Barriers.

    PubMed

    Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. This study aimed to investigate barriers for nutrition therapy in the transition between hospital and home and hereby to identify areas for potential improvements. Background. Though the focus on nutritional risk is improving in hospital, there seems to be less effort to maintain or even improve nutritional status after discharge and during the rehabilitation period. Design. Qualitative focus group interviews. Methods. Semistructured focus group interviews with experienced multiprofessional staff from hospital, home care, nursing homes, and general practise. The study was done in the county of Aalborg with about 280.000 inhabitants regarding homecare and general practise as well as Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. Results. Interviews were generated with 41 professionals from hospital, general practise, and home care. Barriers identified between settings included the following aspects: economic, organisation, and education. The impression of professionals was that few patients are discharged with nutrition therapy, compared to who could benefit from nutrition therapy after discharge. Most often, reasons were a short in-hospital stay and lack of knowledge and interest. Moreover, lack of clinical guidelines throughout all settings, time consumption, lack of transparency regarding economy and workflows, and lack of assistance from experts regarding complicated nutritional problems were identified. Conclusions. Many barriers were found in hospital as well as in the community and general practise. These were most often practical as well as organizational. Improvements of clinical guidelines and instructions and improvement of knowledge and communication at all levels are needed. Relevance to Clinical Practise. This study emphasizes that responsibility needs to be taken for patients whom are still at nutritional risk at discharge, and even before hospitalization. Nurses and doctors in and outside hospital are in need of improved knowledge

  19. Nutrition Transition: An Intergenerational Comparison of Dietary Habits among Women of Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Aliyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a shift worldwide towards a diet that is high in processed foods and low in fiber, leading to a corresponding increase in degenerative diseases. These diseases are interrelated with lifestyles and especially with diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the eating habit differences between two generations of mothers and daughters and their tendency towards modern foods. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, the data were gathered using structured questionnaires. The sample of the study includes 618 women in Shiraz City (309 mothers and 309 daughters) selected through stratified random sampling. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS software. Results: In the mothers’ generation, around 80% showed a traditional nutritional pattern while in the young generation more than 50% had a modern or close to modern pattern of nutrition (P ≤ 0.05). The findings confirmed a significant difference in dietary habits among the two generations. For both generations, nutrition pattern was significantly different in terms of social class, weight control, education, using mass communication, and physical activities (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Iran is currently experiencing a nutrition transition. The current inappropriate habits in the lifestyles of the girls’ in Shiraz are a health threat for them, and it will increase the risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, policy makers have to set new agenda to increase the nutritional knowledge of the population. PMID:25905062

  20. Association of FTO With Obesity-Related Traits in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Marvelle, Amanda F.; Lange, Leslie A.; Qin, Li; Adair, Linda S.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The underlying genetic component of obesity-related traits is not well understood, and there is limited evidence to support genetic association shared across multiple studies, populations, and environmental contexts. The present study investigated the association between candidate variants and obesity-related traits in a sample of 1,886 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We selected and genotyped 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes (ADRB2, ADRB3, FTO, GNB3, INSIG2, LEPR, PPARG, TNF, UCP2, and UCP3) that had been previously reported to be associated with an obesity-related quantitative trait. RESULTS—We observed evidence for association of the A allele of rs9939609 (FTO intron 1) with increased BMI (P = 0.0072 before multiple test correction), baseline BMI (P = 0.0015), longitudinal BMI based on eight surveys from 1983 to 2005 (P = 0.000029), waist circumference (P = 0.0094), and weight (P = 0.021). The increase in average BMI was ∼0.4 for each additional A allele. We also observed association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant with BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, weight, fat mass, arm fat area, and arm muscle area (P < 0.05), although the direction of effect is inconsistent with the majority of previous reports. CONCLUSIONS—Our study confirms that FTO is a common obesity susceptibility gene in Filipinos, with an effect size similar to that seen in samples of European origin. PMID:18426866

  1. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  2. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  3. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  4. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: "Choice, Control & Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, "Choice, Control & Change", designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design: A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting: Five…

  5. Development and validity of a questionnaire to test the knowledge of primary care personnel regarding nutrition in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of its epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries, obesity is considered a serious public health issue. In order to increase knowledge concerning the ability of health care professionals in caring for obese adolescents and adopt more efficient preventive and control measures, a questionnaire was developed and validated to assess non-dietitian health professionals regarding their Knowledge of Nutrition in Obese Adolescents (KNOA). Methods The development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of primary care practitioners with respect to nutrition in obese adolescents was carried out in five phases, as follows: 1) definition of study dimensions 2) development of 42 questions and preliminary evaluation of the questionnaire by a panel of experts; 3) characterization and selection of primary care practitioners (35 dietitians and 265 non-dietitians) and measurement of questionnaire criteria by contrasting the responses of dietitians and non-dietitians; 4) reliability assessment by question exclusion based on item difficulty (too easy and too difficult for non-dietitian practitioners), item discrimination, internal consistency and reproducibility index determination; and 5) scoring the completed questionnaires. Results Dietitians obtained higher scores than non-dietitians (Mann–Whitney U test, P < 0.05), confirming the validity of the questionnaire criteria. Items were discriminated by correlating the score for each item with the total score, using a minimum of 0.2 as a correlation coefficient cutoff value. Item difficulty was controlled by excluding questions answered correctly by more than 90% of the non-dietitian subjects (too easy) or by less than 10% of them (too difficult). The final questionnaire contained 26 of the original 42 questions, increasing Cronbach’s α value from 0.788 to 0.807. Test-retest agreement between respondents was classified as good to very good (Kappa test, >0.60). Conclusion The

  6. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of "obesogenic" gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that maternal obesity per

  7. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of “obesogenic” gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that

  8. Symposium on "The challenge of translating nutrition research into public health nutrition". Session 5: Nutrition communication. Obesity and social marketing: works in progress.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Stead, Martine

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, socio-economic trends reinforce the complex physiological mechanisms that favour positive energy balance, leading to an accumulation of excess body weight and associated metabolic disorders. This so-called 'obesogenic environment' is characterised by increasing accessibility and affordability of energy-dense foods and declining levels of physical activity. In the face of such rapidly-rising obesity rates there is general consensus that strategies to address trends in weight gain must go forwards in the absence of complete evidence of cause or effective prevention strategy. Thus, strategy implementation and evaluation must contribute to, as well as be informed by, the evidence base. Social marketing research and practice has a track record that strongly indicates that it can contribute to both the evolving knowledge base on obesity and overweight control policy and the development of effective intervention strategies. Social marketing draws pragmatically on many disciplines to bring about voluntary behaviour change as well as requisite supporting policy and environmental change. Key objectives include: generating insights into the drivers of current behaviour patterns; important barriers to change; client-oriented approaches to new desirable diet and lifestyle choices. Social marketing recognises that target clients have the power to ensure success or failure of obesity control policies. Social marketing seeks to identify genuine exchange of benefits for target adopters of behaviour change and the advocates of change, and how they may be developed and offered within an appropriate relevant context. Social marketing adopts a cyclical approach of learning, strategic development and evaluation, and therefore is well placed to integrate with the multi-disciplinary demands of obesity prevention strategies. PMID:19012804

  9. Intergenerational Profiles of Socioeconomic (Dis)advantage and Obesity During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun-Lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of socioeconomic status (SES) and health during the transition to adulthood in the United States are complicated by the later and more varied transitions in residence, employment, schooling, and social roles compared with previous generations. Parental SES is an important influence during adolescence but cannot sufficiently capture the SES of the independent young adult. Typical, single SES indicators based on income or education likely misclassify the SES of young adults who have not yet completed their education or other training, or who have entered the labor force early with ultimately lower status attainment. We use a latent class analysis (LCA) framework to characterize five intergenerational SES groups, combining multidimensional SES information from two time points—that is, adolescent (parental) and young adult (self) SES data. Associations of these groups with obesity, a high-risk health outcome in young adults, revealed nuanced relationships not seen using traditional intergenerational SES measures. In males, for example, a middle-class upbringing in adolescence and continued material advantage into adulthood was associated with nearly as high obesity as a working poor upbringing and early, detrimental transitions. This intergenerational typology of early SES exposure facilitates understanding of SES and health during young adulthood. PMID:21491185

  10. Ketogenic enteral nutrition as a treatment for obesity: short term and long term results from 19,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Only protein diet has been used successfully to prevent loss of lean body mass first in post-surgical and then in obese patients. We studied overweight and obese patients receiving short treatments of an exclusively protein-based nutritional solution as 24-hour enteral infusion. Methods 19,036 patients (age 44.3 ± 13, M:F = 2:5) with an initial body mass index of 36.5 ± 7.1 underwent 10-day cycles of enteral nutrition through a fine nasogastric tube. The nutritional solution consisted solely of 50–65 g of proteins, plus vitamins and electrolytes. The 24-hour infusion was controlled with a small portable pump. Before and after each 10-day cycle body composition was checked with a Handy 3000 impedance analyzer. At the onset of treatment, average fat mass was 40.9 ± 12.8 kg while body cell mass was 42.7 ± 7.2 kg in males and 27.4 ± 4.6 kg in females. Results After an average of 2.5 cycles the patients lost 10.2 ± 7.0 kg of body weight, 5.8 ± 5.5 kg of fat mass and 2.2 ± 3.3 kg of body cell mass. No significant adverse effects were recorded except asthenia and constipation which were easily controlled with therapy. Long-term results were obtained from 15,444 patients and after an average of 362 ± 296 days we found a mean weight regain of 15.4%. Conclusion Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition treatment of over 19,000 patients induced a rapid 10% weight loss, 57% of which was Fat Mass. No significant adverse effects were found. The treatment is safe, fast, inexpensive and has good one-year results for weight maintenance. PMID:23110922

  11. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  12. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  14. Impact of estradiol, ER subtype specific agonists and genistein on energy homeostasis in a rat model of nutrition induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Carmen; Hertrampf, Torsten; Zoth, Nora; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Diel, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Estrogens are known to be involved in the control of energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the role of ER alpha and ER beta in a model of nutrition induced obesity. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and received either vehicle, E2, ER subtype selective agonists (Alpha and Beta) or genistein. After 10 weeks, body weight, visceral fat, serum leptin, blood lipids, and in the soleus muscle anabolic markers were determined. Treatment with E2 and Alpha decreased body weight, total cholesterol and VLDL. Visceral fat mass, adipocyte size, and serum leptin were reduced by E2, Alpha and Beta. In the soleus muscle, treatment with E2 and Beta modulated Igf1 and Pax7 gene expression and resulted in larger muscle fibers. Our data indicate that blood lipids are affected via ER alpha, whereas activation of ER beta results in an increase of soleus muscle mass. Adipose tissue homeostasis seems to be affected via both ERs. PMID:22230815

  15. Study on the obesity and nutrition status of housewives in Seoul and Kyunggi area.

    PubMed

    Chung, Keun-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Yoon, Jin-A; Choi, Kyung Soon

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of obesity of 212 women (age 45-60 years) in Seoul and the Kyunggi area through analysis of BMI and the dietary life factors related to obesity using a survey on dietary habits, dietary assessment, and nutrient intake. The height of the underweight group was taller than normal. The height of the obese group was equal to that of the normal group, but the weight was 8.5 kg greater than the normal group. Women in the underweight group consumed meals irregularly, and only 33.4% ate breakfast. Additionally, the rate of overeating was low in the underweight group, and milk, dairy products (yogurt, etc.), fruit, and fruit juice were consumed more than once a day. It was found that 62.1% of the women in the obese group never ate out, and the rate of eating one serving of fruit, drinking one cup of fruit juice, and eating various kinds of foods was high. The average point of women's dietary life was 21.9 ± 2.9, and 12.7% of all women responded that their dietary life was good. However, in the obese group, only 6.9% of the women reported that their dietary life was good. Evaluation of snacking habits revealed that the underweight group consumed a high level of carbonated drinks and ice cream, whereas for in the obese group, 24.1% of the women consumed milk and its products and 5.6% regularly consumed fast and fried foods. Evaluation of nutrient intake revealed that the consumption of energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B(1), B(2), B(6), niacin, vitamin C, and vitamin E was high in all of the groups, but the intake of folic acid in the underweight group was lower than the required level. Overall, 24.1% of the women in the obese group were found to have metabolic diseases, mostly hypertension (43%). In conclusion, a balanced diet to avoid excessive nutrient intake is needed to prevent obesity. PMID:21556228

  16. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m2, women <0.512 kg/m2). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs. 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs. 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations. PMID:26472145

  17. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  18. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Insights into the Emerging Role of Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Maeve A.; Finucane, Orla M.; Connaughton, Ruth M.; McMorrow, Aoibheann M.; Roche, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and associated chronic inflammation initiate a state of insulin resistance (IR). The secretion of chemoattractants such as MCP-1 and MIF and of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, draw immune cells including dendritic cells, T cells, and macrophages into adipose tissue (AT). Dysfunctional AT lipid metabolism leads to increased circulating free fatty acids, initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in the population of infiltrating cells. A feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokines exacerbates this pathological state, driving further immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion and disrupts the insulin signaling cascade. Disruption of normal AT function is causative of defects in hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis, resulting in systemic IR and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical strategies that target the inflammatory milieu may have some potential; however there are a number of safety concerns surrounding such pharmaceutical approaches. Nutritional anti-inflammatory interventions could offer a more suitable long-term alternative; whilst they may be less potent than some pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents, this may be advantageous for long-term therapy. This review will investigate obese AT biology, initiation of the inflammatory, and insulin resistant environment; and the mechanisms through which dietary anti-inflammatory components/functional nutrients may be beneficial. PMID:23675368

  19. Nutrition and Metabolic Correlates of Obesity and Inflammation: Clinical Considerations123

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy R; Makowski, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the global prevalence of obesity has doubled; in the United States, it has almost tripled. Billions of people are overweight and obese; the WHO reports that >65% of the world’s population die of diseases related to overweight rather than underweight. Obesity is a complex disease that can be studied from “metropolis to metabolite”—that is, beginning at the policy and the population level through epidemiology and intervention studies; to bench work including preclinical models, tissue, and cell culture studies; to biochemical assays; and to metabolomics. Metabolomics is the next research frontier because it provides a real-time snapshot of biochemical building blocks and products of cellular processes. This report comments on practical considerations when conducting metabolomics research. The pros and cons and important study design concerns are addressed to aid in increasing metabolomics research in the United States. The link between metabolism and inflammation is an understudied phenomenon that has great potential to transform our understanding of immunometabolism in obesity, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases; metabolomics promises to be an important tool in understanding the complex relations between factors contributing to such diseases. PMID:25833891

  20. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 14297

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2008-01-01

    In light of the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on over 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  1. Childhood Obesity: A Food and Nutrition Resource List for Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellechia, Kathleen M.; Akobundu, Ucheoma O.; Naslund, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a collection of resources on the topic of childhood obesity for educators and researchers. It is comprised of articles from professional journals (published 2000 to present), information available on the World Wide Web, consumer educational materials and contact information of related organizations. Items with a public health…

  2. [FESNAD-SEEDO consensus summary: evidence-based nutritional recommendations for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults].

    PubMed

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel; Marset, Julio Basulto; Lesmes, Irene Breton; Izquierdo, Joan Quiles; Sala, Xavier Formiguera; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics Associations (FESNAD) and the Spanish Association for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) consensus document on the role of diet in prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. To prepare this document, and in order to achieve the maximum evidence level possible, a systematic review was made of all medical literature published between January 1, 1996 and January 31, 2011 (15 years). The obtained findings were catalogued by evidence level following the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system, and recommendations were produced based on data collected. As a result, 65 evidences and 31 recommendations applicable to obese adults without any other pathological process were produced. Evidences and resulting recommendations are provided, and the most significant findings are discussed. This consensus document is intended to provide healthcare professionals with a reference tool that may help them design dietary strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. PMID:22795577

  3. Model Programs to Address Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease: Interventions for Suboptimal Nutrition and Sedentary Lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Nash, Mark S; Kressler, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The component health risks of the cardiometabolic syndrome include coalescing of risk factors that predict a health calamity unless effective interventions can be developed and widely adopted. Obesity by itself is now considered an American Diabetes Association-qualified disability, but it is also disturbingly prevalent in other physical disability groupings of adults and children. This monograph describes successes of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a National Institutes of Health multisite randomized controlled trial that reported significant weight reduction and a 58% decreased incidence of type-2 diabetes accompanying 1 year of structured lifestyle intervention. This treatment benefit (1) exceeded that of metformin pharmacotherapy, (2) was so powerful that the trial was closed before reaching endpoints, and (3) was judged cost-effective for the patient and society. The DPP roadmap incorporating physical activity, diet, and behavioral approaches has been widely adapted to specific community, faith, racial, ethnic, school, and national populations with excellent outcomes success. The lockstep physical activity approach, activity prescription, and long-term success of the program are described and compared with other programs to illustrate effective countermeasures for the pandemics of obesity and obesity-related cardioendocrine disease. We will illustrate adaptation of the DPP for a cohort of persons with disability from spinal cord

  4. From wasting to obesity, changes in nutritional concerns in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mankal, Pavan K; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Optimal nutrition is an important part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care; to support the immune system, limit HIV-associated complications as well as maintain better quality of life and survival. The presentation and nature of malnutrition in patients with HIV has changed dramatically over the past 30 years from predominantly a wasting syndrome to lipodystrophy and, now, frailty. Nevertheless, we continue to see all 3 presentations in patient care today. The pathogenesis of poor nutrition in HIV-infected patients depends on caloric intake, intestinal nutrient absorption/translocation, and resting energy expenditure, which are features seen in all chronic diseases. PMID:25169559

  5. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044

  6. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States: Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-08-01

    Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04-17.08, P = 0.04) compared with <1 year in the US. In children/adolescents, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for <1 year (aOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.51-6.56, P = 0.002). When analyzed by year, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing. PMID:27583867

  7. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

  8. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

  9. Nutritional status of children and adolescents based on body mass index: agreement between World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzotto, Timothy Gustavo; Brasil, Marcos Roberto; Oliveira, Vinicius Machado; da Silva, Schelyne Ribas; Ronque, Enio Ricardo V.; Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Serassuelo, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the agreement between two international criteria for classification of children and adolescents nutritional status. Methods: The study included 778 girls and 863 boys aged from six to 13 years old. Body mass and height were measured and used to calculate the body mass index. Nutritional status was classified according to the cut-off points defined by the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force. The agreement was evaluated using Kappa statistic and weighted Kappa. Results: In order to classify the nutritional status, the agreement between the criteria was higher for the boys (Kappa 0.77) compared to girls (Kappa 0.61). The weighted Kappa was also higher for boys (0.85) in comparison to girls (0.77). Kappa index varied according to age. When the nutritional status was classified in only two categories - appropriate (thinness + accentuated thinness + eutrophy) and overweight (overweight + obesity + severe obesity) -, the Kappa index presented higher values than those related to the classification in six categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement was observed between the criteria, being higher in males and varying according to the age. PMID:24676189

  10. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  11. Virtues and challenges in using the community based participatory research (cbpr) approach by the delta nutrition research initiative (delta niri) in developing rural community walking studies to lower obesity risks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To discuss the CBPR approach in development, implementation, and evaluation of rural community walking and nutrition studies. Background: The current obesity epidemic, especially among rural and low-income minority populations, presents challenges in designing interventions that are effec...

  12. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  13. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-03-14

    We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption. PMID:26759221

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

  15. The need for an international debate in pediatrics about obesity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Hoyos-Parra, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are at the center of international consultation and there's a general agreement on saying that several issues need to be solved before implementing prevention strategies and intervention programs. A sound knowledge of all the factors involved in the epidemic spread of a disease is the first target that has to be achieved in order to provide governments and policy makers with the best evidence-based conclusions. Present data are still too weak to gather solid decisions. Lack of standardized methods, common definitions or coherence with real life performances results therefore in conclusions that oscillate from one statement to its contrary. From this perspective, pediatricians and general practitioners are of great importance, being the direct link between the scientific community and children, having therefore the possibility to act at the first phases of obesity development, forging the best possible knowledge in order to transform prevention in the best possible cure. PMID:25629250

  16. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  17. [Focus of childhood obesity from pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term. PMID:24866318

  18. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted. PMID:23899931

  19. Impact of clock gene Bmal1 deficiency on nutritionally induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hemmeryckx, Bianca; Himmelreich, Uwe; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Lijnen, Henri R

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that the clock gene Bmal1 (brain and muscle arnt like protein-1) plays a role in the development of obesity, 5-week-old male Bmal1-deficient (Bmal1(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates (Bmal1(+/+)) were kept on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. Despite an initial accelerated weight gain of Bmal1(-/-) mice, body weight and subcutaneous (SC) and gonadal (GON) adipose tissue mass were comparable to Bmal1(+/+) mice at the end of the diet period. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging scanning revealed a modest increase in fat content in Bmal1(-/-) mice after 10 weeks of HFD, whereas at the start and the end of the HFD feeding no differences were observed between both genotypes. After 15 weeks of HFD, adipocyte and blood vessel size and density were similar for Bmal1(+/+) and Bmal1(-/-) mice. However, the weight of major organs was significantly reduced in Bmal1(-/-) mice, confirming the premature ageing phenotype. Thus, we hypothesize that an initial accelerated increase in body weight and fat mass of Bmal1(-/-) mice on HFD may have been offset by the effect of premature ageing on organ weight, resulting in comparable weights after 15 weeks of HFD. PMID:21030946

  20. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Overweight and Obesity in Children: Findings From the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ickpyo; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Anderson, Kelly R.; Lee, Danbi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined the relationship between childhood obesity and overweight and functional activity and its enjoyment. METHOD. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS. Data for 1,640 children ages 3–15 yr were retrieved. Physical activity was negatively associated with risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.87, 0.98]). Although children who were obese and overweight were more likely to have functional limitations (ORs = 1.58–1.61), their enjoyment of physical activity participation was not significantly different from that of the healthy-weight group. CONCLUSION. Physical activity lowered the risk of obesity. Children who were obese had functional limitations compared with healthy-weight children, but both groups enjoyed physical activity equally. Future studies are needed to determine barriers to participation among these children in recreation and sporting activities. PMID:27548862

  1. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Ahmed A; Rohrer, James E

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that alcohol use may have a protective effect on obesity. This study explores association between obesity and alcohol consumption in the non-smoking U.S. adult population. Methods We analyzed data on a total of 8,236 respondents who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body mass index (weight-kg/height-m2) was derived from measured height and weight data and categorized into: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Alcohol consumption was measured using following measures: history of drinking, binge drinking, quantity of drinks/day, frequency of drinking, and average volume of drinks/week. Results Mean body mass index in this sample of non-smokers was 26.4 (95% CI: 26.1, 26.7). Approximately 46% of respondents were classified as current drinkers. Current drinkers had lower odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.97) as compared to non-drinkers. The odds of overweight and obesity were significantly greater among binge drinkers and those consuming four or more drinks/day. However, those who reported drinking one or two drinks per day had 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.62) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) times the odds of obesity, respectively. Similarly, the odds of obesity were significantly lower among those who reported drinking frequently and consuming less than five drinks per week. The association between overweight and other alcohol measures was less pronounced. Conclusion The results suggest further exploring the possible role of moderate alcohol drinking in controlling body weight in adults. PMID:16329757

  2. In vivo imaging of lipid storage and regression in diet-induced obesity during nutrition manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Abdel Wahad; Ploj, Karolina; Lelliott, Christopher; Nelander, Karin; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Böttcher, Gerhard; Oscarsson, Jan; Storlien, Leonard; Hockings, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Changes in adipose tissue distribution and ectopic fat storage in, liver and skeletal muscle tissue impact whole body insulin sensitivity in both humans and experimental animals. Numerous mouse models of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes exist; however, current methods to assess mouse phenotypes commonly involve direct harvesting of the tissues of interest, precluding the possibility of repeated measurements in the same animal. In this study, we demonstrate that whole body 3-D imaging of body fat composition can be used to analyze distribution as well as redistribution of fat after intervention by repeated assessment of intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL), intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and total adipose tissue (IAT, SAT, and TAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). C57BL/6J mice fed a cafeteria diet for 16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow for 16 wk and mice switched from café diet to standard chow after 12 wk. MRI determinations were made at 9 and 15 wk, and autopsy was performed at 16 wk. There was a strong correlation between MRI-calculated weights in vivo at 15 wk and measured weights at 16 wk ex vivo for IAT (r = 0.99), BAT (r = 0.93), and IHCL (r = 0.97). IHCL and plasma insulin increased steeply relative to body weight at body weights above 45 g. This study demonstrates that the use of 3-D imaging to assess body fat composition may allow substantial reductions in animal usage. The dietary interventions indicated that a marked metabolic deterioration occurred when the mice had gained a certain fat mass. PMID:23032688

  3. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  4. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. PMID:24662896

  5. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world. Fueled by economic growth, industrialization, mechanized transport, urbanization, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high calorie diets over the last 30 years, many countries have witnessed the prevalence of obesity in its citizens double, and even quadruple. Rising prevalence of childhood obesity, in particular, forebodes a staggering burden of disease in individuals and healthcare systems in the decades to come. A complex, multifactorial disease, with genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental origins, obesity raises risk of debilitating morbidity and mortality. Relying primarily on epidemiologic evidence published within the last decade, this non-exhaustive review discusses the extent of the obesity epidemic, its risk factors—known and novel—, sequelae, and economic impact across the globe. PMID:25471927

  6. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  7. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  8. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval-pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval-pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  9. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  10. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  11. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  12. Synthesis and implications: China's nutrition transition in the context of changes across other low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) is important for its insights into current and future diet, physical activity, and obesity-related changes in China and for understanding underlying processes common across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While China modernized later than Latin American countries, many changes seen in China echo those in Latin America and in other LMICs. In general, changes in physical activity and diet behaviours in China have occurred at a faster pace relative to other LMICs. Modernization of the overall Chinese food system has lagged behind most other LMICs, yet the now-rapid changes in the Chinese food system are similar to what has been seen in other LMICs. Further, there is variation in these changes across social and geographic space. The incidence of obesity and non-communicable diseases has increased as the major health burden has shifted towards the poor. This paper examines changes in China and addresses the literature and issues that link these changes with those in other LMICs. In many ways, the detailed 20-year CHNS, with nine repeated measures, provides a remarkable window through which to understand nutrition-related changes in other LMICs. PMID:24341759

  13. Obesity as malnutrition: the role of capitalism in the obesity global epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. At an abstract level, obesity develops from exposure to the "obesogenic niche," comprising diverse factors predisposing to weight gain. This article first explores how susceptibility to the obesogenic niche is influenced by developmental and life-history experience. Human growth is sensitive to early-life ecological conditions, under the transducing effect of maternal phenotype. Such plasticity is associated with subsequent variability in body composition and metabolism, impacting susceptibility to the obesogenic niche, albeit with heterogeneity across populations. Both nutritional constraint and nutritional excess during early life are associated with variability in relevant molecular pathways. The article then considers the fundamental contribution of capitalist economics to population under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Historically, capitalism contributed to the under-nutrition of many populations through demand for cheap labor. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. In populations undergoing nutritional transition, many individuals encounter both under- and over-nutrition within the life course, elevating both susceptibility and exposure to the obesogenic niche. The interactions between global economic forces and nutritional shifts are distributed across generations, and are strongly transduced by maternal effects. The structural connections between undernourished and overnourished worldwide and between under- and over-nutrition within individual life-courses highlight the central role of capitalist economics in the global obesity epidemic. Prevention policies targeting individual behavior have proved ineffective and economic policies are arguably the optimal target for intervention. PMID:22383142

  14. Obesity and Body Size Preferences of Jordanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Hawks, Steven R.; Angeles, Heidi N.

    2011-01-01

    The nutrition transition is associated with increased obesity rates and increased desire to be thin. This study evaluates the relationship between actual body size and desired body size among a representative sample of 800 Jordanian women. Using Stunkard's body silhouettes, women were asked to identify their current and ideal body sizes, healthy…

  15. A Call to Action: Building a Translational Inclusion Team Science in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Management for Children with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, James H; Vanderbom, Kerri A

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence base of childhood obesity prevention and treatment programs do not adequately consider how to adapt these programs for children with disabilities. We propose a Call to Action for health researchers who conduct studies focused on the general population (i.e., without a disability) to work closely with disability researchers to adapt their programs (e.g., obesity management, increased physical activity, and caregiver training in diet and nutrition) to be relevant to both groups. We refer to this approach as inclusion team science. The hope for this Call to Action is that there will be greater synergy between researchers who have high levels of expertise in a specialty area of health (but little or no knowledge of how to adapt their program for children with disabilities) to work more closely with researchers who have a high level of expertise in adapting evidence-based health promotion recommendations and strategies for children with disabilities. Together, these two areas of expertise will lead to inclusive physical activity and nutrition programs for all children. PMID:27559540

  16. A Call to Action: Building a Translational Inclusion Team Science in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Management for Children with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, James H.; Vanderbom, Kerri A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence base of childhood obesity prevention and treatment programs do not adequately consider how to adapt these programs for children with disabilities. We propose a Call to Action for health researchers who conduct studies focused on the general population (i.e., without a disability) to work closely with disability researchers to adapt their programs (e.g., obesity management, increased physical activity, and caregiver training in diet and nutrition) to be relevant to both groups. We refer to this approach as inclusion team science. The hope for this Call to Action is that there will be greater synergy between researchers who have high levels of expertise in a specialty area of health (but little or no knowledge of how to adapt their program for children with disabilities) to work more closely with researchers who have a high level of expertise in adapting evidence-based health promotion recommendations and strategies for children with disabilities. Together, these two areas of expertise will lead to inclusive physical activity and nutrition programs for all children. PMID:27559540

  17. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  18. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  19. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition.

    PubMed

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  20. [Knowledge and gaps on the role of nutrition and physical activity on the onset of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Sangil-Monroy, Marta; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2004-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has increased at alarming rates over the last few years, due to the concurrence of a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of published studies in the past ten years evaluating the development of childhood obesity in relation to energy and macronutrients intake, their distribution throughout the day and physical activity patterns. 31 articles dealing with this subject were selected. Results obtained appear to indicate that reducing dietary fat and increasing dietary carbohydrate intakes along with consuming an adequate breakfast and carrying out leisure time physical activity on a regular basis act as determining factors to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity, even though the strength of the evidence from these studies is low. It should be a priority to conduct follow-up studies with comparable methodologies in Mediterranean countries, in order to establish parameters for the prevention and control of childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:15607072

  1. Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2015-02-28

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that have been shown to prevent cancer in some studies. Whether phyto-oestrogen intake affects obesity status in a population is still unclear. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the association of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with obesity and metabolic parameters in children and adults. Data from 1294 children (age 6-19 years) and from 3661 adults (age ≥ 20 years) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10 were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of BMI, waist circumference, serum metabolites (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting glucose and fasting insulin) and the metabolic syndrome with urinary phyto-oestrogen levels. When stratified by age and sex, we found a stronger association (OR 0·30, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·54; P< 0·001) between urinary enterolactone levels and obesity in adult males (age 20-60 years) than in children (age 12-19 years) or the elderly (age >60 years) in the same survey. However, no associations with urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein were found in the overall population. We also found that the elevation of enterolactone levels was inversely associated with TAG levels, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels and the metabolic syndrome in males aged 20-60 years, but positively associated with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone is inversely associated with obesity in adult males. PMID:25634494

  2. Evidence of an Overweight/Obesity Transition among School-Aged Children and Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research

  3. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  4. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  5. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12–15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

  6. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here. PMID:27001436

  7. Impact of a physician-supervised exercise-nutrition program with testosterone substitution in partial androgen-deficient middle-aged obese men

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ernst R; Willix, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Background Partial androgen deficiency syndrome in the aging male is associated with signs of aging such as a development of abdominal obesity, sexual dysfunction, increase body fat, weight gain and the development of cardiac disease. Objective We assessed the outcome of a commercially available physician supervised nutrition and exercise program with concomitant testosterone replacement therapy in middle age obese men with partial androgen deficiency in order to reduce cardiac risks factors. Methods Fifty-six self referred men without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease (ages 52.3 ± 7.8 years) were randomly selected from a large cohort. Baseline weight, body fat composition, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and fasting lipid levels, as well as free and total testosterone levels were assessed. All patients were assessed and followed 6–18 months after initiation of the program. The program consisted of a low glycemic load balanced nutrition diet, a recommended structured daily exercise program of 30–60 minutes, as well as once to twice weekly intramuscular testosterone injections (113.0 ± 27.8 mg). Results At follow up, weight was reduced from 233.9 ± 30.0 pounds (lbs) to 221.3 ± 25.1 lbs (P < 0.001), BMI was reduced from 33.2 ± 3.3 kg/m2 to 31.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Total body fat was 27.1% ± 5.2% vs. 34.3% ± 5.7% at baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting glucose was reduced from 95.3 ± 14.4 mg/dL to 87.5 ± 12.6 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol was reduced from 195.4 ± 33.0 mg/dL to 172.7 ± 35.0 mg/dL (P < 0.005). No clinically significant adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged obese men with partial androgen deficiency appeared safe and might have promoted the effects of a weight reduction diet and daily exercise program as long as an adequate physician supervision and follow up was granted. The combination therapy significantly reduced coronary risk factors such as glucose

  8. Epidemiologic transitions: migration and development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the challenge has been the maintenance of bodyweight in the face of marginal food availability. Since the industrial revolution, energy expenditure related to economic activity and domestic life has fallen progressively as technological innovation has replaced muscular power with labor-saving devices. This fall in activity energy expenditure however has not been associated over this entire period with population weight gain. In the 1970s and the 1980s, there was an abrupt uptick in the rate of rise of relative weight in industrialized countries followed rapidly by developing countries. This has led to high and increasing rates of overweight and obesity in high-income countries worldwide, but also an alarming inclusion of low- and middle-income populations in this obesity epidemic. The precise drivers of these concurrent epidemics are not agreed, but probably include on the one hand an increase in dietary energy intake resulting from the impact of industrialization and globalization on food availability and price. On the other, there is the facilitating underlying status of a steadily falling activity energy expenditure as muscle power as an input into economic production as well as household and leisure activities has been supplanted. The rise in population weight without accompanying linear growth manifests as obesity. The accretion of fat as well as the response to other environmental exposures during progressive industrialization and modernization has evoked an accompanying epidemic of cardiometabolic pathology that has significant impact on health as well as macroeconomics. Given the power and presumed irreversibility of industrialization and globalization, our ability to reverse these obesity epidemics is heavily dependent on new knowledge being developed which gives insight with prevention and therapeutic implications on the proximal and distal drivers of this progressive positive energy balance. PMID:23502149

  9. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  10. Case history: tracking the nutritional value of milk from a transitioning-to-organic dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is focusing on many of the factors that influence the amounts of biologically active compounds (BACs) in milk, such as the influence of on-farm and seasonal factors, to improve the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, our current s...

  11. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  12. Maternal Obesity and Developmental Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring: Evidence from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Sloboda, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world as well as in those countries transitioning to first world economies, and this represents a major global health problem. Concern is rising over the rapid increases in childhood obesity and metabolic disease that will translate into later adult obesity. Although an obesogenic nutritional environment and increasingly sedentary lifestyle contribute to our risk of developing obesity, a growing body of evidence links early life nutritional adversity to the development of long-term metabolic disorders. In particular, the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and excess maternal weight gain has been associated with a heightened risk of obesity development in offspring in addition to an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications. The mechanisms that link maternal obesity to obesity in offspring and the level of gene-environment interactions are not well understood, but the early life environment may represent a critical window for which intervention strategies could be developed to curb the current obesity epidemic. This paper will discuss the various animal models of maternal overnutrition and their importance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered obesity risk in offspring. PMID:21969822

  13. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function - including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  14. Contributions of built environment to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262

  15. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  16. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyuhyun; Min, Kyungduk; Chun, Heeran; Jang, Soong-Nang; Cho, Sung-il

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM), subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6) and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4). Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9), and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8). Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement. PMID:25666235

  17. Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    PubMed

    Hill, James O

    2009-02-01

    The continued rise in obesity rates in most countries suggests that current programs and initiatives designed to combat obesity have not been successful in reversing the obesity epidemic. Obesity rates are increasing because of a gradual weight gain in most populations. There has been little long-term success in treating established obesity through lifestyle change, perhaps because of the large permanent changes in diet and physical activity required to keep weight off. An alternative strategy to address the obesity epidemic involves not focusing on weight loss but promoting small changes in diet and physical activity to initially prevent further weight gain. With the use of this strategy, obesity rates could first be stabilized in most populations and then, over time, decrease gradually. Supporting data show that small reductions in conscious energy intake and increases in physical activity can reduce excessive weight gain. The opportunity exists to use the small-changes approach to bring different stakeholders together to create a national initiative to address the global epidemic of obesity. The Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council believe that a small-changes framework, aimed at helping people make conscious small changes in lifestyle behaviors, in combination with efforts by the private sector to gradually "ratchet down" some of the environmental factors that have contributed to excessive energy intake and the declining rates of physical activity, can be successful in reducing obesity rates. Such an initiative would benefit from the support of educational and social marketing campaigns developed with governmental input and support. PMID:19088151

  18. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  19. Etiology of Obesity Over the Life Span: Ecological and Genetic Highlights from Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pei Nee; Teh, Christinal Pey Wen; Poh, Bee Koon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and the prevalence rate has doubled since the 1980s. Asian countries are also experiencing the global epidemic of obesity with its related health consequences. The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate across all age groups in Asia. These increases are mainly attributed to rapid economic growth, which leads to socio-economic, nutrition and lifestyle transitions, resulting in a positive energy balance. In addition, fat mass and obesity-associated gene variants, copy number variants in chromosomes and epigenetic modifications have shown positive associations with the risk of obesity among Asians. In this review highlights of prevalence and related ecological and genetic factors that could influence the rapid rise in obesity among Asian populations are discussed. PMID:26626465

  20. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  1. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  2. Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales) comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot) taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. Results Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S. lacrymans and S. himantioides constitute the sister group to the Austropaxillus-Gymnopaxillus clade. We found that both vicariance (Beringian) and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the phylogeny and current distributions of taxa within Serpulaceae. Our results also show that the transition from brown rot to mycorrhiza has happened only once in a monophyletic Serpulaceae, probably between 50 and 22 million years before present. Conclusions This study supports the growing understanding that the same geographical barriers that limit plant- and animal dispersal also limit the spread of fungi, as a combination of vicariance and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the present patterns of distribution in Serpulaceae. Our results verify the transition from brown rot to ECM within Serpulaceae between 50 and 22 MyBP. PMID:21816066

  3. Nutrition, rumen health and inflammation in the transition period and their role on overall health and fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Ghareeb, K; Humer, E; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Besenfelder, U

    2015-12-01

    Transition is a stressful period and critical for the entire cow's productive lifespan and reproduction. Optimal feeding management during transition period enables smooth metabolic adaptation to the initiation of lactation. Major nutritional challenge during this period is the urgent need to counteract the drastic deficits in energy and nutrients of the early-lactating cow. This is primarily done by inclusion of large amounts of concentrates in the diet during early lactation, causing major dietary imbalances with utmost importance for rumen health. Proper feeding management targeting rumen health in the transition period improves nutrient degradation and the net supply with energy and key nutrients of the host while preventing systemic disturbances and inflammation, events which are instrumental for cow's overall health and reproductive performance. The review provides insights into the role of, and gives practical hints regarding diet balancing efforts and feeding management strategies targeting rumen health and systemic inflammation during the periparturient period with the aim to enhance cow health and fertility. PMID:26679807

  4. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  5. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044. PMID:22566517

  6. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  7. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

  8. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: Choice, Control & Change

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, Choice, Control & Change, designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting Five middle schools in New York City. Participants 562 students in 20 classes and their science teachers (n=8). Main Outcome Measures Based on the model, teacher professional development, teacher implementation, and student reception were evaluated. Also measured were teacher characteristics, teachers’ curriculum evaluation, and satisfaction with teaching the curriculum. Analysis Descriptive statistics and Spearman’s Rho Correlation for quantitative analysis and content analysis for qualitative data were used. Results Mean score of the teacher professional development evaluation was 4.75 on a 5-point scale. Average teacher implementation rate was 73%, and student reception rate was 69%. Ongoing teacher support was highly valued by teachers. Teachers’ satisfaction with teaching the curriculum was highly correlated with students’ satisfaction (p <.05). Teachers’ perception of amount of student work was negatively correlated with implementation and with student satisfaction (p<.05). Conclusions and implications Use of a systematic conceptual model and comprehensive process measures improves understanding of the implementation process and helps educators to better implement interventions as designed. PMID:23321021

  9. Stuck in Unhealthy Places: How Entering, Exiting, and Remaining in Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods Is Associated with Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents from poor versus nonpoor neighborhoods are more likely to become obese during the transition to adulthood. It is unclear whether this pertains to all adolescents from poor neighborhoods or only those who remain in disadvantaged settings. Further, it is unknown how neighborhood poverty entries and exits are associated with obesity. Using census and interview data from 12,164 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health participants, I find that those who consistently live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to become or remain obese by adulthood than those who never live in poor neighborhoods. Exiting severe neighborhood poverty curtails this risk, while entering and remaining in neighborhood poverty in adulthood increases it. These patterns are more pronounced for young women and robust to adjustments for health behaviors and selection bias. Findings support accumulation of risks and social mobility perspectives and highlight how previous and current neighborhood contexts are relevant for health. PMID:26957132

  10. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…