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Sample records for nutrition transition obesity

  1. Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course

    PubMed Central

    Kac, G; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course. PMID:27152157

  2. Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course.

    PubMed

    Kac, G; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course. PMID:27152157

  3. Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. PMID:24979753

  4. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country’s stage in the nutrition transition increased one’s odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one’s weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants’ lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin’s nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin’s nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants’ perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect

  5. NOW AND THEN: The Global Nutrition Transition: The Pandemic of Obesity in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; Adair, Linda S.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2011-01-01

    Decades ago discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. Diets in the 1970’s began to shift toward increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away from home intake and greater use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reduced physical activity and increased sedentary time was seen also. These changes began in the early 1990-‘s in the low and middle income world but did not become clearly recognized until diabetes, hypertension and obesity began to dominate the globe. Urban and rural areas from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’s poorest countries to the higher income ones are shown to have experienced rapid increases in overweight and obesity status. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are documented. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy shifts are being explored in a few countries; however despite the major health challenges faced, few countries are serious in addressing prevention of the dietary challenges faced. PMID:22221213

  6. OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Renee D.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter collectively discusses two important topics related to patients with ARDS: 1) obesity and its potential contribution to clinical outcomes through proposed biologic mechanisms and 2) current literature on provision of nutrition and micronutrients. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing around the world, and more than one third of Americans are now obese. While obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent literature suggests that among critically ill patients including those with ARDS, the relationship between obesity and outcomes is quite complex. Observational data demonstrate that obese patients may be at greater risk of developing ARDS and of having longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay compared to normal weight patients. However, obesity is also associated with improved survival. Therefore, in contrast to what might be assumed by clinicians, although obesity may confer greater ICU morbidity, it appears to simultaneously decrease mortality. The mechanisms for these findings are not yet clear, but recent biologic data may begin to provide an explanation. Critical illness, and more specifically the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a catabolic state where patients demonstrate a profound inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction, and hypermetabolism. This is often accompanied by malnutrition, which can lead to further impairment of immune function and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past decade or more, as we have come to better understand immunologic effects of nutrition in critical illness, nutrition has begun to be thought of as therapeutic, rather than purely supportive. Additionally, the concept of pharmaconutrition has emerged. Fortunately, several recent large studies about nutrition in critical care, with some investigations specifically in patients with ARDS, have provided valuable new evidence. PMID:25453416

  7. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  8. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

  9. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  10. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  11. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  12. The Critical Care Obesity Paradox and Implications for Nutrition Support.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Rosenthal, Martin D; Miller, Keith R; Codner, Panna; Kiraly, Laszlo; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing and is associated with an increased risk for other co-morbidities. In the critical care setting, nearly one third of patients are obese. Obese critically ill patients pose significant physical and on-physical challenges to providers, including optimization of nutrition therapy. Intuitively, obese patients would have worse critical care-related outcome. On the contrary, emerging data suggests that critically ill obese patients have improved outcomes, and this phenomenon has been coined "the obesity paradox." The purposes of this review will be to outline the historical views and pathophysiology of obesity and epidemiology of obesity, describe the challenges associated with obesity in the intensive care unit setting, review critical care outcomes in the obese, define the obesity-critical care paradox, and identify the challenges and role of nutrition support in the critically ill obese patient. PMID:27422122

  13. 78 FR 20411 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... / Friday, April 5, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 RIN 0584-AE07 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Interim...

  14. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement. PMID:25686639

  15. The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2002-02-01

    The accelerated phase of industrialisation and urbanisation in recent decades has inevitably brought about changes in the lifestyle of Malaysians. Changes in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are known to be associated with changes in health and increased prevalence of chronic diseases in the population. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between demographic variables and food consumption patterns related to the nutrition transition in Malaysia. This review uses various reports and publications from several ministries and selected local studies. The statistics compiled over the last two decades have shown that as the population achieves affluence, intakes of calories, fats and sugars increase, which may account for the substantial increase in food importation bills over the same period. Similarly, the rapid growth of the fast food industry during the last decade has added another dimension to the change in food consumption patterns of Malaysians. With the exception of a study on adolescents, the prevalences of overweight and obesity in children and adults are not strictly comparable due to the difference in body mass index (BMI) cut-off points in children and the study protocol in adults, and hence should not be misinterpreted as trends. The recent recommendation to lower the BMI cut-off points for Asians would only increase the magnitude of the existing prevalence among adults. The need to promote healthy nutrition for the population must be pursued vigorously, as the escalation of nutrition-related chronic degenerative diseases - once an urban phenomenon--has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. This paper indicates that the problem is real and needs urgent attention because it may be just the tip of the iceberg. PMID:12027284

  16. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador. PMID:27275596

  17. Obesity in Rural Youth: Looking beyond Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Debra B.; Patterson, Patti J.; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging,…

  18. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  19. Emerging nutrition challenges: policies to tackle under-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Denise Costa; Rivera, Juan A; Uauy, Ricardo; Ding, Zong-Yi; Ruel, Marie T; Svensson, Per-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    On 19 May, 2008, Mexico's Secretary of Health, Dr José Angel Córdova Villalobos, hosted an event entitled Emerging Nutrition Challenges: Policies to Tackle Under-nutrition, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Held in conjunction with the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, nearly 100 delegates from over 30 countries attended. The International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers and the International Hospital Federation supported Mexico in its sponsorship of this event. Dr Villalobos provided opening remarks including an overview of Mexico's public policies to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Dr. Mauricio Hernández, Mexico's Undersecretary of Health, moderated as six experts from around the world spoke on issues relating to the nutrition "double burden" (i.e. malnourishment and obesity), successful interventions and policy opportunities for improving nutrition, preventing obesity and enhancing health outcomes. Following are abstracts from their presentations. PMID:19181025

  20. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries. PMID:22442643

  1. Obesity and nutritional behavior within a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Conti, A A; Lippi, D; Gensini, G F

    2004-06-01

    Obesity is an ever increasing pathological condition in Western countries. Genetic, metabolic, social and cultural factors play different roles in the varying pictures of obesity, together with nutritional behavior. This research proposes to formulate a comparison through the literary sources of the classical world, so as to determine the modalities with which obesity and nutritional habits have been perceived in the past. In Greek and Roman art, obesity often assumed the characteristics of caricature and of satire, confirmed by the elaboration of the stereotype of the sponger. Obesity generated irony and sarcasm; meanwhile the figure of the tyrant too was modelled on the physical type of the obesus, in whom the vice both of alimentary and sexual excess was concentrated. The evaluation of obesity, in the course of the time, has seen alternate phases, that propose different physical models and elaborate different aesthetical canons, but always closely related to a strong social factor as a distinctive sign: opulence. Nowadays obesity is seen, on the contrary, as an ever increasing nutritional disorder, both in prevalence and in incidence, and, to the ideal of the fat subject, very recent years have progressively substituted a different aesthetic typology, also because hyperalimentation has been qualified as a concomitant cause for a number of degenerative disorders. PMID:15722988

  2. Social valorisation of stoutness as a determinant of obesity in the context of nutritional transition in Cameroon: the Bamiléké case.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E; Boetsch, G; Palstra, F P; Pasquet, P

    2013-11-01

    Body size perceptions were assessed among members of the Bamiléké, an ethnic group in an urban setting in Cameroon with high rates of obesity, but also a positive perception of stoutness in its social representations. We first implemented a qualitative study (April 2007) to identify local representations of body weight among Bamiléké using semi-structured interviews. We then quantitatively assessed body size perceptions among a representative sample of Bamiléké (May to June 2007), employing a body image assessment scale and a questionnaire that included declarative body weight self-satisfaction, health status, and attempts to reduce weight. Results indicate Desired Body Size (DBS) for women, and particularly for men, was situated in the overweight category. Qualitative analyses show that overweight is considered as a normal and healthy body size in the Bamiléké. On the other hand, the quantitative study reveals that high rates of obesity, especially in women (40.8% obese), are associated with high blood pressure. Moreover, subjects who had a negative perception of their health status wanted to lose weight (p < 0.01). Unlike males, females have a DBS lower than their Current Body Size (p < 0.001). In addition, subjects (particularly males) who felt they were too lean, were older than those who felt too fat. We therefore conclude that the social valorisation of stoutness exposes Bamiléké, particularly males, to obesity. Although the women stated a desire to lose weight and present aesthetic criteria more oriented towards slimness, the attitude of the Bamiléké remained oriented toward stoutness appreciation. This preference can help protect against body image disturbances identified in Western societies, but may also increase of the incidence of obesity and its associated pathologies in this part of the world. PMID:24034948

  3. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade school children and their parents in three school districts in Bell Co...

  4. Obesity in rural youth: looking beyond nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Debra B; Patterson, Patti J; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging, nontraditional factors need to be addressed within the confines of current challenges faced by rural communities. An enhanced ecological model provides a framework for combining traditional and nontraditional factors into a more comprehensive approach that addresses the complexity of the issues contributing to youth obesity. PMID:21906552

  5. [Type 2 diabetes, obesity and nutrition, a paradigm shift].

    PubMed

    Bourcelot, Emilie; Combes, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are two complex and multifactorial chronic diseases. Nutritional management is based on an educational and bio-psycho-sensory approach centred on the patient using cognitive-behavioural and emotionally-focused therapy tools. PMID:27157552

  6. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program. PMID:27039409

  7. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described. PMID:25759691

  8. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    PubMed

    2006-10-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade schoolchildren and their parents in three school districts in Bell County and Harris County. Fourth-grade schoolchildren were surveyed at two times (T1, T2) during the spring semester of the 2004-2005 school year to assess their dietary intake, their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and their understanding and satisfaction with the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Participating students' parents also were surveyed. The overall obesity rate in surveyed children averaged 26.1%. No significant difference was found between HRQOL scores for obese and normal-weight children, although HRQOL scores for normal-weight children were significantly lower than those in previous population studies of healthy children. In addition, the HRQOL scores of obese and healthy children increased significantly from T1 to T2 for Bell County but only for healthy children in Harris County. Children from Bell County were more likely to eat food from the cafeteria while children from Harris County were more likely to eat food brought from home. Parents of minority children reported that they were more likely to change dietary habits at home as a result of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Obese children were less likely than normal-weight children to try to lose weight. This study suggests that lunch intake varies considerably in Texas, and state policy should try to institute more uniform nutrition guidelines for all school districts. Because minority children are at increased risk of obesity, the preliminary findings that their parents are more likely to change their dietary habits at home are very encouraging. PMID:17628963

  9. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  10. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  11. Nutrition and Immune System in Children with Simple Obesity.

    PubMed

    Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Janusz, Malgorzata; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrzak, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary factors in nutrition influencing the immune system of children and teenagers suffering from simple obesity. The study involved 100 children and teenagers aged 7-18 with simple obesity. Nutritional data were obtained from 3-day food records. The consumed nutrients, including immunomodulators and immunostimulants, were estimated based on the nutrition interview. The results were compared with the nutritional norms. On average, the proportion of n-6:n-3 fatty acids equalled 10:1. Among the amino acids, the highest intake values in the diet were observed for glutamine (13,694.6 mg/day). The study demonstrates inadequate intake levels of iron (73% of recommended dietary allowance, RDA), vitamin C (65% of RDA), and vitamin D (11% of RDA) taking into account the median values for the entire study group. The median daily intake of other nutrients exceeded the RDA values. The diets of the participants in this study were not properly balanced with respect to immunomodulators, which may contribute to the occurrence of immunological disorders and immunodeficiency in this group of patients. PMID:26269024

  12. Disparities in Early Transitions to Obesity in Contemporary Multi-Ethnic U.S. Populations

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Holliday, Katelyn M.; Chakladar, Sujatro; Engeda, Joseph C.; Hardy, Shakia T.; Reis, Jared P.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shay, Christina M.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Heiss, Gerardo; Lin, Dan Yu; Zeng, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined weight transitions in contemporary multi-ethnic populations spanning early childhood through adulthood despite the ability of such research to inform obesity prevention, control, and disparities reduction. Methods and Results We characterized the ages at which African American, Caucasian, and Mexican American populations transitioned to overweight and obesity using contemporary and nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (n = 21,220; aged 2–80 years). Age-, sex-, and race/ethnic-specific one-year net transition probabilities between body mass index-classified normal weight, overweight, and obesity were estimated using calibrated and validated Markov-type models that accommodated complex sampling. At age two, the obesity prevalence ranged from 7.3% in Caucasian males to 16.1% in Mexican American males. For all populations, estimated one-year overweight to obesity net transition probabilities peaked at age two and were highest for Mexican American males and African American females, for whom a net 12.3% (95% CI: 7.6%-17.0%) and 11.9% (95% CI: 8.5%-15.3%) of the overweight populations transitioned to obesity by age three, respectively. However, extrapolation to the 2010 U.S. population demonstrated that Mexican American males were the only population for whom net increases in obesity peaked during early childhood; age-specific net increases in obesity were approximately constant through the second decade of life for African Americans and Mexican American females and peaked at age 20 for Caucasians. Conclusions African American and Mexican American populations shoulder elevated rates of many obesity-associated chronic diseases and disparities in early transitions to obesity could further increase these inequalities if left unaddressed. PMID:27348868

  13. Relationships between nutritional knowledge, obesity, and sleep disorder severity.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shiho; Pretto, Jeffrey; Paul, Christine; Emmett, Brooke; Hensley, Michael; Henskens, Frans

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea affects 20% of the adult population. Weight control is considered the best non-medical means of managing the condition, therefore improving nutritional knowledge in individuals may be an appropriate strategy. This study aimed to describe the relationship between nutritional knowledge and: (i) sleep disorder severity; (ii) body mass index; and (iii) demographic characteristics in persons suspected of obstructive sleep apnea. Nutrition knowledge scores were also compared with the general population. Consecutive newly-referred patients attending the sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography were invited to participate. Those who consented (n = 97) were asked to complete a touchscreen survey. Apnea-hypopnea index to measure sleep disorder severity and anthropometric measurements were obtained from the clinic. A quarter of participants were diagnosed with severe obstructive sleep apnea; and a majority (88%) were classed as being overweight or obese. The overall mean nutrition knowledge score was 58.4 ± 11.6 (out of 93). Nutrition knowledge was not associated with sleep disorder severity, body mass index or gender. The only significant difference detected was in relation to age, with older (≥35 years) participants demonstrating greater knowledge in the 'food choices' domain compared with their younger counterparts (18-34 years; P < 0.030). Knowledge scores were similar to the general population. The findings suggest that nutrition knowledge alone is not an important target for weight control interventions for people with obstructive sleep apnea. However, given the complexities of sleep disorders, it may complement other strategies. PMID:26843133

  14. Nutrition Transition and the Global Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a rapid change in the nutrition transition toward increases in noncommunicable diseases. Underlying this transition are shifts in the agricultural system and the subsequent growth of the modern retail and food service sectors across all regions and countries, a change in technology affecting physical activity and inactivity, mass media access, urbanization, and penetration of modern food systems into all societies. The resulting major shifts in diet are toward increased refined carbohydrates, added sweeteners, edible oils, and animal-source foods and reduced legumes, other vegetables, and fruits. Most countries are seeing increases in body mass index (BMI), overweight, and waist circumference (WC), and an increased WC-BMI ratio appears to be emerging in many regions. The implications of these rapidly changing diets and body compositions include the prevalence and severity of diabetes in LMICs. PMID:26209940

  15. Nutrition Transition and the Global Diabetes Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2015-09-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a rapid change in the nutrition transition toward increases in noncommunicable diseases. Underlying this transition are shifts in the agricultural system and the subsequent growth of the modern retail and food service sectors across all regions and countries, a change in technology affecting physical activity and inactivity, mass media access, urbanization, and penetration of modern food systems into all societies. The resulting major shifts in diet are toward increased refined carbohydrates, added sweeteners, edible oils, and animal-source foods and reduced legumes, other vegetables, and fruits. Most countries are seeing increases in body mass index (BMI), overweight, and waist circumference (WC), and an increased WC-BMI ratio appears to be emerging in many regions. The implications of these rapidly changing diets and body compositions include the prevalence and severity of diabetes in LMICs. PMID:26209940

  16. [Nutrition transition: a review of Latin American profile].

    PubMed

    Barría, R Mauricio; Amigo, Hugo

    2006-03-01

    The nutrition situation has evolved in different ways in Latin-American countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the nutritional change and some conditions within Latin America in the last years. An electronic and manual search of articles published between 1995 and 2005 was made, selecting those that included the nutritional situation of Latin American countries. Additionally, data was collected from national surveys and international reports including information since 1990. The countries have evolved through different transition stages. For example, an increase of excess of weight, particularly in adult women, which exceeded 30% in some countries also reached up to 70% in others. Equally worrisome was the over 6% obesity level in children in five of the countries surveyed. There is a tendency to diminish the deficit of weight with seven of nine countries displaying a reduction of women with low weight while stunting diminished globally. An increase of the caloric availability in 17 of 20 countries was also observed. The total population that lives under the poverty line has diminished in 9 of 13 countries although some exceeded 60%. Some indicators of sedentary lifestyle have increased, the number of cars has been increasing in all countries and similar figures are recorded with respect to television and personnel computers. The evolution of the nutritional status is reflected through the action of set factors, the most important of which being the increase in caloric ingestion and sedentary activities in an urbanized environment, the promotion of the use of technologies that limit physical activity. There is also a reduction in food insecurity due to a fall in poverty levels although social inequalities still persist. PMID:16786728

  17. Role of nutrition planning in the treatment for obesity.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L

    1996-12-01

    The most sensible eating plans are those that involve a wide selection of foods with a modest percentage of kilocalories as fat. The dietary pyramid developed by the US Government is an excellent basis for the construction of an eating plan for life. Patients should be encouraged to develop healthy eating habits that they can maintain indefinitely, as the early inevitable consequence of finishing a diet is regain of any weight that has been lost when the patient goes back to their old eating habits. The unfortunate fact is that individuals with the disease of obesity must behave differently than those who do not. This usually means that obese persons must eat differently than lean persons, and they must do this for their entire lives. Food is a critical part of the social fabric of our society. The physician, usually in combination with a knowledgeable and empathetic dietitian or other nutritional education resource, can help obese patients choose the series of compromises in eating plans and activity levels that can be maintained for life but still allow a reasonable quality of life. PMID:8977055

  18. Nutrition transition and chronic diseases in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Atinmo, T

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition goes with industrialisation that fosters human development which is usually desirable, especially in developing nations. However, the health consequences of this development include high rates of preventable non-communicable diseases which are usually undermined in the quest for industrialisation. The goal of the present paper is to provide evidence-based information that will promote healthy lifestyle including healthy consumption pattern among urban dwellers. Relevant local and international literature was accessed and reviewed to harvest evidence-based information through the use of validated review guide in addition to observation from the field experience. Industrialisation promotes creation of more job opportunities and this facilitates proliferation of fast-food eateries in the cities. However, it was also observed that many of the available workplaces in urban areas are not health-promoting because employees have poor access to preventive health information and sensitisation to healthy lifestyle has been poorly considered. Ironically, weight gain among urban workers which may be linked with increased intake of high-energy foods and low participation in physical activities as a result of accessibility to many energy saving devices have been highlighted as some of the pull-pull factors that attract many people to the cities. Using the concept of health promoting workplace, the workforce in urban areas can be trained as agent of change in health-promoting lifestyle. Consumption of healthy indigenous foods through aggressive promotion of its health potentials should be seriously advocated through the use of existing structure of urban fast-food vendors who constitute a strong stakeholder in nutrition transition. PMID:26242780

  19. Feeding the critically ill obese patient: the role of hypocaloric nutrition support.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jerad P; Choban, Patricia Smith

    2006-12-01

    Obesity and its many metabolic and physiologic comorbidities are becoming more common. Thus, a strategy to approach the nutritional needs of obese critically ill patients is warranted. The adverse effect of obesity on the respiratory system is well established. The obesity may be an inciting event or merely an additional burden in the obese critically ill patient. A strategy of hypocaloric nutrition support avoids the many detrimental effects of overfeeding and has been considered for all critically ill patients. In the obese patient, the strategy addresses the additional problem of the excessive fat store and has the additional benefit of fat reduction while sparing lean body mass. In the patient with normal renal and hepatic function, hypocaloric nutrition support simplifies care and may improve outcome. PMID:17150433

  20. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals. PMID:25415804

  1. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P; Friel, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals. PMID:24735161

  2. Neighborhood Influences on Girls’ Obesity Risk Across the Transition to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kushi, Lawrence H.; Leung, Cindy W.; Nickleach, Dana C.; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara A.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Yen, Irene H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls. METHODS: Participants were 174 girls (aged 8–10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls’ Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl’s residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ≥95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P < .001) increased odds of being obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl’s home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence. PMID:25311606

  3. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  4. The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.

    PubMed

    Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the

  5. The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is now recognized as a global public health issue. Social patterning of obesity, consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition, has not been well described in children, and the limited research has focused on developed settings. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between childhood obesity and household income using objective measures of adiposity and to explore how this relationship differs across levels of country human development. METHODS: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was a multi-national cross-sectional study conducted in 12 urban/suburban study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of development. ISCOLE collected objectively measured height, body mass and percentage body fat in 7341 10-year-old children. Multi-level random-effects models were used to examine income gradients in several obesity measures. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 10.4 years, and 12.6% were obese, ranging from 5.4% (Finland) to 23.8% (China). For both boys and girls, obesity prevalence, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) z-score increased linearly with higher income at lower levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0012), but decreased linearly with higher income at higher levels of development (all P for trend ⩽0.0003). Country human development explained 75% of the variation in the country-specific income–obesity relationships (r=−0.87, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the theory of epidemiologic transition. Global efforts to control obesity must account for socioeconomic factors within a country's context. Future research should seek to understand global socioeconomic patterns in obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. PMID:27152182

  6. Obesity: A Transgenerational Problem Linked to Nutrition during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Antonio E.; Grove, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The increased obstetric risks of maternal obesity have been well described. These include increased risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, stillbirth, and cesarean delivery. The fetal/neonatal consequences of prenatal maternal obesity have received less attention. In addition to an increased risk of stillbirth, the fetal/neonatal consequences include increased adiposity and a metabolic status that increases the lifetime risk of obesity and diabetes. This review focuses on the clinical obstetric consequences of maternal obesity and highlights recent mechanistic insights on fetal programming as well as evidence suggesting that prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to ameliorate these risks and decrease the cycle of childhood obesity. PMID:23074005

  7. Obesity: a transgenerational problem linked to nutrition during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    The increased obstetric risks of maternal obesity have been well described. These include increased risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, stillbirth, and cesarean delivery. The fetal/neonatal consequences of prenatal maternal obesity have received less attention. In addition to an increased risk of stillbirth, the fetal/neonatal consequences include increased adiposity and a metabolic status that increases the lifetime risk of obesity and diabetes. This review focuses on the clinical obstetric consequences of maternal obesity and highlights recent mechanistic insights on fetal programming as well as evidence suggesting that prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to ameliorate these risks and decrease the cycle of childhood obesity. PMID:23074005

  8. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest, quasiexperimental…

  9. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose

    2015-01-01

    Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries. Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search. PMID:26834976

  10. Thailand conquered under-nutrition very successfully but has not slowed obesity.

    PubMed

    Chavasit, V; Kasemsup, V; Tontisirin, K

    2013-11-01

    Under-nutrition in Thailand has been successfully controlled for over two decades. However, Thailand is now facing a double-burden malnutrition problem where under- and over-nutrition coexist. Overweight, obesity, and related diseases are the main nutritional challenges, leading to high costs for curative care. Thailand foresees that nutrition can be an effective strategy for preventing diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases, and the country aims to reduce costs for secondary and tertiary health care. Various organizations have conducted national programmes, focusing especially on nutrition education and public campaigns, which have been sustainable and not sustainable. Only milk and certain foods for children are mandated for nutrition labeling. Guideline daily amounts is now the nutrient profile mandated for snack foods in Thailand. To increase efficiency, Thailand's National Food Committee has been established to link food, nutrition and health via a multi-sectoral approach. PMID:24102927

  11. Preoperative nutritional deficiencies in severely obese bariatric candidates are not linked to gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Rahel; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Severely obese subjects have been found to show a high prevalence of distinct nutritional deficiencies even without any bariatric intervention but the underlying reasons remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with increased nutritional deficiency rates. Taking advantage of our large database, we identified 404 patients who had undergone a gastroscopy--as a standard diagnostic assessment before bariatric surgery--along with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies with concurrent nutritional blood measurements. Eighty-five (21 %) of the obese patients included in the study displayed a gastric H. pylori infection. Sex distribution, age and body mass index did not differ between H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients (P > 0.29). Referring to nutritional markers, neither serum levels of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, ferritin, zinc, copper, vitamin B12, folate and 25-OH vitamin D3 nor respective deficiency rates differed between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients group (all P > 0.13). Overall, 49.5 % of the bariatric candidates displayed at least one nutritional deficiency. Our data confirm previous reports on high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies in severely obese subjects. However, they do not provide evidence for a contributing role of gastric H. pylori infection to these nutritional alterations. PMID:23430478

  12. Obesity risk in urban adolescent girls: nutritional intentions and health behavior correlates.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls' intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were significantly associated with physical activity and sleep. These results suggest that healthy behaviors tend to occur in clusters, possibly extending the theory of planned behavior beyond individual behaviors to groups of related behaviors. Nurses can intervene with high-risk adolescent girls by promoting healthy diets, recommended levels of physical activity, and adequate sleep. PMID:22187861

  13. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Chiara; Mazzantini, Sara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. PMID:27563917

  14. Morbid obesity and the transition from welfare to work.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less successful in transitioning from welfare to work. These women are less likely to work at any survey wave, spend a greater percentage of months between waves receiving cash welfare, and have lower monthly earnings at each wave. The magnitude of the difference in labor market outcomes between the morbidly obese and those who are less heavy is in some cases similar in magnitude to the differences in these labor market outcomes between high school dropouts and graduates. In contrast, we find no such labor market differences associated with morbid obesity for African-American respondents. This paper documents the relationship between weight and labor market outcomes for the first time among the welfare population. In addition, it investigates whether the correlation for White females is due to unobserved heterogeneity. We find that after controlling for individual fixed effects, the point estimate of the correlation of morbid obesity and each of the labor market outcomes falls considerably and is no longer statistically significant. These results are consistent with unobserved heterogeneity causing the correlation between morbid obesity and labor market outcomes. Findings are similar after controlling for the respondent's mental and physical health. PMID:16201057

  15. U.S. Migration, Translocality, and the Acceleration of the Nutrition Transition in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former’s community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role. PMID:22962496

  16. [Multifactorial etiology of obesity: nutritional and central aspects].

    PubMed

    Sengier, A

    2005-09-01

    World-wide obesity and its effects are public health problems. Research on way of life and eating habits give some indications of etiological factors. Breast feeding and quantity of proteins intake in formulas are factors influencing the risks of obesity later on in life. Research undertaken by Rolland Cachera shows us the importance of the curve of BMI and how the obesity rebound can be predictive of obesity in later years allowing early decisions of weight control. Energy intake and energy expenditure are regulated by the central nervous system. It is a complex mechanism of afferent and efferent systems through the hypothalamus. The inverse effects of ghreline and of leptine on energy balance are more and more studied and cases of precocious obesity are explained by the identification of rare forms of monogenic obesity linked to the metabolism of leptine. The importance of inherited genes has a role and genetic predisposition is a reality. This new approach allows a clinical, etiological and, in the future, probably therapeutic attitude in case of severe precocious obesity. PMID:16240862

  17. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  18. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The national nutrition safety net consists of 15 programs that provide millions of low-income Americans access to a healthy and nutritious diet. It has been observed that many low income individuals are both overweight and participants in one or more nutrition assistance programs. This has led some to question whether participation in the…

  19. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zourdos, Michael C.; Jo, Edward; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation. PMID:24324381

  20. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146

  1. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  2. The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative: Working to Reverse the Obesity Epidemic through Academically Based Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…

  3. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs. Family Programs. Report No. FSP-04-PO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Paul; Lee, Michael; Bell, Loren

    2005-01-01

    In September 2003, the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with ALTA Systems to conduct a project with the goal of providing a comprehensive overview of the relationship between poverty, program participation and obesity by conducting an in depth literature review; and convening an expert panel. The…

  4. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity. PMID:27625434

  5. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Gyun; Choi, Ho-Chun; Cho, Belong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW) and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals. Methods A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007–2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Results Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.57). The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19–3.21), 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46–4.24) and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39–5.40), respectively. Conclusions Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals. PMID:27494241

  6. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  7. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  8. An overview of the nutrition transition in West Africa: implications for non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosu, William K

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition landscape in West Africa has been dominated by the programmes to address undernutrition. However, with increasing urbanisation, technological developments and associated change in dietary patterns and physical activity, childhood and adult overweight, and obesity are becoming more prevalent. There is an evidence of increasing intake of dietary energy, fat, sugars and protein. There is low consumption of fruit and vegetables universally in West Africa. Overall, the foods consumed are predominantly traditional with the component major food groups within recommended levels. Most of the West African countries are at the early stages of nutrition transition but countries such as Cape Verde, Ghana and Senegal are at the latter stages. In the major cities of the region, children consume energy-dense foods such as candies, ice cream and sweetened beverages up to seven times as frequently as fruit and vegetables. Adult obesity rates have increased by 115 % in 15 years since 2004. In Ghana, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women has increased from 12·8 % in 1993 to 29·9 % in 2008. In Accra, overweight/obesity in women has increased from 62·2 % in 2003 to 64·9 % in 2009. The age-standardised proportion of adults who engage in adequate levels of physical activity ranges from 46·8 % in Mali to 94·7 % in Benin. The lingering stunting in children and the rising overweight in adults have resulted to a dual burden of malnutrition affecting 16·2 % of mother-child pairs in Cotonou. The prevalence of hypertension has been increased and ranges from 17·6 % in Burkina Faso to 38·7 % in Cape Verde. The prevalence is higher in the cities: 40·2 % in Ougadougou, 46·0 % in St Louis and 54·6 % in Accra. The prevalence of diabetes ranges from 2·5 to 7·9 % but could be as high as 17·9 % in Dakar, Senegal. The consequences of nutrition transition are not only being felt by the persons in the high socioeconomic class, but also in cities such as Accra and

  9. Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact.

    PubMed

    Prado, C M; Cushen, S J; Orsso, C E; Ryan, A M

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity. The combination of low muscle and high adipose tissue (sarcopenic obesity) is an emerging abnormal BC phenotype prevalent across the body weight, and hence BMI spectra. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in cancer are in most instances occult conditions, which have been independently associated with higher incidence of chemotherapy toxicity, shorter time to tumour progression, poorer outcomes of surgery, physical impairment and shorter survival. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood, the associations with poorer clinical outcomes emphasise the value of nutritional assessment as well as the need to develop appropriate interventions to countermeasure abnormal BC. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity create diverse nutritional requirements, highlighting the compelling need for a more comprehensive and differentiated understanding of energy and protein requirements in this heterogeneous population. PMID:26743210

  10. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity. PMID:24901796

  11. [Nutritional transition and non-communicable diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Maire, Bernard; Lioret, Sandrine; Gartner, Agnès; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition similar to that which occurred in industrialized countries in previous centuries. While infectious diseases are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a marked increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly in the most advanced developing countries, and these diseases are expected to take the lead in a decade or two. Most of these diseases, above all coronary heart diseases, stroke and diabetes, are related to diet and lifestyles, for example tobacco and alcohol consumption. As a matter of fact, these societies are also facing a growing epidemic of overweight and obesity, due to the frequent energetic imbalance between energy-dense food consumption and reduced daily physical expenditure. This health transition, favoured by demographic changes towards aging populations, is occurring at an increased pace in urban societies widely exposed to the modernization of lifestyle, sedentary occupation, and to lipid- and sugar-rich food, often poor in fibre and micronutrients. Increased world access to cheaper vegetable oil is thought to have triggered off this accelerated and generalized trend, though animal food, rich in saturated fat, and imported or locally-made industrialized food also play a role. While increased national and household incomes facilitate the initial change, as the transition advances poor people progressively become the main victims, as has been observed in the more advanced developing countries. Metabolic imprinting due to intra-uterine and infant malnutrition, which are still common in these societies, is also thought to play a significant role in the increase in the expression of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic diseases when these children are exposed to abundant food and modern lifestyle, later in life. Treatment and secondary prevention of nutrition-related chronic diseases and associated disabilities have an

  12. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community

    PubMed Central

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country’s population the ‘nutritional transition’ often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. Material and Methods 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate ‘adult equivalent’ per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. Results 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Conclusion Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2—probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status. PMID:26559817

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Nutrition as a Pharmacological Approach to Treat Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Barry; Ricordi, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial condition resulting from improper balances of hormones and gene expression induced by the diet. Obesity also has a strong inflammatory component that can be driven by diet-induced increases in arachidonic acid. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the molecular targets that can be addressed by anti-inflammatory nutrition. These molecular targets range from reduction of proinflammatory eicosanoids to the modulation of features of the innate immune system, such as toll-like receptors and gene transcription factors. From knowledge of the impact of these dietary nutrients on these various molecular targets, it becomes possible to develop a general outline of an anti-inflammatory diet that can offer a unique synergism with more traditional pharmacological approaches in treating obesity and its associated comorbidities. PMID:20953366

  14. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  15. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: Identifying leverage points for obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2–5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010–2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  16. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  17. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  18. [Nutrition in overweight and obesity with a specific focus on gender aspects].

    PubMed

    Dämon, Sabine; Schindler, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Manuel; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to optimize the diet in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity aim at long-term adaptation and reduction of energy intake according to age and physiological requirements while preserving the nutrient density with consideration of individual food preferences.As the nutritional habits of the average Austrian people are unfavorable for obesity prevention there is a clear need for action. Women are "disadvantaged" in weight control compared to men in terms of physiological conditions-and are confronted with specific needs during life course (e.g. pregnancy), whereas the average man or male adolescents present "unhealthier" behaviors and attitudes and are (still) less interested on nutrition or weight control.To achieve better nutrition a target-group specific, gender-sensitive guidance of the individual is needed, starting with pregnant women, but also habitat-oriented interventions for improved nutrition offers, which have to be sustainably assured through the support of a relevant legal and social framework. PMID:26832129

  19. Nutrition Education in an Era of Global Obesity and Diabetes: Thinking Outside the Box.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David M; Burgess, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    In an era when rates of obesity, diabetes, and other lifestyle-related diseases challenge medical educators and governments worldwide, it is necessary to consider novel educational strategies, both didactic and experiential, whereby current and future health professionals can be better prepared to proactively advise and teach patients enhanced self-care skills (e.g., diet, movement, stress management, and enhanced behavioral change).In this Perspective, the authors summarize current circumstances involving rising rates of obesity and diabetes worldwide, the lack of nutrition- and lifestyle-related curricular requirements for professional medical certification, societal trends regarding modern food culture and food availability in health care settings, and the misalignment of financial incentives to promote health.The authors assess what elements of self-care should or should not be required within future curricula and certification exams. They consider how best to educate trainees about diet and how to "translate" nutrition, exercise, and behavioral science knowledge into practical advice. They explore several ideas for reforming nutrition education, including "teaching kitchens" as required laboratory classes for nutrition and lifestyle instruction, wearable technologies for tracking behaviors and physiological data relating to lifestyle choices, and the prospect of hospitals and other medical venues serving as exemplars of healthy, delicious food options. Finally, the authors argue that "salutogenesis"-the study of the creation and maintenance of health and well-being-should assume its rightful position alongside the study of "pathogenesis"-disease diagnosis and treatment-in medical education and practice. PMID:25785680

  20. Chronic liquid nutrition intake induces obesity and considerable but reversible metabolic alterations in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mikuska, Livia; Vrabcova, Michaela; Tillinger, Andrej; Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropec, Jozef; Mravec, Boris

    2016-06-01

    We have previously described the development of substantial, but reversible obesity in Wistar rats fed with palatable liquid nutrition (Fresubin). In this study, we investigated changes in serum hormone levels, glycemia, fat mass, adipocyte size, and gene expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of Wistar rats fed by Fresubin (i) for 5 months, (ii) up to 90 days of age, or (iii) after 90 days of age to characterize metabolic alterations and their reversibility in rats fed with Fresubin. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test was also performed to determine levels of serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide in 2- and 4-month-old animals. In addition, mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue weight, adipocyte diameter, and gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines and other markers were determined at the end of the study. Chronic Fresubin intake significantly increased adipocyte diameter, reduced glucose tolerance, and increased serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide levels. Moreover, gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, CD68, and nuclear factor kappa B was significantly increased in mesenteric adipose tissue of Fresubin fed rats. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels increased in mesenteric adipose tissue only in the group fed Fresubin during the entire experiment. In epididymal adipose tissue, fatty acid binding protein 4 mRNA levels were significantly increased in rats fed by Fresubin during adulthood. In conclusion, chronic Fresubin intake induced complex metabolic alterations in Wistar rats characteristic of metabolic syndrome. However, transition of rats from Fresubin to standard diet reversed these alterations. PMID:26939586

  1. [Knowledges and beliefs related to nutrition of obese and overweight patients subjects: a study in Southern Italy].

    PubMed

    Cirillo, T; Albano, M G; Crozet, C; d'Ivernois, J F

    2006-03-29

    303 obese and overweight south Italian patients (240 women and 63 men), volunteers to participate in a patient education programme delivered by the university hospital of Foggia, have fullfiled a 50 items true/false test exploring the knowledges and the beliefs on obesity, nutrition, physical activities. The majority of the subjects has both low socio economical status and education level. Women have better performed than men (p<0.005) and obese patients, better than overweight subjects (p<0.005). The more frequent mistakes have concerned items on nutrition, meanwhile a better performance has been observed with the items on beliefs. PMID:16646367

  2. Nutritional and behavioral modification therapies of obesity: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet. PMID:22722432

  3. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Mar; Folgueira, Cintia; Sánchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Al-Massadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice), as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance. PMID:26568663

  4. A process to establish nutritional guidelines to address obesity: Lessons from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Charvel, Sofia; Cobo, Fernanda; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    In 2010, the Mexican government implemented a multi-sector agreement to prevent obesity. In response, the Ministries of Health and Education launched a national school-based policy to increase physical activity, improve nutrition literacy, and regulate school food offerings through nutritional guidelines. We studied the Guidelines' negotiation and regulatory review process, including government collaboration and industry response. Within the government, conflicting positions were evident: the Ministries of Health and Education supported the Guidelines as an effective obesity-prevention strategy, while the Ministries of Economics and Agriculture viewed them as potentially damaging to the economy and job generation. The food and beverage industries opposed and delayed the process, arguing that regulation was costly, with negative impacts on jobs and revenues. The proposed Guidelines suffered revisions that lowered standards initially put forward. We documented the need to improve cross-agency cooperation to achieve effective policymaking. The 'siloed' government working style presented a barrier to efforts to resist industry's influence and strong lobbying. Our results are relevant to public health policymakers working in childhood obesity prevention. PMID:26356071

  5. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  6. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity. PMID:27221478

  7. Nutrition in Transition: A Challenge to Cooperation and Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the newly formed Nutrition Coordinating Committee of the Department of Health Education and Welfare, is discussed. The need for nutrition information for consumers is described as well as a need for definitions of nutritional terms. (SA)

  8. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison M

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation. PMID:19698200

  9. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health

    PubMed Central

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5–11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health—Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of ‘Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  10. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    PubMed

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  11. Nutrition: a promising route for prevention and management of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses - in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. PMID:25460293

  12. Early childhood nutrition in an American Indian community: educational strategy for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffhines, Heather; Whaley, Kelleigh Dean; Blackett, Piers R; Palumbo, Karen; Campbell-Sternloff, Dana; Glore, Stephen; Lee, Elisa T

    2014-02-01

    Prevailing infant and toddler feeding practices in an American Indian community were assessed to explore the feasibility of improvement by implementation of a maternal education program. A survey of prevailing nutritional practice was the basis for design of an instruction program on infant nutrition for mothers during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments provided information on feasibility, and requirements for an effective program. Failure to sustain breast-feeding, low fruit and vegetable intake, low fiber intake, consumption of sweetened beverages, low milk consumption and low vitamin D intake were identified as persisting problems. We conclude that infant and toddler feeding practices are comparable to national trends, but suboptimal and conducive to promoting early obesity and diabetes in a susceptible community. A successful education-based intervention strategy beginning in pregnancy appears feasible if psychosocial, environmental, and economic barriers can be addressed. PMID:24761552

  13. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults. PMID:26850310

  14. The application of an occupational therapy nutrition education programme for children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Munguba, Marilene Calderaro; Valdés, Maria Teresa Moreno; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an occupational therapy nutrition education programme for children who are obese with the use of two interactive games. A quasi-experimental study was carried out at a municipal school in Fortaleza, Brazil. A convenient sample of 200 children ages 8-10 years old participated in the study. Data collection comprised a semi-structured interview, direct and structured observation, and focus group, comparing two interactive games based on the food pyramid (video game and board game) used individually and then combined. Both play activities were efficient in the mediation of nutritional concepts, with a preference for the board game. In the learning strategies, intrinsic motivation and metacognition were analysed. The attention strategy was most applied at the video game. We concluded that both games promoted the learning of nutritional concepts. We confirmed the effectiveness of the simultaneous application of interactive games in an interdisciplinary health environment. It is recommended that a larger sample should be used in evaluating the effectiveness of play and video games in teaching healthy nutrition to children in a school setting. PMID:18288771

  15. Attacking the Obesity Epidemic: The Potential Health Benefits of Providing Nutrition Information in Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Scot; Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Kees, Jeremy; Huggins, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to address how the provision of nutrition information on menus influences purchase intentions and reported preferences. Methods. For both the survey and experiment, data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. Results. Survey results showed that levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat in less-healthful restaurant items were significantly underestimated by consumers. Actual fat and saturated fat levels were twice consumers’ estimates and calories approached 2 times more than what consumers expected. In the subsequent experiment, for items for which levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat substantially exceeded consumers’ expectations, the provision of nutrition information had a significant influence on product attitude, purchase intention, and choice. Conclusions. Most consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium found in many menu items. Provision of nutrition information on restaurant menus could potentially have a positive impact on public health by reducing the consumption of less-healthful foods. PMID:16873758

  16. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. PMID:22898166

  17. Public health nutrition in the civil service (England): approaches to tackling obesity.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, J R

    2016-08-01

    The seriousness and scale of the physical, psychological, economic and societal consequences relating to poor diets, inactivity and obesity is unprecedented. Consequently, the contextual factors underpinning the work of a nutritionist in the civil service are complex and significant; however, there are real opportunities to make a difference and help improve the health of the nation. The present paper describes the delivery of public health nutrition through two work programmes, namely action to support young people develop healthier lifestyle choices and more recently the investigation and deployment of local insights to develop action to tackle obesity. Combining the application of nutrition expertise along with broader skills and approaches has enabled the translation of research and evidence into programmes of work to better the public's health. It is evident that the appropriate evaluation of such approaches has helped to deliver engaging and practical learning opportunities for young people. Furthermore, efforts to build on local intelligence and seek collaborative development can help inform the evidence base and seek to deliver public health approaches, which resonate with how people live their lives. PMID:26947185

  18. Nutritional intakes in children with Prader–Willi syndrome and non-congenital obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Daniela A.; Nowak, Jill; McLaren, Erin; Patiño, Monzeratt; Castner, Diobel M.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) have extremely regulated diets to prevent the development of morbid obesity. Objective This study evaluated potential deficiencies in macro and micronutrients in a cohort of youth with PWS and compared them to a group of children with non-congenital obesity and to US national recommendations. Design Participants were 32 youth with PWS (age=10.8±2.6 years, body fat=46.7±10.1%) and 48 children without PWS but classified as obese (age=9.7±1.2 years, body fat=43.4±5.7%). Participants’ parents completed a training session on food recording before completing a 3-day food record during a typical week including a weekend day and two weekdays, as well as a screening form indicating nutritional supplements use. Results Youth with PWS reported less calories (1,312±75 vs. 1,531±61 kcal, p=0.03), carbohydrate (175±10 vs. 203±8 g), and sugars (67±5 vs. 81±4 g; p=0.04 for both) than obese. Youth with PWS consumed more vegetables (1.1±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 cups) and more of them met the daily recommendation (p<0.01 for both). Likewise, youth with PWS consumed more calcium than obese (899±53 vs. 752±43 mg) and more of them met the recommended daily dose (p=0.04 for both). The majority of participants in this study did not meet the vitamin D recommendation. Conclusion Despite consuming less calories, youth with PWS had a similar proportion of macronutrients in their diet as children with obesity. Micronutrient deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D in youth with PWS were noted despite a third of youth with PWS consuming multivitamin supplements. Special attention must be paid to the diets of youth with PWS and with obesity to ensure they are meeting micronutrient needs during this period of growth and development. PMID:26652260

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Obesity, Reproduction, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G

    2016-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes. PMID:27017177

  20. Reading, writing, and obesity: America's failing grade in school nutrition and physical education.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Jason; Marian, Mary

    2011-10-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has left healthcare professionals and laymen alike questioning the best strategy to improve children's health in the future. To effectively combat childhood obesity, we must have a thorough understanding of the establishment and development of programs currently responsible for pediatric health. This article explores the history of two influential programs affecting children's diet and physical activity levels in schools: the National School Lunch Program and physical education classes. It is revealed that the National School Lunch Program contributes to the overall school nutrition environment, including the presence of fast food and vending machines on campuses. The history of physical education is traced back to ancient Greece, and it is shown that the familiar sports-based curriculum is an advent of the 19th century, with the roots of physical education originating from the founders of preventive medicine. Select childhood obesity and health intervention studies are reviewed with a focus on identifying notable features pertaining to the effectiveness of these programs. Future directions and recommendations, based on the history of these programs as well as evidence from current pediatric health studies, outlining the basis for a modernized health-based physical education curriculum designed to address today's public health concerns, are further discussed. PMID:21947638

  1. Exaggerated activity of HPA axis in obese rats fed normocaloric liquid nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Zeman, M; Mravec, B

    2014-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown alterations in activity of systems responsible for neuroendocrine stress response in obese individuals. Therefore we investigated the effect of palatable normocaloric liquid nutrition (Fresubin) on alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male Wistar rats of different developmental stages. Control rats (CON) received standard pellet chow all the time from weaning (21st day of age) to 150 days. Fresubin was administered throughout the experiment (LN), only in juvenility (from 21st to 90th day of age; LNJ) or only in adulthood (from 90th to 150th day of age; LNA). Body weight and energy intake were periodically monitored. Adrenal gland and fat tissue weight and plasma corticosterone levels (CORT) was determined after sacrification. Fresubin intake induced obesity in LN and LNA rats. In LN and LNA rats were observed elevated serum CORT levels, but only in LN rats with significant twofold increase compared to LNJ rats. However, the weight of adrenal glands did not differ between LN, LNJ and LNA experimental groups. Based on our results, we suggest, that obesity induced by Fresubin in LN and LNA rats is accompanied by increased HPA activity represented by elevated plasma CORT levels in these rats. PMID:25194732

  2. Eating habits and opinions of teen-agers on nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, N A; Poznanski, R; Guggenheim, K

    1975-03-01

    Opinions about good nutrition, causes of obesity and its prevention, as well as certain eating habits, were studied in 482 Israeli children (251 boys and 231 girls), thirteen to fourteen years old. Height, weight, and triceps skinfolds were measured. Mean relative weight and relative logarithmic skinfold thickness were close to standard, although 8 per cent of the boys and 9 per cent of the girls weighed more than 120 per cent of standard weight for their age and sex. Weight was closely associated with skinfold thickness. Over two-thirds of both boys and girls believed that daily consumption of milk, bread, fruits, eggs, cheese, meat, and tomatoes is desirable, and about two-thirds stated that overeating is a cause of obesity. More overweight than thin and normal-weight children indicated that, to prevent obesity, all kinds of food are permissible, but only in limited amounts. Most children believed in the fattening value of cakes, sweets, fried and fatty food, potatoes, bread, and nuts. The belief in the fattening value of potatoes, bread, and nuts was shared by a higher percentage of overweight than of under- and normal-weight children. Overweight children, particularly girls, reported eating less bread, cake, and cream, adding less sugar to beverages, and eating sweets and ice cream less frequently than thin and normal-weight children. A higher percentage of the obese group reported skipping one meal and eating no snack at school. Overweight teen-agers appear to be more conscious of their food intake than under- and normal-weight children. PMID:1123503

  3. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  4. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  5. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  6. Morbid Obesity and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less…

  7. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  8. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons – a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  9. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    , significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups at the age of 16 (boys only) and 17 (girls only) were seen (p<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal and dental status appears to correlate with nutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene. PMID:27403385

  10. Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study): methodological approach of the project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. Methods/design One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males) and 120 obese (61 males) subjects aged 18–50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry). 29–34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14–20% from protein, and 50–55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3%) subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%), low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%), low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%), job change 6 (10.2%), and lost interest 27 (45.8%). Discussion Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order that overweight and

  11. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  12. The obese gut microbiome across the epidemiologic transition.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Lara R; Fuller, Miles; Gilbert, Jack; Layden, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has emerged over the past few decades and is thought to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. A newly identified factor, the gut microbiota, which is a bacterial ecosystem residing within the gastrointestinal tract of humans, has now been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Importantly, this bacterial community is impacted by external environmental factors through a variety of undefined mechanisms. We focus this review on how the external environment may impact the gut microbiota by considering, the host's geographic location 'human geography', and behavioral factors (diet and physical activity). Moreover, we explore the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity with these external factors. And finally, we highlight here how an epidemiologic model can be utilized to elucidate causal relationships between the gut microbiota and external environment independently and collectively, and how this will help further define this important new factor in the obesity epidemic. PMID:26759600

  13. Errors and myths in feeding and nutrition: impact on the problems of obesity.

    PubMed

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-09-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence cannot be explained by a sudden and generalized change in human genome. It is certainly due to the modification of lifestyle habits and especially of the diet, as well as a lack of physical activity and sedentary living. Changes in the feeding pattern and the subsequent unbalance in the caloric profile of the diet may have had great importance in the occurrence of obesity. The social pressure in relation to the body image, the desire to have a slim body, and the fear to gain weight present in the current society have given way to the proliferation of myths and errors regarding pretentiously weight-losing foods and the appearance of miracle diets and dietary complements with magic results on weight loss. Weight-losing foods such as grapefruit, pineapple, apple, cucumber, wholemeal bread or drinking water while fasting are among the most popular and with less scientific evidence errors and myths. On the other hand, miracle diets cause more harm than good and their success is based on weight loss, but not fat loss, since they initially induce dehydration and a decrease in the muscle mass. The intervention study described here shows, once again, that when someone takes a hypocaloric diet he/she will lose weight and that the supplements tried with a satia - ting, lipolytic and supposedly weight-losing effect do not modify the weight loss produced by the hypocaloric diet. The main therapeutic tools available to fight against obesity are dietary therapy, which is a must in the pro - gram, education and behaviour modification, increased physical activity, to fight against sedendarism, and some pharmacological therapy available. The best solution to all these problems that have a great repercussion on the society surely is the development of wide and prolonged informational and educational campaigns in the field of nutrition. PMID:24010747

  14. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Giacchero, Roberta; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI)) in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50)), triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25) mmol/L) and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21)), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11) mmol/L). Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26633492

  15. Obesity status transitions across the elementary years: Use of Markov chain modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obesity status transition probabilities using first-order Markov transition models applied to elementary school children were assessed. Complete longitudinal data across eleven assessments were available from 1,494 elementary school children (from 7,599 students in 41 out of 45 school...

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Fossati, M; Amati, F; Painot, D; Reiner, M; Haenni, C; Golay, A

    2004-06-01

    An important problem with obese patients suffering from binge eating disorders (BED) is to treat their dysfunctional eating patterns while initiating a weight loss. We propose to assess a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity program. Our purpose is to verify that the addition of a nutritional and a physical program leads to a significant weight loss and enables psychological improvement. The patients (n=61) participated in a 12 weekly sessions group treatment of either a purely cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a cognitive-behavioral therapy associated to a nutritional approach mainly focused on fat restriction, or to a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity approach. The mean weight loss is significant (p<0.01) after the association of the cognitive-behavioral therapy and the nutritional education, but is even more significant (p<0.001) after the combination of a cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nutritional education and a physical activity program. Depression scores decrease in the three approaches, anxiety (p<0.05) results improve only in the combined nutritional, physical activity and cognitive-behavioral approach. Eating disorders improved significantly in all three approaches even if improvements in subscales seem more important in the combined approach. Finally, exercise seems to be a positive addition to the nutritional cognitive-behavioral therapy since it decreases negative mood, improves eating disorders and leads to an effective body weight loss. PMID:15330081

  17. Phenylthiocarbamide taste perception as a possible genetic association marker for nutritional habits and obesity tendency of people.

    PubMed

    Dastan, SevgiDurna; Degerli, Naci; Dastan, Taner; Yildiz, Fazilet; Yildir, Yavuz; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Atessahin, Dilek; Karan, Tunay

    2015-05-01

    Ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) a bitter molecule, is usually used to know the heritable characteristic in both genetic and physiological studies. So far, no research has yet attested whether PTC blindness relation with obesity and some nutrition behaviors of human. This study is the first attempt on a large scale to examine PTC sensitivity in healthy and overweight people in Turkish population to define in the perception of bitter senses which is associated with nutrition habits, body mass index, age, gender, and to be in stable weight. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting PTC solution filtered in a paper. The results showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81,8%) than nontasters (18,2%) in all population. A higher proportion of nontasters were observed in the quite fat individual group (BMI >40kg/m(2)). Alterations explained these differences in basic taste sensitivity, age, gender, BMI, individuals' family obesity situations, vegetarian nourishment. Increased frequency of nontasters allele is evident with obesity condition. This could be due to lack of preference for nutrition among nontasters. So the phenotypic variation in PTC sensitivity is genetic in origin; it may represent an association with obesity, dietary habits, regular weight, gender, and age. PMID:26051736

  18. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  19. Interrelationship between lymphocytes and leptin in fat depots of obese mice revealed by changes in nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lolmède, Karine; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Dray, Cedric; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Daviaud, Danièle; Burcelin, Rémy; Lafontan, Max; Galitzky, Jean; Bouloumié, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relationships between nutritional status and immunity remain to be fully characterized. The present study was undertaken to analyze by flow cytometry, in the context of diet-induced obesity, the status of immune cells in subcutaneous, and epididymal fat depots in wild-type and immunodeficient Rag2-/- mice submitted to nutritional challenge, i.e., 48-h fasting and 1-week refeeding. In parallel, the responsiveness of mature adipocytes and immune cells in bone marrow, lymph node, and liver were also analyzed. The results show that fasting in obese wild-type mice induces a prominent lipolysis in epididymal AT and immunosuppression restricted to both subcutaneous and epididymal AT, characterized by reduced number of CD4+ T and B lymphocytes and M1/M2 macrophages associated with reduced leptin and increased FGF21 expression in mature adipocytes. One-week refeeding was sufficient to reverse the fasting-induced effects. Obese immunodeficient mice under nutritional challenge exhibited no changes in adipocyte leptin expression and no marked trafficking of AT macrophages or NK cells, while the fasted-induced upregulation of FGF21 expression was maintained as well as the lipolytic responses. The present results demonstrate that, in a context of diet-induced obesity, fasting-induced immunosuppression is restricted to fat depots in immunocompetent mice. Lack of adipocyte leptin regulation and fasting-induced immunosuppression in obese immunodeficient mice strongly suggests that lymphocytes are involved in the modulation of adipocyte leptin expression on one hand and on the other that leptin is involved in the immune changes in AT according to nutritional status. PMID:25670497

  20. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  1. The sociology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  2. Nutrition, weight gain, and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has reached near epidemic proportions in the developed world. As reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the developing fetus must be investigated. In this review, we evaluated the experimental evidence relating maternal nutritional status and eat...

  3. The Relationship Between Obesity and Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Is Mental Health a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    CHAPARRO, M. PIA; HARRISON, GAIL G.; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WANG, MAY

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on adults from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigated whether mental health was a mediator in the association between obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The analyses included 1776 SNAP participants and eligible nonparticipants. SNAP participants had higher odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] =2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–4.36) and of reporting a mental health problem (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.68–8.44) than eligible nonparticipants; however, mental health was not a mediator in the association between SNAP participation and obesity. We recommend changes in SNAP to promote healthier food habits among participants and reduce the stress associated with participation. PMID:26413180

  4. Fetal and Infant Nutrition and Susceptibility to Obesity: Summary of a Workshop (Washington, D. C., February 28 and March 1, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop designed to review the current state of knowledge on prenatal and early postnatal determinants of obesity, and to identify areas for further research. The workshop was sponsored by the Committee on Nutrition of the Mother and Preschool Child, Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of…

  5. Energy and protein nutrition management of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Van Saun, Robert; Degaris, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this article are to briefly review some of the underlying physiology of changes that occur around calving, examine the potential to control the risk of disease in this period, increase milk production, and improve reproductive performance through better nutritional management. Practical guidelines for veterinarians and advisors are provided. PMID:23809895

  6. Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2012-01-01

    The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance. We assessed diet through 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey. We calculated prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7% to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet – specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles – was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention. PMID:23505203

  7. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  8. Intestinal epithelial MyD88 is a sensor switching host metabolism towards obesity according to nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Caesar, Robert; Van Hul, Matthias; Matamoros, Sébastien; Duparc, Thibaut; Denis, Raphael G. P.; Cochez, Perrine; Pierard, Florian; Castel, Julien; Bindels, Laure B.; Plovier, Hubert; Robine, Sylvie; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dumoutier, Laure; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Luquet, Serge; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Cani, Patrice D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders, low-grade inflammation and altered gut microbiota. Whether host metabolism is controlled by intestinal innate immune system and the gut microbiota is unknown. Here we report that inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of MyD88 partially protects against diet-induced obesity, diabetes and inflammation. This is associated with increased energy expenditure, an improved glucose homeostasis, reduced hepatic steatosis, fat mass and inflammation. Protection is transferred following gut microbiota transplantation to germ-free recipients. We also demonstrate that intestinal epithelial MyD88 deletion increases anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids, restores antimicrobial peptides production and increases intestinal regulatory T cells during diet-induced obesity. Targeting MyD88 after the onset of obesity reduces fat mass and inflammation. Our work thus identifies intestinal epithelial MyD88 as a sensor changing host metabolism according to the nutritional status and we show that targeting intestinal epithelial MyD88 constitutes a putative therapeutic target for obesity and related disorders. PMID:25476696

  9. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during early fetal kidney development specifically promotes renal lipid accumulation following juvenile obesity in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fainberg, H P; Sharkey, D; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Pope, M; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2013-01-01

    Reduced maternal food intake between early-to-mid gestation results in tissue-specific adaptations in the offspring following juvenile-onset obesity that are indicative of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to establish the extent to which renal ectopic lipid accumulation, as opposed to other markers of renal stress, such as iron deposition and apoptosis, is enhanced in obese offspring born to mothers nutrient restricted (NR) throughout early fetal kidney development. Pregnant sheep were fed either 100% (control) or NR (i.e. fed 50% of their total metabolisable energy requirement from 30-80 days gestation and 100% at all other times). At weaning, offspring were made obese and, at approximately 1 year, kidneys were sampled. Triglyceride content, HIF-1α gene expression and the protein abundance of the outer-membrane transporter voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC)-I on the kidney cortex were increased in obese offspring born to NR mothers compared with those born to controls, which exhibited increased iron accumulation within the tubular epithelial cells and increased gene expression of the death receptor Fas. In conclusion, suboptimal maternal nutrition coincident with early fetal kidney development results in enhanced renal lipid deposition following juvenile obesity and could accelerate the onset of the adverse metabolic, rather than cardiovascular, symptoms accompanying the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22951182

  10. THE DUAL BURDEN OF NUTRITION TRANSITION AMONG WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF UNDERWEIGHT IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Emina, Jacques B O

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition research has primarily focused on under-nutrition, particularly among vulnerable children. However, there is increasing evidence of an emerging nutrition transition with extremely high rates of obesity, and malnutrition in women may be a problem that is insufficiently recognized and inadequately documented. This analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which included 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual-level data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics and aggregated to the country's 37 states. A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-nutrition at the state level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. The results reveal that 12.0% of the population were underweight, while 20.9% were either overweight or obese, based on BMI. The northern states of Sokoto and Yobe/Borno and the southern state of Delta had the highest prevalence of underweight, while states in the centre had the lowest underweight prevalence. Underweight women were more likely to be from poorer households compared with their counterparts from the richest wealth index, which were consistently associated with lower odds of being underweight (posterior odds ratio (POR) and 95% credible region (CR): 0.56 [0.46, 0.70]). On the other hand Muslim women (1.61 [1.10, 2.23]), those of traditional religion (2.12 [1.44, 3.00]), those from the Fulani ethnic group (2.90 [1.64, 5.55]) and those living in Yobe state were all consistently associated with higher odds of being underweight. This study demonstrates that underweight is a major public health problem in Nigeria affecting adult females in the northern states of Nigeria. Identifying risk factors and the need to account for sex, spatial and socio-cultural issues are crucial to develop and implement evidence-informed strategies and interventions for lifestyle health promotion. PMID:26448573

  11. The Facts about Childhood Obesity and Overweightness. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of overweightness and obesity among children. Addresses the following: (1) magnitude of obesity and overweightness; (2) growth of the problem in recent years; (3) diet and other key roles; and (4) the relation of obesity to income, education, and ethnicity. (SD)

  12. Nutritional immunity: transition metals at the pathogen-host interface

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M. Indriati; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals occupy an essential niche in biological systems. Their electrostatic properties stabilize substrates or reaction intermediates in the active sites of enzymes, while their heightened reactivity is harnessed for catalysis. However, the latter property renders transition metals toxic at high concentrations. Bacteria, like all living organisms, must regulate the levels of these elements to satisfy their physiological needs while avoiding harm. It is therefore not surprising that the host capitalizes on both the essentiality and toxicity of transition metals to defend against bacterial invaders. This review will discuss established and emerging paradigms in nutrient metal homeostasis at the pathogen-host interface. PMID:22796883

  13. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Champagne, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed. PMID:26718656

  14. [A new proposal for nutritional education in a group of obese adolescents].

    PubMed

    Moriconi, V; Sulpizi, M T; Fabietti, P G; Monacelli, G; Santeusanio, F; Rosi, G; Ventura, M M

    1990-01-01

    A new "active" system of monitoring and dietary education was experimented in a group of 20 obese adolescents waiting to start diet therapy. Each subject was requested to record all food and drink consumed during two separate periods, each lasting 7 days, at a distance of 15 days from each other, at home using an optic reader and book of bar codes. On the basis of answers to a questionnaire which was completed at the beginning and end of the study, aimed at assessing the level of knowledge of basic food hygiene, the majority of participants considered the experience useful and amusing and were willing to repeat it; in addition, a greater knowledge of nutritional principles and of the rations consumed was shown at the end of the study. The results of the study were analysed using the Food Meter-Miles computerised system and showed daily calorie intakes of 1514 +/- 524.0, M +/- DS (protein 18.3 +/- 5.1%, lipids 33.7 +/- 6.2%, glucose 47.9 +/- 8.6%, total fibre 14.4 +/- 4.6 g) in female subjects, and 2096.1 +/- 80.8 (protein 16.1 +/- 3.6%, lipids 38.2 +/- 2.9%, glucose 45.7 +/- 3.9%, total fibre 18.1 +/- 2.0 g) in male subjects. The number of foods chosen was very low considering the range of foods available (277) and the length of time studied: 35.7 +/- 11.8 and 35.0 +/- 6.0 respectively for female and male subjects. With regard to the number and type of meals eaten, a high number of snacks was observed which supplemented or replaced main meals. PMID:2099991

  15. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  16. The Sequencing of a College Degree during the Transition to Adulthood: Implications for Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard Allen; Shanahan, Michael J.; Boardman, Jason; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider the health implications of the sequencing of a college degree vis-à-vis familial roles during the transition to adulthood. We hypothesize that people who earned a college degree before assuming familial roles will have better health than people who earned a college degree afterwards. To test this hypothesis, we focus on obesity and use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results show that marriage before completion of college was associated with a 50% higher probability of becoming obese when compared with marriage after completion of college. Parenthood before college completion was associated with a greater-than two-fold increase in the probability of becoming obese when compared to parenthood afterwards for Black men. These findings suggest that the well-established association of education with health depends on its place in a sequence of roles. PMID:26022787

  17. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  18. Cardiovascular diseases in mega-countries: the challenges of the nutrition, physical activity and epidemiologic transitions, and the double burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Medina, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There are today 11 mega-countries with more than 100 million inhabitants. Together these countries represent more than 60% of the world's population. All are facing noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) epidemic where high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are becoming the main public health concerns. Most of these countries are facing the double burden of malnutrition where undernutrition and obesity coexist, increasing the complexity for policy design and implementation. The purpose of this study is to describe diverse sociodemographic characteristics of these countries and the challenges for prevention and control in the context of the nutrition transition. Recent findings Mega-countries are mostly low or middle-income and are facing important epidemiologic, nutrition, and physical activity transitions because of changes in food systems and unhealthy lifestyles. NCDs are responsible of two-thirds of the 57 million global deaths annually. Approximately, 80% of these are in low and middle-income countries. Only developed countries have been able to reduce mortality rates attributable to recognized risk factors for NCDs, in particular high cholesterol and blood pressure. Summary Mega-countries share common characteristics such as complex bureaucracies, internal ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic heterogeneity, and complexities to implement effective health promotion and education policies across population. Priorities for action must be identified and successful lessons and experiences should be carefully analyzed and replicated. PMID:27389629

  19. Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Jacobsen, D J; Whatley, J E; Hill, J O; Swift, L L; Cherrington, A; Polk, B; Tran, Z V; Reed, G

    1996-05-01

    Obesity and low levels of physical and metabolic fitness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this investigation was to attenuate obesity and improve physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Schools have the opportunity, mechanisms, and personnel in place to deliver nutrition education, fitness activities, and a school food service that is nutritious and healthy. Cohorts from grades 3 to 5 in two school districts in rural Nebraska (Intervention/Control) participated in a 2-year study of physical activity and modified school lunch program. Data collection for aerobic capacity, body composition, blood chemistry, nutrition knowledge, energy intake, and physical activity was at the beginning and end of each year. Int received enhanced physical activity, grade specific nutrition education, and a lower fat and sodium school lunch program. Con continued with a regular school lunch and team sports activity program. At year 2, Int lunches had significantly less energy (9%), fat (25%), sodium (21%), and more fiber (17%). However, measures of 24-hour energy intake for Int and Con showed significant differences for sodium only. Physical activity in the classroom was 6% greater for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05) but physical activity outside of school was approximately 16% less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). Body weight and body fat were not different between schools for normal weight or obese children. No differences were found for cholesterol, insulin, and glucose; however, HDL cholesterol was significantly greater and cholesterol/HDL was significantly less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). It appears that compensation in both energy intake and physical activity outside of school may be responsible for the lack of differences between Int and Con. PMID:8732957

  20. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  1. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  2. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  3. “Now I Can Do Better”: A Study of Obese Women’s Experiences Following a Nonprescriptive Nutritional Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ulian, Mariana D; Gualano, Bruno; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia L; Roble, Odilon J; Modesto, Bruno T; Brito, Bruna C; Murakawa, Karina A; Torre, Mariana D; Tritto, Aline CC; Unsain, Ramiro F; de M Sato, Priscila; Scagliusi, Fernanda B

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed obese women’s experiences following a nonprescriptive nutritional intervention, implemented through a 1-year program based on the Health at Every Size® philosophy. We employed an action research method and conducted three focus groups during the intervention. We identified five interpretative axes across the focus groups, as follows: conflicts and perceptions; gaining motivation, perspective, and positioning; becoming autonomous eaters; acquiring tools; and the meetings between the nutritional therapist and participant. Our findings revealed varying levels of readiness among participants in adapting to the intervention and varying valuations of achievements related to eating and health, independent of body-weight changes. Participants reported benefiting from and expressed approval of the intervention. Participants reported positive behavioral and attitudinal changes to their diet and improvements to diet quality, diet structure, and consumption. Finally, participants seemed to show increased autonomy concerning diet and indicated increased confidence, comfort, flexibility, and positivity of attitude regarding eating. PMID:26417206

  4. Health and nutrition series--1. What do we know about ... childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Ottley, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of obesity among children in the UK has been increasing since the 1980s and is a "hot topic" among health professionals, Government, the media and some parents. It is an emotive subject which often attracts instant opinions and hasty solutions. To provide sound, balanced advice it is important that health professionals are aware of current evidence about the prevention and management of obesity in children, and differences between child and adult obesity. This article summarises the evidence and offers some practical tips. It also considers child obesity in the context of the family. PMID:15052886

  5. Prepuberal obesity (the adiposogenital syndrome): a transitional object pathology.

    PubMed

    Losso, R

    1997-09-01

    The adiposogenital syndrome develops during the puberal period starting from a particular family constellation, that is described. The origins of the pathological alteration are found at the first object relationships, where feeding is felt as self-feeding. Food normally plays the role of transitional object in child. In these cases, this role fails and ends by helping separation denial. Fat is laid on the intermediate space as a fetish object, a witness of the omnipotent fantasy of antistic feeding. The child develops a great ability to maintain this balance, making eating a highly pleasant activity. Difficulties encountered during treatment are commented. PMID:14655841

  6. Evaluation of different methods to handle misreporting in obesity research: evidence from the Canadian national nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-14

    The association of dietary exposures with health outcomes may be attenuated or reversed as a result of energy intake (EI) misreporting. This study evaluated several methods for dealing with implausible recalls when analysing the association between dietary factors and obesity. We examined data from 16 187 Canadians aged ≥12 years in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Under- and over-reporting were defined as the ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement 1·42, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression-generalised logit model was conducted to test the utility of different methods for handling misreporting, including (a) adjusting for variables related to misreporting, (b) excluding misreported recalls, (c) adjusting for reporting groups (under-, plausible and over-reporters), (d) adjusting for propensity score and (e) stratifying the analyses by reporting groups. In the basic model, EI showed a negative association with overweight (OR 0·988; 95% CI 0·979, 0·998) and obesity (OR 0·989; 95% CI 0·977, 0·999). Similarly, the association between total energy density and overweight (OR 0·670; 95% CI 0·487, 0·923) and obesity (OR 0·709; 95% CI 0·495, 1·016) was inverse. Among all methods of handling misreporting, adjusting for the reporting status revealed the most satisfactory results, where a positive association between EI and overweight (OR 1·037; 95% CI 1·019, 1·055) and obesity (OR 1·109; 95% CI 1·082, 1·137) was observed (P<0·0001), as well as direct positive associations between energy density and percentage energy from solid fats and added sugars with obesity (P<0·05). The results of this study can help advance knowledge about the relationship between dietary variables and obesity and demonstrate to researchers and nutrition policy makers the importance of adjusting for recall plausibility in obesity research, which is highly relevant in light of global obesity epidemic. PMID:26522666

  7. Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979

  8. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  9. Early factors leading to later obesity: interactions of the microbiome, epigenome, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lilly; Neu, Josef

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in the United States and many other countries. Childhood obesity rates have risen extensively over the last several decades with the numbers continuing to rise. Obese and overweight children are at high risk of becoming overweight adolescents and adults. The causes are multifactorial and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. This review aims to discuss a previously under-recognized antecedent of obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Specifically, we highlight the relationship of the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract during early development and the consequent effects on metabolism, epigenetics, and inflammatory responses that can subsequently result in metabolic syndrome. Although studies in this area are just beginning, this area of research is rapidly expanding and may lead to early life interventions that may have significant impacts in the prevention of obesity. PMID:26043042

  10. What's law got to do with it Part 2: Legal strategies for healthier nutrition and obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the most important opportunities for law lie in seeking to enhance the effectiveness of a population health approach. Part 2 of this article aims to provide a systematic review of the legal strategies that are most likely to emerge, or are worth considering, as part of a suite of policies designed to prevent population weight gain and, more generally, healthier nutrition. While the impact of any one intervention may be modest, their cumulative impact could be significant and could also create the conditions for more effective public education campaigns. This article addresses the key contenders, with particular reference to Australia and the United States. PMID:18533999

  11. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems ...

  12. CLINICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN OBESE WOMEN DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS, Tiago Dália; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo; de LEMOS, Maria da Conceição Chaves; CABRAL, Poliana Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinic care for morbid obesity is not very effective. Bariatric surgery is being considered the best way of intervention for this kind of obesity. Aim : Evaluate the clinical and nutritional evolution during the first year of obese women submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method : Retrospective series non-concurrent with 61 women. The variables were weight, BMI, weight loss percentage, loss of excessive weight percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, lipid profile, daily use of supplements, practice of physical exercise, occurrence of sickness, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, asthenia, alopecia, dry skin, cramps and brittle nails. Results : They presented significant weight and IMC reduction as well as improvement in their lipid profile, in all consultations. After one year they presented 36,6% loss of the initial weight and 75% loss of excessive weight. The waist circumference also presented a considerable reduction on all the moments, decreasing from 122,1±13,4 cm to 94,1±10,6 cm. Regarding the intercurrences, the most frequent were alopecia, asthenia, dry skin and cramps. Conclusion : The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in promoting and maintenance weight loss during the period of the first postoperative year. PMID:26537276

  13. Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing: Time-Related Dietary Approaches to Combat Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome1234

    PubMed Central

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. PMID:25770260

  14. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  15. [Obesity, an emerging problem in pediatrics. Inaugural Conference of the Eight National Congress of the Nutrition Spanish Society, Murcia, October 24-27, 2001].

    PubMed

    Tojo Sierra, R; Leis Trabazo, R

    2002-01-01

    Obesity in children and adolescents is a public health problem on the increase and is the most prevalent metabolic and nutritional disorder in developed countries. As a major non-transmissible disease, obesity has taken on epidemic proportions in developed countries and displaced malnutrition and infections as a major cause of deterioration in health and quality of life. Obesity has thus become one of the great health issues of the 21st century. The WHO recently declared obesity to be a new worldwide syndrome as it not only has a high prevalence in developed countries but also in the so-called emerging economies, the "newly westernized" or "Coca-Colanized" countries as in the case of China, Brazil and Eastern European states where obesity exists alongside malnutrition, as well as in under-developed countries where the prevalence is increasing among the better-off segments of the population. PMID:12048976

  16. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  17. Nutritional Status of Maintenance Dialysis Patients: Low Lean Body Mass Index and Obesity Are Common, Protein-Energy Wasting Is Uncommon

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed, Mette; Kromann, Charles Boy; Juliussen, Sophie Ryberg; Hvidtfeldt, Danni; Ekelund, Bo; Frandsen, Niels Erik; Marckmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in maintenance dialysis patients, and compared different methods of nutritional assessment. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, we performed anthropometry (body weight, skinfolds, mid-arm, waist, and hip circumferences), and determined plasma albumin and normalized protein catabolic rate in order to assess the prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in these patients. Results Seventy-nine eligible maintenance dialysis patients participated. The prevalence of protein-energy wasted patients was 4% (95% CI: 2–12) as assessed by the coexistence of low lean body mass index and low fat mass index. Low lean body mass index was seen in 32% (95% CI: 22–44). Obesity prevalence as assessed from fat mass index was 43% (95% CI: 32–55). Coexistence of low lean body mass index and obesity was seen in 10% (95% CI: 5–19). The prevalence of protein-energy wasting and obesity varied considerably, depending on nutritional assessment methodology. Conclusions Our data indicate that protein-energy wasting is uncommon, whereas low lean body mass index and obesity are frequent conditions among patients in maintenance dialysis. A focus on how to increase and preserve lean body mass in dialysis patients is suggested in the future. In order to clearly distinguish between shortage, sufficiency and abundance of protein and/or fat deposits in maintenance dialysis patients, we suggest the simple measurements of lean body mass index and fat mass index. PMID:26919440

  18. Nutrition Therapy in the Transition between Hospital and Home: An Investigation of Barriers.

    PubMed

    Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. This study aimed to investigate barriers for nutrition therapy in the transition between hospital and home and hereby to identify areas for potential improvements. Background. Though the focus on nutritional risk is improving in hospital, there seems to be less effort to maintain or even improve nutritional status after discharge and during the rehabilitation period. Design. Qualitative focus group interviews. Methods. Semistructured focus group interviews with experienced multiprofessional staff from hospital, home care, nursing homes, and general practise. The study was done in the county of Aalborg with about 280.000 inhabitants regarding homecare and general practise as well as Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. Results. Interviews were generated with 41 professionals from hospital, general practise, and home care. Barriers identified between settings included the following aspects: economic, organisation, and education. The impression of professionals was that few patients are discharged with nutrition therapy, compared to who could benefit from nutrition therapy after discharge. Most often, reasons were a short in-hospital stay and lack of knowledge and interest. Moreover, lack of clinical guidelines throughout all settings, time consumption, lack of transparency regarding economy and workflows, and lack of assistance from experts regarding complicated nutritional problems were identified. Conclusions. Many barriers were found in hospital as well as in the community and general practise. These were most often practical as well as organizational. Improvements of clinical guidelines and instructions and improvement of knowledge and communication at all levels are needed. Relevance to Clinical Practise. This study emphasizes that responsibility needs to be taken for patients whom are still at nutritional risk at discharge, and even before hospitalization. Nurses and doctors in and outside hospital are in need of improved knowledge

  19. Nutrition Transition: An Intergenerational Comparison of Dietary Habits among Women of Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Aliyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a shift worldwide towards a diet that is high in processed foods and low in fiber, leading to a corresponding increase in degenerative diseases. These diseases are interrelated with lifestyles and especially with diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the eating habit differences between two generations of mothers and daughters and their tendency towards modern foods. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, the data were gathered using structured questionnaires. The sample of the study includes 618 women in Shiraz City (309 mothers and 309 daughters) selected through stratified random sampling. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS software. Results: In the mothers’ generation, around 80% showed a traditional nutritional pattern while in the young generation more than 50% had a modern or close to modern pattern of nutrition (P ≤ 0.05). The findings confirmed a significant difference in dietary habits among the two generations. For both generations, nutrition pattern was significantly different in terms of social class, weight control, education, using mass communication, and physical activities (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Iran is currently experiencing a nutrition transition. The current inappropriate habits in the lifestyles of the girls’ in Shiraz are a health threat for them, and it will increase the risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, policy makers have to set new agenda to increase the nutritional knowledge of the population. PMID:25905062

  20. Association of FTO With Obesity-Related Traits in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Marvelle, Amanda F.; Lange, Leslie A.; Qin, Li; Adair, Linda S.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The underlying genetic component of obesity-related traits is not well understood, and there is limited evidence to support genetic association shared across multiple studies, populations, and environmental contexts. The present study investigated the association between candidate variants and obesity-related traits in a sample of 1,886 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We selected and genotyped 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes (ADRB2, ADRB3, FTO, GNB3, INSIG2, LEPR, PPARG, TNF, UCP2, and UCP3) that had been previously reported to be associated with an obesity-related quantitative trait. RESULTS—We observed evidence for association of the A allele of rs9939609 (FTO intron 1) with increased BMI (P = 0.0072 before multiple test correction), baseline BMI (P = 0.0015), longitudinal BMI based on eight surveys from 1983 to 2005 (P = 0.000029), waist circumference (P = 0.0094), and weight (P = 0.021). The increase in average BMI was ∼0.4 for each additional A allele. We also observed association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant with BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, weight, fat mass, arm fat area, and arm muscle area (P < 0.05), although the direction of effect is inconsistent with the majority of previous reports. CONCLUSIONS—Our study confirms that FTO is a common obesity susceptibility gene in Filipinos, with an effect size similar to that seen in samples of European origin. PMID:18426866

  1. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  2. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  3. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: "Choice, Control & Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, "Choice, Control & Change", designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design: A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting: Five…

  4. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  5. Development and validity of a questionnaire to test the knowledge of primary care personnel regarding nutrition in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of its epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries, obesity is considered a serious public health issue. In order to increase knowledge concerning the ability of health care professionals in caring for obese adolescents and adopt more efficient preventive and control measures, a questionnaire was developed and validated to assess non-dietitian health professionals regarding their Knowledge of Nutrition in Obese Adolescents (KNOA). Methods The development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of primary care practitioners with respect to nutrition in obese adolescents was carried out in five phases, as follows: 1) definition of study dimensions 2) development of 42 questions and preliminary evaluation of the questionnaire by a panel of experts; 3) characterization and selection of primary care practitioners (35 dietitians and 265 non-dietitians) and measurement of questionnaire criteria by contrasting the responses of dietitians and non-dietitians; 4) reliability assessment by question exclusion based on item difficulty (too easy and too difficult for non-dietitian practitioners), item discrimination, internal consistency and reproducibility index determination; and 5) scoring the completed questionnaires. Results Dietitians obtained higher scores than non-dietitians (Mann–Whitney U test, P < 0.05), confirming the validity of the questionnaire criteria. Items were discriminated by correlating the score for each item with the total score, using a minimum of 0.2 as a correlation coefficient cutoff value. Item difficulty was controlled by excluding questions answered correctly by more than 90% of the non-dietitian subjects (too easy) or by less than 10% of them (too difficult). The final questionnaire contained 26 of the original 42 questions, increasing Cronbach’s α value from 0.788 to 0.807. Test-retest agreement between respondents was classified as good to very good (Kappa test, >0.60). Conclusion The

  6. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of "obesogenic" gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that maternal obesity per

  7. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of “obesogenic” gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that

  8. Symposium on "The challenge of translating nutrition research into public health nutrition". Session 5: Nutrition communication. Obesity and social marketing: works in progress.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Stead, Martine

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, socio-economic trends reinforce the complex physiological mechanisms that favour positive energy balance, leading to an accumulation of excess body weight and associated metabolic disorders. This so-called 'obesogenic environment' is characterised by increasing accessibility and affordability of energy-dense foods and declining levels of physical activity. In the face of such rapidly-rising obesity rates there is general consensus that strategies to address trends in weight gain must go forwards in the absence of complete evidence of cause or effective prevention strategy. Thus, strategy implementation and evaluation must contribute to, as well as be informed by, the evidence base. Social marketing research and practice has a track record that strongly indicates that it can contribute to both the evolving knowledge base on obesity and overweight control policy and the development of effective intervention strategies. Social marketing draws pragmatically on many disciplines to bring about voluntary behaviour change as well as requisite supporting policy and environmental change. Key objectives include: generating insights into the drivers of current behaviour patterns; important barriers to change; client-oriented approaches to new desirable diet and lifestyle choices. Social marketing recognises that target clients have the power to ensure success or failure of obesity control policies. Social marketing seeks to identify genuine exchange of benefits for target adopters of behaviour change and the advocates of change, and how they may be developed and offered within an appropriate relevant context. Social marketing adopts a cyclical approach of learning, strategic development and evaluation, and therefore is well placed to integrate with the multi-disciplinary demands of obesity prevention strategies. PMID:19012804

  9. Intergenerational Profiles of Socioeconomic (Dis)advantage and Obesity During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun-Lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of socioeconomic status (SES) and health during the transition to adulthood in the United States are complicated by the later and more varied transitions in residence, employment, schooling, and social roles compared with previous generations. Parental SES is an important influence during adolescence but cannot sufficiently capture the SES of the independent young adult. Typical, single SES indicators based on income or education likely misclassify the SES of young adults who have not yet completed their education or other training, or who have entered the labor force early with ultimately lower status attainment. We use a latent class analysis (LCA) framework to characterize five intergenerational SES groups, combining multidimensional SES information from two time points—that is, adolescent (parental) and young adult (self) SES data. Associations of these groups with obesity, a high-risk health outcome in young adults, revealed nuanced relationships not seen using traditional intergenerational SES measures. In males, for example, a middle-class upbringing in adolescence and continued material advantage into adulthood was associated with nearly as high obesity as a working poor upbringing and early, detrimental transitions. This intergenerational typology of early SES exposure facilitates understanding of SES and health during young adulthood. PMID:21491185

  10. Ketogenic enteral nutrition as a treatment for obesity: short term and long term results from 19,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Only protein diet has been used successfully to prevent loss of lean body mass first in post-surgical and then in obese patients. We studied overweight and obese patients receiving short treatments of an exclusively protein-based nutritional solution as 24-hour enteral infusion. Methods 19,036 patients (age 44.3 ± 13, M:F = 2:5) with an initial body mass index of 36.5 ± 7.1 underwent 10-day cycles of enteral nutrition through a fine nasogastric tube. The nutritional solution consisted solely of 50–65 g of proteins, plus vitamins and electrolytes. The 24-hour infusion was controlled with a small portable pump. Before and after each 10-day cycle body composition was checked with a Handy 3000 impedance analyzer. At the onset of treatment, average fat mass was 40.9 ± 12.8 kg while body cell mass was 42.7 ± 7.2 kg in males and 27.4 ± 4.6 kg in females. Results After an average of 2.5 cycles the patients lost 10.2 ± 7.0 kg of body weight, 5.8 ± 5.5 kg of fat mass and 2.2 ± 3.3 kg of body cell mass. No significant adverse effects were recorded except asthenia and constipation which were easily controlled with therapy. Long-term results were obtained from 15,444 patients and after an average of 362 ± 296 days we found a mean weight regain of 15.4%. Conclusion Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition treatment of over 19,000 patients induced a rapid 10% weight loss, 57% of which was Fat Mass. No significant adverse effects were found. The treatment is safe, fast, inexpensive and has good one-year results for weight maintenance. PMID:23110922

  11. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  12. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  14. Impact of estradiol, ER subtype specific agonists and genistein on energy homeostasis in a rat model of nutrition induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Carmen; Hertrampf, Torsten; Zoth, Nora; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Diel, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Estrogens are known to be involved in the control of energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the role of ER alpha and ER beta in a model of nutrition induced obesity. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and received either vehicle, E2, ER subtype selective agonists (Alpha and Beta) or genistein. After 10 weeks, body weight, visceral fat, serum leptin, blood lipids, and in the soleus muscle anabolic markers were determined. Treatment with E2 and Alpha decreased body weight, total cholesterol and VLDL. Visceral fat mass, adipocyte size, and serum leptin were reduced by E2, Alpha and Beta. In the soleus muscle, treatment with E2 and Beta modulated Igf1 and Pax7 gene expression and resulted in larger muscle fibers. Our data indicate that blood lipids are affected via ER alpha, whereas activation of ER beta results in an increase of soleus muscle mass. Adipose tissue homeostasis seems to be affected via both ERs. PMID:22230815

  15. Study on the obesity and nutrition status of housewives in Seoul and Kyunggi area.

    PubMed

    Chung, Keun-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Yoon, Jin-A; Choi, Kyung Soon

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of obesity of 212 women (age 45-60 years) in Seoul and the Kyunggi area through analysis of BMI and the dietary life factors related to obesity using a survey on dietary habits, dietary assessment, and nutrient intake. The height of the underweight group was taller than normal. The height of the obese group was equal to that of the normal group, but the weight was 8.5 kg greater than the normal group. Women in the underweight group consumed meals irregularly, and only 33.4% ate breakfast. Additionally, the rate of overeating was low in the underweight group, and milk, dairy products (yogurt, etc.), fruit, and fruit juice were consumed more than once a day. It was found that 62.1% of the women in the obese group never ate out, and the rate of eating one serving of fruit, drinking one cup of fruit juice, and eating various kinds of foods was high. The average point of women's dietary life was 21.9 ± 2.9, and 12.7% of all women responded that their dietary life was good. However, in the obese group, only 6.9% of the women reported that their dietary life was good. Evaluation of snacking habits revealed that the underweight group consumed a high level of carbonated drinks and ice cream, whereas for in the obese group, 24.1% of the women consumed milk and its products and 5.6% regularly consumed fast and fried foods. Evaluation of nutrient intake revealed that the consumption of energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B(1), B(2), B(6), niacin, vitamin C, and vitamin E was high in all of the groups, but the intake of folic acid in the underweight group was lower than the required level. Overall, 24.1% of the women in the obese group were found to have metabolic diseases, mostly hypertension (43%). In conclusion, a balanced diet to avoid excessive nutrient intake is needed to prevent obesity. PMID:21556228

  16. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m2, women <0.512 kg/m2). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs. 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs. 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations. PMID:26472145

  17. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  18. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Insights into the Emerging Role of Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Maeve A.; Finucane, Orla M.; Connaughton, Ruth M.; McMorrow, Aoibheann M.; Roche, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and associated chronic inflammation initiate a state of insulin resistance (IR). The secretion of chemoattractants such as MCP-1 and MIF and of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, draw immune cells including dendritic cells, T cells, and macrophages into adipose tissue (AT). Dysfunctional AT lipid metabolism leads to increased circulating free fatty acids, initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in the population of infiltrating cells. A feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokines exacerbates this pathological state, driving further immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion and disrupts the insulin signaling cascade. Disruption of normal AT function is causative of defects in hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis, resulting in systemic IR and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical strategies that target the inflammatory milieu may have some potential; however there are a number of safety concerns surrounding such pharmaceutical approaches. Nutritional anti-inflammatory interventions could offer a more suitable long-term alternative; whilst they may be less potent than some pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents, this may be advantageous for long-term therapy. This review will investigate obese AT biology, initiation of the inflammatory, and insulin resistant environment; and the mechanisms through which dietary anti-inflammatory components/functional nutrients may be beneficial. PMID:23675368

  19. Childhood Obesity: A Food and Nutrition Resource List for Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellechia, Kathleen M.; Akobundu, Ucheoma O.; Naslund, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a collection of resources on the topic of childhood obesity for educators and researchers. It is comprised of articles from professional journals (published 2000 to present), information available on the World Wide Web, consumer educational materials and contact information of related organizations. Items with a public health…

  20. Nutrition and Metabolic Correlates of Obesity and Inflammation: Clinical Considerations123

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy R; Makowski, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the global prevalence of obesity has doubled; in the United States, it has almost tripled. Billions of people are overweight and obese; the WHO reports that >65% of the world’s population die of diseases related to overweight rather than underweight. Obesity is a complex disease that can be studied from “metropolis to metabolite”—that is, beginning at the policy and the population level through epidemiology and intervention studies; to bench work including preclinical models, tissue, and cell culture studies; to biochemical assays; and to metabolomics. Metabolomics is the next research frontier because it provides a real-time snapshot of biochemical building blocks and products of cellular processes. This report comments on practical considerations when conducting metabolomics research. The pros and cons and important study design concerns are addressed to aid in increasing metabolomics research in the United States. The link between metabolism and inflammation is an understudied phenomenon that has great potential to transform our understanding of immunometabolism in obesity, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases; metabolomics promises to be an important tool in understanding the complex relations between factors contributing to such diseases. PMID:25833891

  1. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 14297

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2008-01-01

    In light of the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on over 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  2. [FESNAD-SEEDO consensus summary: evidence-based nutritional recommendations for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults].

    PubMed

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel; Marset, Julio Basulto; Lesmes, Irene Breton; Izquierdo, Joan Quiles; Sala, Xavier Formiguera; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics Associations (FESNAD) and the Spanish Association for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) consensus document on the role of diet in prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. To prepare this document, and in order to achieve the maximum evidence level possible, a systematic review was made of all medical literature published between January 1, 1996 and January 31, 2011 (15 years). The obtained findings were catalogued by evidence level following the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system, and recommendations were produced based on data collected. As a result, 65 evidences and 31 recommendations applicable to obese adults without any other pathological process were produced. Evidences and resulting recommendations are provided, and the most significant findings are discussed. This consensus document is intended to provide healthcare professionals with a reference tool that may help them design dietary strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. PMID:22795577

  3. Model Programs to Address Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease: Interventions for Suboptimal Nutrition and Sedentary Lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Nash, Mark S; Kressler, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The component health risks of the cardiometabolic syndrome include coalescing of risk factors that predict a health calamity unless effective interventions can be developed and widely adopted. Obesity by itself is now considered an American Diabetes Association-qualified disability, but it is also disturbingly prevalent in other physical disability groupings of adults and children. This monograph describes successes of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a National Institutes of Health multisite randomized controlled trial that reported significant weight reduction and a 58% decreased incidence of type-2 diabetes accompanying 1 year of structured lifestyle intervention. This treatment benefit (1) exceeded that of metformin pharmacotherapy, (2) was so powerful that the trial was closed before reaching endpoints, and (3) was judged cost-effective for the patient and society. The DPP roadmap incorporating physical activity, diet, and behavioral approaches has been widely adapted to specific community, faith, racial, ethnic, school, and national populations with excellent outcomes success. The lockstep physical activity approach, activity prescription, and long-term success of the program are described and compared with other programs to illustrate effective countermeasures for the pandemics of obesity and obesity-related cardioendocrine disease. We will illustrate adaptation of the DPP for a cohort of persons with disability from spinal cord

  4. From wasting to obesity, changes in nutritional concerns in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mankal, Pavan K; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Optimal nutrition is an important part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care; to support the immune system, limit HIV-associated complications as well as maintain better quality of life and survival. The presentation and nature of malnutrition in patients with HIV has changed dramatically over the past 30 years from predominantly a wasting syndrome to lipodystrophy and, now, frailty. Nevertheless, we continue to see all 3 presentations in patient care today. The pathogenesis of poor nutrition in HIV-infected patients depends on caloric intake, intestinal nutrient absorption/translocation, and resting energy expenditure, which are features seen in all chronic diseases. PMID:25169559

  5. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044

  6. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

  7. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States: Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-08-01

    Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04-17.08, P = 0.04) compared with <1 year in the US. In children/adolescents, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for <1 year (aOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.51-6.56, P = 0.002). When analyzed by year, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing. PMID:27583867

  8. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

  9. Nutritional status of children and adolescents based on body mass index: agreement between World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzotto, Timothy Gustavo; Brasil, Marcos Roberto; Oliveira, Vinicius Machado; da Silva, Schelyne Ribas; Ronque, Enio Ricardo V.; Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Serassuelo, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the agreement between two international criteria for classification of children and adolescents nutritional status. Methods: The study included 778 girls and 863 boys aged from six to 13 years old. Body mass and height were measured and used to calculate the body mass index. Nutritional status was classified according to the cut-off points defined by the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force. The agreement was evaluated using Kappa statistic and weighted Kappa. Results: In order to classify the nutritional status, the agreement between the criteria was higher for the boys (Kappa 0.77) compared to girls (Kappa 0.61). The weighted Kappa was also higher for boys (0.85) in comparison to girls (0.77). Kappa index varied according to age. When the nutritional status was classified in only two categories - appropriate (thinness + accentuated thinness + eutrophy) and overweight (overweight + obesity + severe obesity) -, the Kappa index presented higher values than those related to the classification in six categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement was observed between the criteria, being higher in males and varying according to the age. PMID:24676189

  10. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  11. Virtues and challenges in using the community based participatory research (cbpr) approach by the delta nutrition research initiative (delta niri) in developing rural community walking studies to lower obesity risks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To discuss the CBPR approach in development, implementation, and evaluation of rural community walking and nutrition studies. Background: The current obesity epidemic, especially among rural and low-income minority populations, presents challenges in designing interventions that are effec...

  12. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  13. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-03-14

    We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption. PMID:26759221

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

  15. The need for an international debate in pediatrics about obesity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Hoyos-Parra, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are at the center of international consultation and there's a general agreement on saying that several issues need to be solved before implementing prevention strategies and intervention programs. A sound knowledge of all the factors involved in the epidemic spread of a disease is the first target that has to be achieved in order to provide governments and policy makers with the best evidence-based conclusions. Present data are still too weak to gather solid decisions. Lack of standardized methods, common definitions or coherence with real life performances results therefore in conclusions that oscillate from one statement to its contrary. From this perspective, pediatricians and general practitioners are of great importance, being the direct link between the scientific community and children, having therefore the possibility to act at the first phases of obesity development, forging the best possible knowledge in order to transform prevention in the best possible cure. PMID:25629250

  16. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  17. [Focus of childhood obesity from pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-López, Erika F; Macías-Rosales, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in the last two decades in the adult and children population. The Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development reported in 2010 that Mexico ranks first worldwide in childhood obesity. The 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported that one of every three teenagers are overweight and obese. In the last decades, pediatric hospitals in different parts of the world reported the prevalence of secondary malnutrition, since in those days overweight and obesity did not represent health problems. Currently, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been scarcely studied in pediatric hospitals. In the Hospital de Pediatría (Children's Hospital) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente it is reported a prevalence of overweight of 15.4 % and obesity of 12.2 %, which reflects a nutritional transition.Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this pediatric hospital of reference, one could conclude that the pediatrician should be able to make a correct evaluation of the nutritional state, because, if he does not detect these problems, we will be condemning children to suffer from a chronic disease for the rest of their lives, and with all the implications in the short, medium and long term. PMID:24866318

  18. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted. PMID:23899931

  19. Impact of clock gene Bmal1 deficiency on nutritionally induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hemmeryckx, Bianca; Himmelreich, Uwe; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Lijnen, Henri R

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that the clock gene Bmal1 (brain and muscle arnt like protein-1) plays a role in the development of obesity, 5-week-old male Bmal1-deficient (Bmal1(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates (Bmal1(+/+)) were kept on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. Despite an initial accelerated weight gain of Bmal1(-/-) mice, body weight and subcutaneous (SC) and gonadal (GON) adipose tissue mass were comparable to Bmal1(+/+) mice at the end of the diet period. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging scanning revealed a modest increase in fat content in Bmal1(-/-) mice after 10 weeks of HFD, whereas at the start and the end of the HFD feeding no differences were observed between both genotypes. After 15 weeks of HFD, adipocyte and blood vessel size and density were similar for Bmal1(+/+) and Bmal1(-/-) mice. However, the weight of major organs was significantly reduced in Bmal1(-/-) mice, confirming the premature ageing phenotype. Thus, we hypothesize that an initial accelerated increase in body weight and fat mass of Bmal1(-/-) mice on HFD may have been offset by the effect of premature ageing on organ weight, resulting in comparable weights after 15 weeks of HFD. PMID:21030946

  20. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Overweight and Obesity in Children: Findings From the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ickpyo; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Anderson, Kelly R.; Lee, Danbi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined the relationship between childhood obesity and overweight and functional activity and its enjoyment. METHOD. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS. Data for 1,640 children ages 3–15 yr were retrieved. Physical activity was negatively associated with risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.87, 0.98]). Although children who were obese and overweight were more likely to have functional limitations (ORs = 1.58–1.61), their enjoyment of physical activity participation was not significantly different from that of the healthy-weight group. CONCLUSION. Physical activity lowered the risk of obesity. Children who were obese had functional limitations compared with healthy-weight children, but both groups enjoyed physical activity equally. Future studies are needed to determine barriers to participation among these children in recreation and sporting activities. PMID:27548862

  1. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Ahmed A; Rohrer, James E

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that alcohol use may have a protective effect on obesity. This study explores association between obesity and alcohol consumption in the non-smoking U.S. adult population. Methods We analyzed data on a total of 8,236 respondents who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body mass index (weight-kg/height-m2) was derived from measured height and weight data and categorized into: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Alcohol consumption was measured using following measures: history of drinking, binge drinking, quantity of drinks/day, frequency of drinking, and average volume of drinks/week. Results Mean body mass index in this sample of non-smokers was 26.4 (95% CI: 26.1, 26.7). Approximately 46% of respondents were classified as current drinkers. Current drinkers had lower odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.97) as compared to non-drinkers. The odds of overweight and obesity were significantly greater among binge drinkers and those consuming four or more drinks/day. However, those who reported drinking one or two drinks per day had 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.62) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) times the odds of obesity, respectively. Similarly, the odds of obesity were significantly lower among those who reported drinking frequently and consuming less than five drinks per week. The association between overweight and other alcohol measures was less pronounced. Conclusion The results suggest further exploring the possible role of moderate alcohol drinking in controlling body weight in adults. PMID:16329757

  2. In vivo imaging of lipid storage and regression in diet-induced obesity during nutrition manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Abdel Wahad; Ploj, Karolina; Lelliott, Christopher; Nelander, Karin; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Böttcher, Gerhard; Oscarsson, Jan; Storlien, Leonard; Hockings, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Changes in adipose tissue distribution and ectopic fat storage in, liver and skeletal muscle tissue impact whole body insulin sensitivity in both humans and experimental animals. Numerous mouse models of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes exist; however, current methods to assess mouse phenotypes commonly involve direct harvesting of the tissues of interest, precluding the possibility of repeated measurements in the same animal. In this study, we demonstrate that whole body 3-D imaging of body fat composition can be used to analyze distribution as well as redistribution of fat after intervention by repeated assessment of intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL), intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and total adipose tissue (IAT, SAT, and TAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). C57BL/6J mice fed a cafeteria diet for 16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow for 16 wk and mice switched from café diet to standard chow after 12 wk. MRI determinations were made at 9 and 15 wk, and autopsy was performed at 16 wk. There was a strong correlation between MRI-calculated weights in vivo at 15 wk and measured weights at 16 wk ex vivo for IAT (r = 0.99), BAT (r = 0.93), and IHCL (r = 0.97). IHCL and plasma insulin increased steeply relative to body weight at body weights above 45 g. This study demonstrates that the use of 3-D imaging to assess body fat composition may allow substantial reductions in animal usage. The dietary interventions indicated that a marked metabolic deterioration occurred when the mice had gained a certain fat mass. PMID:23032688

  3. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  4. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. PMID:24662896

  5. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world. Fueled by economic growth, industrialization, mechanized transport, urbanization, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high calorie diets over the last 30 years, many countries have witnessed the prevalence of obesity in its citizens double, and even quadruple. Rising prevalence of childhood obesity, in particular, forebodes a staggering burden of disease in individuals and healthcare systems in the decades to come. A complex, multifactorial disease, with genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental origins, obesity raises risk of debilitating morbidity and mortality. Relying primarily on epidemiologic evidence published within the last decade, this non-exhaustive review discusses the extent of the obesity epidemic, its risk factors—known and novel—, sequelae, and economic impact across the globe. PMID:25471927

  6. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  7. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  8. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval-pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval-pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  9. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  10. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  11. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  12. Synthesis and implications: China's nutrition transition in the context of changes across other low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) is important for its insights into current and future diet, physical activity, and obesity-related changes in China and for understanding underlying processes common across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While China modernized later than Latin American countries, many changes seen in China echo those in Latin America and in other LMICs. In general, changes in physical activity and diet behaviours in China have occurred at a faster pace relative to other LMICs. Modernization of the overall Chinese food system has lagged behind most other LMICs, yet the now-rapid changes in the Chinese food system are similar to what has been seen in other LMICs. Further, there is variation in these changes across social and geographic space. The incidence of obesity and non-communicable diseases has increased as the major health burden has shifted towards the poor. This paper examines changes in China and addresses the literature and issues that link these changes with those in other LMICs. In many ways, the detailed 20-year CHNS, with nine repeated measures, provides a remarkable window through which to understand nutrition-related changes in other LMICs. PMID:24341759

  13. Obesity as malnutrition: the role of capitalism in the obesity global epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. At an abstract level, obesity develops from exposure to the "obesogenic niche," comprising diverse factors predisposing to weight gain. This article first explores how susceptibility to the obesogenic niche is influenced by developmental and life-history experience. Human growth is sensitive to early-life ecological conditions, under the transducing effect of maternal phenotype. Such plasticity is associated with subsequent variability in body composition and metabolism, impacting susceptibility to the obesogenic niche, albeit with heterogeneity across populations. Both nutritional constraint and nutritional excess during early life are associated with variability in relevant molecular pathways. The article then considers the fundamental contribution of capitalist economics to population under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Historically, capitalism contributed to the under-nutrition of many populations through demand for cheap labor. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. In populations undergoing nutritional transition, many individuals encounter both under- and over-nutrition within the life course, elevating both susceptibility and exposure to the obesogenic niche. The interactions between global economic forces and nutritional shifts are distributed across generations, and are strongly transduced by maternal effects. The structural connections between undernourished and overnourished worldwide and between under- and over-nutrition within individual life-courses highlight the central role of capitalist economics in the global obesity epidemic. Prevention policies targeting individual behavior have proved ineffective and economic policies are arguably the optimal target for intervention. PMID:22383142

  14. Obesity and Body Size Preferences of Jordanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Hawks, Steven R.; Angeles, Heidi N.

    2011-01-01

    The nutrition transition is associated with increased obesity rates and increased desire to be thin. This study evaluates the relationship between actual body size and desired body size among a representative sample of 800 Jordanian women. Using Stunkard's body silhouettes, women were asked to identify their current and ideal body sizes, healthy…

  15. A Call to Action: Building a Translational Inclusion Team Science in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Management for Children with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, James H; Vanderbom, Kerri A

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence base of childhood obesity prevention and treatment programs do not adequately consider how to adapt these programs for children with disabilities. We propose a Call to Action for health researchers who conduct studies focused on the general population (i.e., without a disability) to work closely with disability researchers to adapt their programs (e.g., obesity management, increased physical activity, and caregiver training in diet and nutrition) to be relevant to both groups. We refer to this approach as inclusion team science. The hope for this Call to Action is that there will be greater synergy between researchers who have high levels of expertise in a specialty area of health (but little or no knowledge of how to adapt their program for children with disabilities) to work more closely with researchers who have a high level of expertise in adapting evidence-based health promotion recommendations and strategies for children with disabilities. Together, these two areas of expertise will lead to inclusive physical activity and nutrition programs for all children. PMID:27559540

  16. A Call to Action: Building a Translational Inclusion Team Science in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Management for Children with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, James H.; Vanderbom, Kerri A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence base of childhood obesity prevention and treatment programs do not adequately consider how to adapt these programs for children with disabilities. We propose a Call to Action for health researchers who conduct studies focused on the general population (i.e., without a disability) to work closely with disability researchers to adapt their programs (e.g., obesity management, increased physical activity, and caregiver training in diet and nutrition) to be relevant to both groups. We refer to this approach as inclusion team science. The hope for this Call to Action is that there will be greater synergy between researchers who have high levels of expertise in a specialty area of health (but little or no knowledge of how to adapt their program for children with disabilities) to work more closely with researchers who have a high level of expertise in adapting evidence-based health promotion recommendations and strategies for children with disabilities. Together, these two areas of expertise will lead to inclusive physical activity and nutrition programs for all children. PMID:27559540

  17. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  18. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  19. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition.

    PubMed

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  20. [Knowledge and gaps on the role of nutrition and physical activity on the onset of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Sangil-Monroy, Marta; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2004-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has increased at alarming rates over the last few years, due to the concurrence of a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of published studies in the past ten years evaluating the development of childhood obesity in relation to energy and macronutrients intake, their distribution throughout the day and physical activity patterns. 31 articles dealing with this subject were selected. Results obtained appear to indicate that reducing dietary fat and increasing dietary carbohydrate intakes along with consuming an adequate breakfast and carrying out leisure time physical activity on a regular basis act as determining factors to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity, even though the strength of the evidence from these studies is low. It should be a priority to conduct follow-up studies with comparable methodologies in Mediterranean countries, in order to establish parameters for the prevention and control of childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:15607072

  1. Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2015-02-28

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that have been shown to prevent cancer in some studies. Whether phyto-oestrogen intake affects obesity status in a population is still unclear. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the association of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with obesity and metabolic parameters in children and adults. Data from 1294 children (age 6-19 years) and from 3661 adults (age ≥ 20 years) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10 were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of BMI, waist circumference, serum metabolites (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting glucose and fasting insulin) and the metabolic syndrome with urinary phyto-oestrogen levels. When stratified by age and sex, we found a stronger association (OR 0·30, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·54; P< 0·001) between urinary enterolactone levels and obesity in adult males (age 20-60 years) than in children (age 12-19 years) or the elderly (age >60 years) in the same survey. However, no associations with urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein were found in the overall population. We also found that the elevation of enterolactone levels was inversely associated with TAG levels, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels and the metabolic syndrome in males aged 20-60 years, but positively associated with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone is inversely associated with obesity in adult males. PMID:25634494

  2. Evidence of an Overweight/Obesity Transition among School-Aged Children and Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research

  3. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  4. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  5. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12–15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

  6. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here. PMID:27001436

  7. Impact of a physician-supervised exercise-nutrition program with testosterone substitution in partial androgen-deficient middle-aged obese men

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ernst R; Willix, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Background Partial androgen deficiency syndrome in the aging male is associated with signs of aging such as a development of abdominal obesity, sexual dysfunction, increase body fat, weight gain and the development of cardiac disease. Objective We assessed the outcome of a commercially available physician supervised nutrition and exercise program with concomitant testosterone replacement therapy in middle age obese men with partial androgen deficiency in order to reduce cardiac risks factors. Methods Fifty-six self referred men without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease (ages 52.3 ± 7.8 years) were randomly selected from a large cohort. Baseline weight, body fat composition, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and fasting lipid levels, as well as free and total testosterone levels were assessed. All patients were assessed and followed 6–18 months after initiation of the program. The program consisted of a low glycemic load balanced nutrition diet, a recommended structured daily exercise program of 30–60 minutes, as well as once to twice weekly intramuscular testosterone injections (113.0 ± 27.8 mg). Results At follow up, weight was reduced from 233.9 ± 30.0 pounds (lbs) to 221.3 ± 25.1 lbs (P < 0.001), BMI was reduced from 33.2 ± 3.3 kg/m2 to 31.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Total body fat was 27.1% ± 5.2% vs. 34.3% ± 5.7% at baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting glucose was reduced from 95.3 ± 14.4 mg/dL to 87.5 ± 12.6 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol was reduced from 195.4 ± 33.0 mg/dL to 172.7 ± 35.0 mg/dL (P < 0.005). No clinically significant adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged obese men with partial androgen deficiency appeared safe and might have promoted the effects of a weight reduction diet and daily exercise program as long as an adequate physician supervision and follow up was granted. The combination therapy significantly reduced coronary risk factors such as glucose

  8. Epidemiologic transitions: migration and development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the challenge has been the maintenance of bodyweight in the face of marginal food availability. Since the industrial revolution, energy expenditure related to economic activity and domestic life has fallen progressively as technological innovation has replaced muscular power with labor-saving devices. This fall in activity energy expenditure however has not been associated over this entire period with population weight gain. In the 1970s and the 1980s, there was an abrupt uptick in the rate of rise of relative weight in industrialized countries followed rapidly by developing countries. This has led to high and increasing rates of overweight and obesity in high-income countries worldwide, but also an alarming inclusion of low- and middle-income populations in this obesity epidemic. The precise drivers of these concurrent epidemics are not agreed, but probably include on the one hand an increase in dietary energy intake resulting from the impact of industrialization and globalization on food availability and price. On the other, there is the facilitating underlying status of a steadily falling activity energy expenditure as muscle power as an input into economic production as well as household and leisure activities has been supplanted. The rise in population weight without accompanying linear growth manifests as obesity. The accretion of fat as well as the response to other environmental exposures during progressive industrialization and modernization has evoked an accompanying epidemic of cardiometabolic pathology that has significant impact on health as well as macroeconomics. Given the power and presumed irreversibility of industrialization and globalization, our ability to reverse these obesity epidemics is heavily dependent on new knowledge being developed which gives insight with prevention and therapeutic implications on the proximal and distal drivers of this progressive positive energy balance. PMID:23502149

  9. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  10. Case history: tracking the nutritional value of milk from a transitioning-to-organic dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is focusing on many of the factors that influence the amounts of biologically active compounds (BACs) in milk, such as the influence of on-farm and seasonal factors, to improve the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, our current s...

  11. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  12. Maternal Obesity and Developmental Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring: Evidence from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Sloboda, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world as well as in those countries transitioning to first world economies, and this represents a major global health problem. Concern is rising over the rapid increases in childhood obesity and metabolic disease that will translate into later adult obesity. Although an obesogenic nutritional environment and increasingly sedentary lifestyle contribute to our risk of developing obesity, a growing body of evidence links early life nutritional adversity to the development of long-term metabolic disorders. In particular, the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and excess maternal weight gain has been associated with a heightened risk of obesity development in offspring in addition to an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications. The mechanisms that link maternal obesity to obesity in offspring and the level of gene-environment interactions are not well understood, but the early life environment may represent a critical window for which intervention strategies could be developed to curb the current obesity epidemic. This paper will discuss the various animal models of maternal overnutrition and their importance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered obesity risk in offspring. PMID:21969822

  13. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function - including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  14. Contributions of built environment to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262

  15. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  16. Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    PubMed

    Hill, James O

    2009-02-01

    The continued rise in obesity rates in most countries suggests that current programs and initiatives designed to combat obesity have not been successful in reversing the obesity epidemic. Obesity rates are increasing because of a gradual weight gain in most populations. There has been little long-term success in treating established obesity through lifestyle change, perhaps because of the large permanent changes in diet and physical activity required to keep weight off. An alternative strategy to address the obesity epidemic involves not focusing on weight loss but promoting small changes in diet and physical activity to initially prevent further weight gain. With the use of this strategy, obesity rates could first be stabilized in most populations and then, over time, decrease gradually. Supporting data show that small reductions in conscious energy intake and increases in physical activity can reduce excessive weight gain. The opportunity exists to use the small-changes approach to bring different stakeholders together to create a national initiative to address the global epidemic of obesity. The Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council believe that a small-changes framework, aimed at helping people make conscious small changes in lifestyle behaviors, in combination with efforts by the private sector to gradually "ratchet down" some of the environmental factors that have contributed to excessive energy intake and the declining rates of physical activity, can be successful in reducing obesity rates. Such an initiative would benefit from the support of educational and social marketing campaigns developed with governmental input and support. PMID:19088151

  17. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyuhyun; Min, Kyungduk; Chun, Heeran; Jang, Soong-Nang; Cho, Sung-il

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM), subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6) and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4). Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9), and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8). Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement. PMID:25666235

  18. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  19. Etiology of Obesity Over the Life Span: Ecological and Genetic Highlights from Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pei Nee; Teh, Christinal Pey Wen; Poh, Bee Koon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and the prevalence rate has doubled since the 1980s. Asian countries are also experiencing the global epidemic of obesity with its related health consequences. The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate across all age groups in Asia. These increases are mainly attributed to rapid economic growth, which leads to socio-economic, nutrition and lifestyle transitions, resulting in a positive energy balance. In addition, fat mass and obesity-associated gene variants, copy number variants in chromosomes and epigenetic modifications have shown positive associations with the risk of obesity among Asians. In this review highlights of prevalence and related ecological and genetic factors that could influence the rapid rise in obesity among Asian populations are discussed. PMID:26626465

  20. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  1. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  2. Nutrition, rumen health and inflammation in the transition period and their role on overall health and fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Ghareeb, K; Humer, E; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Besenfelder, U

    2015-12-01

    Transition is a stressful period and critical for the entire cow's productive lifespan and reproduction. Optimal feeding management during transition period enables smooth metabolic adaptation to the initiation of lactation. Major nutritional challenge during this period is the urgent need to counteract the drastic deficits in energy and nutrients of the early-lactating cow. This is primarily done by inclusion of large amounts of concentrates in the diet during early lactation, causing major dietary imbalances with utmost importance for rumen health. Proper feeding management targeting rumen health in the transition period improves nutrient degradation and the net supply with energy and key nutrients of the host while preventing systemic disturbances and inflammation, events which are instrumental for cow's overall health and reproductive performance. The review provides insights into the role of, and gives practical hints regarding diet balancing efforts and feeding management strategies targeting rumen health and systemic inflammation during the periparturient period with the aim to enhance cow health and fertility. PMID:26679807

  3. Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales) comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot) taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. Results Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S. lacrymans and S. himantioides constitute the sister group to the Austropaxillus-Gymnopaxillus clade. We found that both vicariance (Beringian) and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the phylogeny and current distributions of taxa within Serpulaceae. Our results also show that the transition from brown rot to mycorrhiza has happened only once in a monophyletic Serpulaceae, probably between 50 and 22 million years before present. Conclusions This study supports the growing understanding that the same geographical barriers that limit plant- and animal dispersal also limit the spread of fungi, as a combination of vicariance and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the present patterns of distribution in Serpulaceae. Our results verify the transition from brown rot to ECM within Serpulaceae between 50 and 22 MyBP. PMID:21816066

  4. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044. PMID:22566517

  5. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  6. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  7. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

  8. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: Choice, Control & Change

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, Choice, Control & Change, designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting Five middle schools in New York City. Participants 562 students in 20 classes and their science teachers (n=8). Main Outcome Measures Based on the model, teacher professional development, teacher implementation, and student reception were evaluated. Also measured were teacher characteristics, teachers’ curriculum evaluation, and satisfaction with teaching the curriculum. Analysis Descriptive statistics and Spearman’s Rho Correlation for quantitative analysis and content analysis for qualitative data were used. Results Mean score of the teacher professional development evaluation was 4.75 on a 5-point scale. Average teacher implementation rate was 73%, and student reception rate was 69%. Ongoing teacher support was highly valued by teachers. Teachers’ satisfaction with teaching the curriculum was highly correlated with students’ satisfaction (p <.05). Teachers’ perception of amount of student work was negatively correlated with implementation and with student satisfaction (p<.05). Conclusions and implications Use of a systematic conceptual model and comprehensive process measures improves understanding of the implementation process and helps educators to better implement interventions as designed. PMID:23321021

  9. Stuck in Unhealthy Places: How Entering, Exiting, and Remaining in Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods Is Associated with Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents from poor versus nonpoor neighborhoods are more likely to become obese during the transition to adulthood. It is unclear whether this pertains to all adolescents from poor neighborhoods or only those who remain in disadvantaged settings. Further, it is unknown how neighborhood poverty entries and exits are associated with obesity. Using census and interview data from 12,164 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health participants, I find that those who consistently live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to become or remain obese by adulthood than those who never live in poor neighborhoods. Exiting severe neighborhood poverty curtails this risk, while entering and remaining in neighborhood poverty in adulthood increases it. These patterns are more pronounced for young women and robust to adjustments for health behaviors and selection bias. Findings support accumulation of risks and social mobility perspectives and highlight how previous and current neighborhood contexts are relevant for health. PMID:26957132

  10. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  11. MedlinePlus: Obesity in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrics) Related Issues Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (Food and Nutrition Service) - PDF Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders (American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery) Specifics Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity (American Academy ...

  12. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  13. Nutrition Interventions for Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: What Do Parents Want from an eHealth Program?

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy; Hutchesson, Melinda; Chai, Li Kheng; Rollo, Megan; Skinner, Geoff; Collins, Clare

    2015-12-01

    With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents; and (ii) preferences and/or expectations for program components and features. Parents of children aged four to18 years were recruited through social media and completed an online survey (54 items) including closed and open-ended questions. Responses were collated using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Seventy-five participants were included (92% mothers, mean age 39.1 ± 8.6 years, mean BMI 27.6 ± 6.3 kg/m²). The index child had a mean age of 11 ± 6.2 years with 24% overweight/obese. The majority of parents (90.3%) reported interest in an online program, with preference expressed for a non-structured program to allow flexibility users to log-on and off as desired. Parents wanted a program that was easy to use, practical, engaging, endorsed by a reputable source, and able to provide individual tailoring and for their children to be directly involved. The current study supports the need for online delivery of a healthy lifestyle program that targets greater parental concerns of diet rather than child weight. PMID:26694456

  14. Nutrition Interventions for Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: What Do Parents Want from an eHealth Program?

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy; Hutchesson, Melinda; Kheng Chai, Li; Rollo, Megan; Skinner, Geoff; Collins, Clare

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents; and (ii) preferences and/or expectations for program components and features. Parents of children aged four to18 years were recruited through social media and completed an online survey (54 items) including closed and open-ended questions. Responses were collated using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Seventy-five participants were included (92% mothers, mean age 39.1 ± 8.6 years, mean BMI 27.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2). The index child had a mean age of 11 ± 6.2 years with 24% overweight/obese. The majority of parents (90.3%) reported interest in an online program, with preference expressed for a non-structured program to allow flexibility users to log-on and off as desired. Parents wanted a program that was easy to use, practical, engaging, endorsed by a reputable source, and able to provide individual tailoring and for their children to be directly involved. The current study supports the need for online delivery of a healthy lifestyle program that targets greater parental concerns of diet rather than child weight. PMID:26694456

  15. Contemporary nutritional transition: determinants of diet and its impact on body composition

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The world has experienced a marked shift in the global BMI distribution towards reduced undernutrition and increased obesity. The collision between human biology, shaped over the millennia and modern technology, globalization, government policies and food industry practices have worked to create far-reaching energy imbalance across the globe. A prime example is the clash between our drinking habits and our biology. The shift from water and breast milk as the only beverages available, to a vast array of caloric beverages was very rapid, shaped both by our tastes and aggressive marketing of the beverage industry. Our biology, shaped over millennia by daily consumption of water and seasonal availability of food, was not ready to compensate for the liquid energies. Other dietary changes were similarly significant, particularly the shift towards increased frequency of eating and larger portions. The roles of the food and beverage production, distribution and marketing sectors in not only shaping our diet but also accelerating these changes must be understood. Apart from the role of beverages, there is much less consensus about the role of various components of our diet in energy imbalance. Understanding the determinants of change in the key components of our diet through an array of research provides insights into some of the options we face in attempting to attain a great balance between energy intake and expenditures while creating an overall healthier dietary pattern. A few countries are systematically addressing the causes of poor dietary and physical activity patterns and high energy imbalance. PMID:21092363

  16. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  17. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M.; Wei, Stanley C.; Mattson, Christine L.; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Bell, Tanvir K.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5–0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1–1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL. Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  18. Programme and policy issues related to promoting positive early nutritional influences to prevent obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life: a developing countries view.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2005-07-01

    Public health policy differs from programme insofar as the former is the expression of goals at a higher decision-making level (international, regional, national or provincial) and the latter involves the execution of intervention measures at the community or individual level. It has recently become fashionable to speak of "evidence-based" policy. There is now ample evidence to suggest that early nutritional influences on chronic disease risk in later life are contributing to the acceleration of the overall worldwide epidemic of obesity and non-transmissible diseases. In developing countries, in which 80% of the world's population resides, the opportunities for preventive policy must be balanced against needs, cost and effectiveness considerations and the intrinsic limitations of policy execution. Not everyone in the population is at risk of suffering from any given negative condition of interest, nor will everyone at risk benefit from any given intervention. Hence, decisions must be made between universal or targeted policies, seeking maximal cost-efficiency, but without sowing the seeds of either discrimination or stigmatization with a non-universal application of benefits. Moreover, although large segments of the covered population may benefit from a public health measure, it may produce adverse and harmful effects on another segment. It is ethically incumbent on policy makers to minimize unintended consequences of public health measures. With respect to the particular case of mothers, fetuses and infants and long-term health, only a limited number of processes are amenable to intervention measures that could be codified in policy and executed as programmes. PMID:16881901

  19. The Inadmissibility of What We Eat in America and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition and Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-07-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs) (eg, interviews and surveys). The reliance on M-BMs to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. Data from M-BMs are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BMs has wasted substantial resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BMs are fundamentally and fatally flawed owing to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BMs require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (ie, not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (ie, memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, or falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and that the continued funding of M-BMs constitutes an unscientific and major misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  20. The Inadmissibility of ‘What We Eat In America’ (WWEIA) and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition & Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BM; e.g., interviews, surveys). The reliance on M-BM to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. M-BM data are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support, and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BM has wasted significant resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BM are fundamentally and fatally flawed due to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BM require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (i.e., not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (i.e., memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, nor falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and the continued funding of M-BM constitutes an unscientific and significant misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  1. Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ≥60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-15

    Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ≥60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution. PMID:23993123

  2. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  3. [The pharmacotherapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Noszál Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis. The natural treatment of obesity, that is often advised, is comprised of healthy lifestyle choices, namely low-calorie diet and exercise. However, the pharmaceutic treatment of obesity is just as important; having a better compliance rate, anti-obesity drugs also improve quality of life and patient-care outcome concerning accompanying diseases. In most countries only one drug is currently available against obesity: orlistat, which is a specific and irreversible lipase inhibitor. One of the reasons for the scarce number of anti-obesity drugs is the complex pathomechanism involved in obesity. Interference with the intricate biochemical processes that govern alimentation may lead to widespread adverse effects. The advances of the field however, have prompted novel drug leads. In the past few years FDA has approved new drugs for the treatment of obesity, recently liraglutide in 2014. The approval of drug combinations, such as phentermine/topiramate and bupropion/naltrexone are also noteworthy, the components of which have been previously approved, but not necessarily for obesity as main indication. Furthermore, there are many anti-obesity drug candidates currently in clinical phase trials, with promisingly modest adverse effect profiles; hence

  4. Evaluation of the Genetic and Nutritional Control of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in a Novel Mouse Model on Chromosome 7: An Insight into Insulin Signaling and Glucose Homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.; Dhar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetes cases in the US. Human obesity is a complex trait and can be studied using appropriate mouse models. A novel polygenic mouse model for studying the genetic and environmental contributions to and the physiological ramifications of obesity and related phenotypes is found in specific lines of mice bred and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Heterozygous mice with a maternally inherited copy of two radiation-induced deletions in the p region of mouse chromosome 7, p23DFioD and p30PUb, have significantly greater body fat and show hyperinsulinemia compared to the wild-type. A single gene, Atp10c, maps to this critical region and codes for a putative aminophospholipid translocase. Biochemical and molecular studies were initiated to gain insight into obesity and glucose homeostasis in these animals and to study the biological role of Atp10c in creating these phenotypes. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were standardized for the heterozygous p23DFioD and control mice on a custom-made diet containing 20% protein, 70% carbohydrate, and 10% fat (kcal). Atp10c expression profiles were also generated using Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Heterozygous p23DFioD animals showed insulin resistance after receiving a dose of either 0.375 or 0.75 U/kg Illetin R insulin. RT-PCR data also shows differences in Atp10c expression in the mutants versus control mice. Using these standardized biochemical assays, future studies will further the understanding of genetic and nutritional controls of glucose homeostasis and obesity in animal models and subsequently in human populations.

  5. [Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Cruz Correia

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the social (public) politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews the politics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition) is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and nutritional context, therefore the submission of the society to the capital reflecting in the ways of eating, living, falling ill and dying. PMID:20169239

  6. Oro-Gustatory Perception of Dietary Lipids and Calcium Signaling in Taste Bud Cells Are Altered in Nutritionally Obesity-Prone Psammomys obesus

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, [Ca2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus. PMID:23936306

  7. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  8. [Cardiovascular complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Orio, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is one of the major coronary risk factor representing an increasingly important worldwide health problem. The increased prevalence of obesity among younger population is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome and contributes to increase the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relationship between obesity (especially visceral obesity) and CVD appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome represents an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women. PMID:17312846

  9. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  10. Overweight and Obesity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In this world of receiving immediate gratification, being over scheduled, and having access to a myriad of technology, poor nutrition and lack of daily physical activity are two of the results. "Obesity is a silent epidemic," former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher stated in 2002 (Healthy schools summit weighs in on obesity). Due to the demands…

  11. Nutrition advice in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny

    2013-10-01

    Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

  12. Vitamin and mineral nutrition for the health and development of the children of Europe.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, A

    2001-02-01

    Most European countries are now affected by demographic transition and changing epidemiology of disease; the nutrition of children is increasingly recognised as crucial for present and future health. Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status among children are important for their own growth, development and function but there is now increasing evidence that childhood nutrition also influences adult health. Intrauterine nutrition influences adult morbidity and mortality, but the childhood diet and nutritional status modify the increased risk of being born small. Thus, childhood diet needs to be taken more seriously in order to improve a nation's health as well as producing bright, active children. A key factor is the recognition that nutritional interventions at different stages of the life cycle are necessary if childhood nutrition is to improve. The mosaic pattern of the geography and social structure of communities in Europe produces 'poverty' and 'consumer' related nutrition patterns - often side by side. At one extreme, there is an urgent need to prevent obesity; while at the other extreme serious attention is required towards the prevention of deficiency disorders, mostly related to poverty and social exclusion. Few European governments take childhood nutrition at all seriously. This paper reviews a number of micronutrient issues and makes the case for the development of evidence-based policies and programmes for improving the nutrition of children in Europe. PMID:11345062

  13. [Obesity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990

  14. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghanbarian, Arash; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Hadaegh, Farzad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Zahedi-Asl, Saleh

    2009-01-01

    assess the effects of different interventions in the intervention group as compared to control group. Conclusion This controlled community intervention will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of non-communicable risk factors and disorders in a population in nutrition transition. Trial registration ISRCTN52588395 PMID:19166627

  15. Obesity in Special Populations: Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Downs, Danielle Symons

    2016-03-01

    Perinatal overweight and obesity is a major public health and clinical care issue that requires deliberate and immediate attention. Preconception and prenatal assessment and counseling should address the risks associated with obesity, recommendations for weight gain, proper nutrition and dietary intake, and physical activity. Nutrition and exercise guidance should be offered to all perinatal overweight and obese women with an emphasis on effective strategies to overcome barriers. All women should be encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle and achieve a healthy weight before becoming pregnant. PMID:26896204

  16. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  17. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Arthur, Kristen N; Orlich, Michael J; James, Wesley; Purty, Anil; Job, Jayakaran S; Rajaram, Sujatha; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the "Asian Indian phenotype" identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a "nutrition transition" in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons. PMID:24847857

  18. High dietary calcium intake and a lack of dairy consumption are associated with metabolic syndrome in obese males: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Shin, Bo-Ra; Choi, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increasing rapidly worldwide and is associated with elevated risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The relationship between MetS and dietary calcium intake is controversial. We hypothesized that high dietary calcium intake is associated with MetS in males and that the associations vary according to obesity status. Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 to test these hypotheses. Data from a total of 5946 males were analyzed with no association observed between dietary calcium intake and the presence of MetS. However, males deriving high calcium intake levels from dairy products had a lower prevalence of MetS than did those who did not ingest such products (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.96). In obese males, the highest dietary calcium intake was positively associated with the presence of MetS (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.12-2.36). However, obese males who consume dairy products had a lower prevalence of MetS than did those who did not consume such products (adjusted OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90). In conclusion, the results suggest that the high dietary calcium intake, in the absence of dairy product consumption, was associated with the increased prevalence of MetS in obese males. Additional studies are required to determine whether dietary calcium intake affects the development of MetS. PMID:27188897

  19. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  20. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  1. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  2. Sugar, stress, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane

    2013-06-01

    The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns. PMID:23197136

  3. Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Mediterranean Region: Prevalence and Possible Causes

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years) ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region. PMID:21941635

  4. Obesity-promoting factors in Mexican children and adolescents: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2016-01-01

    Background Mexico is a developing country with one of the highest youth obesity rates worldwide; >34% of children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age are overweight or obese. Objectives The current review seeks to compile, describe, and analyze dietary conditions, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and cultural factors that create and exacerbate an obesogenic environment among Mexican youth. Design A narrative review was performed using PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases, as well as grey literature data from the Mexican government, academics, and statistical reports from nongovernmental organizations, included in electronic formats. Results The recent socioeconomic and nutritional transition has resulted in reduced healthy meal options at public schools, high rates of sedentary lifestyles among adolescents, lack of open spaces and playgrounds, socioeconomic deprivation, false or misunderstood sociocultural traditional beliefs, misconceptions about health, a high percentage of overweight or obese adults, and low rates of maternal breastfeeding. Some of the factors identified are exacerbating the obesity problem in this population. Current evidence also shows that more policies and health programs are needed for prevention of childhood and adolescent obesity. Mexico presents alarming obesity levels, which need to be curtailed and urgently reversed. Conclusions The present narrative review presents an overview of dietary, physical activity, societal and cultural preconceptions that are potentially modifiable obesity-promoting factors in Mexican youth. Measures to control these factors need to be implemented in all similar developing countries by governments, policy makers, stakeholders, and health care professionals to tackle obesity in children and young people. PMID:26787421

  5. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish

    2010-08-01

    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, scores improved in all children irrespective of the type of school (P < 0.001). A significantly higher improvement was observed in younger children (aged 8-11 years) as compared with those aged 12-18 years, in females compared with males and in government schools compared with private schools (P < 0.05 for all). Major gaps exist in health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes. PMID:20370939

  6. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  7. Diet, health and the nutrition transition: some impacts of economic and socio-economic factors on food consumption patterns in the Kingdom of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mike; Sinclair, Robert C; Fusimalohi, Caroline; Liava'a, Viliami

    2002-09-01

    An essential element of the "health transition" is the emergence of disease patterns associated with changes in dietary regimes. The consumption of nutritionally poor (imported) foods in the Pacific is associated with increasing rates of diet related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). An oft-made assumption is that changes in consumption patterns are related to food preference (specifically preferences for high fat and/or dense carbohydrate foods). Recent work in the Kingdom of Tonga suggests that the "common-sense" association between food preference and food consumption is incorrect. The results of a large survey (n=430) indicate availability is the key factor in consumption, and that food preference, knowledge of the nutritional values of foods, and frequency of consumption are not correlated. Further analysis shows there are significant differences in consumption patterns between persons of higher and lower socio-economic status; perception of availability and frequency of consumption are a function of economic and social position--specifically access to cash. These results underline the salience of economic factors; the rise in NCDs is correlated with the increasing importance of the cash economy (not cultural values or ignorance of nutritional issues). In the absence of economic solutions, current consumption patterns will continue. PMID:14736120

  8. Overweight and Obesity among Palestinian Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (1999-2000).

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Jildeh, Christine; Dkeideek, Sahar; Qasrawi, Radwan; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Al Sabbah, Haleama

    2012-01-01

    Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18-64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45-54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women) or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women). When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P < 0.05). Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status) were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented. PMID:22523663

  9. Overweight and Obesity among Palestinian Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (1999-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Jildeh, Christine; Dkeideek, Sahar; Qasrawi, Radwan; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Al Sabbah, Haleama

    2012-01-01

    Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18–64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45–54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women) or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women). When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P < 0.05). Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status) were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented. PMID:22523663

  10. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  11. [The nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition: changes in dietary patterns 1961-2009 in the Mexican socioeconomic context].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Hernández-Montoya, Dewi; Silberman, Martín; Capraro, Santiago; García-García, Juan José; Soto-Estrada, Guadalupe; Sandoval-Bosh, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether there were changes in the composition of dietary patterns from 1961 to 2009, if food patterns by income level and the increase in the price of certain basic foods of the diet in the socioeconomic Mexican context, could explain the nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. We conducted an ecological study with data from FAO balance sheets. To construct eating patterns cluster analysis was performed. Engel curves were developed with data from the 2012 INEGI ENGH survey and evolution of the relative price of some foods was calculated. The diet was defined in three dietary patterns. The increase in the total availability of energy increased from 2316 kcal/person/day in 1961 to 3146 in 2009. Dietary pattern modifications are in line with the nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. It was observed that the energy derived from cereals and from legume (common beans) was significantly reduced, and simultaneously, the energy from sugars, animal foods and vegetable fats had a dramatic increase. Spending on food was differential according to income level. Malnutritionis mediated by the unequal distribution of income, the relatively low cost of energy-dense foods, the increased cost of nutritious foods, and limited support to agriculture. PMID:26336718

  12. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  13. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  14. CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR THE PERIOPERATIVE NUTRITIONAL, METABOLIC, AND NONSURGICAL SUPPORT OF THE BARIATRIC SURGERY PATIENT—2013 UPDATE: COSPONSORED BY AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, THE OBESITY SOCIETY, AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR METABOLIC & BARIATRIC SURGERY★

    PubMed Central

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Youdim, Adrienne; Jones, Daniel B.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Hurley, Daniel L.; McMahon, M. Molly; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Kushner, Robert; Adams, Ted D.; Shikora, Scott; Dixon, John B.; Brethauer, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. There are 74 recommendations (of which 56 are revised and 2 are new) in this 2013 update, compared with 164 original recommendations in 2008. There are 403 citations, of which 33 (8.2%) are EL 1, 131 (32.5%) are EL 2, 170 (42.2%) are EL 3, and 69 (17.1%) are EL 4. There is a relatively high proportion (40.4%) of strong (EL 1 and 2) studies, compared with only 16.5% in the 2008 AACE- TOS-ASMBS CPG. These updated guidelines reflect recent additions to the evidence base. Bariatric surgery remains a safe and effective intervention for select patients with obesity. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. PMID:23529351

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient—2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery*

    PubMed Central

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Youdim, Adrienne; Jones, Daniel B.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Hurley, Daniel L.; McMahon, Molly; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Kushner, Robert; Adams, Ted D.; Shikora, Scott; Dixon, John B.; Brethauer, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. There are 74 recommendations (of which 56 are revised and 2 are new) in this 2013 update, compared with 164 original recommendations in 2008. There are 403 citations, of which 33 (8.2%) are EL 1, 131 (32.5%) are EL 2, 170 (42.2%) are EL 3, and 69 (17.1%) are EL 4. There is a relatively high proportion (40.4%) of strong (EL 1 and 2) studies, compared with only 16.5% in the 2008 AACE-TOS-ASMBS CPG. These updated guidelines reflect recent additions to the evidence base. Bariatric surgery remains a safe and effective intervention for select patients with obesity. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. PMID:23529939

  16. A combination of probiotics and whey proteins enhances anti-obesity effects of calcium and dairy products during nutritional energy restriction in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Sun, Xiaocum; Kawase, Manabu; Kubota, Akira; Miyazawa, Kenji; Harata, Gaku; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; He, Fang; Zemel, Michael B

    2015-06-14

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus paracasei TMC0409, Streptococcus thermophilus TMC1543 and whey proteins were used to prepare fermented milk. For the experiment aP2- agouti transgenic mice were pre-treated with a high-sucrose/high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese mice were fed a diet containing 1·2% Ca and either non-fat dried milk (NFDM) or probiotic-fermented milk (PFM) with nutritional energy restriction for 6 weeks. The animals were examined after the treatment for changes in body weight, fat pad weight, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, lypolysis, the expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle and the presence of biomarkers for oxidative and inflammatory stress in plasma. It was found that the PFM diet significantly reduced body weight, fat accumulation, and adipocyte FAS activity, and increased adipocyte lipolysis as compared with the effects of the NFDM diet (P<0·05). The adipose tissue gene expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) was significantly suppressed in mice that were fed PFM as compared with those that were fed NFDM (P<0·05). PFM caused a greater up-regulation of skeletal muscle PPARα, PPARδ, uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and GLUT4 expression and a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of insulin, malondialdehyde, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and C-reactive protein as compared with the effects of NFDM (P<0·05). Fermentation of milk with selected probiotics and supplementation of milk with whey proteins may thus enhance anti-obesity effects of Ca and dairy products by the suppression of adipose tissue lipogenesis, activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress. PMID:25871498

  17. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  18. Obesity and economic environments.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  19. Leucine in Obesity: Therapeutic Prospects.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kang; Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-08-01

    Obesity develops from an imbalance of energy homeostasis and is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissues (WAT). Inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of many obesity-induced disorders including insulin resistance and diabetes. Increasing evidence has shown that dietary leucine supplementation positively affects the parameters associated with obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The beneficial effects include increased loss of body weight, reduced WAT inflammation, improved lipid and glucose metabolism, enhanced mitochondrial function, and preserved lean body mass. Although these beneficial effects have not been clearly established, dietary leucine supplementation, either alone or as part of a therapeutic regimen, may be a good nutritional tool in the prevention and management of obesity and obesity-induced metabolic disorders. PMID:27256112

  20. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  1. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians1234

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N; Arthur, Kristen N; Orlich, Michael J; James, Wesley; Purty, Anil; Job, Jayakaran S; Rajaram, Sujatha; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the “Asian Indian phenotype” identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m2) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a “nutrition transition” in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons. PMID:24847857

  2. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns. PMID:19786392

  3. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition. PMID:25500760

  4. Evolution of social networks: the example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, Jacques; Taramasco, Carla

    2014-12-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of the social transmission of nutrition habits in a social and biological age-dependent context on obesity, and accordingly on type II diabetes and among its complications, the neurodegenerative diseases. The evolution of social networks and inside a network the healthy weight of a person are depending on the context in which this person has contacts and exchanges concerning his alimentation, physical activity and sedentary habits, inside the dominant social network in which the person lives (e.g., scholar for young, professional for adult, home or institution for elderly people). Three successive steps of evolution will be considered for social networks (like for neural one's): initial random connectivity, destruction and consolidation of links following a new transition rule called homophilic until an asymptotic architectural organization and configuration of states. The application of such a network dynamics concerns the sequence overweight/obesity/type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25466389

  5. Obesity and body size preferences of Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Madanat, Hala; Hawks, Steven R; Angeles, Heidi N

    2011-02-01

    The nutrition transition is associated with increased obesity rates and increased desire to be thin. This study evaluates the relationship between actual body size and desired body size among a representative sample of 800 Jordanian women. Using Stunkard's body silhouettes, women were asked to identify their current and ideal body sizes, healthy body size, and their perception of the body size preferred by men. Body mass index (BMI) calculations indicate that 53.8% of the women were overweight or obese. Their mean current body size was 5, which is consistent with the mean BMI of 26 in the sample. Although 66% of the women were dissatisfied with their body size, the desired weight loss was not extreme. Pearson correlation was positive (.858, p <.0001) between measured BMI and body silhouettes chosen as an indicator of current body size. Jordanian women seemed pulled between the traditional and Westernized body preferences. Possible cultural explanations are explored. PMID:21169479

  6. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  7. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  8. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  9. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  10. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T; Jensen, Tim K; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Bering, Stine B; Boye, Mette

    2011-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants develops very rapidly from a mild intolerance to enteral feeding into intestinal mucosal hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis. We hypothesized that immediate feeding-induced gut responses precede later clinical NEC symptoms in preterm pigs. Fifty-six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs remained protected (1/20, 5%). Just 8 h of formula feeding induced histopathological lesions, as evidenced by capillary stasis and necrosis, epithelial degeneration, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. These immediate formula-induced changes were paralleled by decreased digestive enzyme activities (lactase and dipeptidylpeptidase IV), increased nutrient fermentation, and altered expression of innate immune defense genes such as interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-18), nitric oxide synthetase, tight junction proteins (claudins), Toll-like receptors (TLR-4), and TNF-α. In contrast, the first hours of colostrum feeding induced no histopathological lesions, increased maltase activity, and induced changes in gene expressions related to tissue development. Total bacterial density was high after 2 days of parenteral feeding and was not significantly affected by diet (colostrum, formula) or length of enteral feeding (8-34 h), except that a few bacterial groups (Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus species) increased with time. We conclude that a switch from parenteral to enteral nutrition rapidly induces diet-dependent histopathological, functional, and proinflammatory insults to the immature intestine. Great care is required when introducing enteral feeds to TPN-fed preterm infants, particularly when using formula, because early feeding-induced insults may predispose to NEC

  11. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (P<0.05). Vegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; P<0.05) and lower in sodium (1,068 ± 207 mg) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (1,656 ± 488 mg; P<0.05). Standards that received the most parental support were serving at least two vegetables (score of 8.7 on a scale of one to nine) and two fruits per day (score of 8.6) and implementing policies against staff using food as a reward or punishment (score of 8.6). The center-specific policy of only bringing healthy foods for celebrations received the lowest support (score of 5.8). Adding more vegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level. PMID:24144990

  12. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  13. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yurasova, Elena; Idrisov, Bulat; Gnatienko, Natalia; Migliorini, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Russian Federation (Russia), an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level. PMID:26112143

  14. Childhood Obesity: A School-Based Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Charlotte

    This model of an eight-week childhood obesity program for intermediate elementary through junior high school students addresses the social, psychological, and physical penalties often incurred by obese children. The materials detail the program format in terms of: (1) a daily food log; (2) a discussion of proper nutrition; (3) a contract for…

  15. Hydrogen Photoevolution Indicates an Increase in the Antenna Size of Photosystem I in Chlamydobotrys stellata during Transition from Autotrophic to Photoheterotrophic Nutrition 1

    PubMed Central

    Boichenko, Vladimir A.; Wiessner, Wolfgang; Klimov, Vyacheslav V.; Mende, Dierk; Demeter, Sándor

    1992-01-01

    The changes in the light-harvesting antenna size of photosystem I were investigated in the green alga Chlamydobotrys stellata during transition from autotrophic to photoheterotrophic nutrition by measuring the light-saturation behavior of hydrogen evolution following single turnover flashes. It was found that during autotrophic-to-photoheterotrophic transition the antenna size of photosystem I increased from 180 to 250 chlorophyll. The chlorophyll (a + b)/P700 ratio decreased from 800 to 550. The electron transport of photosystem I measured from reduced 2,6-dichloro-phenolindophenol to methylviologen was accelerated 1.4 times. In the 77K fluorescence spectra, the photosystem II fluorescence yield was considerably lowered relative to the photosystem I fluorescence yield. It is suggested that the increased light-harvesting capacity and redistribution of absorbed excitation energy in favor of photosystem I is a response of photoheterotrophic algae to meet the ATP demand for acetate metabolism by efficient photosystem I cyclic electron transport when the noncyclic photophosphorylation is inhibited by CO2 deficiency. PMID:16652992

  16. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  17. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is associated with progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as decline in physical functioning. Although consensus diagnosis has not been reached, sarcopenia is increasingly defined by both loss of muscle mass and loss of muscle function or strength. The cause of sarcopenia is suggested as multifactorial, including hormonal changes, inflammatory pathway activation, fatty infiltration, poor nutrition, and decreased physical activity. Sarcopenia is often associated with visceral obesity. Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly impacts metabolic complications and represents a major public health challenge in a rapidly aging society. Further research about sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may be needed to confront the influence of aging society in Korea. PMID:24396659

  18. [Overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Haua-Navarro, Karime

    2016-09-01

    Obesity represents nowadays a significant health problem, leading to multiple efforts in order to identify its causal factors and the prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for its attention. Dairy intake is among the dietary factors that have been studied, and they frequently, but not consistently nor conclusively, have shown to be protective factors for the development of overweight, obesity and their comorbidities. Current literature addresses the reason underlying the association between dairy intake and obesity from two explanatory lines: the contribution of these products to total energy intake and the influence of some of their nutritional components -mainly calcium, protein and fat- on the underlying processes for the development of this condition. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge on these topics. PMID:27603887

  19. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  20. State Legislation to Address Childhood Obesity. Program Results Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 12.5 million American children and teens are obese. Over time, the diseases and disabilities associated with obesity may undermine this population's health and result in substantial social and economic costs. Policies that address children's nutrition and physical activity are an important tool in reversing the obesity epidemic. More…

  1. A Reaction to: What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    "What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…

  2. Integrating Nutrition into the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children and teens continues to be a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 16.9% of children and adolescents age 2-19 years are obese. To address this epidemic, schools have been encouraged to develop a coordinated school health program, which includes an interdisciplinary approach to nutrition education.…

  3. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition. PMID:24010741

  4. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth. PMID:19400973

  5. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations. PMID:26689929

  6. Food Types in the Diet and the Nutrient Intake of Obese and Non−Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Öznur; Altan, Tuğçe; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world−wide. Objective: To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non−obese children. Methods: A total of 95 obese and 592 non−obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three−day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according to standard international recommendations. Results: Macronutrient intake was adequate in both obese and non−obese children. Energy intake of the obese children was significantly higher than that of the non−obese children. Micronutrient intake except fiber of both groups, calcium intake of obese children and vitamin A intake of non−obese children were higher than recommended amounts. The obese children consumed excessive fat and sugar, but less fruit and vegetables as compared to the non−obese children, and less than the recommendations of the food guide pyramid as adopted by the US Department of Food and Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services. Conclusion: The implementation of educational programs on nutrition may be important for promoting knowledge about healthy eating among obese children. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318061

  7. Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

  8. Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth

    PubMed Central

    SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

  9. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences. PMID:27288829

  10. Nutrition and diet-related problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, E C; Maropis, C G

    1998-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of remarkable change. Nutrient requirements increase to promote physical growth and development and adolescents begin to make lifelong diet choices. These choices are often influenced by family, peers, and individual nutrition beliefs. This article addresses typical problems and recommendations for normal adolescent nutrition as well as nutrient needs for special conditions such as obesity, athletics, and vegetarianism. PMID:9469923

  11. [Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

  12. The Emotional Aspects of Nutrition. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. The focus of this booklet is on the psychological aspects of obesity. A discussion is also presented of the emotional and psychological causes of anorexia nervosa. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a…

  13. Nutrition and behavior of lemurs.

    PubMed

    Junge, Randall E; Williams, Cathy V; Campbell, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Attention to nutritional and behavioral factors is important for appropriate care of lemurs in captivity. Although only a few species are commonly held in captivity, differences between them are important. Knowledge of feeding ecology and natural diet guide nutrition guidelines, as well as management and prevention of common nutrition-related disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and iron-storage disease. Behavioral characteristics that influence captive management are related to social organization, reproductive behavior, territoriality, and infant care. Housing animals in appropriate social groupings in adequately complex environments reduces abnormal behaviors, and addition of enrichment activities and operant conditioning encourages normal behaviors. PMID:19341960

  14. Consensus document of the Neuroendocrinology area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition on management of hypopituitarism during transition.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Eva; Recio-Córdova, José María; Bernabéu-Morón, Ignacio; Fajardo-Montañana, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    The transition period from child to adult represents a crucial phase in the growth process where multiple physical and psychosocial changes occur. It has been arbitrarily defined as the period extending from late puberty to full adult maturity (i.e., from mid to late teenage years until 6-7 years after achievement of final height). The aim of this guideline is to emphasize the importance of adequate hormone replacement during this period and to review reassessment of pituitary function. In patients with GH deficiency diagnosed in childhood, an attempt is made to answer when to retest GH secretion, when to treat and how they should be monitored. Thyroxine, glucocorticoid, and sex steroid replacement are also reviewed. PMID:24200635

  15. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience with Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education.…

  16. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…

  17. Nutrition Needs Assessment of Young Special Olympics Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jennifer C.; Temple, Viviene A.; Anholt, Jane P.; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk for obesity and nutrition-related health concerns, yet there is a paucity of data describing their nutrition status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutritional challenges of young participants (2-10 years of age) enrolled in Special Olympics Canada (SOC)…

  18. A Manual on Food and Nutrition for the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van-Lane, Deirdre, Comp.; MacDonald, Donna

    The manual considers nutritional issues in disability. Basic nutrition principles are offered in the first section along with a table of sources and functions of nutrients in food. Section 2 considers nutrition factors associated with disabilities, including causes and treatment of obesity and underweight. Implications of diet and feeding patterns…

  19. 75 FR 22357 - Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion; Agency Information Collection Activities; Current...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... can be found at http://www.appsforkids.com . With childhood obesity continuing to rise, the goal of... nutrition education technologies is needed to address the epidemic rates of obesity within the United...

  20. Nutrition and Schools Knowledge Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitsch, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    This review examined 117 research articles using a policy framework generated in previous research. Findings include: students are experiencing both food insecurity and an "epidemic of obesity"; policymakers remain focused on achievement; provinces address nutrition in isolation; poverty is a significant contributor; restriction of food is not an…

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  2. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. PMID:26667758

  3. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming. PMID:24967364

  4. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. Obesity management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

  6. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Management.

    PubMed

    Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill

    2015-08-01

    One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic. PMID:26210619

  7. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  8. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ..., Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, (77 FR 4088, January 26... given their significant social and economic costs. Obesity, in addition to nutrition and...

  9. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  10. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight. PMID:22776157

  11. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  12. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

  13. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  14. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  15. Association between socioeconomic vulnerability and height with obesity in low-income Chilean children in the transition from preschool to first grade.

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara; Taibo, Marcela; Vio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the percentage of obesity among lower-income Chilean children 4-6 years of age, by socioeconomic vulnerability (family score assessing the children's risk of becoming poor) and height. The sample included 17,080 children with anthropometry at 4, 5, and 6 years of age, and three categories of socioeconomic vulnerability. Body mass index Z-score (BMI Z), % obesity, height/age Z-score (HAZ) by socioeconomic vulnerability/sex, the effect of socioeconomic vulnerability on BMI Z and HAZ by age/sex, and BMI Z and % obesity at 4-6 years, according to initial height, were determined. Between 4-6 years, % obesity is very high, especially among the less-vulnerable and taller children. Preventive measures should prioritize this group. PMID:24735207

  16. Psychological correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Munsch, S

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the prevention and intervention efforts of childhood obesity, there is a strong need for the early detection of psychological factors contributing to its development and maintenance. Rather than a stable condition, childhood obesity represents a dynamic process, in which behavior, cognition and emotional regulation interact mutually with each other. Family structure and context, that is, parental and familial attitudes, activity, nutritional patterns as well as familial stress, have an important role with respect to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obesity. Behavioral and emotional problems are found in many, though not all, obese children, with a higher prevalence in clinical, treatment-seeking samples. The interrelatedness between obesity and psychological problems seems to be twofold, in that clinically meaningful psychological distress might foster weight gain and obesity may lead to psychosocial problems. The most frequently implicated psychosocial factors are externalizing (impulsivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) behavioral problems and uncontrolled eating behavior. These findings strengthen the need to further explore the interrelatedness between psychological problems and childhood obesity. PMID:21151145

  17. Prevalence and determinants of obesity and dietary habits among adults in rural area, Chile.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Miyoshi, Miki; Okumura, Junko; Sanchez, Hugo; Andreu, Juan; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2007-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of obesity and its determinants among adults in a rural area of Chile. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in April-June 2004 in San Carlos (8th region). Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for 603 adults (female 447, male 156) aged 20-64 years, and data on socio-economic factors, dietary intake, and dietary habits were obtained by questionnaire interviews. The prevalence of obese individuals was 45.2% among females and 30.1% among males, whereas that of overweight individuals was higher among males than females. Obesity was associated with socio-economic factors for females but not for males. With regard to diet, different patterns between females and males were observed in terms of frequency of food intake, as well as in dietary habits. Our findings of a high prevalence of obese/overweight individuals, together with the characteristics of their diets including changes in the cooking process, suggest that nutrition transition is underway in rural regions as well. Appropriate interventions, therefore, should be introduced to control obesity among women and to enhance health awareness among men throughout the country. PMID:20103884

  18. Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity12

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jennifer C; Arundel, Cherinne; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity has been viewed traditionally as a disease of excess nutrition, evidence suggests that it may also be a disease of malnutrition. Specifically, thiamin deficiency was found in 15.5–29% of obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. It can present with vague signs and symptoms and is often overlooked in patients without alcohol use disorders. This review explores the relatively new discovery of high rates of thiamin deficiency in certain populations of people with obesity, including the effects of thiamin deficiency and potential underlying mechanisms of deficiency in people with obesity. The 2 observational studies that examined the prevalence in preoperative bariatric surgery patients and gaps in our current knowledge (including the prevalence of thiamin deficiency in the general obese population and whether the current RDA for thiamin meets the metabolic needs of overweight or obese adults) are reviewed. Suggestions for future areas of research are included. PMID:25770253

  19. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  20. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  1. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  2. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  3. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  4. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  5. The role of nurses in the prevention and management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Kouta, Christiana

    This paper examines the current scientific knowledge on the relationship between diet and obesity, and considers the implications for nursing practice. It focuses on the main nutritional elements that have been identified as significant in the prevention and management of obesity. Research findings reveal the important role of specific dietary habits and patterns and their influence on obesity; particularly on childhood obesity. This paper discusses the nursing implications in relation to the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:20622760

  6. Obesity Statistics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic. PMID:26896205

  7. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  8. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  9. Overweight and obesity management strategies.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensive lifestyle interventions, including nutrition, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, are the foundation for clinical obesity management. New tools and treatment approaches help clinicians provide these interventions and support weight management in the primary care setting. Escalating treatment, such as using pharmacotherapy, medical devices, or bariatric surgery, are important considerations for appropriate patients who do not respond to lifestyle counseling. This article provides a review of obesity treatment in primary care and managed care settings. Principles of lifestyle changes for weight management, behavioral counseling, and options for pharmacotherapy, medical devices, and bariatric surgery are discussed. PMID:27356116

  10. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods. PMID:22643173

  11. Nutrition in the elderly: nutritional aspects of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Baker, Herman

    2007-09-01

    Osteoporosis, diseases of the oral cavity, GI disorders, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease are highly influenced by dietary factors. Older patients may benefit from calcium supplementation even if the osteoporotic process is well under way. Certain GI disorders respond to increased fiber intake. Obesity and diabetes are sensitive to dietary changes, and diabetes sometimes can be prevented or reversed in its early stages with diet and exercise. High fruit and vegetable consumption seems to lower cancer risk. No strong evidence suggests that nutritional supplements improve cognition. PMID:17824722

  12. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. PMID:26876319

  13. Childhood Obesity. A Concern for the Physical Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plimpton, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical educators can help obese children to realize their worth and become healthy individuals. Physical educators should encourage a positive attitude toward exercise and fitness, individual counseling, nutrition instruction, and development of high self-esteem. (CB)

  14. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  15. Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

  16. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The review utilizes data on three micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc and iron), anthropometrically defined undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and obesity to evaluate the effect on immune function, recovery of immune function in response to nutritional interventions, related health outco...

  17. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  18. The Healthy Core Metabolism: A New Paradigm for Primary Preventive Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fardet, A; Rock, E

    2016-03-01

    Research in preventive nutrition aims at elucidating mechanism by which our diet helps us to remain in good health through optimal physiological functions. However, despite decades of accumulated data in human nutrition and regular subsequent nutritional recommendations, obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics continue to progress worldwide each year leading to a regular decrease of the Healthy Life Years, notably in Western countries. Such a paradox may be explained by the Nutrition Transition, the extreme application of the reductionist paradigm in nutrition research, the lack of nutritional education and a too strong focus on curative nutrition in at risk/ill subjects. In this position paper, we hypothesized that researchers should focus more on healthy subjects, from birth until maturity. Rather than exploring what differentiates healthy and at risk/ill subjects, we propose to thoroughly study what characterizes a healthy state and its underlying metabolism. We define it as the Healthy Core Metabolism which remains stable whatever energy inputs (diets) and outputs (exercise), genetic background and external/internal stress, e.g., temporary illnesses. As a basis for Healthy Core Metabolism investigation, we observed that main physiological and ubiquitous functions of human organism, i.e., the neuro-vasculo-sarco-osteoporotic system, tend to follow a concave curve with common phases of growth, optimum, and decline. Finally, we hypothesized that true primary preventive nutrition should focus on the growth phase to reach the maximum capital of a given physiological function so that - whatever the further decline -, Healthy Life Years may approach or coincide with theoretical Life Expectancy. PMID:26892572

  19. Assessment of Nutrition Education Among Pediatric Gastroenterologists: A Survey of NASPGHAN Members

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Henry C; Kahana, Doron; Vos, Miriam B; Black, Dennis; Port, Zack; Shulman, Robert; Scheimann, Ann; Mascarenhas, Maria R.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective. However, pediatric gastroenterology fellows feel that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of nutrition training among pediatric gastroenterologists, identify areas of need for additional education, and determine the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in obesity management. Methods A survey was sent to members and fellows of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to assess general nutrition education as well as obesity management and educational needs. Results A total of 272 responses were received, for an overall response rate of 15.2% (272/1,784). Most responders reported having average or above-average knowledge base in all nutritional topics. There was strong interest in additional resources and a continuing medical education (CME) module on several nutrition topics including: nutritional requirements in specific gastrointestinal (GI) disease, failure to thrive/growth failure, and parenteral nutrition support, with the format of CME dependent on the topic. There was also a strong interest in additional CME on the management of pediatric obesity (67%), as most responders felt that the management of obesity in children requires subspecialty care. However, the perceived role of the pediatric gastroenterologist was one of support to treat the gastrointestinal and hepatic co-morbidities of obesity rather than serve as the main provider of comprehensive obesity care. Conclusion Pediatric gastroenterologists identified gaps in their nutrition knowledge base that may be attributed to the current nutrition education training during fellowship. Multiple topics were identified for additional nutrition education, including obesity management. The nutrition management challenges of today necessitate

  20. Preventing and managing pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Plourde, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on prevention and management of childhood obesity and to offer suggestions for family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles were obtained from a PubMed search. Most studies on pediatric obesity provide level II evidence. There are some level I studies on management. MAIN MESSAGE Pediatric obesity is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Prevention should be initiated as early as pregnancy. Prevention and treatment approaches should include patient and family interventions focusing on nutrition, physical activity, reduced television viewing, and behaviour modification. The effectiveness of such interventions by primary care physicians has not been totally demonstrated, but incorporating them into clinical practice routines is likely to be beneficial. CONCLUSION Family physicians have a role in promoting preventive measures and identifying and treating obesity-related comorbidity. Pediatric obesity is not an individual child’s problem, but a problem that involves the whole family and the community. Recommending a healthy diet and increased physical activity and counseling families on behaviour change is the best approach to preventing and managing childhood obesity. PMID:16572577

  1. Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

    2012-04-01

    India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

  2. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD. PMID:27296501

  3. [Childhood obesity and general medicine].

    PubMed

    Cailliez, Eric; Fanello, Serge; Gérard, Solène; Pietri, Maéva

    2012-01-01

    The results of a 2009-2010 survey of general practitioners in Maine-et-Loire show that their practices have improved over the last few years with regard to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. However, the recommendations of the French national health authority and the French national nutrition and health programme are not sufficiently applied and doctors face numerous difficulties, including a lack of parental involvement. PMID:22880332

  4. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  5. Cardiovascular complications of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Palomba, S; Cascella, T; Savastano, S; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important worldwide health problem, representing the major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly among younger age groups, is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the years to come, especially at a young age. Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome and increases the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relation between obesity, in particular visceral obesity and CVD, appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic CVD, and an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women is the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:17318026

  6. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers. PMID:26251973

  7. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

  8. Molecular Basis of Obesity: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Hélène; Meyre, David

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global health problem that is gradually affecting each continent of the world. Obesity is a heterogeneous disorder, and the biological causes of obesity are complex. The rapid increase in obesity prevalence during the past few decades is due to major societal changes (sedentary lifestyle, over-nutrition) but who becomes obese at the individual level is determined to a great extent by genetic susceptibility. In this review, we evidence that obesity is a strongly heritable disorder, and provide an update on the molecular basis of obesity. To date, nine loci have been involved in Mendelian forms of obesity and 58 loci contribute to polygenic obesity, and rare and common structural variants have been reliably associated with obesity. Most of the obesity genes remain to be discovered, but promising technologies, methodologies and the use of “deep phenotyping” lead to optimism to chip away at the ‘missing heritability’ of obesity in the near future. In the longer term, the genetic dissection of obesity will help to characterize disease mechanisms, provide new targets for drug design, and lead to an early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of obesity. PMID:22043164

  9. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. Stay Smart: Lost Weight--Childhood Obesity and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa-Postl, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic levels of childhood obesity. Current statistics show that obesity has more than doubled for preschool children aged 2-5 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years, and it has more than tripled for children aged 6-11 years. It is generally recognized that nutrition education for the…

  12. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  13. Recruitment Evaluation of a Preschooler Obesity-Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…

  14. Childhood dual burden of under- and over-nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Tzioumis, Emma; Adair, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In low- and middle income countries, the distribution of childhood nutritional diseases is shifting from a predominance of undernutrition to a dual burden of under- and overnutrition. This novel and complex problem challenges governments and health organizations to tackle opposite ends of the malnutrition spectrum. The dual burden may manifest within a community, household, or individual, but these different levels have not been addressed collectively. Objective To critically review literature on the prevalence, trends, and predictors of the dual burden, with a focus on children from birth to 18 years. Methods We reviewed literature since January 1, 1990, published in English, using the PubMed search terms: nutrition transition, double burden, dual burden, nutrition status, obesity, overweight, underweight, stunting, body composition, and micronutrient deficiencies. Findings were classified and described according to dual burden level (community, household, individual). Results Global trends indicate decreases in diseases of undernutrition, while overnutrition is increasing. On the community level, economic status may influence the dual burden’s extent, with obesity increasingly affecting the already undernourished poor. In a household, shared determinants of poor nutritional status among members can result in disparate nutritional status across generations. Within an individual, obesity may co-occur with stunting or anemia, due to shared underlying determinants or physiologic links. Conclusions The dual burden of malnutrition poses a threat to children’s health in low- and middle-income countries. We must remain committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition, through integrated child health programs that incorporate prevention of infection, diet quality, and physical activity. PMID:25076771

  15. [Extensive conservative treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is complex due to the multifactorial etiology. A modern therapy concept must therefore be tailored to the individual needs and problems and depends on various factors such as degree of obesity, the presence of physical complications, psychological co-morbidities, any treatment measures the patient underwent up to now as well as on motivational factors. Before deciding on a therapeutic measure a structured multidisciplinary cooperation is essential including psychosomatic medicine/psychiatry/psychotherapy, endocrinology, sports medicine, nutritional medicine and surgery as well. The treatment must be carried out in a multidisciplinary team and includes an adequate therapy of comorbidities and sometimes a psychopharmacological support. The success of a conservative treatment of obesity is remarkable and long-lasting and can be straightforwardly compared to bariatric surgery in financial as well as ethical terms, although for patients and their physicians the latter often carries the allure of quick success. PMID:23385187

  16. Is obesity a brain disease?

    PubMed

    Shefer, Gabi; Marcus, Yonit; Stern, Naftali

    2013-12-01

    That the brain is involved in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of obesity is broadly self-intuitive, but traditional evaluation of this relationship has focused on psychological and environment-dependent issues, often referred to as the "it's all in the head" axiom. Here we review evidence that excessive nutrition or caloric flux, regardless of its primary trigger, elicits a biological trap which imprints aberrant energy control circuits that tend to worsen with the accumulation of body fat. Structural and functional changes in the brain can be recognized, such as hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis, reduction in brain volume, reduced regional blood flow or diminished hippocampal size. Such induced changes collectively translate into a vicious cycle of deranged metabolic control and cognitive deficits, some of which can be traced back even to childhood or adolescence. Much like other components of the obese state, brain disease is inseparable from obesity itself and requires better recognition to allow future therapeutic targeting. PMID:23911925

  17. Rapid Growth from 12 to 23 Months of Life Predicts Obesity in a Population of Pacific Island Children

    PubMed Central

    Okihiro, May; Davis, James; White, Lon; Derauf, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid growth (RG) in early childhood has been associated with increased risk of obesity. The specific intervals when risk is highest have not been well examined and may help identify modifiable risk factors. Objective To determine the correlation between RG in consecutive time intervals during the first 2 years of life with obesity at 4–5 years. Methods This was a retrospective study of children attending the largest community health center in Hawaii. Children, aged 4–5 years, with a pre-kindergarten (PreK) well-child physical examination were included; data were abstracted from medical charts. Analyses Children were classified as overweight (BMI for age/sex 85–94%) or obese (BMI for age/sex ≥ 95%). Moderate and severe rapid growth was defined as an increase in weight-for-height z-score of .67–1.0 SD and ≥1.0, respectively. Relationship between RG and PreK obesity was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results 389 children were included: 66% Hawaiian, 21.6% Samoan and 12.3% Filipino. At the PreK 19.6% were obese, and 20.9% were overweight. Severe RG from 12 to 23 months was strongly associated with PreK obesity (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.85–10.27). Of children with severe RG from 12–23 months, 48% were obese at PreK compared with 16.7% of children with moderate RG and 19.3% of children without RG. Conclusion Rapid growth between 12 and 23 months, a key period of nutritional transition in toddlers, was strongly associated with obesity at 4 to 5 years of age in this high-risk population of Pacific Island minority subgroups. PMID:23140074

  18. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  19. Developmental origins of obesity: programmed adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mina; Beall, Marie; Ross, Michael G

    2013-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women, represents a significant public health problem. There is increasing recognition that the risk of adult obesity is clearly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures, particularly nutrition. This tenet is the fundamental basis of developmental programming. Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity. Exposure to maternal obesity, with or without GDM, or having a high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. Animal models have replicated human epidemiologic findings and elucidated potential programming mechanisms that include altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications. Prenatal care has made great strides in optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health, and now has the opportunity to begin interventions which prevent or reduce childhood/adult obesity. Guidelines that integrate optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of GDM, and newborn feeding strategies with long-term consequences on adult obesity, remain to be elucidated. PMID:23188593

  20. Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent

    PubMed Central

    Felizardo, Raphael Jose Ferreira; da Silva, Marina Burgos; Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabetes. This association of several aggravating factors is still a matter of concern in clinical and basic research because the pathophysiologic mechanisms surrounding chronic kidney disease development in obese patients remain unclear. This review will discuss the consequences of obesity in the context of renal injury. PMID:25332896

  1. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  2. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Neslihan Koyuncuoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician's role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  3. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  4. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. PMID:25292135

  5. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  6. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The views expressed are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board. Abstract: This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  7. The Double Burden of Obesity and Malnutrition in a Protracted Emergency Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study of Western Sahara Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Tondeur, Mélody C.; Dolan, Carmen; Meziani, Chafik; Wilkinson, Caroline; Spiegel, Paul; Seal, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Households from vulnerable groups experiencing epidemiological transitions are known to be affected concomitantly by under-nutrition and obesity. Yet, it is unknown to what extent this double burden affects refugee populations dependent on food assistance. We assessed the double burden of malnutrition among Western Sahara refugees living in a protracted emergency. Methods and Findings We implemented a stratified nutrition survey in October–November 2010 in the four Western Sahara refugee camps in Algeria. We sampled 2,005 households, collecting anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference) in 1,608 children (6–59 mo) and 1,781 women (15–49 y). We estimated the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM), stunting, underweight, and overweight in children; and stunting, underweight, overweight, and central obesity in women. To assess the burden of malnutrition within households, households were first classified according to the presence of each type of malnutrition. Households were then classified as undernourished, overweight, or affected by the double burden if they presented members with under-nutrition, overweight, or both, respectively. The prevalence of GAM in children was 9.1%, 29.1% were stunted, 18.6% were underweight, and 2.4% were overweight; among the women, 14.8% were stunted, 53.7% were overweight or obese, and 71.4% had central obesity. Central obesity (47.2%) and overweight (38.8%) in women affected a higher proportion of households than did GAM (7.0%), stunting (19.5%), or underweight (13.3%) in children. Overall, households classified as overweight (31.5%) were most common, followed by undernourished (25.8%), and then double burden–affected (24.7%). Conclusions The double burden of obesity and under-nutrition is highly prevalent in households among Western Sahara refugees. The results highlight the need to focus more attention on non-communicable diseases in this population and balance obesity prevention

  8. Obesity-Related Alterations in Cardiac Lipid Profile and Nondipping Blood Pressure Pattern during Transition to Diastolic Dysfunction in Male db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ford, David A.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Aroor, Annayya R.; Johnson, Megan S.; Habibi, Javad; Ma, Lixin; Yang, Ming; Albert, Carolyn J.; Lally, John W.; Ford, Caleb A.; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Hayden, Melvin R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Sowers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and a nondipping circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern are associated with diastolic dysfunction. Ectopic lipid accumulation is increasingly recognized as an important metabolic abnormality contributing to diastolic dysfunction. However, little is known about the contribution of different lipids and the composition of lipid analytes to diastolic dysfunction. We have performed functional and structural studies and analyzed cardiac lipid profile at two time points during progression to diastolic dysfunction in a genetic model of obesity. Serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and telemetric measures of BP between 12 and 15 wk of age in obese male db/db mice indicated a nondipping circadian BP pattern and normal diastolic function at 12 wk that progressed to a deteriorating nondipping pattern and onset of diastolic dysfunction at 15 wk of age. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated elevated fatty acids and ceramides in db/db at 12 wk, but their levels were decreased at 15 wk, and this was accompanied by persistent mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities in concert with evidence of increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Triacylglyceride and diacylglyceride levels were elevated at both 12 and 15 wk, but their composition changed to consist of more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acyl at 15 wk. An increase in the lipid droplets was apparent at both time points, and this was associated with increases in phosphatidycholine. In conclusion, a distinct pattern of myocardial lipid remodeling, accompanied by oxidative stress, is associated with the onset of diastolic dysfunction in obese, insulin-resistant db/db mice. PMID:23142808

  9. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  10. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  11. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  12. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  13. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  14. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  15. Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

  16. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined. PMID:24475547

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction Is Increased in Male and Overweight/Obese Adolescents in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Malete, L.; Motlhoiwa, K.; Shaibu, S.; Wrotniak, B. H.; Maruapula, S. D.; Jackson, J.; Compher, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and body image satisfaction using the Body Ideals Questionnaire. SES was described by private school versus public school attendance. Results and Discussion. OW/OB students felt farther from ideal and greater dissatisfaction with their weight and body proportions than optimal weight students. Boys felt greater difference from ideal and more dissatisfaction with muscle tone, chest size, and strength than girls. Lower SES students and those from rural villages had more minutes of PA than higher SES or urban students. In this rapidly developing African country, these trends reflect the nutrition transition and offer opportunity to motivate OW/OB students and boys for PA as a health promotion obesity prevention behavior. Conclusions. As urbanization and improved SES are desirable and likely to continue, the public health system will be challenged to prevent obesity while preserving a healthy body image. PMID:23634296

  18. Forage yield and nutritive value of turf bermudagrasses managed to simulate a horse pastuer management scheme in the U.S. Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turf-type bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (Pers.) L.] with improved cold tolerance could have potential use in horse pastures of the U.S. upper south for minimizing the damage to grass stands in these pastures from heavy trampling; however, the nutritive values of these bermudagrasses are not known...

  19. Influences of Constructivist-Oriented Nutrition Education on Urban Middle School Students' Nutrition Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…

  20. Pregnancy outcome of the obese in Ilorin

    PubMed Central

    Adesina, K; Aderibigbe, S; Fawole, A; Ijaiya, M; Olarinoye, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a nutritional disorder that is fast becoming a public health issue in the developing world. It is associated with increased incidence of maternal complications and adverse perinatal outcome. Methods and results This is a case-control study of obesity in pregnancy carried out in the maternity wing of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The subjects and controls were 156 obese and 80 non-obese women booked at this hospital for antenatal care. The controls were matched for age and parity. Obesity occurred more commonly among the well educated (P = 0.00) and those in social classes I and II (P = 0.00). The occurrence of other medical conditions was not significantly different. The obese women also had more caesarean sections (P = 0.00), more assisted vaginal deliveries (P = 0.00) and fewer spontaneous vaginal deliveries (P = 0.00) than the non-obese parturients. The mean birth weight of infants of the obese mothers was 4.06 ± 0.13 kg (mean±SD) while the mean for the controls was 3.36 ± 0.49 kg. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Also, the obese parturients had more macrosomic babies (defined as birth weight >4.2 kg) than the non-obese (P = 0.00). The risks of perinatal asphyxia, birth trauma, neonatal admission and low birth weight were not increased among obese women in this study. Conclusion This study suggests that in our community, obesity occurs more commonly among women of high socioeconomic status and is a risk factor for maternal and fetal complications.

  1. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  2. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  3. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  4. Weight Loss and Maintenance and Changes in Diet and Exercise for Behavioral Counseling and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Jim; Rardin, David

    1981-01-01

    Compared behavioral counseling with nutrition education. Initial weight losses were similar. Behavioral participants consumed fewer calories but often used diets that were nutritionally unsound. Behavioral treatment appears best for moderate obesity, but procedures are needed for nutrition education, promoting fitness, and teaching independent…

  5. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  6. Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of healthy dietary behaviors in youth. Lists many ways in which diet can significantly affect the health of adolescents including: nutrition and learning, chronic disease risk, overweight and obesity, unhealthy weight management practices and eating disorders, barriers to healthy eating habits, and overcoming barriers in…

  7. Addressing the nutritional needs of university students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project seeks to identify and evaluate dietary and physical activity patterns in African American students to develop an educational intervention that is nutritionally adequate and culturally relevant for 18- to 24-year-old African-American university stude...

  8. Nutritional risk, malnutrition and nutritional support among hospitalized patients in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a Hohhot teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nannan; Dong, Yalin; Huo, Ting; Shao, Yanqing; Xing, Wenhua; Li, Shuwen

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of nutritional status (the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity) and the nutritional support of the hospitalized patients from admission to discharge or over a two-week period in orthopedics/ spinal surgery of a teaching hospital in Hohhot were investigated. 432 patients from two wards of the orthopedics/spinal surgery from Jan to Dec 2013, the traditional spinal surgery and the minimally invasive spinal surgery, were selected and detected in this study. The Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS 2002) was used to determine the patients' nutritional status within 48 h after admission and during their hospitalization. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity at admission was 11.6%, 12.7%, 35.9% and 7.41%, respectively. Overall, there were 88.0% of the patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support, while 14.1% of non-risk patients received a redundant nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 11.6% at admission to 19.4% upon discharge (p<0.05), and the prevalence of malnutrition changed from 12.7% to 20.6% (p<0.05). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, which changed from 35.9% to 31.0% and from 7.41% to 5.79% respectively, didn't experience statistically significant evolution. NRS 2002 was a feasible nutritional risk screening tool for patients in spinal surgery of orthopedics department. Patients' prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition increased significantly in spinal surgery of this hospital. Some inappropriate uses of nutritional support were observed in orthopedics/spinal surgery, and nutritional support guidelines or protocols should be promoted by a professional committee. PMID:27222410

  9. China in the period of transition from scarcity and extensive undernutrition to emerging nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, 1949–1992

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses unique official data to document nutritional changes in the 1949–1992 period. In 1949 widespread famine, high mortality, and low life expectancy dominated. Economic progress was uneven, however, the longer-term food supply changed greatly, and hunger was conquered. Diet composition shifted greatly over this period. Cereal consumption, already high, increased from 541.2 grams per day (70.0% coarse grains) in 1952 to 645.9 grams per day (15.9% coarse grains) in 1992. Consumption of animal-source foods, half of which were pork and pork products, tripled from 30.0 grams per day to 103.0 grams per day. The proportion of energy intake from fat tripled from 7.6% to 22.5%, and that from carbohydrates decreased from 83.0% to 65.8% over the same period. Physical activity was high in all domains, but shifts were beginning to occur (e.g., the initial mechanization of work and the expansion of biking). Nutritional improvement was uneven, including increased undernutrition in the 1959–1962 period and a remarkable rebound and continued improvement thereafter. Overweight emerged only after 1982. Shifts in diet, activity, and body composition in 1949–1992 set the stage for major shifts in nutrition in the subsequent decades. PMID:24341754

  10. Fighting obesity: When muscle meets fat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Bi, Pengpeng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen to an unprecedented level. According to World Health Organization, over 500 million adults, equivalent to 10%–14% of the world population, were obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater in 2008.1 This rising prevalence and earlier onset of obesity is believed to be resulted from an interplay of genetic factors, over-nutrition and physical inactivity in modern lifestyles. Obesity also increases the susceptibility to metabolic syndromes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer.2-4 The global obesity epidemic has sparked substantial interests in the biology of adipose tissue (fat). In addition, the skeletal muscle and its secretive factors (myokines) have also been shown to play a critical role in controlling body energy balance, adipose homeostasis and inflammation status.5 Interestingly, skeletal muscle cells share a common developmental origin with brown adipocytes,6,7 which breaks down lipids to generate heat – thus reducing obesity. Here, we provide a brief overview of the basics and recent progress in muscle-fat crosstalk in the context of body energy metabolism, obesity, and diabetes. We summarize the different types of adipocytes, their developmental origins and implications in body composition. We highlight the role of several novel myokines in regulating fat mass and systemic energy balance, and evaluate the potential of skeletal muscles as a therapeutic target to treat obesity. PMID:26317052

  11. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  12. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  13. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  14. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  15. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  16. Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Khurana, L

    2011-02-01

    South Asians are at higher risk than White Caucasians for the development of obesity and obesity-related non-communicable diseases (OR-NCDs), including insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Rapid nutrition and lifestyle transitions have contributed to acceleration of OR-NCDs in South Asians. Differences in determinants and associated factors for OR-NCDs between South Asians and White Caucasians include body phenotype (high body fat, high truncal, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and low muscle mass), biochemical parameters (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, low levels of adiponectin and high levels of C-reactive protein), procoagulant state and endothelial dysfunction. Higher prevalence, earlier onset and increased complications of T2DM and CHD are often seen at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Asians than White Caucasians. In view of these data, lower cut-offs for obesity and abdominal obesity have been advocated for Asian Indians (BMI; overweight >23 to 24.9 kg m(-2) and obesity ≥ 25 kg m(-2); and WC; men ≥ 90 cm and women ≥ 80 cm, respectively). Imbalanced nutrition, physical inactivity, perinatal adverse events and genetic differences are also important contributory factors. Other differences between South Asians and White Caucasians include lower disease awareness and health-seeking behavior, delayed diagnosis due to atypical presentation and language barriers, and religious and sociocultural factors. All these factors result in poorer prevention, less aggressive therapy, poorer response to medical and surgical interventions, and higher morbidity and mortality in the former. Finally, differences in response to pharmacological agents may exist between South Asians and White Caucasians, although these have been inadequately studied. In view of these data, prevention and management strategies should be more

  17. New developments in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Nilsson, Peter; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Redon, Josep; Luft, Frank; Schmieder, Roland; Engeli, Stefan; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Pall, Denes; Schlaich, Markus; Jordan, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a disorder that develops from the interaction between genotype and environment involving social, behavioral, cultural, and physiological factors. Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, musculoskeletal disorders, chronic kidney and pulmonary disease. Although obesity is clearly associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension, many obese individuals may not develop hypertension. Protecting factors may exist and it is important to understand why obesity is not always related to hypertension. The aim of this review is to highlight the knowledge gap for the association between obesity, hypertension, and potential genetic and racial differences or environmental factors that may protect obese patients against the development of hypertension and other co-morbidities. Specific mutations in the leptin and the melaninocortin receptor genes in animal models of obesity without hypertension, the actions of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and SNS activity in obesity-related hypertension may promote recognition of protective and promoting factors for hypertension in obesity. Furthermore, gene-environment interactions may have the potential to modify gene expression and epigenetic mechanisms could also contribute to the heritability of obesity-induced hypertension. Finally, differences in nutrition, gut microbiota, exposure to sun light and exercise may play an important role in the presence or absence of hypertension in obesity. PMID:26103132

  18. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  19. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  20. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population. PMID:12164473

  1. Addressing Childhood Obesity: Opportunities for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. PMID:26318950

  2. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  3. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  4. Inflammation and nutrition in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tu, Juan; Cheung, Wai W; Mak, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and nutritional imbalance are important comorbid conditions that correlate with poor clinical outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional disorders such as cachexia/protein energy wasting, obesity and growth retardation negatively impact the quality of life and disease progression in children with CKD. Inadequate nutrition has been associated with growth disturbances in children with CKD. On the other hand, over-nutrition and obesity are associated with poor outcomes in children with CKD. The exact mechanisms leading to these unfavorable conditions are not fully elucidated and are most likely multifactorial. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of nutrition disorders and inflammation and their impact on clinical outcomes in children with CKD. PMID:27152263

  5. Inflammation and nutrition in children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Juan; Cheung, Wai W; Mak, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and nutritional imbalance are important comorbid conditions that correlate with poor clinical outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional disorders such as cachexia/protein energy wasting, obesity and growth retardation negatively impact the quality of life and disease progression in children with CKD. Inadequate nutrition has been associated with growth disturbances in children with CKD. On the other hand, over-nutrition and obesity are associated with poor outcomes in children with CKD. The exact mechanisms leading to these unfavorable conditions are not fully elucidated and are most likely multifactorial. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of nutrition disorders and inflammation and their impact on clinical outcomes in children with CKD. PMID:27152263

  6. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  7. Nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M; D'agostino, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experience of an International Children's Center (ICC) team following many years of work in the field of education for nutrition in developing and industrialized countries. Nutrition education, a long term intervention in which individuals of all ages are active participants who acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude pertaining to food and nutrition in the context of socioeconomic and cultural limitations. The discussion covers the concepts of attitude, behavior, and eating conduct. Attitude is defined as a way of viewing or internal disposition adopted by any person in a specific situation. Attitudes grow out of knowledge, beliefs, and values and personal predisposition. On the other hand, behavior denotes an observable act and results in a certain manner of acting in response to external stimuli. Eating conduct is expressed differently and in varying extents depending on living conditions and dietary resources. These concepts correspond to the different degrees of information, awareness, and participation achieved by individuals during the educational program. While examination of conduct and dietary resources are necessary for any education for nutrition programs, more attention and investigation should be given to the "negotiation" phase with the people. The community must be ready to take risks, made aware of the implications of the choices to be made to the professionals and to the general public. In this issue, the ICC team highlights important points concerning nutrition education programs. PMID:12295489

  8. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:22399864

  10. Psychosocial factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, P

    1987-01-01

    Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

  11. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised. PMID:25874831

  12. Lifetime cardiovascular risk of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Geetha

    2010-05-01

    An increase in the incidence and an earlier onset of coronary artery disease is expected because of the increased prevalence of childhood obesity. Comorbidities of obesity, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hypertension, associated nutritional deficiencies, and a sedentary lifestyle or associated lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoke exposure, are likely to account for this increase because these are all independent risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis. Because clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease does not manifest in obese children, assessment of the subclinical markers of atherosclerosis may help in the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis, in further stratification of risk, and in monitoring the effects of intervention. Furthermore, because multiple risk factors with poorly understood interplay might be present in obese children, assessment of the vasculature directly, and perhaps the assignment of a "vascular age," may be a useful method to quantify the "end organ" effect of exposure to these various risks. Obese children may show favorable changes in their behaviors that result in an improvement in clinically measurable risk factors with various clinic-based and behavior modification therapies, but the vascular benefits of such interventions need to be studied further. Broad social, cultural, legislative, and policy changes that support healthy lifestyles within families and communities need to be implemented to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity and its cardiovascular consequences in communities. The effect of risk factor modification on the vasculature will continue to be a resource for the direction of evidence-based therapy in obese children. PMID:20335556

  13. Nutrition Education Practices and Opinions of Alberta Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, S. Ann; Joffres, Michel R.

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 532 members of the Alberta Chapter of the College of Family Physicians in order to assess the role of physicians in providing nutrition education to their patients. Of the 255 respondents (53% response rate), over 97% agreed that “educating patients about nutrition is an important role for physicians.” Physicians most often gave nutrition information on obesity, constipation, heart disease and hypertension, alcohol, coffee, infant feeding, osteoporosis, and prenatal nutrition. Female physicians gave nutrition information significantly more often than male physicians on four maternal and child health topics. Perceived barriers to nutrition education included lack of reimbursement for physicians (86%), lack of time (48%), and limited access to patient information (42%). Most physicians often informed patients on the seven most common nutrition topics despite these concerns. PMID:21249103

  14. Updates in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Oken, E; Lightdale, J R

    2001-06-01

    Ongoing research in several areas of pediatric nutrition has new practical applications for community-based pediatricians. For example, a fresh understanding of risk factors for rickets persuades pediatricians to recognize and treat this disease, which was thought to be nearly extinct in the modern industrialized world. Similarly, an expanded awareness of the antibacterial components of breast milk encourages a more complete dialogue between pediatricians and new mothers about the potential benefits of breast-feeding. For those infants with feeding intolerance, new data help to refine the indications for hypoallergenic formulas, which are increasingly recommended for children with a variety of symptoms. The past year also has seen breakthroughs in our understanding of supplemental nutrition for children. Vitamin A may provide direct benefits for the most vulnerable of children, namely premature infants at high risk for lung disease. At the other end of the pediatric spectrum, adolescent athletes seeking to enhance their performance are consuming poorly studied sports supplements that may not be beneficial and may even be toxic. Finally, a greater appreciation for the epidemic of obesity that is sweeping the United States and other countries suggests that children at high risk may represent a far more diverse population than had been recognized previously. PMID:11389365

  15. Nutrition for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-12-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people. PMID:26566405

  16. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  17. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  18. Household food insecurity and excess weight/obesity among Brazilian women and children: a life-course approach.

    PubMed

    Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Silva, Antonio Augusto Moura da; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-02-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) may increase obesity risk, but results are not consistent across the life course or between developed/underdeveloped settings. The objective of this paper is to review findings from previous analyses in Brazil among adult women, female adolescents, and children up to five. Data were derived from the 2006 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. Associations between HFI (measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale) and excess weight/obesity were investigated through Poisson regression models. While severe HFI was associated with obesity risk among adult women (PR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.17-1.90), moderate HFI was associated with excess weight among female adolescents (PR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.18-3.27). There was no association between HFI and obesity among children (either boys or girls). The nutrition transition in Brazil may be shaping the differential deleterious effect of HFI on body fat accumulation across the life course; the association is already evident among female adolescents and adult women but still not among children. PMID:23459802

  19. Current & future medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Guettabi, Mouhcine

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the medical costs of childhood obesity in Alaska, today and in the future. We estimate that 15.2 percent of those ages 2 to 19 in Alaska are obese. Using parameters from published reports and studies, we estimate that the total excess medical costs due to obesity for both adults and children in Alaska in 2012 were $226 million, with medical costs of obese children and adolescents accounting for about $7 million of that total. And those medical costs will get much higher over time, as today's children transition into adulthood. Aside from the 15.2 percent currently obese, another estimated 20 percent of children who aren't currently obese will become obese as adults, if current national patterns continue. We estimate that the 20-year medical costs--discounted to present value--of obesity among the current cohort of Alaska children and adolescents will be $624 million in today's dollars. But those future costs could be decreased if Alaskans found ways to reduce obesity. We consider how reducing obesity in several ways could reduce future medical costs: reducing current rates of childhood obesity, rates of obese children who become obese adults, or rates of non-obese children and adolescents who become obese adults. We undertake modest reductions to showcase the potential cost savings associated with each of these channels. Clearly the financial savings are a direct function of the obesity reductions and therefore the magnitude of the realized savings will vary accordingly. Also keep in mind that these figures are only for the current cohort of children and adolescents; over time more generations of Alaskans will grow from children into adults, repeating the same cycle unless rates of obesity decline. And finally, remember that medical costs are only part of the broader range of social and economic costs obesity creates. PMID:26043494

  20. Nutrition and general practice: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Helman, A

    1997-06-01

    Australia has a government-subsidized, private medical system in which general practitioners (GPs) form the core component of primary care. There are approximately 20,000 active GPs and 80% of the population consults a GP each year. A new vocational register of GPs has been set up that requires training in general practice, followed by formal continuing education. I briefly review sources of information about Australian GPs' practices and knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition. About 15-17% of GPs say they have a special interest in nutrition (20% of female GPs and 13% of male GPs). The main conditions for which advice is given are heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. The extent of nutrition counseling by GPs is considerably less than might be expected from the strength of their statements about the importance of nutrition and long-term health. Obstacles to nutrition counseling are lack of time, lack of confidence, and inadequate nutrition knowledge, the last documented by objective testing. GPs express interest in learning more about nutrition (which may be partly driven by consumer pressure) but there is still little coherent teaching on the subject, specifically tailored for GPs. When asked their preferences for nutrition education, GPs tend to prefer educational material (such as diet charts) to give to patients. PMID:9174498

  1. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  2. Nutrition and Ageing.

    PubMed

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people. PMID:26630518

  3. The changing nutrition scenario.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  4. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  5. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  6. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  7. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  10. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  11. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  12. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  13. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  14. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, T H; Qadri, Z; Islam, M; Hatcher, J; Bhutta, Z A; Chaturvedi, N

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an emerging global public health challenge. Evidence for the transition in nutrition in Indo-Asian developing countries is lacking. We conducted these analyses to determine the trends in nutritional status of school-aged children in urban Pakistan. Methods: Data on the nutritional status of children aged 5 to 14 years from two independent population-based representative surveys, the urban component of the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP; 1990–1994) and the Karachi survey (2004–2005), were analysed. Using normative data from children in the United States as the reference, trends for age- and gender-standardised prevalence (95% CI) of underweight (more than 2 SD below the weight-for-age reference), stunted (more than 2 SD below the height-for-age reference) and overweight and obese (body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater) children were compared for the two surveys. The association between physical activity and being overweight or obese was analysed in the Karachi survey using logistical regression analysis. Results: 2074 children were included in the urban NHSP and 1675 in the Karachi survey. The prevalence of underweight children was 29.7% versus 27.3% (p = 0.12), stunting was 16.7% versus 14.3% (p = 0.05), and prevalence of overweight and obese children was 3.0 versus 5.7 (p<0.001) in the NHSP and Karachi surveys, respectively. Physical activity was inversely correlated with being overweight or obese (odds ratio, 95% CI, 0.51, 0.32–0.80 for those who engaged in more than 30 minutes of physical activity versus those engaged in less than 30 minutes’ activity). Conclusions: Our study highlights the challenge faced by Pakistani school-aged children. There has been a rapid rise in the number of overweight and obsese children despite a persistently high burden of undernutrition. Focus on prevention of obesity in children must include strategies for promoting physical activity. PMID:17942586

  15. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  16. Cultural Variation—Nutritional and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Freimer, Nelson; Echenberg, Dean; Kretchmer, Norman

    1983-01-01

    Cultural variation may play an important role in human nutrition and must be considered in either clinical or public health intervention particularly in areas with large immigrant populations. Acculturative and environmental change influence the food habits and health of transitional groups. Nutritional assessment may be complicated by cultural variation. The relationship between ethnicity and nutrition may be of evolutionary significance. Food beliefs may have beneficial or detrimental effects on health status. The study of acculturating populations may elucidate the pathogenesis of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Appreciation of the interaction of culture and nutrition may be of benefit to physicians and nutritionists in clinical practice and to those concerned with the prevention of nutrition-related chronic diseases. PMID:6364578

  17. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  18. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  19. Clinical nutrition in the hepatogastroenterology curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Chris JJ; Wanten, Geert JA; Semrad, Carol E; Jeppesen, Palle B; Kruizenga, Hinke M; Wierdsma, Nicolette J; Grasman, Matthijs E; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenterology (GE) used to be considered a subspecialty of internal medicine. Today, GE is generally recognized as a wide-ranging specialty incorporating capacities, such as hepatology, oncology and interventional endoscopy, necessitating GE-expert differentiation. Although the European Board of Gastroenterology and Hepatology has defined specific expertise areas in Advanced endoscopy, hepatology, digestive oncology and clinical nutrition, training for the latter topic is lacking in the current hepatogastroenterology (HGE) curriculum. Given its relevance for HGE practice, and being at the core of gastrointestinal functioning, there is an obvious need for training in nutrition and related issues including the treatment of disease-related malnutrition and obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. This document aims to be a starting point for the integration of nutritional expertise in the HGE curriculum, allowing a central role in the management of malnutrition and obesity. We suggest minimum endpoints for nutritional knowledge and expertise in the standard curriculum and recommend a focus period of training in nutrition issues in order to produce well-trained HGE specialists. This article provides a road map for the organization of such a training program. We would highly welcome the World Gastroenterology Organisation, the European Board of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the American Gastroenterology Association and other (inter)national Gastroenterology societies support the necessary certifications for this item in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:26855532

  20. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  1. The Built Environment and Risk of Obesity in the United States: Racial-Ethnic Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2003–2008 waves of the continuous National Health Nutrition Examination Survey merged with the 2000 census and GIS-based data, this study conducted genderspecific analyses to explore whether neighborhood built environment attributes are significant correlates of obesity risk and mediators of obesity disparities by race-ethnicity. Results indicate that the built environment is a significant correlate of obesity risk but is not much of a mediator of obesity disparities by race-ethnicity. Neighborhood walkability, density, and distance to parks are significant covariates of obesity risks net of individual and neighborhood controls. Gender differences are found for some of these associations. PMID:23099113

  2. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  3. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  4. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  5. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  6. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Nutrition in Asia and Future Nutrition Policy Studies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of health disparities has been reported around the world. One of the intermediate factors between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is nutrition. Many studies reported socioeconomically disadvantaged people had more risk of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases than others in western society. Micronutrient intake affected by SES, but little evidence indicates that SES affects either energy intake or the macronutrient composition of the diet in western countries. In contrast, there is not enough evidence of a consistent relationship between SES and nutrition in Asian countries at present. The present status of nutrition disparities in Asia is considered to vary by economic level of the country. For developing countries in Asia, India and Vietnam, SES associates with BMI positively in women. For relatively developed countries in Asia, Korea and Japan, SES associates with BMI negatively in women. Low SES groups consume more carbohydrate, and less protein and fat, so not only micronutrient but also macronutrient intake is affected by SES both in developing and in developed Asian countries. There are some studies on the pathway from SES to diet/nutrition. The association between low SES and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods, concern about food price and dietary knowledge. Nutrition policy research is required to reduce nutrition disparities in Asia. We need a collaborative study of the impact of potential political options on diet and on health with other academic fields. PMID:26598891

  7. Community-based approaches to address childhood undernutrition and obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Community-based approaches have been the mainstay of interventions to address the problem of child malnutrition in developing societies. Many programs have been in operation in several countries for decades and originated largely as social welfare, food security and poverty eradication programs. Increasingly conceptual frameworks to guide this activity have been developed as our understanding of the complex nature of the determinants of undernutrition improves. Alongside this evolution, is the accumulation of evidence on the types of interventions in the community that are effective, practical and sustainable. The changing environment is probably determining the altering scenario of child nutrition in developing societies, with rapid developmental transition and urbanization being responsible for the emerging problems of obesity and other metabolic disorders that are largely the result of the now well-recognized linkages between child undernutrition and early onset adult chronic diseases. This dramatic change is contributing to the double burden of malnutrition in developing countries. Community interventions hence need to be integrated and joined up to reduce both aspects of malnutrition in societies. The evidence that community-based nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes and child undernutrition needs to be evaluated to enable programs to prioritize and incorporate the interventions that work in the community. Programs that are operational and successful also need to be evaluated and disseminated in order to enable countries to generate their own programs tailored to tackling the changing nutritional problems of the children in their society. PMID:19346779

  8. Perinatal nutrition programs neuroimmune function long-term: mechanisms and implications

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Our early life nutritional environment can influence several aspects of physiology, including our propensity to become obese. There is now evidence to suggest perinatal diet can also independently influence development of our innate immune system. This review will address three not-necessarily-exclusive mechanisms by which perinatal nutrition can program neuroimmune function long-term: by predisposing the individual to obesity, by altering the gut microbiota, and by inducing epigenetic modifications that alter gene transcription throughout life. PMID:23964195

  9. Surgical treatment of obesity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fobi, M. A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355

  10. Improving families' nutrition knowledge through service learning.

    PubMed

    Roofe, Nina L

    2011-01-01

    Current research documents an increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity in the United States. Effective nutrition education programs are needed to affect this trend. This study pre-tested and post-tested kindergarten students and their families to evaluate the impact of a service learning nutrition education program. Changes in nutrition knowledge and home environment among kindergarten students and their parents who participated in a nutrition education program (treatment group) were compared with those who did not participate in the program (control group). The nutrition education program was developed and delivered by senior nutrition majors at an accredited 4-year university. Responses from a total of 156 parents and kindergarten children (treatment n = 79, control n = 77) out of 205 total kindergarten families (76% response rate) were analyzed to compare changes in knowledge and home environment. Results indicate an increase in the kindergarten children's knowledge and a decrease in the family's home obesigenic risk. These results provide support for the use of service learning to provide age-appropriate nutrition education programs to benefit the entire family. PMID:22138874

  11. Psychosocial aspects of child and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Peter; Leblanc, Claire Ma

    2012-04-01

    In addition to counselling families about regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, clinicians need to identify and help them to address the psychosocial factors that may be contributing to their child's or adolescent's obesity. Affected individuals may suffer from depression, low self-esteem, bullying, and weight bias, experiences that can make achieving desired health outcomes more difficult. Clinicians should try to identify these underlying stressors and ensure that appropriate counselling is implemented. PMID:23543619

  12. Nutrition in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hebuterne, Xavier; Filippi, Jerome; Schneider, Stephane M

    2014-01-01

    Seventy five percent of hospitalized patients with Crohn's disease suffer from malnutrition. One third of Crohn's disease patients have a body mass index below 20. Sixty percent of Crohn's disease patients have sarcopenia. However some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are obese or suffer from sarcopenic-obesity. IBD patients have many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to important consequences such as hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic disease. Nutritional deficiencies in IBD patients are the result of insufficient intake, malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy as well as metabolic disturbances directly induced by the chronic disease and its treatments, in particular corticosteroids. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in chronic disease patients is warranted. Managing the deficiencies involves simple nutritional guidelines, vitamin supplements, and nutritional support in the worst cases. PMID:25266810

  13. Managing childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  14. Genetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Apurva; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-10-01

    Numerous classical genetic studies have proved that genes are contributory factors for obesity. Genes are directly responsible for obesity associated disorders such as Bardet-Biedl and Prader-Willi syndromes. However, both genes as well as environment are associated with obesity in the general population. Genetic epidemiological approaches, particularly genome-wide association studies, have unraveled many genes which play important roles in human obesity. Elucidation of their biological functions can be very useful for understanding pathobiology of obesity. In the near future, further exploration of obesity genetics may help to develop useful diagnostic and predictive tests for obesity treatment. PMID:27605733

  15. STUDY OF DIETARY PATTERNS AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH OBESITY IN THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that the trend toward increasing overweight and obesity among Mexican-Americans is continuing. This large population subgroup has a high prevalence of obesity and associated chronic conditions. Ethnic groups have been...

  16. Contextual Factors Influencing Readiness for Dissemination of Obesity Prevention Programs and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisinger, Mariah L.; Boland, Elizabeth M.; Filler, Carl D.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Hessel, Amy S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the realm of obesity prevention research, there have been many promising interventions to improve physical activity and nutrition among diverse target populations. However, very little information is known about the dissemination and replication of these interventions. In 2007 and 2008 as part of a larger obesity prevention initiative,…

  17. The Association between Funding for Statewide Programs and Enactment of Obesity Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, James; Lynch, Christina; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Rooks, Adrienne; Hamre, Robin; Chappelle, Eileen F.; Roussel, Amy; O'Toole, Terry; Grasso, Tamara; Hannan, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As part of a national effort to prevent and control obesity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases (NPAO) provides funding to states to improve access to healthful food and increase opportunities for physical activity. The CDC also…

  18. Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1999-01-01

    Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

  19. Park-based obesity intervention program for inner-city minority children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess an intervention strategy - a 6-week obesity intervention program, Project KidFIT, at 3 Houston, TX, park centers - to address the obesity epidemic in minority children. Project KidFIT is a physical fitness and nutrition education program aimed at promoting the benefits of...

  20. [Social inequalities in nutrition: Evidence, causes and interventions].

    PubMed

    Fekete, Christine; Weyers, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is unhealthy: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, and premature mortality are reliably associated with poor nutrition. However, literature reveals that some population groups are at higher risk of poor nutrition than others. More specifically, evidence shows that people with low social status are more likely to have poor nutrition than those with higher status, what may contribute to health inequalities. In this article, selected reviews and meta-analyses on social inequalities in nutrition are presented. By showing current data from the Second National Food Consumption Study, the situation in Germany is highlighted. Further, potential causes of social inequalities in nutrition are discussed, drawing on the results of current research. More specifically, socioeconomic and structural deprivation (e.g., poverty, living in deprived neighborhoods) in addition to unfavorable psychosocial (e.g., poor knowledge of nutrition, low levels of social support) and sociocultural factors (e.g., unfavorable nutritional traditions) might be associated with poor nutrition in people with low social status. Interventions promoting nutritional quality in disadvantaged groups should take into account the various influences on nutrition and meet good practice criteria for health promotion. Using three examples of interventions, conceivable concrete measures that can reduce social inequalities in nutrition are presented. PMID:26642956