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1

National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

Cancer.gov

We provide funds to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to support modules in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that are critical to our risk factor monitoring mission.

2

SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

3

76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2011-11-23

4

75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals To Use Samples...of describing the health of the population, DNA specimens were collected during three NHANES surveys. DNA is available in the form of crude lysates...

2010-06-07

5

77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2012-06-11

6

Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI???85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI???95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans.

2012-01-01

7

Depression among Puerto Ricans in New York City: the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to analyze determinants of depression among Puerto Ricans by replicating and expanding earlier studies of depression among Cuban Americans and Mexican Americans. Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982–1984, were employed to examine depression and associated characteristics among Puerto Ricans. We utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics to examine the Center for Epidemiologic Studies

L. B. Potter; L. H. Rogler; E. K. Mo?cicki

1995-01-01

8

HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

9

Serum creatinine levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the distribution of serum creatinine levels by sex, age, and ethnic group in a representative sample of the US population. Serum creatinine level was evaluated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 18,723 participants aged 12 years and older who were examined between 1988 and 1994. Differences in mean serum creatinine levels

CA Jones; GM McQuillan; JW Kusek; Eberhardt; WH Herman; J Coresh; M Salive; LY Agodoa

1998-01-01

10

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

11

Data Resource Profile: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)  

PubMed Central

The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviours, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases and dietary intakes with three component surveys: health interview, health examination and nutrition survey. The health interview and health examination are conducted by trained staff members, including physicians, medical technicians and health interviewers, at a mobile examination centre, and dieticians’ visits to the homes of the study participants are followed up. KNHANES provides statistics for health-related policies in Korea, which also serve as the research infrastructure for studies on risk factors and diseases by supporting over 500 publications. KCDC has also supported researchers in Korea by providing annual workshops for data users. KCDC has published the Korea Health Statistics each year, and microdata are publicly available through the KNHANES website (http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr).

Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon

2014-01-01

12

Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Carotenoids: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about carotenoids, a diverse group of plant compounds with antioxidant activity, and their association with diabetes, a condition characterized by oxidative stress. Data from phase I of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991) were used to examine concentrations of a-carotene, |J- carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein\\/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in 40- to 74-year-old persons with a normal

Earl S. Ford; Julie C. Will; Barbara A. Bowman; K. M. Venkat Narayan

13

Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research shows serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are each associated with blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear whether these associations are independent.MethodsCross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) during 2003–2006. Analyses were restricted to 7,561 participants aged ?20 years with measurements of 25(OH)D, PTH, BP, BP treatment, smoking, physical activity,

Jack L. He; Robert K. Scragg

2011-01-01

14

NHANES II (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980) Hematology and Biochemistry Data Tape, Catalog Number 5411.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), conducted during the peiod 1976-1980, was designed to measure and monitor the nutritional statu and health of the U.S. population ages 6 months through 74 years. A similar survey, NH...

C. Johnson M. Dudley

1980-01-01

15

NHANES II (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980) Hematology and Biochemistry Data Tape, Catalog Number 5411.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), conducted during the period 1976-1980, was designed to measure and monitor the nutritional survey, NHANES I, was conducted from 1971-1975. During NHANES II, data were cOllected by me...

1982-01-01

16

Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I) 1971-1975. Near and Distant Vision Data Tape, Catalog Number 4163.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), conducted during the period 1971-75, was designed to measure the nutritional status and health of the U.S. population ages 1-74 years and to obtain more detailed information on the health status...

1979-01-01

17

Education Modifies the Effect of Alcohol on Memory Impairment: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the relation of alcohol consumption to prevalence of verbal memory impairment was modified by education among 4,804 elderly subjects in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Verbal memory was assessed using delayed recall, with impairment defined as a combined score <4. Alcohol consumption over the previous month prior to the interview was assessed using a

Yuqing Zhang; Timothy Heeren; R. Curtis Ellison

2005-01-01

18

Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984. Diabetes and OGTT (Oval Glucose Tolerance Test) Data, Version 1. Ages 20 years-74 years (Tape Number 6505).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1982 through 1984 a Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) was conducted to obtain data on the health and nutritional status of three Hispanic groups: Mexican Americans from Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California; Cub...

K. Flegal M. Dudley D. Hitchcock

1984-01-01

19

Healthy Diets, Healthy Hearing: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Objective A significant relationship between dietary nutrient intake and susceptibility to acquired hearing loss is emerging. Variability in the outcomes across studies is likely related to differences in the specific metrics used to quantify nutrient intake and hearing status. Most studies have used single nutrient analysis. Although this analysis is valuable, interactions between nutrients are increasingly recognized and could modify modeling of single nutrient effects. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between diet and hearing using a metric of overall dietary quality. Design This cross-sectional analysis was based on Healthy Eating Index data and audiological thresholds. Study sample Data for adults between the ages of 20 to 69 years of age were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Results Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, diabetes, and noise exposure, we found a significant negative relationship (Wald F = 6.54, df = 4, 29; p ? 0.05) between dietary quality and thresholds at higher frequencies, where higher dietary quality was associated with lower hearing thresholds. There was no statistically significant relationship between dietary quality and threshold sensitivity at lower frequencies. Conclusions The current findings support an association between healthier eating and lower high frequency thresholds in adults.

Spankovich, C.; Le Prell, C.G.

2014-01-01

20

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

21

Inappropriate Survey Design Analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey May Produce Biased Results  

PubMed Central

Objectives The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. Methods This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Results Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Conclusions Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates.

Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo

2013-01-01

22

Thyroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic Parameters: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5th, 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. Conclusions Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Cheng, Alan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

2013-01-01

23

Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes. Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

Ahn, Jae Hee; Yu, Ji Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo; Cha, Bong-Yun

2014-01-01

24

Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ? 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ? 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization.

Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Paivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

2014-01-01

25

Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.  

PubMed Central

Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure.

Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

2004-01-01

26

Cadmium Exposure and Hypertension in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cadmium induces hypertension in animal models. Epidemiologic studies of cadmium exposure and hypertension, however, have been inconsistent. Objective We aimed to investigate the association of blood and urine cadmium with blood pressure levels and with the prevalence of hypertension in U.S. adults who participated in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied participants ? 20 years of age with determinations of cadmium in blood (n = 10,991) and urine (n = 3,496). Blood and urine cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured using a standardized protocol. Results The geometric means of blood and urine cadmium were 3.77 nmol/L and 2.46 nmol/L, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the average differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure comparing participants in the 90th vs. 10th percentile of the blood cadmium distribution were 1.36 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.28 to 3.00] and 1.68 mmHg (95% CI, 0.57–2.78), respectively. The corresponding differences were 2.35 mmHg and 3.27 mmHg among never smokers, 1.69 mmHg and 1.55 mmHg among former smokers, and 0.02 mmHg and 0.69 mmHg among current smokers. No association was observed for urine cadmium with blood pressure levels, or for blood and urine cadmium with the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions Cadmium levels in blood, but not in urine, were associated with a modest elevation in blood pressure levels. The association was stronger among never smokers, intermediate among former smokers, and small or null among current smokers. Our findings add to the concern of renal and cardiovascular cadmium toxicity at chronic low levels of exposure in the general population.

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Guallar, Eliseo

2008-01-01

27

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Ethnicity, and Blood Pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Populations with low vitamin D status, such as blacks living in the US or UK, have increased blood pressure (BP) compared with whites. We analyzed the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and BP to determine whether low 25OHD explains any of the increased BP in blacks.Methods: The Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) is

Robert Scragg; MaryFran Sowers; Colin Bell

2007-01-01

28

Demographic, dietary, and serum factors and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Summary Many determinants of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are unknown. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), numerous factors not classically associated with calcium–phosphorus homeostasis, such as uric acid and smoking, are independently associated with PTH in adults without chronic kidney disease. Associations between serum phosphorus and PTH may vary by race. Introduction Although PTH may be an important biomarker for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, many determinants of PTH are unknown. We investigated associations between demographic, dietary, and serum factors and PTH level. Methods We studied 4,026 white, 1,792 black, and 1,834 Mexican-American adult participants without chronic kidney disease from the 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 NHANES. Results The mean serum PTH level was 38.3 pg/ml for whites, 42.6 pg/ml for blacks, and 41.3 pg/ml for Mexican-Americans. After adjusting for diet, body mass index, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, and other factors, smokers compared to non-smokers had lower PTH, ranging from ?4.2 pg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) ?7.3 to ?1.1) in Mexican-Americans to ?6.1 pg/ml (95% CI ?8.7 to ?3.5) in blacks. After multivariate adjustment, PTH was higher in females compared to males, ranging from 1.1 pg/ml (95% CI ?1.2 to 3.4) in Mexican-Americans to 4.5 pg/ml (95% CI 1.9 to 7.0) in blacks, and in older (>60 years) compared to younger participants (<30 years), ranging from 3.7 pg/ml (95% CI 1.3 to 6.1) in Mexican-Americans to 8.0 pg/ml (95% CI 5.4 to 10.7) in blacks. Higher uric acid was associated with higher PTH. In whites only, lower serum phosphorus and lower serum retinol were associated with higher PTH. Conclusions Numerous factors not classically associated with calcium–phosphorus homeostasis are independently associated with PTH and should be considered in future studies of PTH and chronic disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate mechanisms underlying identified associations with PTH and to explore possible racial differences in phosphorus handling.

Farwell, W. R.; Taylor, E. N.

2013-01-01

29

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

30

NHANES II (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980) Hematology and Biochemistry Data Tape, Ages 6 Months-74 Years, Catalog Number 5411, Version 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES II), conducted during the period 1976-80, was designed to measure and monitor the nutritional status and health of the U.S. population ages 6 months through 74 years. During HANES II, data were col...

C. Johnson M. Dudley D. Hitchcock

1980-01-01

31

Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I) 1971-75. Biochemistry, Serology, Hematology, Peripheral Blood Slide and Urinary Data Tape, Catalog Number 4800.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), conducted during the period 1971-75, was designed to measure the nutritional status and health of the U.S. population ages 1-74 years and to obtain more detailed information on the health status...

C. Johnson R. Fullwood D. Hitchcok M. Najjar E. Collins

1979-01-01

32

Candidate measures of whole plant food intake are related to biomarkers of nutrition and health in the US population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002).  

PubMed

Indices of overall dietary patterns are used in epidemiologic research to examine the relationship between nutrition and health. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an interpretable summary measure of dietary intake of whole plant foods (WPF; whole grains, vegetables, whole fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds) because of their similar nutritional characteristics and health effects. Six candidate WPF measures were calculated using data from subjects (age ? 6 years) participating in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Measures differed by the inclusion or exclusion of potatoes and whether they were expressed as total intake or as a proportion of energy (4180 kJ) or mass (kg) consumed. Both standard and nontruncated (allowed to vary proportionally with intake) Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores were calculated. Regression analysis examined the associations between WPF and HEI-2005 measures, and between all diet measures and serum carotenoid concentration, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and C-reactive protein. Mean total WPF intake was 3.6 cup/oz equivalents, or 1.7 cup/oz equivalents per 4180 kJ and per kg. The largest R² between WPF and HEI-2005 measures was found for energy-adjusted WPF including potatoes and nontruncated HEI-2005 (R² = 0.50). All diet measures were positively related to serum carotenoids (P <.001) and were similarly related to health indicators (R² range from 0.003 to 0.16, P <.045 for regressions, indicating significant associations between WPF measures and health indicators). Whole plant food measures are interpretable indicators of dietary intake that are significantly related to nutrition and health biomarkers and may be of public health use. PMID:22575037

Lipsky, Leah M; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Nansel, Tonja R; Albert, Paul S

2012-04-01

33

NHANES II (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980) Hematology and Biochemistry Data Tape: Laboratory Procedures Used by the Clinical Chemistry Division, Centers for Disease Control, for the the Second Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES II) 1976-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), conducted during the period 1976-1980, was designed to measure and monitor the nutritional survey, NHANES I, was conducted from 1971-1975. During NHANES II, data were collected by me...

1982-01-01

34

Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1976 through 1994.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Data from 2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), NHANES II (1976-1980) and NHANES III (1988-1994), were analyzed to examine trends in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection in the United States. METHODS: Serum specimens were tested for markers of hepatitis B virus infection, and risk factors were determined from questionnaires. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 6.2) in NHANES II, as compared with 4.9% (95% CI = 4.3, 5.6) in NHANES III. In both surveys, Black participants had the highest prevalence of infection (NHANES II, 15.8%; NHANES III, 11.9%). No differences in infection were found in the major racial groups between surveys, except for a decrease among those older than 50 years. Black race, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and foreign birth had the strongest independent associations with hepatitis B virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Testing of participants in 2 national surveys demonstrates no significant decrease in hepatitis B virus infection, despite the availability of hepatitis B vaccine.

McQuillan, G M; Coleman, P J; Kruszon-Moran, D; Moyer, L A; Lambert, S B; Margolis, H S

1999-01-01

35

Prevalence of Otolaryngologic Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n=4,930). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist, nurses, and interviewers moved with a mobile examination unit and performed otolaryngologic interviews and physical examinations. Results The prevalence of subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, preauricular fistua, tympanic membrane perforation, and cholesteatoma were 11.97%, 20.27%, 2.08%, 1.60%, and 1.18%, respectively. Dizziness and vestibular dysfunction were common among Korean adults, since 23.33% of the participants reported symptoms of dizziness or imbalance, and the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction was 3.86%. The prevalence of nasal diseases was relatively high, as the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and a deviated nasal septum were 28.01%, 7.12%, and 42.94%, respectively. Subjective dysphonia was found in 6.60% of the participants, and the prevalence of subjective dysphonia increased with age. Conclusion This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study to assess the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases by both the Korean Otolaryngologic Society and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Considering the high prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea, the results call for additional studies to better prevent and manage otolaryngologic diseases.

Cho, Yang-Sun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Park, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hong Ju; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Moon, Il Joon; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Sun, Dong-Il; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Kun Hee; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Kyung Won; Pyo, Eun Young; Lee, Ari

2010-01-01

36

Socioeconomic status, health behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) – a marker of cell aging that has been linked to stressful life circumstances – in a nationally representative, socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of US adults aged 20–84. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002, we found that respondents who completed less than a high school education had significantly shorter telomeres than those who graduated from college. Income was not associated with LTL. African-Americans had significantly longer telomeres than whites, but there were no significant racial/ethnic differences in the association between education and telomere length. Finally, we found that the association between education and LTL was partially mediated by smoking and body mass index but not by drinking or sedentary behavior.

Needham, Belinda L.; Adler, Nancy; Gregorich, Steven; Rehkopf, David; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

2013-01-01

37

Food insufficiency exists in the United States: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of food insufficiency in the United States and to examine sociodemographic characteristics related to food insufficiency. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population living in households. Individuals were classified as "food insufficient" if a family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. RESULTS: From 1988 through 1994, the overall prevalence of food insufficiency was 4.1% and was primarily related to poverty status. In the low-income population, food insufficiency was positively associated with being Mexican American, being under the age of 60, having a family head who had not completed high school, participating in the Food Stamp Program, and not having health insurance. It was not related to family type or employment status of the family head. Over half of food-insufficient individuals lived in employed families. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency is not limited to very low-income persons, specific racial/ethnic groups, family types, or the unemployed. Understanding food insufficiency is critical to formulating nutrition programs and policies.

Alaimo, K; Briefel, R R; Frongillo, E A; Olson, C M

1998-01-01

38

High-Risk Oral Human Papillomavirus Load in the US Population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.  

PubMed

We investigated the association of demographic and behavioral factors with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) load for 18 high-risk types among 211 individuals with prevalent high-risk HPV within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Factors independently associated with HPV load above the median included older age (odds ratio, 1.04 per year increase [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07]; P = .004) and intensity of current smoking (P for trend <.001). A marginally greater percentage of men than women had an HPV load above the median (55.7% vs 32.8%; P = .069), and HPV load increased marginally with increasing alcohol use (P for trend = .062). In conclusion, older age and current smoking are associated with a high oral load of high-risk HPV types among individuals with a prevalent infection. PMID:24625808

Chaturvedi, Anil K; Graubard, Barry I; Pickard, Robert K L; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

2014-08-01

39

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents aged 12–19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and to examine an association between the metabolic syndrome and obesity in Korean adolescents. The data for analysis were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2001. The subjects aged 12–19 years were 1317 in 1998 and 848 in 2001. A

Hee Man Kim; Jong Park; Ho-Seong Kim; Duk Hee Kim

2007-01-01

40

INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

41

Smoothed Urinary Iodine Percentiles for the US Population and Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Iodine intake is essential for normal growth, development and metabolism throughout life, especially for women during gestation and lactation. The present study applies a novel statistical approach, providing smoothed urinary iodine (UI) percentile curves for the total US population as well as the categories of sex, race/ethnicity, women of childbearing age and pregnant women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to NHANES nutritional biomarker data. Methods We used UI and urinary creatinine that were measured in participants aged 6 and older in the NHANES survey periods 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. A nonparametric double-kernel method was applied to smooth percentile curves for UI and creatinine-corrected results. Results The UI population estimates showed a U-shaped distribution by age for the total US population. Overall, females had lower UI concentrations and median values compared to males (median UI for females, 141.8 µg/l; median UI for males, 176.1 µg/l; p < 0.0001). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest median UI concentrations compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.0001). Among women of childbearing age (15-44 years), UI concentrations mostly declined with increasing age. Pregnant women aged 35 years and older tended to have higher UI concentrations than younger pregnant women at similar percentiles. Conclusions The smoothed reference distribution of UI concentrations provides an improved and visual display of the entire distribution of values for the US population and specific demographic categories.

Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Li, Yan; Caudill, Samuel P.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Jones, Robert L.

2013-01-01

42

Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ?19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity.

Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2014-01-01

43

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future.

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

44

Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984. Diabetes and OGTT (Oval Glucose Tolerance Test) Data, Version 1. Ages 20 Years-74 Years (Tape Number 6506). Public Use Data Tape Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1982 through 1984 a Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) was conducted to obtain data on the health and nutritional status of three Hispanic groups: Mexican Americans from Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California; Cub...

1988-01-01

45

CKD surveillance using laboratory data from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).  

PubMed

Surveillance for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using nationally representative samples of the US population is central in providing information about the magnitude and trends in CKD burden that will guide disease management and prevention planning for clinicians and public health authorities. We used a cross-sectional study design to estimate the change in prevalence of CKD over time by using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. NHANES III (1988-1994) included 15,488 participants and NHANES rounds 1999-2004 included 13,233 participants older than 20 years with serum creatinine measurements who were examined in a mobile examination center. Early stages of CKD were defined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio following the classification system established by the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Moderately decreased GFR increased in prevalence from 5.4% to 7.7% (P < 0.001) and severely decreased GFR increased from 0.21% to 0.35% (P = 0.02) from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. Within CKD stage 3, 18.6% +/- 1.6% (SE) of individuals should be referred to a nephrologist following a proposed set of criteria for referral; referral rates were highest for individuals with diabetes and lower in whites compared with other race-ethnicity groups. These survey data suggest that the prevalence of CKD has increased between 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Surveillance for early stages of CKD (stages 1 to 4) should monitor these and other trends. PMID:19231761

Castro, Alejandro F; Coresh, Josef

2009-03-01

46

Education modifies the effect of alcohol on memory impairment: the third national health and nutrition examination survey.  

PubMed

We examined whether the relation of alcohol consumption to prevalence of verbal memory impairment was modified by education among 4,804 elderly subjects in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Verbal memory was assessed using delayed recall, with impairment defined as a combined score <4. Alcohol consumption over the previous month prior to the interview was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Prevalence of verbal memory impairment decreased from 11.3 to 7.2, 5.7, 5.1 and 4.4% in increasing categories of alcohol consumption (none, 1-4, 5-14, 15-30 and >30 drinks per month) in men, and from 7.2 to 3.5 and 2.8% (for none, 1-14, and >14 per month) in women, respectively. Adjusting for age, race, and other factors, prevalence ratios of verbal memory impairment decreased with each increasing alcohol category, but the effect was attenuated when further adjusted for education. There was a much stronger protection from alcohol among subjects with more education: prevalence ratios were reduced from 1.0 to 0.2 to 0.1 for non-drinkers, 1-14, and >14 drinks/month, respectively (p for trend = 0.007). Our results suggest that alcohol intake is associated with a greater decrease in the prevalence of verbal memory impairment among more educated subjects than among those with less education, possibly related to differences in drinking patterns. PMID:15459511

Zhang, Yuqing; Heeren, Timothy; Curtis Ellison, R

2005-01-01

47

Diabetes and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms among Korean women. Methods We performed an analysis of data for 6,572 women aged 30 or over obtained from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. We examined the presence of depressive symptoms and the treatment of depression according to diabetes status. Results The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 22.6% of subjects with diabetes. In the multiple logistic regression model, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.21) but the treatment of depression among diabetics was less common (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.55). Uncontrolled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin ? 7%) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.69 to 1.73) among diabetics. Conclusion Physicians should manage individuals with diabetes in consideration of the presence of depressive symptoms, especially in those with uncontrolled diabetes.

Sung, Han Na; Chae, Hong Seok; Kim, Eung Soo

2014-01-01

48

Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.10-0.57) were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

2012-01-01

49

Sleep Disordered Breathing and Depression among U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To determine if symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with depression symptomology in a national sample. Design: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Setting: U.S., 2005-2008. Participants: 9,714 adults (? 18 years) Measurements: Respondents were asked about frequency of snoring and snorting, gasping, or stopping breathing while asleep and completed the PHQ-9 (a 9-item depression screener). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SDB symptom-associated probable major depression (defined as a PHQ-9 score ? 10) were obtained from sex-specific logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results: Among men, 6.0% reported physician-diagnosed sleep apnea, 37.2% snored ? 5 nights/week, 7.1% snorted/stopped breathing ? 5 nights/week, and 5.0% had PHQ-9 scores ? 10. Among women, 3.1% reported sleep apnea, 22.4% snored ? 5 nights/week, 4.3% snorted/stopped breathing ? 5 nights/week, and 8.4% had PHQ-9 scores ? 10. Sleep apnea was associated with probable major depression (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 among men; OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.9 among women). Snoring was not associated with depression symptoms in men or women. Snorting/stopping breathing ? 5 nights/week compared to never was strongly associated with probable major depression in men (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.2) and women (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4). Conclusion: Frequent snorting/stopping breathing was associated with probable major depression by the PHQ-9 in a national sample of adults. Additional research may be needed to determine whether regular screening for these conditions by mental health professionals and sleep specialists should be recommended. Citation: Wheaton AG; Perry GS; Chapman DP; Croft JB. Sleep disordered breathing and depression among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. SLEEP 2012;35(4):461-467.

Wheaton, Anne G.; Perry, Geraldine S.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

2012-01-01

50

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriasis: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis, and to examine the association between these 2 conditions in the general US population. Design Cross-sectional health survey of a nationally-representative random sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian US population. Setting The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Participants The study included 6549 participants aged 20 to 59 years. Main outcome measures Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition and odds ratios for associations after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and C-reactive protein levels. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 40% among psoriasis cases and 23% among controls. According to 2008 census data the projected number of patients with psoriasis aged 20 to 59 years with the metabolic syndrome was 2.7 million. The univariate and multivariate odds ratios for patients with psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome were 2.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 4.03) and 1.96 (1.01 to 3.77), respectively. The most common feature of the metabolic syndrome among patients with psoriasis was abdominal obesity, followed by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is high among individuals with psoriasis. Given the serious complications associated with the metabolic syndrome, this frequent comorbidity should be recognized and taken into account in the long-term treatment of individuals with psoriasis.

Love, Thorvardur Jon; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Karlson, Elizabeth Wood; Gelfand, Joel M.; Choi, Hyon K.

2011-01-01

51

Factors and common conditions associated with adolescent dietary supplement use: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in American adolescents. We conducted this study to analyze the prevalence of DS use and factors associated with this use in a national population-based sample. METHODS: We used data from the 1999 – 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for adolescents age 11 to 19. Using

Paula Gardiner; Catherine Buettner; Roger B Davis; Russell S Phillips; Kathi J Kemper

2008-01-01

52

Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Children and Adolescents Aged 10-18 Years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is directly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but there is limited information on their relation in Korean children and adolescents. The authors investigated the association between obesity and CVD risk factors among 2,272 Korean boys and girls aged 10-18 years, who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1998 and 2001. Obesity

Hee Man Kim; Jong Park; Ho-Seong Kim; Duk Hee Kim; Sung Hoon Park

53

Intake of Added Sugars and Selected Nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003—2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of ? 25% of energy from added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars.

Bernadette P. Marriott; Lauren Olsho; Louise Hadden; Patty Connor

2010-01-01

54

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Peripheral Arterial Disease in the United States Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 -2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is an important marker of subclinical coronary heart disease. However, estimates of PAD prevalence in the general US population have varied widely. Methods and Results—We analyzed data from 2174 participants aged 40 years and older from the 1999 -2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PAD was defined

Elizabeth Selvin; Thomas P. Erlinger

2010-01-01

55

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005-2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003-2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005-2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home--but not bottled water or canned tuna--was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

Lakind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

56

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34?ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA.

LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

57

The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5Dindex), Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5Dvas), number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations. Results Mental health, dietary habit, life pattern, and physical activity have seven factors. Most of the factors have a significant correlation with EQ-5Dindex, EQ-5Dvas, number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations. Conclusion Health behavior and general health status have a positive correlation.

Cheon, Chunhoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2014-01-01

58

Cadmium and Peripheral Arterial Disease: Gender Differences in the 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in the association of blood and urine cadmium concentrations with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were evaluated by using data from 6,456 US adults aged ?40 years who participated in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial blood pressure index of <0.9 in at least one leg. For men, the adjusted odds ratios for PAD comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles of blood and urine cadmium concentrations were 1.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 4.05) and 4.90 (95% CI: 1.55, 15.54), respectively, with a progressive dose-response relation and no difference by smoking status. For women, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.66, 2.16) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.71), but there was evidence of effect modification by smoking: among women ever smokers, there was a positive, progressive dose-response relation; among women never smokers, there was a U-shaped dose-response relation. Higher blood and urine cadmium levels were associated with increased prevalence of PAD, but women never smokers showed a U-shaped relation with increased prevalence of PAD at very low cadmium levels. These findings add to the concern of increased cadmium exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor in the general population.

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Guallar, Eliseo

2010-01-01

59

Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective Lipid-associated genetic variants discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not account for the majority of heritability estimated for these traits. Epidemiological studies have long indicated that certain environmental factors are capable of shaping lipid distributions. However, environmental modifiers of known genotype-phenotype associations are just recently emerging in the literature. Research Methods & Procedures We genotyped GWAS-identified variants in samples collected for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of Americans representing non-Hispanic whites (n=2,435), non-Hispanic blacks (n=1,407), and Mexican Americans (n=1,734). Along with lipid levels, NHANES contains an abundance of environmental variables, including serum vitamin A and E levels, both of which are antioxidants that may play a role in lipid metabolism. Gene-environment interactions were modeled between either vitamin A or ln(vitamin E) and 23 GWAS-identified lipid-associated variants for HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG) levels. Results After adjusting for age, sex, and marginal effects, three SNPxvitamin A and six SNPxvitamin E interactions were identified at a significance threshold of p<2.2×10?3. The most significant interaction was APOB rs693xvitamin E (p=8.9×10?7) for LDL-C levels among Mexican Americans; this same interaction was significant in non-Hispanic whites (p=2.67×10?4) but not non-Hispanic Blacks (p=0.11). The nine significant interaction models individually explained 0.35–1.28% of the variation in one of the lipid traits. Conclusions Our results suggest that the vitamins A and E impact GWAS-identified associations for lipid traits; however, these significant interactions account for only a fraction of the overall variability observed for HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels in the general population.

Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Jin, Hailing; Gillani, Nila; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli; Crawford, Dana C.

2012-01-01

60

Is Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999–2002. We included participants aged 16–49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Results Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI?=?1.25–2.13, P?=?0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR?=?1.55, 95% CI?=?1.20–2.02, P?=?0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR?=?1.44, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.90, P?=?0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?0.91–1.67, P?=?0.162). Conclusions In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

2012-01-01

61

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight.

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

62

Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002 waves). PARTICIPANTS Four thousand four hundred twenty-three adults >20 years of age with household incomes ?300% of the federal poverty level. MEASUREMENTS We categorized respondents as food secure, mildly food insecure, or severely food insecure using a well-validated food insecurity scale. Diabetes was determined by self-report or a fasting serum glucose ?126 mg/dl. RESULTS Diabetes prevalence in the food secure, mildly food insecure, and severely food insecure categories was 11.7%, 10.0%, and 16.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and physical activity level, participants with severe food insecurity were more likely to have diabetes than those without food insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.0, p?=?.02). This association persisted after further adjusting for body mass index (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–3.9, p?=?.01). CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity may act as a risk factor for diabetes. Among adults with food insecurity, increased consumption of inexpensive food alternatives, which are often calorically dense and nutritionally poor, may play a role in this relationship. Future work should address how primary care clinicians can most effectively assist patients with food insecurity to make healthy dietary changes.

Bindman, Andrew B.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kanaya, Alka M.; Kushel, Margot B.

2007-01-01

63

Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health.

Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

2006-01-01

64

Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Methods Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American). Results Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358), PON1 (rs854560), ITGB3 (rs5918), and NOS3 (rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. Conclusions We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing body of literature identifying key determinants of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and could provide insight into the biological mechanisms underlying serum lipid and cholesterol concentrations.

2010-01-01

65

The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

The present cross-sectional study sought to determine the potential relationships between the intake of dairy foods (total dairy products, milk and cheese) and cognitive function through information garnered in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-94 and 1999-2002). Cognitive measures of vasomotor speed, coding speed and immediate memory recall were assessed from a simple reaction time task (SRTT), symbol-digit substitution test (SDST) and serial digit learning task, respectively, in adults 20-59 years of age. A summation of the percentile rank scores on each of the three tests provided a measure of overall cognitive function. In adults 60 years of age and above, a story recall test and a digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) were utilised to determine cognitive function in an elderly population. The results indicated that cognitive scores for the SRTT were not different between consumers and non-consumers of dairy foods. However, there were associations observed between 20- and 59-year-old consumers of total dairy foods and a higher SDST percentile score (53.2 (SE 1.3) to 49.4 (SE 2.0)) and a calculated global cognitive percentile score (53.3 (SE 1.1) to 50.2 (SE 1.4)) compared with non-consumers. A similar significant association was observed with cheese consumers. In adults over 60 years of age, an association between total dairy product consumption and higher DSST percentile scores (51.5 (SE 1.9) to 46.2 (se 3.0)) was also observed. These findings highlight the need for additional research on how dairy products may affect cognition and by what mechanisms, through its nutrients or other components. PMID:23168329

Park, Keigan M; Fulgoni, Victor L

2013-03-28

66

Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male?=?1,994; female?=?1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 ?g/L in men and 3.7 ?g/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved.

2014-01-01

67

Current Status of Glycemic Control of Patients with Diabetes in Korea: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III (2005) reported that 22.9% of individuals with diabetes have a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% and that 43.5% have an HbA1c <7%. We investigated the levels of glycemic control and the factors associated with glycemic control using data from the KNHANES V (2010 to 2012). Methods Subjects with diabetes diagnosed by a physician or those taking antidiabetic medications were classified as individuals with known diabetes. Of 1,498 subjects aged ?30 years with diabetes, we excluded 157 individuals who were missing HbA1c data. A total of 1,341 subjects were included in the final analysis. Results The prevalence of known diabetes was 7.7% (n=1,498, estimated to be 2.32 million people). The proportions of well-controlled diabetes meeting a HbA1c goal of <6.5% and <7% were 27% and 45.6%, respectively. HbA1c increased as the duration of diabetes increased. HbA1c in subjects with a duration of diabetes ?5 years was lower than in subjects with a duration >5 years. HbA1c in the group taking only oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) was significantly lower than that in the group administered only insulin or OHA and insulin in combination. In logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of diabetes, insulin use and the absence of chronic renal failure were associated with HbA1c levels >6.5%. Conclusion The level of adequate glycemic control was similar to but slightly improved compared with previous levels. The glycemic control of long-standing diabetes patients is more difficult even though they receive insulin treatment.

Jeon, Ja Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nan Hee; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Cha, Bong-Yun

2014-01-01

68

VKORC1 Common Variation and Bone Mineral Density in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis, defined by low bone mineral density (BMD), is common among postmenopausal women. The distribution of BMD varies across populations and is shaped by both environmental and genetic factors. Because the candidate gene vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) generates vitamin K quinone, a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation of bone-related proteins such as osteocalcin, we hypothesized that VKORC1 genetic variants may be associated with BMD and osteoporosis in the general population. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped six VKORC1 SNPs in 7,159 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative sample linked to health and lifestyle variables including BMD, which was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on four regions of the proximal femur. In adjusted models stratified by race/ethnicity and sex, SNPs rs9923231 and rs9934438 were associated with increased BMD (p?=?0.039 and 0.024, respectively) while rs8050894 was associated with decreased BMD (p?=?0.016) among non-Hispanic black males (n?=?619). VKORC1 rs2884737 was associated with decreased BMD among Mexican-American males (n?=?795; p?=?0.004). We then tested for associations between VKORC1 SNPs and osteoporosis, but the results did not mirror the associations observed between VKORC1 and BMD, possibly due to small numbers of cases. This is the first report of VKORC1 common genetic variation associated with BMD, and one of the few reports available that investigate the genetics of BMD and osteoporosis in diverse populations.

Crawford, Dana C.; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Rieder, Mark J.

2010-01-01

69

Association between Sleep Quality and C-Reactive Protein: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Objective Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. Methods This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005–2008 who were aged 20–85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor) based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. Results Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001). Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed) among the overall sample and in females only (??=?0.10, se?=?0.03, p<0.01 and ??=?0.13, se?=?0.04, p<0.01, respectively). In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15–1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18–2.14 in females, respectively). Conclusion We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Zee, Phyllis C.; Hou, Lifang; Zheng, Zheng; Wei, Yongxiang; Du, Jie

2014-01-01

70

QRS duration on electrocardiography and cardiovascular mortality (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III).  

PubMed

The relation of bundle branch block (BBB) with adverse outcome is controversial. We hypothesized that increased QRS duration is an independent predictor of cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a cross-sectional US population. This is a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected data to assess the relationship between QRS duration on routine ECG and CV mortality. Participants included 8,527 patients with ECG data available from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set, representing 74,062,796 individuals in the United States. Mean age was 60.5 ± 13.6 years. Most subjects were white (87%) and women (53%). During the follow-up period of 106,244.6 person-years, 1,433 CV deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis revealed that the highest quartile of QRS duration was associated with higher CV mortality than lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.7, p = 0.04) after adjustment for established risk factors. Both left BBB (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.7, p = 0.009) and right BBB (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0, p = 0.008) were significantly associated with increased CV mortality. The addition of the QRS duration in 10-millisecond increments to the Framingham Risk Score model resulted in 4.4% overall net reclassification improvement (95% CI 0.02 to 0.04; p = 0.00006). In conclusion, increased QRS duration was found to be an independent predictor of CV mortality in this cross-sectional US population. A model including QRS duration in addition to traditional risk factors was associated with improved CV risk prediction. PMID:23726176

Badheka, Apurva Omkar; Singh, Vikas; Patel, Nileshkumar Jasmatbhai; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Shah, Neeraj; Chothani, Ankit; Mehta, Kathan; Grover, Peeyush; Savani, Ghanshyambhai Tulsibhai; Gupta, Sandeepkumar; Rathod, Ankit; Marzouka, George Robert; Mitrani, Raul David; Moscucci, Mauro; Cohen, Mauricio Gabriel

2013-09-01

71

Factors Associated with a Low-sodium Diet: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ?2,000 mg/day based on 24-hour recalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets. RESULTS Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ?1 time/day, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.

Lee, Won Joon; Oh, Sun Min; Choi, Dong Phil; Cho, Jaelim; Suh, Il

2013-01-01

72

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies in the U.S.: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives We described seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) in the United States during 1999–2006 and compared it with seroprevalence before the availability of vaccine. Methods We analyzed data from the 1988–1994 and 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of anti-HAV seroprevalence for the U.S. household population. We grouped region of residence based on the 1999 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations into 17 states with any recommendation (vaccinating) and 33 states without any recommendation (non-vaccinating). Results During 1999–2006, the overall seroprevalence of anti-HAV was 34.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.1, 36.7). During 1999–2006, U.S.-born children living in vaccinating states (33.8%, 95% CI 26.2, 42.2) had a higher seroprevalence than children in non-vaccinating states (11.0%, 95% CI 9.4, 12.8; p<0.001). Seroprevalence among children increased from 8.0% (95% CI 6.3, 10.1) during 1988–1994 to 20.2% (95% CI 16.0, 24.8) during 1999–2006 (p<0.001). For U.S.-born children aged 6–19 years, the strongest factor associated with seroprevalence was residence in vaccinating states. Among U.S.-born adults aged >19 years, the overall age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HAV was 29.9% (95% CI 28.3, 31.5) during 1999–2006, which was not significantly different from the seroprevalence during 1988–1994 (32.2%, 95% CI 30.1, 34.4). Conclusions Increases in seroprevalence among children in vaccinating states suggest a positive effect of the 1999 vaccination recommendations.

Klevens, R. Monina; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Wasley, Annemarie; Gallagher, Kathleen; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Kuhnert, Wendi; Teshale, Eyasu H.; Drobeniuc, Jan; Bell, Beth P.

2011-01-01

73

Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis in stroke survivors: an analysis of National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose An inverse association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and stroke was emphasized in recent studies. Our objective was to determine the rate of Vitamin D deficiency and risk of associated osteoporosis among stroke survivors in a nationally representative population. Methods Participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2006 were included. Stroke survivors were then divided into two groups depending on serum 25(OH)D levels: <30 ng/dl as Vitamin D deficiency and ?30 ng/dl as normal. Comparisons of demographics and risk factors between two groups were performed using SAS software. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between Vitamin D deficiency and osteopororis in stroke survivors after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results There were 415 (4.0%) stroke survivors among 10,255 participants in NHANES. The mean age (±SD) of stroke survivors was 67.6 (±17.3) years and 211 (50.8%) were men. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly different in patients with stroke (20.3 versus 21.8 ng/ml, p = 0.65) although the rate of osteoporosis was significantly higher among stroke survivors (17.9% versus 6.9%, p < 0.0001). Out of 415 stroke patients, Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 71.0% of patients. The rates of osteoporosis were similar between patients with or without Vitamin D deficiency. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis are highly prevalent among stroke survivors; however, there does not appear to be a relationship between the two entities.

Uluduz, Derya; Adil, Malik M.; Rahim, Basit; Gilani, Waqas I.; Rahman, Haseeb Abdul; Gilani, Sarwat I.; Qureshi, Adnan I.

2014-01-01

74

Actinic Skin Damage and Mortality - the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 8472 white participants aged 25–74 years in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality were obtained by either a death certificate or a proxy interview, or both. Actinic skin damage was examined and recorded by the presence and severity (absent, minimal, moderate, or severe) of overall actinic skin damage and its components (i.e., fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to explore the associations. A total of 672 cancer deaths, 1500 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2969 deaths from all causes were documented through the follow-up between 1971 and 1992. After controlling for potential confounding variables, severe overall actinic skin damage was associated with a 45% higher risk for all-cause mortality (95% CI: 1.22, 1.72; P<0.001), moderate overall skin damage with a 20% higher risk (95% CI: 1.08., 1.32; P<0.001), and minimal overall skin damage with no significant mortality difference, when compared to those with no skin damage. Similar results were obtained for all-cause mortality with fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses. The results were similar for cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. Conclusions The present study gives an indication of an association of actinic skin damage with cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality in white subjects. Given the lack of support in the scientific literature and potential unmeasured confounding factors, this finding should be interpreted with caution. More independent studies are needed before any practical recommendations can be made.

He, Wei; Zhu, Fei; Ma, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Xinyu; Zheng, Min; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Zhu, Shankuan

2011-01-01

75

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. Methods A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008–2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. Results Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4–48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7–4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6–24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4–80.4) in 20–29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9–17.3) in 60–69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97–2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76–0.93, p = 0.002). Conclusions This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

Kim, Eun Chul; Morgan, Ian G.; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Kang, Seungbum; Jee, Donghyun

2013-01-01

76

Structural Trends in the Aging Femoral Neck and Proximal Shaft: Analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip scans of U.S. adults aged 20 -99 years acquired in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. The program analyzes narrow (3 mm wide) regions at specific locations across the proximal femur to measure bone mineral density (BMD) as well as cross-sectional areas (CSAs),

THOMAS J. BECK; ANNE C. LOOKER; CHRISTOPHER B. RUFF; HARRI SIEVANEN; HEINZ W. WAHNER

2000-01-01

77

Blood lead concentration and children’s anthropometric dimensions in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association between lead exposure and children’s physical growth. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Participants: A total of 4391 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American children age 1 to 7 years. Measurements and Results: We investigated the association between blood lead concentration and stature, head circumference, weight,

Carol Ballew; Laura Kettel Khan; Rachel Kaufmann; Ali Mokdad; Dayton T. Miller; Elaine W. Gunter

1999-01-01

78

Sugary Soda Consumption and Albuminuria: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n?=?12,601); after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n?=?3,243), the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males) and >25 mg/g (females). Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty). Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. Results Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74). Associations were modified by gender (p?=?0.008) and overweight-obesity (p?=?0.014). Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53); the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m2, OR?=?2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25). Adjustment for potential mediators and use of alternative definitions of albuminuria and soda consumption did not appreciably change results. Diet sodas were not associated with albuminuria. Conclusions Findings suggest that sugary soda consumption may be associated with kidney damage, although moderate consumption of 1 or fewer sodas does not appear to be harmful. Additional studies are needed to assess whether HFCS itself, overall excess intake of sugar, or unmeasured lifestyle and confounding factors are responsible.

Shoham, David A.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Kramer, Holly; Luke, Amy; Vupputuri, Suma; Kshirsagar, Abhijit; Cooper, Richard S.

2008-01-01

79

Advance Data Number 258, November 14, 1994. Dietary Intake of Vitamins, Minerals, and Fiber of Persons Ages 2 Months and Over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on the micronutrient consumption of Americans, including minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber, is based on information collected in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted by the National Center for ...

A. M. Bischof C. R. Caughman K. Alaimo M. A. McDowell R. R. Briefel

1994-01-01

80

NHANES II (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Second, 1976-1980) Hematology and Biochemistry, Ages 6 Months-74 Years, Catalog Number 5411, Version 2. Documentation for Public Use Tape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES II), conducted during the period 1976-80, was designed to measure and monitor the nutritional status and health of the U.S. population ages 6 months through 74 years. During HANES II, data were col...

1989-01-01

81

Prevalence of dietary supplement use in Korean children and adolescents: insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/10(3) persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status. PMID:22563216

Yoon, Ji Ye; Park, Hyun Ah; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-05-01

82

Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Korean Children and Adolescents: Insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/103 persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status.

Yoon, Ji Ye; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-01-01

83

Estimated Number of Korean Adults with Back Pain and Population-Based Associated Factors of Back Pain : Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We estimated the number of Korean adults with back pain and evaluated population-based associated factors of back pain from a representative sample data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods The number of Korean adults who experienced back pain (experienced patients), those who experienced back pain lasting for three or more months during the past year (chronic patients), and those who were currently suffering from back pain (current patients) were estimated by analyzing the data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007 using surveyfreq procedure of the SAS statistical package. Population-based odds ratios for being experienced, chronic, and current patient according to demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and occupation), and lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) were estimated using surveylogistic procedure. Results It was estimated that there were 5,554,256 (proportion, 15.4%; 95% CI, 4,809,466 - 6,299,046) experienced patients, 2,060,829 (5.7%; 1,557,413-2,564,246) chronic patients, and 3,084,188 (8.5%; 2,600,197 - 3,568,179) current patients among 36,107,225 Korean adults aged 20-89 years in 2007. Each of explanatory variables was significantly associated with at least one of the response variables for back pain. Conclusion Based on our study results, further efforts to investigate epidemiology of back pain, to evaluate associated factors, and to improve treatment outcomes are needed.

Jhun, Hyung-Joon

2009-01-01

84

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (?19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],?65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ?65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ? 24% of Korean adults and ? 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults.

Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

85

The Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the US: Data From the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out the first large-scale population study of the prevalence of HLA–B27 in the US, which is needed for public health planning purposes because of recent improvements in medical therapy and diagnostic testing for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods The national prevalence of HLA–B27 was determined as part of the 2009 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional survey monitoring the health and nutritional status of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. DNA polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted in samples from 2,320 adults ages 20–69 years from this nationally representative sample. Results The age-adjusted US prevalence of B27 was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.6–8.2). By race/ethnicity, the prevalence of B27 was 7.5% (95% CI 5.3–10.4) among non-Hispanic whites and 3.5% (95% CI 2.5–4.8) among all other US races/ethnicities combined. In Mexican Americans, the prevalence was 4.6% (95% CI 3.4–6.1). The prevalence of B27 could not be reliably estimated for other US racial/ethnic groups because of the low number of B27-positive individuals in those groups. For adults 50–69 years of age, the prevalence of B27 was 3.6% (95% CI 2.2–5.8), which suggested a decrease in B27 with age. These prevalence estimates took into account the NHANES survey design and are reviewed with respect to data from the medical literature. Conclusion Our findings provide the first US national prevalence estimates for HLA–B27. A decline in the prevalence of HLA–B27 with age is suggested by these data but must be confirmed by additional studies.

Reveille, John D.; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Dillon, Charles F.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Weisman, Michael H.

2014-01-01

86

Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.  

PubMed

We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers' had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:19742163

Richter, Patricia A; Bishop, Ellen E; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H

2009-07-01

87

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke.

Richter, Patricia A.; Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H.

2009-01-01

88

Awareness of Federal Dietary Guidance in persons aged 16 years and older: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.  

PubMed

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 included questions on awareness of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the Food Guide Pyramid, and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program. Prevalence of awareness of federal dietary guidance was estimated and differences were tested across demographic traits, health characteristics, and diet-related attitudes and behavior. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a nationally representative cross-sectional sample design. The analytic sample consisted of 5,499 persons aged 16 years and older with complete data. Among persons aged 16 years and older, 83.8% had heard of at least one of the initiatives: 49.2% had heard of the DGA, 80.6% had heard of the Food Guide Pyramid, and 51.2% had heard of the 5 A Day program. There was a linear trend of decreasing awareness of at least one of the guidance efforts with increasing age. Differences by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income were also observed. Differences by body mass index were not statistically significant; however, significant differences were seen with fatalistic beliefs about body weight. Differences by smoking, self-assessed diet quality, and eating out frequency were not statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. These results may be useful in promotion of the upcoming edition of the DGA and to suggest population groups that may benefit from strengthened and more innovative education efforts at the public health program level and at the clinic level. PMID:21272706

Wright, Jacqueline D; Wang, Chia-Yih

2011-02-01

89

Infection with Helicobacter pylori, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and systemic inflammation: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the association of variables of the metabolic syndrome and infection with Helicobacter pylori, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in large, representative samples of total populations. The null hypothesis was no association of prevalent infection with H. pylori with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), systemic inflammation, and variables associated with the metabolic syndrome in American men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: Among men aged 40-74 years, the survey measured history of CHD, glycated hemoglobin percent, and concentrations of fasting serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Prevalence of infection with H. pylori increased with age. H. pylori infection was not correlated with serum CRP, prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus, glycated hemoglobin percent, or other risk factors other than age. In diabetic men but not in all men, seropositivity was significantly associated with CHD prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: No consistent associations of H. pylon infection with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in American men aged 40-74 years. In diabetic men, H. pylori infection was associated with CHD prevalence.

Gillum, Richard F.

2004-01-01

90

Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. Methods We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. Results After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Conclusion Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.

Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

2012-01-01

91

What are patient factors associated with the quality of diabetes care?: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Recently there has been a growing interest in healthcare quality control in Korea. We examined the association between patient factors and quality indicators of diabetic care among Korean adults with diabetes. Methods We obtained a sample of 335 adults aged 20 or older diagnosed with diabetes from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patient factors were divided into two categories: socioeconomic position and health-related factors. Quality indicators for diabetes care were defined as receiving preventive care services for diabetes complications (e.g., fundus examination, microalbuminuria examination, diabetes education) and diabetes-related clinical outcomes (e.g., HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol). We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for each quality indicator. Results We found that people with lower education levels or shorter duration of diabetes illness were less likely to receive preventive care services for diabetes complications. Women or people with longer duration of diabetes were less likely to reach the glycemic target. Obese diabetic patients were less likely to accomplish adequate control of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Several factors of patients with diabetes, such as education level, duration of illness, gender, and obesity grade are associated with the quality of diabetes care. These findings can help inform policy makers about subpopulations at risk in developing a public health strategy in the future.

2012-01-01

92

Monitoring sodium intake of the US population: impact and implications of a change in what we eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary data processing.  

PubMed

Accurate monitoring of US sodium intake requires familiarity with national dietary data collection and processing procedures. This article describes a data processing step that impacts sodium intake estimates, reasons for discontinuing the step, and implications of its discontinuation. This step, termed salt adjustment, was performed in US Department of Agriculture (USDA) dietary intake surveys from 1985 through 2008. In What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary intake interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the salt content of specific foods was reduced on the basis of a question about household use of salt in cooking. For individuals whose households used salt in cooking occasionally or less often, some or all of the salt attributable to home preparation was removed from foods that typically have salt added during preparation and were obtained from the store. The growing availability of preprepared foods in stores challenges the validity of using store purchase as a proxy indicator of home food preparation, and increased restaurant/fast-food consumption implies fewer reported foods are eligible for the procedure. In addition, USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method for the 24-hour dietary recall provides accurate sodium intake estimates without applying the salt-adjustment step. The final WWEIA, NHANES data release to contain salt-adjusted sodium data was 2007-2008. When assessing the effectiveness of sodium-reduction efforts over time, the nutrition community (eg, researchers, analysts, providers) must be aware of this change in WWEIA, NHANES beginning in 2009-2010 and account for it using appropriate baseline estimates. PMID:23567248

Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

2013-07-01

93

Has Income-related Inequity in Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Been Improved? Evidence From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2005 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the extent of income-related inequity in health care utilization and expenditures to compare the extent in 2005 and 2010 in Korea. Methods We employed the concentration indices and the horizontal inequity index proposed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer based on one- and two-part models. This study was conducted using data from the 2005 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined health care utilization and expenditures for different types of health care providers, including health centers, physician clinics, hospitals, general hospitals, dental care, and licensed traditional medical practitioners. Results The results show the equitable distribution of overall health care utilization with pro-poor tendencies and modest pro-rich inequity in the amount of medical expenditures in 2010. For the decomposition analysis, non-need variables such as income, education, private insurance, and occupational status have contributed considerably to pro-rich inequality in health care over the period between 2005 and 2010. Conclusions We found that health care utilization in Korea in 2010 was fairly equitable, but the poor still have some barriers to accessing primary care and continuing to receive medical care.

Kim, Eunkyoung; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

94

A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

Yorita Christensen, Krista L.; White, Paul

2011-01-01

95

Red cell distribution width and risk of peripheral artery disease: analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.  

PubMed

Red cell distribution width (RDW) is an independent predictor of the 10-year estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. However, RDW's association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) - a CHD risk equivalent - has not been evaluated to date. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 6950 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index below 0.9 (n = 618). RDW was divided into quartiles (Q) (Q1: ? 12.2; Q2: 12.3-12.5; Q3: 12.6-13.0; Q4: ? 13.1) and PAD risk was compared across these quartiles using adjusted multivariate logistic regression. A graded increase in prevalent PAD with increasing RDW quartiles was observed (4.2% in Q1 vs 13.9% in Q4; test of trend p < 0.001). Risk of PAD was significantly higher (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.34; p = 0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and nutritional factors (folate, iron and vitamin B(12)) deficiencies with each unit (0.1) increase in RDW. Upon receiver-operating characteristics analysis, the predictive accuracy of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association (ACC/AHA)-defined PAD screening criteria (for a high-risk population) was 0.657 at best, but improved significantly (0.727) after addition of RDW (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, higher levels of RDW are independently associated with a higher risk of PAD and can significantly improve the risk prediction beyond that estimated by ACC/AHA-defined PAD screening criteria. PMID:22615191

Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Afonso, Luis

2012-06-01

96

Association between kimchi intake and asthma in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011).  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19-64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40-79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80-119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534-0.987), 0.506 (0.348-0.736), and 0.678 (0.502-0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri; Chang, Namsoo

2014-01-01

97

Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ?20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio ?=?0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ?40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio ?=?0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

2013-01-01

98

Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (?19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ? 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. PMID:24304610

Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

2013-12-01

99

The Association of Racial Disparities In The Prevalence of Insulin Resistance With Racial Disparities in Vitamin D Levels : National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2006)  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that racial differences in vitamin D levels are associated with racial disparities in insulin resistance between Blacks and Whites. Among 3,628 non-Hispanic Black and White adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2006, we examined the association between race and insulin resistance using the homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We conducted analyses with and without serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D). We adjusted for age, sex, educational level, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Blacks had a lower mean serum 25[OH] D level compared to Whites (14.6 (0.3) ng/ml versus 25.6 (0.4) ng/ml respectively; P < 0.0001). Blacks had a higher odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance without controlling for serum 25[OH] D levels (OR 1.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.20). The association was not significant (OR 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.82) after accounting for serum 25[OH] D levels. The higher burden of insulin resistance in Blacks compared to Whites may be partially mediated by the disparity in serum 25[OH] D levels.

Williams, Stephen K.; Fiscella, Kevin; Winters, Paul; Martins, David; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

2013-01-01

100

Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population. Methods Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status. Results The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males. Conclusions This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency.

Kim, Ho; Lee, Su Mi; Oh, Yun Jung; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

2013-01-01

101

Patterns of use of insulin-sensitizing agents among diabetic, borderline diabetic and non-diabetic women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cross-sectional study based on the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is to examine demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and reproductive characteristics that may distinguish users and non-users of insulin sensitizing agents among U.S. diabetic, borderline diabetic and non-diabetic women. Use of insulin-sensitizing agents was evaluated among 19579 (3882 diabetic, 387 borderline diabetic and 15310 non-diabetic) women. Overall, 2% of women in the study sample were users of insulin-sensitizers, including metformin, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for predictors of insulin-sensitizer use according to diabetic status. In the overall sample, being younger or diabetic were the only factors associated with an increased odds of using insulin-sensitizing agents, after adjustment of confounders. Among diabetics, use of insulin-sensitizing agents was inversely related to age, but not other factors in the multivariable model. Among borderline and non-diabetics, body mass index (BMI) was the only predictor that remained significantly associated with use of insulin-sensitizing agents after controlling for confounders. In conclusion, the main predictors of insulin-sensitizer use are young age and diabetic status in all women, young age in diabetic women and high BMI in borderline and non-diabetic women.

Beydoun, Hind; Kancherla, Vijaya; Stadtmauer, Laurel; Beydoun, May

2013-01-01

102

Frequency of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in the US Population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The decline in vitamin D status among older people is probably due to decreased synthesis of vitamin D by sun-exposed skin and/or decreased outdoor activity. The authors examined the association between outdoor leisure physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) (n = 15,148 aged ?20 years). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration declined with increasing age, with 79, 73, and 68 nmol/liter for persons aged 20–39, 40–59, and 60 or more years. The proportion that engaged in outdoor activity in the past month was 80% for persons aged 20–39 and 40–59 years but 71% for those aged 60 or more years. In contrast, the mean difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D between those who participated in outdoor activities daily compared with those who did not participate in the past month was similar for the youngest and oldest age groups: 13 and 16 nmol/liter, respectively. Those persons aged 60 or more years who participated in daily outdoor activities had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration similar to that of persons aged 20–39 years: 77 versus 79 nmol/liter, respectively. These nationally representative data suggest that persons aged 60 or more years can synthesize enough vitamin D from daily outdoor activities to maintain vitamin D levels similar to those of young adults.

Camargo, Carlos A.

2008-01-01

103

A Catalog of Rules, Variables, and Definitions Applied to Accelerometer Data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included accelerometry in the 2003–2006 data collection cycles. Researchers have used these data since their release in 2007, but the data have not been consistently treated, examined, or reported. The objective of this study was to aggregate data from studies using NHANES accelerometry data and to catalogue study decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions to facilitate a more uniform approach to these data. Methods We conducted a PubMed search of English-language articles published (or indicated as forthcoming) from January 2007 through December 2011. Our initial search yielded 74 articles, plus 1 article that was not indexed in PubMed. After excluding 21 articles, we extracted and tabulated details on 54 studies to permit comparison among studies. Results The 54 articles represented various descriptive, methodological, and inferential analyses. Although some decision rules for treating data (eg, criteria for minimal wear-time) were consistently applied, cut point definitions used for accelerometer-derived variables (eg, time spent in various intensities of physical activity) were especially diverse. Conclusion Unique research questions may require equally unique analytical approaches; some inconsistency in approaches must be tolerated if scientific discovery is to be encouraged. This catalog provides a starting point for researchers to consider relevant and/or comparable accelerometer decision rules, derived variables, and cut point definitions for their own research questions.

Camhi, Sarah M.; Troiano, Richard P.

2012-01-01

104

Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

We analyzed data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study to test the hypothesis that vitamin D from sunlight exposure, diet, and supplements reduces the risk of breast cancer. We identified 190 women with incident breast cancer from a cohort of 5009 white women who completed the dermatological examination and 24-h dietary recall conducted from 1971-1974 and who were followed up to 1992. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated relative risks (RRs) for breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for age, education, age at menarche, age at menopause, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Several measures of sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D intake were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with RRs ranging from 0.67-0.85. The associations with vitamin D exposures, however, varied by region of residence. The risk reductions were highest for women who lived in United States regions of high solar radiation, with RRs ranging from 0.35-0.75. No reductions in risk were found for women who lived in regions of low solar radiation. Although limited by the relatively small size of the case population, the protective effects of vitamin D observed in this prospective study are consistent for several independent measures of vitamin D. These data support the hypothesis that sunlight and dietary vitamin D reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:10350434

John, E M; Schwartz, G G; Dreon, D M; Koo, J

1999-05-01

105

Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in the United States: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent and causes disease worldwide, but its epidemiological profile is only partially understood. Methods We used an enzyme immunoassay to measure anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies in 18,695 serum samples collected in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated estimates of HEV seroprevalence and examined associations with putative risk factors. Results The seroprevalence of HEV in the civilian noninstitutionalized United States (US) population during the period from 1988 through 1994 was 21.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.0%–22.9%). Among US-born individuals, males, non-Hispanic whites, and individuals residing in the Midwest and/or in metropolitan areas had the highest seroprevalence estimates. Having a pet in the home (odds ratio [OR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.01–1.40]) and consuming liver or other organ meats more than once per month (OR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.01–1.88]) were significantly associated with increased odds of HEV seropositivity. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in the US population, although hepatitis E is rarely reported. Having pets and consuming organ meats may play a role in HEV transmission in the United States, but other mechanisms of transmission may also exist. HEV may be considered a possible etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in US patients reporting no travel history.

Kuniholm, Mark H.; Purcell, Robert H.; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Engle, Ronald E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Nelson, Kenrad E.

2009-01-01

106

Mothers' Working Hours and Children's Obesity: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to find the association between mothers’ working hours and obesity of their children according to children’s age and gender. Methods This study used data from the second and third year of KNHANES IV and the first year in KNHANES V (2008–2010). We calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using survey logistic regression to assess association of mother’s working hours with overweight or obesity of her children. The model was adjusted with household income, mothers’ education and obesity and mothers’ job characteristics. Results 13–18 aged boys whose mothers worked under 40 hours per week were higher risk for obesity and overweight (including obesity) than 13–18 aged boys whose mothers worked 40–48 hours. 6–12 aged girls whose mothers worked 49–60 hours per week were more overweight (including obesity) than girls whose mothers worked 40–48 hours per week. 13–18 aged girls whose mothers worked over 60 hours were more overweight (including obesity) than the reference. Conclusion This study showed that girls’ obesity was associated with mothers’ long working hours. Long working hours can influence health of workers’ family.

2013-01-01

107

The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.  

PubMed

The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture. PMID:24456354

Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

2014-01-01

108

Relationship between Food-frequency and Glycated Hemoglobin in Korean Diabetics: Using Data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background This study was performed to evaluate the association between food intake frequencies and long-term blood glucose control using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Korean diabetes. Methods This study used data collected from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients with diabetes were defined as people who responded "yes" to the question "Are you currently suffering from diabetes?" or in whom serum fasting glucose was 126 mg/dL or more. Using the food frequency questionnaire and HbA1c in surveys, we examined the association between the annual food-frequencies of each food group and long-term blood glucose control. Results After adjustment for other covariates, HbA1c decreased significantly as the frequency of the intake of fish increased in each population (P = 0.001 for all, P = 0.043 for men, P = 0.001 for women). The intake of mackerel played an especially important role in the control of diabetes. Among women, HbA1c decreased as the frequency of intake of legumes increased (P = 0.029) and increased as the frequency of intake of staple carbohydrates increased (P = 0.015). On the other hand, any intake of other food groups showed no significant relationship with HbA1c. Conclusion Frequent intake of fish in all populations and legumes in woman were associated with good glycemic control in diabetics. Frequent intake of carbohydrates was associated with elevated HbA1c in women.

Lee, Kyoung-Lack; Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki

2012-01-01

109

ESTIMATING THE EFFECT OF SYMPTOMS OF DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY ON QUALITY-OF-LIFE USING DATA FROM THE 2001-2002 NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of symptoms characteristic of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (SDPN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and co-morbid SDPN & DR (COMORB) on the Healthy Days Core Module (HRQOL-4) measures of the CDC, among US adults =40 years old with diagnosed diabetes, using the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Logistic and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression

Davis KL; Candrilli SD; Lucero MA; Covington MT; Eli Lilly

110

The relationship between blood pressure and blood lead in NHANES III. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.  

PubMed

There is no general agreement as to whether low-level lead exposure increases blood pressure. The present study examined the correlation between blood pressure and blood lead in the NHANES III database (1988-1994). Analyses were performed for all adults (> or =20 years), and reported separately for white males (n = 4685), white females (n= 5138), black males (n = 1761) and black females (n = 2197). Significant covariates of blood pressure were selected by stepwise regression. The change in blood pressure that would be associated with a doubling of blood lead was calculated from the adjusted regression coefficients. Mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 123/76 mm Hg in white males, 119/70 mm Hg in white females, 126/77 mm Hg in black males and 121/72 mm Hg in black females. Median blood lead was 174 nmol/L (3.6 microg/dL), 101 nmol/L (2.1 microg/dL), 203 nmol/L (4.2 microg/dL) and 111 nmol/L (2.3 microg/dL), respectively. For a doubling of blood lead, the changes in systolic blood pressure were 0.3 (95% confidence interval: -0.2 to 0.7, P= 0.29), 0.1 (-0.4 to 0.5, P = 0.80), 0.9 (0.04 to 1.8, P = 0.04) and 1.2 (0.4 to 2.0, P = 0.004) mm Hg, respectively and the changes in diastolic blood pressure were -0.6 (-0.9 to -0.3, P = 0.0003), -0.2 (-0.5 to -0.1, P = 0.13), 0.3 (-0.3 to 1.0, P = 0.28) and 0.5 (0.01 to 1.1, P = 0.047) mm Hg, respectively. In conclusion, there is no consistent relationship between blood pressure and blood lead in the NHANES III dataset. PMID:12149662

Den Hond, E; Nawrot, T; Staessen, J A

2002-08-01

111

Sexual Orientation and Mortality Among US Men Aged 17 to 59 Years: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated associations between minority sexual orientation and mortality among US men. Methods. We used data from a retrospective cohort of 5574 men aged 17 to 59 years, first interviewed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III; 1988–1994) and then followed for mortality status up to 18 years later. We classified men into 3 groups: those reporting (1) any same-sex sexual partners (men who have sex with men [MSM]; n = 85), (2) only female sexual partners (n = 5292), and (3) no sexual partners (n = 197). Groups were then compared for all-cause mortality, HIV-related mortality, suicide-related mortality, and non–HIV-related mortality. Results. Compared with heterosexual men, MSM evidenced greater all-cause mortality. Approximately 13% of MSM died from HIV-related causes compared with 0.1% of men reporting only female partners. However, mortality risk from non–HIV-related causes, including suicide, was not elevated among MSM. Conclusions. In the United States, the HIV epidemic continues to be the major contributing factor for premature death rates among MSM. Cohorts such as the NHANES III offer a unique opportunity to track the effects of the HIV epidemic on this population.

Mays, Vickie M.

2011-01-01

112

Age-related macular degeneration and protective effect of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.  

PubMed

PurposeTo determine the association of hydroxymethylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor (statin) use with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MethodsThis cross-sectional study included 5604 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2008, ?40 years of age, who were ascertained with regard to the diagnosis of AMD, the use of statins, and comorbidities and health-related behaviors such as smoking.ResultsThe mean age of participants denying or confirming a history of AMD was 68 (SEM 0.90) and 55 (SEM 0.36) years, respectively. Individuals 68 years of age or older who were classified as long-term users of statins had statistically significant less self-reported AMD (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.84; P=0.002), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. No significant association was found between the prevalence of AMD and statin consumption among subjects between 40 and 67 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.85-3.03; P=0.137).ConclusionsOur results suggest a possible beneficial effect of statin intake for the prevention of AMD in individuals 68 years of age or older. PMID:24503725

Barbosa, D T Q; Mendes, T S; Cíntron-Colon, H R; Wang, S Y; Bhisitkul, R B; Singh, K; Lin, S C

2014-04-01

113

The association between major depressive disorder and obesity in US adolescents: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity was assessed in 4,150 US adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight and height were measured by health professionals and MDD was based on a structured diagnostic interview. The prevalence of MDD in the past year among US adolescents was 3.2% and 16.8% of US adolescents were obese. After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity and poverty, MDD was not significantly associated with obesity among adolescents overall (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-2.9), but an increased odds of obesity was observed among males (adjOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.1) and non-Hispanic blacks (adjOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.3) with MDD. Future research on strategies that might reduce the risk of obesity in males and non-Hispanic black adolescents with MDD may be warranted. PMID:21479835

Merikangas, Alison K; Mendola, Pauline; Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A; Cleary, Sean D

2012-04-01

114

Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift among U.S. Adults and Implications for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift (NITS) in the U.S. adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Methods This study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20 to 69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS and their association with several sociodemographic and hearing related factors were evaluated. Results The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS was 9.4%, 3.4% and 12.8% respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males and smokers. Conclusion This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the U.S. adult population and within the various risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes.

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-01-01

115

Noise-induced hearing threshold shift among US adults and implications for noise-induced hearing loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors of the noise-induced hearing threshold shift (NITS) in the US adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20-69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS and their association with several socio-demographic and hearing-related factors were evaluated. The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS was 9.4, 3.4 and 12.8%, respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes, and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males, and smokers. This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the US adult population and its associated risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes. PMID:22389092

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-02-01

116

Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12?482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the US population. Stored serum samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12?482 individuals of age ?50 years (2331 'blacks', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'whites' and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum-free light-chain assay and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the United States, respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the United States was found, which has etiologic implications. PMID:24441287

Landgren, O; Graubard, B I; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Ahmadizadeh, I; Clark, R; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Greenberg, A J; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Caporaso, N; Korde, N; Roschewski, M; Costello, R; McQuillan, G M; Rajkumar, S V

2014-07-01

117

Creatinine-Based Glomerular Filtration Rates and Microalbuminuria for Detecting Metabolic Abnormalities in US Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Guidelines suggest searching for metabolic complications of chronic kidney disease when glomerular filtration rates (GFR) or urinary albumin tests are abnormal. This study aimed to quantify diagnostic test characteristics of these measures for detecting metabolic abnormalities. Methods Subjects were participants aged ?20 years (n = 7,778) in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Low GFR was defined as creatinine-based estimate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio as ?20 mg/dl in men, ?30 mg/dl in women; and metabolic abnormalities as abnormal potassium, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, or parathyroid hormone levels. Results Of adults, 5.66% had low GFR and 8.14% abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Overall, 15.09% had ? one metabolic abnormality, as did 34.07% with low GFR (p < 0.0001) and 24.27% with abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (p = 0.0021). Considered as a diagnostic test, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of low GFR for detecting ?1 metabolic abnormality were 0.13, 0.96, 0.34, and 0.86, respectively. Corresponding values for abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were 0.13, 0.92, 0.24, and 0.86. Conclusions A policy of searching for metabolic complications in every adult with low GFR or microalbuminuria has limited diagnostic yield.

Foley, Robert N.; Wang, Changchun; Ishani, Areef; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Collins, Allan J.

2008-01-01

118

Beyond Insurance Coverage: Usual source of care in the treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Expanding insurance coverage, while necessary, may not be sufficient to ensure high quality care for adults with cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the association between having a usual source of care (USOC) and receiving medication treatment for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we categorized USOC (a place to go when sick or need medical advice) and insurance status in adults ?35 years with an indication for medication treatment of hypertension (n=3,142) and hypercholesterolemia (n=1,134), determined using the Joint National Committee 7 and Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the independent effect of USOC on receiving treatment for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and comorbidities. Separate multivariable models were examined stratified by insurance status. Results Among subjects with an indication for treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, 32.4% and 42.0% were untreated, respectively. When compared with adults with a USOC, adults without a USOC were more likely to be untreated for hypertension (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=2.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.88-2.85) and hypercholesterolemia (aPR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.31-2.13). In stratified analyses among subjects with insurance, no USOC remained associated with being untreated (hypertension, aPR=2.58, 95%CI: 1.88-3.08; hypercholesterolemia, aPR=1.65, 95%CI: 0.97-2.18). Conclusions Absence of a USOC was associated with being untreated for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, even among individuals with insurance, suggesting that efforts to improve chronic disease management should also facilitate access to a regular source of care.

Spatz, Erica S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Canavan, Maureen; Krumholz, Harlan M.

2011-01-01

119

Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES) conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI) ?95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ?25 was used to diagnose as obesity. Results The weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462) in male and 8.5% (33/387) in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001). In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001). White blood cell (WBC) count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (?=21.196, P=0.016). Conclusion Serum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents.

Jeon, Yeon Jin; Jung, In Ah; Kim, Shin Hee; Jeong, Seung Hee; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Park, So Hyun; Jung, Min Ho

2013-01-01

120

Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.  

PubMed

Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents. PMID:20453381

Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

2010-05-01

121

Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ? Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ? Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ? Some groups may be more susceptible to perchlorate than others.

Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Miller, Mark D., E-mail: ucsfpehsumiller@gmail.com [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Cushing, Lara, E-mail: lara.cushing@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States)] [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States); Blount, Benjamin C., E-mail: bkb3@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F47, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Allan H., E-mail: ahsmith@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, 1950 Addison St., Suite 204, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States)

2013-05-15

122

Antioxidant status and its association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-6.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship of elevated depressive symptoms with antioxidant status. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–6 on US adults aged 20–85 years were analysed. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire with a score cut-off point of 10 to define ‘elevated depressive symptoms’. Serum antioxidant status was measured by serum levels of carotenoids, retinol (free and retinyl esters), vitamin C and vitamin E. The main analyses consisted of multiple logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regression models, taking into account sampling design complexity. The final sample consisted of 1798 US adults with complete data. A higher total serum carotenoid level was associated with a lower likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms with a reduction in the odds by 37 % overall with each sd increase in exposure, and by 34 % among women (P< 0·05). A dose–response relationship was observed when total serum carotenoids were expressed as quartiles (Q4 (1·62–10·1 ?mol/l) v. Q1 (0·06–0·86 ?mol/l): OR 0·41; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·76, P< 0·001; P for trend = 0·035), though no significant associations were found with the other antioxidant levels. Among carotenoids, ?-carotene (men and women combined) and lutein+zeaxanthins (women only, after control for dietary lutein+zeaxanthin intake and supplement use) had an independent inverse association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults. None of the other serum antioxidants had a significant association with depressive symptoms, independently of total carotenoids and other covariates. In conclusion, total carotenoids (mainly ?-carotene and lutein+zeaxanthins) in serum were associated with reduced levels of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling US adults. PMID:22935166

Beydoun, May A; Beydoun, Hind A; Boueiz, Adel; Shroff, Monal R; Zonderman, Alan B

2013-05-01

123

Additive effect of heavy metals on metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.  

PubMed

There have been increasing concerns regarding health problems due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We investigated association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in the Korean population. Participants included 1,961 males and 1,989 females 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). We examined the relationship of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels with MS and the additive effect of three heavy metals on MS after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. Blood concentration of lead showed a significant but modest association with prevalence of MS (P = 0.04). Other heavy metals did not show such a relationship with MS. When the participants were classified according to the sum of category numbers of the three heavy metals, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 1.355, 1.638, and 1.556 (P < 0.01). Among components of MS, significant relationship of the sum of heavy metals with hypertension and elevated triglyceride was demonstrated. Blood concentration of lead was positively associated with the prevalence of MS. Of particular interest, cumulative effect of a mixture of lead, mercury, and cadmium on prevalence of MS was stronger than the sum of effect of each heavy metal. Accumulative effect of exposure to heavy metals could be more additive or synergistic than individual exposure in the general population. PMID:24065312

Moon, Seong-Su

2014-06-01

124

Association between Reproductive Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between female reproductive factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in postmenopausal women. Design Nationwide population-based cross-sectional study. Methods A nationally representative dataset acquired from the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. The dataset involved information for 4,377 postmenopausal women aged ?50 years with a fundus photograph evaluable for AMD in either eye. All participants were interviewed using standardized questionnaires to determine reproductive factors including menstruation, pregnancy, parity, lactation, and hormonal use. The association between reproductive factors and each type of AMD was investigated. Results The mean age of the study participants was 63.1±0.2 years. Mean ages at menarche and menopause were 16.1±0.0 and 49.2±0.1 years, respectively. The overall prevalence rates of early and late AMD were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1–12.5) and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.5–1.2), respectively. When adjusted for age, neither smoking nor alcohol use was associated with the presence of any AMD or late AMD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age (OR, 1.12 per 1 year), duration of lactation (OR, 0.91 per 6 months), and duration of use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (OR, 1.10 per 6 months) as associated factors for late AMD. The other variables did not yield a significant correlation with the risk of any AMD or late AMD. Conclusion After controlling for confounders, a longer duration of lactation appeared to protect against the development of late AMD. A longer duration of OCP use was associated with a higher risk of late AMD.

Cho, Bum-Joo; Heo, Jang Won; Shin, Jae Pil; Ahn, Jeeyun; Kim, Tae Wan; Chung, Hum

2014-01-01

125

Menthol Cigarettes, Race/Ethnicity and Biomarkers of Tobacco Use in US Adults: The 1999- 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, cigarette flavorings are banned, with the exception of menthol. The cooling effects of menthol could facilitate the absorption of tobacco toxicants. We examined levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure among US smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Methods We studied 4,603 White, African-American, and Mexican-American current smokers ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2010 and had data on cigarette type and serum cotinine, blood cadmium, and blood lead concentrations. Urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) (NNAL) was studied in 1,607 participants with available measures. Results A total of 3,210 (74.3%) participants smoked non-menthol cigarettes compared to 1,393 (25.7%) participants who smoked menthol cigarettes. The geometric mean concentrations comparing smokers of non-menthol to menthol cigarettes were 163.1 vs. 175.9 ng/mL for serum cotinine; 0.95 vs. 1.02 ?g/L for blood cadmium; 1.87 vs. 1.75 ?g/dL for blood lead; and 0.27 vs. 0.23 ng/mL for urine NNAL. After multivariable adjustment, the ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing smokers of menthol to non-menthol cigarettes were 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) for cotinine, 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) for cadmium, 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) for lead, and 0.81 (0.65, 1.01) for NNAL. Conclusions In a representative sample of US adult smokers, current menthol cigarette use was associated with increased concentration of blood cadmium, an established carcinogen and highly toxic metal, but not with other biomarkers. Impact These findings provide information regarding possible differences in exposure to toxic constituents among menthol cigarette smokers compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers.

Jones, Miranda R; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

2012-01-01

126

The Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults: Findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to examine the association between circulating vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the associations between depressive symptoms and various sociodemographic factors. Data on serum 25(OH)D levels, sociodemographic factors, and information on depressive symptoms were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 2010. A total of 3,570 Koreans aged ?20 years were included in the statistical analysis. Subjects with depressive symptoms had lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (41.6±16.2 nmol/L) than those without (44.3±16.2 nmol/L; P-value<0.05; effect size?=?0.17). In a logistic regression analysis, the 25(OH)D sufficiency group (?50 nmol/L) revealed fewer depressive symptoms (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53–0.97; P-value?=?0.032) after adjusting for multiple factors. In addition, females (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.55–5.11; P-value<0.001), problematic alcohol users (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63–3.34; P-value<0.001), current smokers (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02–1.99; P-value?=?0.036), and subjects who experienced weight loss (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.30–2.44; P-value<0.001) were more likely to answer “yes” on question for depressive symptoms. In conclusion, low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk for depression symptoms in Korean adults. In addition, several sociodemographic factors were related to the depressive symptoms. Our results provide insight into the relationships among vitamin D status, sociodemographic factors, and depression in the Korean population.

Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-01-01

127

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Blood Pressure in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

High sugar intake has been suggested to be related to hypertension. To examine the associations between intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the prevalence of hypertension, we used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. A total of 3,044 participants aged ?19 years were included. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalent hypertension cases were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ?140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ?90 mmHg. In the multivariate adjusted models, we observed no association between sugar consumption and the prevalence of hypertension. In the model where we adjusted for age, gender, NHANES period and BMI, those who consumed ?3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages had an OR of 1.87 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.06-3.26) for the prevalence of hypertension compared with those who consumed <1 time per month of these beverages. Further adjustment for other factors attenuated the association; ORs (95% CIs) were 1.21 (0.81-1.81) for 1 time per month-<3 times per week, 1.39 (0.86-2.24) for 3 times per week-<1 times per day, 1.26 (0.80-1.98) for 1-<3 times per day, and 1.50 (0.84-2.68) for ?3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the <1 time per month (p for trend = 0.33). In conclusion, we found that sugar consumption was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension, however there was suggestion that high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with high prevalence of hypertension in the US.

Kim, Young Ha; Abris, Grace P.; Sung, Mi-Kyung

2012-01-01

128

Weight Status and Dietary Factors Associated with Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among Korean Children and Adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about the role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in the development of obesity. This study investigated factors associated with SSB intake among Korean children (7-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years). We examined associations between SSB intake and demographic and dietary factors using nationally representative data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 3,179 children and 2,242 adolescents were included in the final analysis. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for factors associated with high SSB intake (? 300 ml/day) by multivariable logistic regression. The mean daily SSB intake of school children was 98.7 ml/day, with a mean of 64.7 ml/day for those aged 7-12 years and 120.2 ml/day for those aged 13-18 years. SSB intake of ? 300 ml/day was found in 12.0% of the children and adolescents. Factors associated with a greater OR for high SSB intake were high energy intake (? 125% of EER; OR = 3.17 for boys aged 7-12 years, OR = 2.74 for girls aged 7-12 years, OR = 3.0 for girls aged 13-18 years), low milk consumption (< 1 cup/day; OR = 1.93 for boys aged 7-12 years; OR = 2.53 for girls aged 7-12 years; OR = 1.83 for boys aged 13-18 years), and not meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake (< 400 g/day; OR = 1.71 for boys aged 7-12 years). Being overweight and obese was significantly associated with greater ORs for high SSB intake among boys aged 7-12 years (OR = 1.72). These findings may be used to develop targeted education programs for reducing SSB intake and encouraging healthier food choices. PMID:23908980

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Yoonna

2013-07-01

129

Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. Methods The sample included 5139 participants aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days in the prior 30 days. Results Among these adults, 7.2% had restrictive impairment (FEV1/FVC???70%; FVC?

2013-01-01

130

Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 ?g/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 ?g/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (? 60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults. PMID:24345211

Meng, Qingyu; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Sacks, Jason D; Kirrane, Ellen; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

2014-01-21

131

Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D receptors have been mapped throughout the brain suggesting a role for vitamin D in psychosomatic disorders. Results from previous epidemiological studies on relation between vitamin D status and depression are equivocal. Also, limited information is available relating vitamin D status with depression in young adult US population. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination

Vijay Ganji; Cristiana Milone; Mildred M Cody; Frances McCarty; Yong T Wang

2010-01-01

132

Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathies: A population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites. This may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the premalignant lesion that precedes MM. Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in blacks, Hispanics, and whites using a large cohort representative of the United States (U.S.) population. Methods Of 13,278 adults age ?50 years enrolled in National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999–2004, stored serum samples to test for monoclonal proteins were available on 12,482 persons (2,331 non-Hispanic blacks considered “black”, 2,475 Hispanics, 7,051 non-Hispanic whites considered “white”, and 625 “others”). Agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum free light-chain assay, and typing of the M-protein was performed on sera from all subjects. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence rates were computed from logistic regression analysis. Risk factors were studied using available survey information available from NHANES. Main outcomes and measures were prevalence of MGUS by age, gender, race, ethnicity, and risk factors from available survey information. Findings MGUS was identified in 365 participants, for an overall prevalence of 2.4%. Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (p<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (p=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%). MGUS in blacks had characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The prevalence of MGUS (adjusted for age, education, sex, race, smoking) was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North and Midwest versus South and West regions of the U.S., respectively (p=0.052). Interpretation MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. We also find a strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the U.S., which has etiologic implications.

Landgren, Ola; Graubard, Barry I.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Ahmadizadeh, Ida; Clark, Raynell; Kumar, Shaji K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Greenberg, Alexandra J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Melton, L. Joseph; Caporaso, Neil; Korde, Neha; Roschewski, Mark; Costello, Rene; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

2014-01-01

133

Prevalence of CKD in the United States: A Sensitivity Analysis Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Estimates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States, using the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset 1999–2004, indicate that 13.1% of the population (26.3 million people based on the 2000 census) has CKD stages 1–4. Study Design We performed sensitivity analyses to highlight assumptions underlying these estimates and to illustrate their robustness to varying assumptions. Setting & Participants NHANES 1999–2004 was a nationally representative cross-sectional continuous survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Our sample included participants aged ? 20 years. Reference Test Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 defined from the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation; albuminuria defined as persistence of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Index Tests [EF1]. We compared the prevalence estimates using the MDRD Study equation with 2 other GFR estimating equations (equation #5 by Rule and colleagues from the Mayo Clinic Donors study; Cockcroft-Gault equation adjusted for body surface area and corrected for the bias in the MDRD Study sample), and sex-specific cut points to define albuminuria. Results We found CKD stages 1–4 prevalence estimates ranging from 11.7% to 24.9%, a more than 2-fold difference, resulting in population estimates between 25.8 million and 54.0 million people using 2006 population estimates. Considering only stages 3 and 4, which are not affected by the choice of cut points to define albuminuria, prevalence estimates ranged from 6.3% to 18.6%, resulting in population estimates of 13.7 million to 40.3 million people, a nearly 3-fold difference. Limitations NHANES 1999–2004 is a cross-sectional survey, and allows for GFR and albumin-creatinine ratio estimates at one point in time. NHANES does not account for seniors in long-term care facilities. Conclusions While CKD prevalence is high regardless of varying modeling assumptions, different assumptions yield large differences in prevalence estimates.

Snyder, Jon J.; Foley, Robert N.; Collins, Allan J.

2009-01-01

134

Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (?20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations.

Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2014-01-01

135

Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S. girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we assessed measures of puberty in U.S. girls in relation to blood lead levels to determine whether sexual maturation may be affected by current environmental lead exposure. The study sample included 1,706 girls 8-16 years old with pubic hair and breast development information; 1,235 girls 10-16 years old supplied information on menarche. Blood lead concentrations (range = 0.7-21.7 micro g/dL) were categorized into three levels: 0.7-2.0, 2.1-4.9, and 5.0-21.7 micro g/dL. Sexual maturation markers included self-reported attainment of menarche and physician determined Tanner stage 2 pubic hair and breast development. Girls who had not reached menarche or stage 2 pubic hair had higher blood lead levels than did girls who had. For example, among girls in the three levels of blood lead described above, the unweighted percentages of 10-year-olds who had attained Tanner stage 2 pubic hair were 60.0, 51.2, and 44.4%, respectively, and for girls 12 years old who reported reaching menarche, the values were 68.0, 44.3, and 38.5%, respectively. The negative relation of blood lead levels with attainment of menarche or stage 2 pubic hair remained significant in logistic regression even after adjustment for race/ethnicity, age, family size, residence in metropolitan area, poverty income ratio, and body mass index. In conclusion, higher blood lead levels were significantly associated with delayed attainment of menarche and pubic hair among U.S. girls, but not with breast development.

Wu, Tiejian; Buck, Germaine M; Mendola, Pauline

2003-01-01

136

Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III  

PubMed Central

Background Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation substantially reversed the resistance to vitamin D treatment in patients with magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. We hypothesized that dietary magnesium alone, particularly its interaction with vitamin D intake, contributes to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and the associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by magnesium intake level. Methods We tested these novel hypotheses utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study, and the NHANES III cohort, a population-based cohort study. Serum 25(OH)D was used to define vitamin D status. Mortality outcomes in the NHANES III cohort were determined by using probabilistic linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). Results High intake of total, dietary or supplemental magnesium was independently associated with significantly reduced risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Intake of magnesium significantly interacted with intake of vitamin D in relation to risk of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Additionally, the inverse association between total magnesium intake and vitamin D insufficiency primarily appeared among populations at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Furthermore, the associations of serum 25(OH)D with mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer, were modified by magnesium intake, and the inverse associations were primarily present among those with magnesium intake above the median. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate it is possible that magnesium intake alone or its interaction with vitamin D intake may contribute to vitamin D status. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by the intake level of magnesium. Future studies, including cohort studies and clinical trials, are necessary to confirm the findings.

2013-01-01

137

Long-term mortality risk in individuals with atrial or ventricular premature complexes (results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey).  

PubMed

Premature ectopic beats are frequently detected on routine 12-lead screening electrocardiograms (ECGs). However, their prognostic importance in subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well established. We evaluated prognostic value of atrial premature complexes (APCs) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) detected by a single 12-lead electrocardiography. A prospective cohort of 7,504 participants selected from nationally representative community-dwelling subjects living in the United States, enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III from 1988 to 1994 with follow-up through December 2006 without known CVD. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality, CVD-related mortality, and ischemic heart disease (IHD)-related mortality. Of 7,504 participants (mean age 60 ± 14 years, 47% women, 49% whites), 89 (1.2%) had APCs and 110 (1.5%) had VPCs on 12-lead ECGs. During a follow-up of up to 18 years, 2,386 deaths occurred, of which 963 were due to CVD and 511 were due to IHD. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for demographics, clinical variables, and electrocardiographic measures, APCs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08 to 1.80), CVD death (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.44), and IHD death (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.59 to 3.47). For VPCs, however, there were no significant associations with all-cause mortality (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.36), CVD death (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.43), and IHD death (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.52). In conclusion, APCs, but not VPCs, on routine screening ECGs are predictive of adverse events in community-dwelling subjects without known CVD. PMID:24819898

Qureshi, Waqas; Shah, Amit J; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Soliman, Elsayed Z

2014-07-01

138

Correlates of serum lipoprotein (A) in children and adolescents in the United States. The third National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-III)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the correlates of serum lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) in children and adolescents in the United States. Methods Cross-sectional study using representative data from a US national sample for persons aged 4–19 years participating in The Third National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-III). Results We observed ethnicity-related differences in levels of Lp(a) > 30 mg/dl, with values being markedly higher in African American (black) than nonhispanic white (white) and Mexican American children in multivariate model (P < 0.001). Higher levels of Lp(a) > 30 mg/dl associated with parental history of body mass index and residence in metro compared to nonmetro in Blacks, and high birth weight in Mexican American children in the NHANES-III. In the entire group, total cholesterol (which included Lp(a)) and parental history of premature heart attack/angina before age 50 (P < 0.02) showed consistent, independent, positive association with Lp(a). In subgroup analysis, this association was only evident in white (P = 0.04) and black (P = 0.05) children. However, no such collective consistent associations of Lp(a) were found with age, gender, or birth weight. Conclusion Ethnicity-related differences in mean Lp(a) exist among children and adolescents in the United States and parental history of premature heart attack/angina significantly associated with levels of Lp(a) in children. Further research on the associations of Lp(a) levels in childhood with subsequent risk of atherosclerosis is needed.

Obisesan, Thomas O; Aliyu, Muktar H; Adediran, Abayomi S; Bond, Vernon; Maxwell, Celia J; Rotimi, Charles N

2004-01-01

139

Poor Lung Function Has Inverse Relationship with Microalbuminuria, an Early Surrogate Marker of Kidney Damage and Atherosclerosis: The 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Despite epidemiological evidences of relationship between poor lung function and atherosclerosis, the relationship between poor lung function and microalbuminuria (MAU), an early surrogate marker of both kidney damage and atherosclerosis, is not well understood. Hence, we plan to investigate the relationship between poor lung function and MAU using multivariate models to adjust for other atherogenic risk factors. Methods We used data from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Poor lung function is determined by spirometric measurement, primarily through estimation of the forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Declines in the percent predicted FVC (<80%) and in the FEV1/FVC ratio (<0.7) are defined as restrictive and obstructive patterns, respectively. Urine albumin to urine creatinine levels ratio (UACR) were measured in spot urine samples. MAU was defined as UACR >30 mg/g. Results Inverse relationship was observed between lung function and UACR. In an age-adjusted regression model, the regression coefficient (B) of 10% lower FVC was 11.09 in men (P?=?0.002), which remained significant after adjustment for SBP, FBG, triglyceride level, BMI, smoking history, and heavy alcohol consumption (B?=?7.52, P?=?0.043). When the restrictive pattern was compared to the normal pattern, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95%CI) for MAU were 1.90 (1.32–2.72) in men, after adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, triglyceride level, obesity, smoking history, physical activity, and heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions Our study, the first investigation in Asia, demonstrated that the restrictive pattern is related to MAU in men. Furthermore, there was linear relationship between lower FVC and UACR. Thus, our current study suggests that poor lung function, particularly the restrictive pattern, is related to kidney damage as well as atherosclerosis.

Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Roh, Jaehoon

2014-01-01

140

Serum PBDEs and Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s, have exhibited endocrine disruption in experimental studies. Tetra- to hexa-BDE congeners are estrogenic, while hepta-BDE and 6-OH-BDE-47 are antiestrogenic. Most PBDEs also have antiandrogenic activity. It is not clear, however, whether PBDEs affect human reproduction. OBJECTIVES The analysis was designed to investigate the potential endocrine disruption of PBDEs on the age at menarche in adolescent girls. METHODS We analyzed the data from a sample of 271 adolescent girls (age 12–19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2004. We estimated the associations between individual and total serum BDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and -154, lipid adjusted) and mean age at menarche. We also calculated the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for menarche prior to age 12 years in relation to PBDE exposure. RESULTS The median total serum BDE concentration was 44.7 ng/g lipid. Higher serum PBDE concentrations were associated with slightly earlier ages at menarche. Each natural log unit of total BDEs was related to a change of ?0.10 (95% CI: ?0.33, 0.13) years of age at menarche and a RR of 1.60 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.28) for experiencing menarche before 12 years of age, after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION These data suggest high concentrations of serum PBDEs during adolescence are associated with a younger age of menarche.

Chen, Aimin; Chung, Ethan; DeFranco, Emily A.; Pinney, Susan M.; Dietrich, Kim N.

2011-01-01

141

Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D receptors have been mapped throughout the brain suggesting a role for vitamin D in psychosomatic disorders. Results from previous epidemiological studies on relation between vitamin D status and depression are equivocal. Also, limited information is available relating vitamin D status with depression in young adult US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess association between serum vitamin D and depression in 7970 non-institutionalized US residents, aged 15-39 y. Assessment of depression was done using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule developed by the National Institute of Mental Health. After accounting for several confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, we estimated odds ratios (OR) for having depression in vitamin D deficient persons in comparison to vitamin D sufficient persons. Results Women, non-Hispanic blacks, persons living below poverty, persons who did not consume supplements, persons living in South and West regions and in urban areas, persons with higher BMI, and persons with current depression had higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to their counterparts. OR for having current depressive episodes in persons with serum vitamin D ? 50 nmol/L is significantly higher relative to those with serum vitamin D ? 75 nmol/L (OR = 1.85; P = 0.021). Conclusions In this large population based study, likelihood of having depression in persons with vitamin D deficiency is significantly higher compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency. Early diagnosis and intervention are paramount because coexistence of vitamin D deficiency and depression has serious negative consequences on health.

2010-01-01

142

Hyperphosphatemia is associated with anemia in adults without chronic kidney disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperphosphatemia, serum phosphorus ? 4.4 mg/dL, is associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown a weak association between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations. While much less common in the general population, hypophosphatemia (< 2.5 mg/dL) may be associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. Methods Using three cycles from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2005–2010), this study evaluated independent risk factors for hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia. Results Risk factors for hyperphosphatemia included higher adjusted calcium (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.45), increasing cholesterol (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.001-1.005), female gender (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.39-1.87) and low hemoglobin (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.98). Advanced age was protective (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.977-0.987). Models that included fasting serum glucose found lower body mass index (BMI) to be protective (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99) and adjusting for serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone removed the association with low hemoglobin and BMI. Risk factors for hypophosphatemia included the following protective factors: higher albumin (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.93), higher BUN (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86, 0.95), corrected calcium (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63) and female gender (OR 0.47, 95% 0.24-0.94). In men, higher fasting glucose levels increased risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.0004-1.01). Conclusion This study is the first to show an association between low hemoglobin levels and increased risk for hyperphosphatemia among individuals without chronic kidney disease. We did not find any association between diabetes mellitus, increasing BMI or fasting glucose levels and hypophosphatemia.

2013-01-01

143

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000  

PubMed Central

Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003–2004 sample of the general U.S. population ? 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003–2004 participants. Results We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999–2000 (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the general U.S. population in 2003–2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003–2004 were lower than in 1999–2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds.

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2007-01-01

144

Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ?60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).  

PubMed

Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ?60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution. PMID:23993123

Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

2013-11-15

145

ST-T wave abnormality in lead aVR and reclassification of cardiovascular risk (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III).  

PubMed

Electrocardiographic lead aVR is often ignored in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ST-T wave amplitude in lead aVR predicts cardiovascular (CV) mortality and if this variable adds value to a traditional risk prediction model. A total of 7,928 participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III with electrocardiographic data available were included. Each participant had 13.5 ± 3.8 years of follow-up. The study sample was stratified according to ST-segment amplitude and T-wave amplitude in lead aVR. ST-segment elevation (>8 ?V) in lead aVR was predictive of CV mortality in the multivariate analysis when not accounting for T-wave amplitude. The finding lost significance after including T-wave amplitude in the model. A positive T wave in lead aVR (>0 mV) was the strongest multivariate predictor of CV mortality (hazard ratio 3.37, p <0.01). The addition of T-wave amplitude in lead aVR to the Framingham risk score led to a net reclassification improvement of 2.7% of subjects with CV events and 2.3% of subjects with no events (p <0.01). Furthermore, in the intermediate-risk category, 20.0% of the subjects in the CV event group and 9.1% of subjects in the no-event group were appropriately reclassified. The absolute integrated discrimination improvement was 0.012 (p <0.01), and the relative integrated discrimination improvement was 11%. In conclusion, T-wave amplitude in lead aVR independently predicts CV mortality in a cross-sectional United States population. Adding T-wave abnormalities in lead aVR to the Framingham risk score improves model discrimination and calibration with better reclassification of intermediate-risk subjects. PMID:23764245

Badheka, Apurva O; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Grover, Peeyush M; Shah, Neeraj; Singh, Vikas; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Kathan; Chothani, Ankit; Hoosien, Michael; Rathod, Ankit; Savani, Ghanshyambhai T; Marzouka, George R; Gupta, Sandeep; Mitrani, Raul D; Moscucci, Mauro; Cohen, Mauricio G

2013-09-15

146

Association between Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis in the U.S. Population: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is based on studies in special populations and/or from high prevalence settings. We sought to evaluate the association between LTBI and smoking in a low prevalence TB setting using population-based data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods In 1999–2000, NHANES assessed LTBI (defined as a tuberculin skin test measurement ?10 mm) in participants, and those ?20 years of age were queried regarding their tobacco use and serum cotinine was measured. We evaluated the association of LTBI with self-reported smoking history and smoking intensity in multivariable logistic regression models that adjusted for known confounders (gender, age, birthplace, race/ethnicity, poverty, education, history of BCG vaccination, and history of household exposure to tuberculosis disease). Results Estimated LTBI prevalence was 5.3% among those ?20 years of age. The LTBI prevalence among never smokers, current smokers, and former smokers was 4.1%, 6.6%, and 6.2%, respectively. In a multivariable model, current smoking was associated with LTBI (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9). The association between smoking and LTBI was strongest for Mexican-American and black individuals. In multivariate analysis stratified by race/ethnicity, cigarette packs per day among Mexican-American smokers and cotinine levels among black smokers, were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions In the large, representative, population-based NHANES sample, smoking was independently associated with significantly increased risks of LTBI. In certain populations, a greater risk of LTBI corresponded with increased smoking exposure.

Horne, David J; Campo, Monica; Ortiz, Justin R.; Oren, Eyal; Arentz, Matthew

2012-01-01

147

Effect of pregnancy on the levels of selected perfluoroalkyl compounds for females aged 17-39 years: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008.  

PubMed

The presence of perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFC) in maternal serum may pose a risk to the developing fetus. A large-scale study to evaluate the extent of exposure to PFC in pregnant and nonpregnant females in the United States has not been conducted. The impact of pregnancy on the concentration levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed by analyzing data (n?=?1079) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003-2008 for females aged 17-39 yr. While pregnant females possessed lower serum concentrations of all 4 PFC than nonpregnant females, only the differences for PFOS were significant (9.6 vs. 11.8 ng/ml). Those mothers who breast-fed at least one child displayed significantly lower levels of PFOA (2.6 vs. 3.1 ng/ml) than those with non-breast-fed infants. The concentration levels of PFNA and PFOA decreased with increase in number of live births. While levels of PFHxS and PFOS markedly fell over the period 2003-2008, the levels of PFNA rose over the same time period. There was nonlinear elevation in levels of PFHxS and PFOS with age. Smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. There was a significant, positive association between total cholesterol and PFOS as well as for serum albumin with PFHxS and PFOS. Elevated levels of PFNA and PFOA were associated with a rise in serum protein. Further studies are needed to adequately explain why smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. PMID:23611181

Jain, Ram B

2013-01-01

148

Association of Low Dietary Intake of Fiber and Liquids with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Methods Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (?20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Results Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusions The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise.

Markland, Alayne D.; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E.

2013-01-01

149

Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988-94)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace.

Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

2002-01-01

150

Association between Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have identified that physical activity (PA) has positive influences on quality of life. However, there has been little domestic research about the relation of PA to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the general population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PA on HRQoL in Korean adults aged 40 years or over. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data acquired from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Final study subjects were 10,392 adults aged 40 years or over. According to the severity and frequency of PA, the subjects were divided into three PA groups as follows: high-activity, mid-activity, and low-activity group. We compared the HRQoL estimated by the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D), the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), and EQ-5D index between three PA groups. Results The odds ratios for mid-activity group and high activity group compared with low activity group were significantly decreased in the dimension of mobility of EQ-5D (mid-activity group, 0.81 [0.69-0.94]; high activity group, 0.81 [0.67-0.99]). EQ-VAS was decreased as PA level was lowered from high activity group and mid-activity to low activity group. EQ-5D index was the highest in mid-activity group and the lowest in low activity group. Conclusion PA above mid-activity group showed better HRQoL compared than low activity group.

Kim, Sunmi; Park, You-Il

2014-01-01

151

Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Recent reports suggest that alcohol use may have a protective effect on obesity. This study explores association between obesity and alcohol consumption in the non-smoking U.S. adult population. Methods We analyzed data on a total of 8,236 respondents who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body mass index (weight-kg/height-m2) was derived from measured height and weight data and categorized into: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Alcohol consumption was measured using following measures: history of drinking, binge drinking, quantity of drinks/day, frequency of drinking, and average volume of drinks/week. Results Mean body mass index in this sample of non-smokers was 26.4 (95% CI: 26.1, 26.7). Approximately 46% of respondents were classified as current drinkers. Current drinkers had lower odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.97) as compared to non-drinkers. The odds of overweight and obesity were significantly greater among binge drinkers and those consuming four or more drinks/day. However, those who reported drinking one or two drinks per day had 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.62) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) times the odds of obesity, respectively. Similarly, the odds of obesity were significantly lower among those who reported drinking frequently and consuming less than five drinks per week. The association between overweight and other alcohol measures was less pronounced. Conclusion The results suggest further exploring the possible role of moderate alcohol drinking in controlling body weight in adults.

Arif, Ahmed A; Rohrer, James E

2005-01-01

152

High intraocular pressure is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in South Korean men: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.  

PubMed

ObjectiveElevated intraocular pressure (IOP) contributes to the progression of visual defects such as glaucoma. This study determined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with IOP in South Korean men.MethodsWe analyzed data on 4875 men who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. We recorded the values for age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), non-HDL-C (NHDL-C), and TG/HDL-C, as well as sociodemographic factors. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry.ResultsWeight, BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C, TG, NHDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and the prevalence of MetS differed significantly among the three groups with IOP (P<0.05). Mean IOP was higher in subjects who were obese and had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, MetS, abdominal obesity, high TG, high FBG, or high BP compared with normal subjects (P<0.005). Analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that all cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005), with the exception of WC and HDL-C. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed that IOP was positively correlated with BMI, SBP, DBP, FBG, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C, TG, NHDL-C, and TG/HDL-C after adjusting for all covariates (all P<0.05).ConclusionsCardiometabolic risk factors, including the components of MetS, are associated with increased IOP. PMID:24603415

Kim, Y-H; Jung, S W; Nam, G-E; Do Han, K; Bok, A R; Baek, S J; Cho, K-H; Choi, Y S; Kim, S-M; Ju, S-Y; Kim, D-H

2014-06-01

153

Blood lead is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: an analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Although an association between low-level environmental heavy metal exposure and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been hypothesized, little research on this topic has been conducted on a population-wide level. Methods We analyzed MS status and whole blood lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and creatinine-adjusted urine arsenic concentrations in 1,405 subjects, ? 20 years of age, who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. Results Various demographic and biochemical parameters were associated with MS and blood heavy metal status. After adjusting for these variables, lead was the only heavy metal that was significantly associated with MS. Lead concentrations in subjects with MS were significantly higher than those in subjects without MS (p?=?0.015). The prevalence of MS and a moderate/high risk for cardiovascular disease, as determined by Framingham risk score, also increased significantly according to the logarithmic transformation of the lead quartile (p?

2013-01-01

154

Population determinants of serum lycopene concentrations in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

Serum lycopene is inversely related to the risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, to investigate the relation between serum lycopene concentrations and sex, age, geographical location, race-ethnicity, education, alcohol, smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, and intakes of fat, tomatoes and tomato-based products in 3413 individuals aged 17-90 y. Multivariate adjusted mean lycopene concentrations were 48.3% lower in individuals > or =70 y old than in those 17 to <30 y old (P < 0.0001), 7.6% lower in women than in men (P = 0.0045), 15.1% lower in people living in the South than those in the West (P < 0.0001), 10.3 and 61.0% lower in the 1st quartile than in the 4th quartile for dietary fat intake (P = 0.0173) and serum cholesterol (P < 0.0001), respectively, 11.1% lower in tomato noneaters than those who ate tomatoes > or =31 times/mo (P = 0.0085), 13.5% lower in pizza noneaters than those who ate pizza > or =16 times/mo (P = 0.0016), and 20.6% lower in pasta noneaters than those who ate pasta (with tomato sauce) > or =16 times/mo (P < 0.0001). Race-ethnicity, alcohol, BMI, blood pressure, and consumption of non-tomato vegetables, and fruits and juices had no association with serum lycopene concentrations. Sex, age, geographical region, socioeconomic status, serum total cholesterol, smoking, and intakes of fat, tomatoes, pizza, and pasta were significant determinants of serum lycopene concentrations in the United States. PMID:15735095

Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R

2005-03-01

155

Naphthalene biomarkers and relationship with hemoglobin and hematocrit in White, Black, and Hispanic adults: results from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Naphthalene is an important contaminant in indoor and outdoor air. Acute overexposure can have toxic effects, resulting in hemolysis. There have been no studies evaluating the impact of environmental exposure on red blood cell indices. We examined 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene urinary metabolites (NAP1 and NAP2) in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican-American adults in the USA and their relationship with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT). Using the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, weighted generalized linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between Hb (in grams per deciliter) and HCT (in percent) with NAP1 and NAP2 (per 100,000 ng/L). Beta coefficients ± SE are reported. NAP1 and NAP2 were highest in non-Hispanic Blacks, followed by non-Hispanic Whites, and lowest in Mexican-American adults. There was a positive association between NAP1 and Hb (0.39?±?0.11, p?=?0.0034) and HCT (1.14?±?0.28, p?=?0.0009) after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, and smoking. Stratified analysis by smoking showed similar results with the association being stronger for smokers (Hb 0.63?±?0.23, p?=?0.02; HCT 1.43?±?0.79, p?=?0.09) than nonsmokers (Hb 0.34?±?0.14, p?=?0.03; HCT 1.08?±?0.42, p?=?0.02). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic blacks (Hb 0.54?±?0.20, p?=?0.02; HCT 1.43?±?0.55, p?=?0.02) than for non-Hispanic whites (Hb 0.37?±?0.18, p?=?0.06; HCT 1.20?±?0.51, p?=?0.03) and was not significant for Mexican-Americans (Hb 0.30?±?1.7, p?=?0.10; HCT 0.99?±?0.52, p?=?0.08). NAP2 was not significantly associated with Hb or HCT. The observed disparity in NAP1 and NAP2 levels by race/ethnicity is consistent with published literature. The origin of these differences in exposure is unclear but may reflect differences in environmental exposure as well as genetic susceptibility. The positive association between NAP1 with HCT and Hb is an unexpected finding. Further research is needed to understand the possible biological mechanisms or other explanations for this association. PMID:23007805

Sudakin, Daniel L; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Harding, Anna

2013-06-01

156

Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1991-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), as ACR ? 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value < 0.05) with log(ACR) in at least one race/ethnic group, but none remained significant in crude or fully-adjusted models when correcting for the false-discovery rate (FDR). In analyses of sex-specific albuminuria, IL1B (rs1143623) among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623), CRP (rs1800947) and NOS3 (rs2070744) were significantly associated with ACR ? 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P < 0.05). In contrast, no variants were found to be associated with albuminuria among non-Hispanic blacks after adjustment for multiple testing. The only variant among non-Hispanic whites significantly associated with any outcome was TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P < 0.05) with log(ACR) or albuminuria in at least one race/ethnic group. Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the susceptibility to kidney damage.

2010-01-01

157

Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91-2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37-8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40-5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24959985

Wu, Erin W; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-08-01

158

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

2014-01-01

159

Racial differences in the relationship between vitamin D, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Summary It is unclear whether optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in whites are the same as in minorities. In adult participants of NHANES, the relationships between 25(OH)D, bone mineral density (BMD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) differed in blacks as compared to whites and Mexican-Americans, suggesting that optimal 25(OH)D levels for bone and mineral metabolism may differ by race. Introduction Blacks and Hispanics have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations than whites. However, it is unclear whether 25(OH)D levels considered “optimal” for bone and mineral metabolism in whites are the same as those in minority populations. Methods We examined the relationships between 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone in 8,415 adult participants (25% black and 24% Mexican-American) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003–2004 and 2005–2006; and between 25(OH)D and bone mineral density in 4,206 adult participants (24% black and 24% Mexican-American) in the 2003–2004 sample. Results Blacks and Mexican-Americans had significantly lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH concentrations than whites (P<0.01 for both). BMD significantly decreased (P<0.01) as serum 25(OH)D and calcium intake declined among whites and Mexican-Americans, but not among blacks (P=0.2). The impact of vitamin D deficiency (25 (OH)D?20 ng/ml) on PTH levels was modified by race/ethnicity (P for interaction, 0.001). Whereas inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and PTH were observed above and below a 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/ml in whites and Mexican-Americans, an inverse association between 25(OH)D and PTH was only observed below this threshold in blacks, with the slope of the relationship being essentially flat (P=0.7) above this cut-point, suggesting that PTH may be maximally suppressed at lower 25(OH)D levels in blacks than in whites or Mexican-Americans. Conclusions The relationships between 25(OH)D, BMD, and PTH may differ by race among US adults. Whether race-specific ranges of optimal vitamin D are needed to appropriately evaluate the adequacy of vitamin D stores in minorities requires further study.

Farwell, W. R.; Kermah, D.; Taylor, E. N.

2011-01-01

160

Smoking, Menthol Cigarettes and All-Cause, Cancer and Cardiovascular Mortality: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including menthol, if the scientific evidence indicates harm. Few studies, however, have evaluated the health effects of menthol cigarette use. Objective To investigate associations of cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette use with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults. Methods We studied 10,289 adults ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2004 and were followed through December 2006. We also identified studies comparing risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer for menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers and estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Results Fifty-five percent of participants were never smokers compared to 23%, 17% and 5% of former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers compared to never smokers were 1.24 (0.96, 1.62), 2.40 (1.56, 3.71) and 2.07 (1.20, 3.58), respectively, for all-cause mortality; 0.92 (0.62, 1.37), 2.10 (1.02, 4.31) and 3.48 (1.52, 7.99) for cardiovascular mortality; and 1.91 (1.21, 3.00), 3.82 (2.19, 6.68) and 2.03 (1.00, 4.13) for cancer mortality. Using data from 3 studies of all-cause mortality, 5 of cardiovascular disease and 13 of cancer, the pooled relative risks (95% CI) comparing menthol cigarette smokers to nonmenthol cigarette smokers was 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) for all-cause mortality, 1.28 (0.91, 1.80) for cardiovascular disease and 0.84 (0.76, 0.92) for any cancer. Conclusions In a representative sample of U.S. adults, menthol cigarette smoking was associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality with no differences compared to nonmenthol cigarettes. In the systematic review, menthol cigarette use was associated with inverse risk of cancer compared to nonmenthol cigarette use with some evidence of an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

161

Cocaine use and the likelihood of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous case series have implicated cocaine use as a cause of both myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke on the basis of the temporal relationship between drug use and event onset. The relatively high prevalence of cocaine use in the US population, especially in younger individuals, mandates a more extensive investigation of this relationship. Methods: We determined the relationship between cocaine use and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of 9013 US adults aged 18 to 45 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study using Cox proportional hazards analyses. We categorized the participants as nonusers if they responded to the lifetime cocaine use question as never used, as infrequent users if they responded as using <10 times, and as frequent or regular users if they reported using 10–99 times or >100 times, respectively. Potential confounding factors in the association between cocaine use and death (cardiovascular and all cause) included age, sex, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, educational attainment, body mass index, and insurance status. To estimate the impact of cocaine use on MI or stroke, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) percent for cocaine use with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We also estimated the years of life lost and total annual financial cost due to premature deaths in persons who reported regular use of cocaine. Results: A total of 60 cardiovascular deaths and 384 all causes deaths were reported during a mean follow-up period of 14.7 ± 2.6 years. After adjusting for differences in potential confounders, persons who reported regular lifetime cocaine use had a significantly higher likelihood of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–3.0 for ?100 times in lifetime) but not cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1–4.7 for ?100 times in lifetime). The PAR of regular cocaine use for all cause mortality among was 1.79%. The years of life lost due to regular cocaine use was 10.3 years for an adult aged 31 years. The overall yearly cost incurred due to premature deaths related to regular cocaine use was $1.1 billion. Conclusion: Regular cocaine use was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality but this effect was not mediated through cardiovascular events. Behavior modification by public awareness and education may reduce the mortality and financial burden associated with cocaine use.

Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

2014-01-01

162

Nutrients from dairy foods are difficult to replace in diets of Americans: food pattern modeling and an analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic. PMID:22074800

Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Auestad, Nancy; Quann, Erin E

2011-10-01

163

Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between tele- vision watching, energy intake, physical activity, and obe- sity status in US boys and girls, aged 8 to 16 years. Methods: We used a nationally representative cross- sectional survey with an in-person interview and a medi- cal examination, which included measurements of height and weight, daily hours of television watching, weekly par- ticipation

Carlos J. Crespo; Ellen Smit; Richard P. Troiano; Susan J. Bartlett; Caroline A. Macera; Ross E. Andersen

164

Association between markers of the metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of components of the metabolic syndrome with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which often result from prostate enlargement and heightened tone of prostate and bladder smooth muscle.DESIGN:Third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES III), from which LUTS cases and controls were selected.SUBJECTS:A total of 2372 men aged 60+ y who participated in NHANES III. LUTS cases

S Rohrmann; E Smit; E Giovannucci; E A Platz; EA Platz

2005-01-01

165

Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are related to late-life disability; (2) the role of habitual gait speed in the cognition-disability association; and (3) the combined effect of cognitive function and habitual gait speed on late-life disability. Method Participants (>60 years, n = 2,481) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), and lower extremity mobility (LEM) was obtained by self-report. Cognitive function was measured by a 2-min timed Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), an executive function measure from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test. Habitual gait speed was obtained from a 20-foot timed walk. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between cognitive function and disability. Results Cognitive function was associated with decreased likelihood for disability in each domain. The odds ratios (ORs) for disability in ADL, IADL, LSA, and LEM for each standard deviation (SD) increase in the DSST score were 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34–0.64), 0.53 (95% CI = 0.42–0.67), 0.61 (95% CI = 0.47–0.79), and 0.73 (95% CI = 0.61–0.86), respectively, in the multivariable models. After additional adjustment for habitual gait speed in the cognition-disability relationship, DSST score was no longer a significant correlate for LSA and LEM disability. The strength of the association between DSST score and disability in ADL/IADL was also diminished. The attenuated association between cognition and disability implies that limitation in gait speed likely mediates the association between cognitive function and disability. We found additive effects of cognition and habitual gait speed on late-life disability. The OR of disability in respective domains were lowest among participants with high-DSST score (high executive function) and with high gait speed. In contrast, the OR tended to be highest among participants with low-DSST score (low executive function) and low gait speed. Conclusion Cognitive function was associated with multiple domains of disability. There was a joint effect of cognitive function and gait speed on late-life disability. This study also suggested that habitual gait speed partially mediated the inverse association between cognitive function and late-life disability, providing a mechanistic explanation in the context of disablement process.

Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Yu, Yau-Hua; Milberg, William P.

2008-01-01

166

Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).  

PubMed

There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 ± 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 ± 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri; Sohn, Cheong-Min

2013-12-01

167

An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria.  

PubMed

The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition. PMID:7436915

Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G

1980-04-01

168

Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicts reduced probability of polychlorinated biphenyl-associated risk for type 2 diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes has been shown to occur in response to environmental and genetic influences, among them nutrition; food intake patterns; sedentary lifestyle; body mass index; and exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nutrition is essential in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to modulate the toxicity of PCBs. Serum carotenoid concentrations, considered a reliable biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with the reduced probability of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis is that fruit and vegetable intake, reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, is associated with the reduced probability of developing type 2 diabetes in US adults with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs 118, 126, and 153. This cross-sectional study used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention database, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, in logistic regression analyses. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was approximately 11.6% depending on the specific PCB. All 3 PCBs were positively associated with the probability of type 2 diabetes. For participants at higher PCB percentiles (eg, 75th and 90th) for PCB 118 and 126, increasing serum carotenoid concentrations were associated with a smaller probability of type 2 diabetes. Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicted notably reduced probability of dioxin-like PCB-associated risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24774064

Hofe, Carolyn R; Feng, Limin; Zephyr, Dominique; Stromberg, Arnold J; Hennig, Bernhard; Gaetke, Lisa M

2014-04-01

169

Association of urinary phytoestrogen concentrations with serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Some clinical trials have shown that high phytoestrogen intake may decrease serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and phytoestrogens may also lower prostate cancer risk. It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between the serum PSA level and urine phytoestrogen concentration in generally healthy US men. 824 men, 40+ year old without prostate cancer, who participated in the 2001-2004 NHANES surveys, were included in the analysis. The association of total PSA, free PSA, and PSA ratio [free PSA/total PSA * 100] with concentrations of isoflavones and lignans (standardized for urinary creatinine concentration) was examined using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. The linear regression analyses showed no clear association between creatinine-standardized urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and serum total or free PSA levels or PSA ratio. However, the odds of having a PSA ratio < 15% rose from quartile 1 to quartile 4 of isoflavone excretion (odds ratio = 2.82, 95 % confidence interval 1.28-6.22 for top versus bottom quartile), but there were no associations with having a PSA ratio < 25%. In generally healthy US men, 40+ years old without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, urinary isoflavone and lignan concentrations were not associated with serum PSA level.

Walser-Domjan, Esther; Richard, Aline; Eichholzer, Monika; Platz, Elizabeth A; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

2014-01-01

170

Association of urinary phytoestrogen concentrations with serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Some clinical trials have shown that high phytoestrogen intake may decrease serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and phytoestrogens may also lower prostate cancer risk. It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between the serum PSA level and urine phytoestrogen concentration in generally healthy U.S. men. Eight hundred twenty-four men, 40+ yr old without prostate cancer, who participated in the 2001-2004 NHANES surveys, were included in the analysis. The association of total PSA, free PSA, and PSA ratio [free PSA/total PSA * 100] with concentrations of isoflavones and lignans (standardized for urinary creatinine concentration) was examined using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. The linear regression analyses showed no clear association between creatinine-standardized urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and serum total or free PSA levels or PSA ratio. However, the odds of having a PSA ratio <15% rose from Quartile 1 to Quartile 4 of isoflavone excretion (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.28-6.22 for top vs. bottom quartile), but there were no associations with having a PSA ratio <25%. In generally healthy U.S. men, 40+ yr old without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, urinary isoflavone, and lignan concentrations were not associated with serum PSA level. PMID:23909724

Walser-Domjan, Esther; Richard, Aline; Eichholzer, Monika; Platz, Elizabeth A; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

2013-01-01

171

Diabetes Mellitus in CKD: Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in the CKD population. Early diabetes identification through targeted screening programs is important for the development of preventive strategies. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) data and National Health and Nutrition

Adam T. Whaley-Connell; James R. Sowers; Samy I. McFarlane; Keith C. Norris; Shu-Cheng Chen; Suying Li; Yang Qiu; Changchun Wang; Lesley A. Stevens; Joseph A. Vassalotti; Allan J. Collins

2008-01-01

172

Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

2005-01-01

173

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 prevalence among females in the United States--National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006: opportunity to measure HPV vaccine impact?  

PubMed

The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA detection from females aged 14-59 years who self-collected cervicovaginal swab specimens. Prevalence was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8%-10.0%) and was highest among women aged 20-24 years (18.5%; 95% CI, 14.9%-22.8%). Age group, education, marital status, and sexual behavior were associated with detection. These data provide baseline information before HPV vaccine introduction. Early impact of vaccine in the United States may be determined by a reduction in the prevalence of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection among young women. PMID:21791658

Dunne, Eileen F; Sternberg, Maya; Markowitz, Lauri E; McQuillan, Geraldine; Swan, David; Patel, Sonya; Unger, Elizabeth R

2011-08-15

174

Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Yoon-Kyoung

2014-02-01

175

Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009)  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake.

Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook

2014-01-01

176

Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the u.s. Population (national health and nutrition examination survey, 2003-2010): trends and predictors.  

PubMed

Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population.Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type.Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 2003-2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income.Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1-12.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8-1.0 ?g/L) throughout 2003-2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (6-11 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003.Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003-2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds.Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351-355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816. PMID:24451842

Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M

2014-04-01

177

Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications.

2013-01-01

178

Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy), a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%), body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049) positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

Gillum, Richard

2003-01-01

179

Dietary Potassium Intake and Risk of Stroke in US Men and Women National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The few prospective studies that have explored the association between dietary intake of potassium and risk of stroke have reported inconsistent findings. This study examines the relationship between dietary potassium intake and the risk of stroke in a representative sample of the US general population. Methods—Study participants included 9805 US men and women who participated in the first

Lydia A. Bazzano; Jiang He; Lorraine G. Ogden; Catherine Loria; Suma Vupputuri; Leann Myers; Paul K. Whelton

180

Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

2012-01-01

181

Comparison of the Heart and Estrogen\\/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) cohort with women with coronary disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The Heart and Estrogen\\/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) is the first large clinical trial designed to test the efficacy of postmenopausal estrogen\\/progestin therapy for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). To examine the representativeness of the HERS cohort to the general population of postmenopausal women with CHD, we compared the baseline cardiovascular risk factor data from HERS with similar

David M. Herrington; Josephine Fong; Christopher T. Sempos; Dennis M. Black; Helmut G. Schrott; Pentti Rautaharju; Paul S. Bachorik; Roger Blumenthal; Steven Khan; Nanette K. Wenger

1998-01-01

182

Distributions and Trends of Serum Lipid Levels among United States Children and Adolescents Ages 4–19 Years: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses into adulthood. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, in childhood may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Lipid distributions among children and adolescents were examined using the most recent nationally representative data.Methods.Data from 7,499 examinees in NHANES III (1988–1994) were used

Tamy B. Hickman; Ronette R. Briefel; Margaret D. Carroll; Basil M. Rifkind; James I. Cleeman; Kurt R. Maurer; Clifford L. Johnson

1998-01-01

183

Diet Quality of American School-Age Children by School Lunch Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates, Inc. and Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the oldest food assistance program in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s nutrition safety net. Strategies for improving the diets of NSLP participants are crucial for meeting children’s nutritional needs, fostering healthy eating habits, and safeguarding children’s health. This report examines the nutrient intakes, food choices, and diet quality of NSLP participants and nonparticipants.

Nancy Cole; Mary Kay Fox

2008-01-01

184

Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults.

Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung

2013-01-01

185

C-reactive protein is elevated in atypical but not nonatypical depression: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.  

PubMed

Little is known about the association of depression subtypes with inflammatory markers predictive of coronary artery disease. In a sample of younger adults representative of the U.S. population, we examined differences in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) among individuals with atypical major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 16), nonatypical MDD (n = 93), and no MDD (n = 1,682). Adults with atypical MDD exhibited higher CRP levels than those with no MDD (mean difference = 1.56 mg/L) or nonatypical MDD (mean difference = 1.40 mg/L), even after adjustment for potential cofounders, anxiety disorders, body mass, and smoking. Nearly twice as many adults with atypical MDD had CRP levels in the high cardiovascular risk range than did those with no MDD or nonatypical MDD. CRP levels of adults with nonatypical MDD or no MDD did not differ. Individuals with atypical depression may be partially driving the overall depression-inflammation relationship and may be a subgroup at elevated risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:23624671

Hickman, Ruth J; Khambaty, Tasneem; Stewart, Jesse C

2014-08-01

186

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

2002-10-15

187

The relationship between height and neighborhood context across racial/ethnic groups: a multi-level analysis of the 1999-2004 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

While a growing literature has documented a link between neighborhood context and health outcomes, little is known about the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and height. Using individual data from the 1999-2004 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey merged with tract-level data from the U.S. Census, we investigate several neighborhood characteristics, including neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), education index of concentration at the extremes (ICE), and population density, as potential predictors of height. Employing a series of two-level random intercept models, we find a one standard deviation increase in NSES to be associated with a 0.6-1.4 cm height advantage for white and foreign-born Mexican-American females and for U.S. born Mexican-American males, net of individual-level controls. Similarly, a 10 point increase in neighborhood education ICE was associated with 0.23-0.32 cm greater height for white and foreign-born Mexican-American females and U.S. born Mexican-American males. Population density was nominally negatively associated with height for foreign-born Mexican-American females. Our findings reveal that lower physical stature for some ethnic and gender groups is clustered within neighborhoods of low SES and education, suggesting that contextual factors may play a role in influencing height above individual-level attributes. PMID:22613511

Do, D Phuong; Watkins, Daphne C; Hiermeyer, Martin; Finch, Brian K

2013-01-01

188

High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)  

PubMed Central

Background The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals age two years and older reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruits and Dairy). Methods To assess if the foods currently consumed by Americans are in concordance with the DGA, food consumption data from What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA-NHANES) 2007–2008 (n?=?8 527) was used to estimate the proportion of foods that contained SoFAS and to report them by food group. Weighted analysis was conducted to be nationally representative. Results The Dairy group contained the highest proportion (93%) of either SoF or AS, followed by Grains (70% SoF; 70% AS; 50% both). Fruits contained the least SoFAS (7%). Conclusions Results suggest that the high proportion of SoFAS in each recommended food group makes it challenging for Americans to reduce their intake of SoFAS.

2014-01-01

189

The Association between Type of Work and Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Korean Men: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007~2009)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Type of work might be related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, scant data are available. We performed this study to investigate whether the prevalence of MetS and insulin resistance differed according to occupation in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods In all, 2,348 men in their 40s~50s who had participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV were included and were classified into two groups according to the type of work (manual worker vs. non-manual worker). Diagnosis of MetS required satisfying three or more of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Fasting insulin, the glucose/insulin ratio (G/I ratio), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were used to estimate the insulin resistance. We used the Mann-Whitney test, ?2 tests, multiple linear regression test, and logistic regression analyses to examine the relationships. Results Age was significantly higher in the manual worker group. Body mass index was significantly lower in the manual worker group. Rates of current smoking and frequent drinking were higher in the manual worker group. In terms of surrogate markers of insulin resistance, the age-adjusted mean of fasting insulin, G/I ratio, and HOMA-IR indicated that lower insulin resistance was significantly related to manual work. After adjusting for age and other confounding factors, non-manual workers had a higher risk of the MetS than manual workers. The odds ratio in relation to MetS was significantly lower in the manual workers. Conclusions MetS and impaired insulin resistance are significantly related to non-manual work in middle-aged Korean men.

Kwon, Choon Sig

2013-01-01

190

Usual Dietary Intake among Female Breast Cancer Survivors Is Not Significantly Different from Women with No Cancer History: Results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and <10% of either group met the recommendation for percent energy from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The diet of breast cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer. PMID:24169415

Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A

2014-06-01

191

Temporal changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among adults with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1991 to 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is characterized by profound lipid abnormalities. The objective of this study was to examine changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among participants stratified by glycemic status (diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia) in the United States from 1988–1991 to 2005–2008. Methods We used data from 3202 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1991) and 3949 participants aged ?20 years from NHANES 2005–2008. Results Among participants of all four groups, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, but not triglycerides, decreased significantly. Among participants with prediabetes and normoglycemia, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. Adjusted mean log-transformed concentrations of triglycerides decreased in adults with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. During 2005–2008, unadjusted concentrations of apolipoprotein B ?80 mg/dl were observed in 72.8% of participants with diagnosed diabetes, 87.9% of participants with undiagnosed diabetes, 86.6% of participants with prediabetes, and 77.2% of participants with normoglycemia. The unadjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications rose rapidly, especially among participants with diabetes (from ~1% to ~49%, P <0.001). The use of fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and niacin rose significantly only among adults with diagnosed diabetes (from ~2% to ~8%, P?=?0.011). Conclusion Lipid profiles of adults with diabetes improved during the approximately 16-year study period. Nevertheless, large percentages of adults continue to have elevated concentrations of apolipoprotein B.

2013-01-01

192

Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

2012-01-01

193

Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population—nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a surprising paucity of studies that have systematically examined the correlates of water intake in the US population. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of con- tributors of water intake with dietary characteristics, meal consump- tion, and body weight in the US population. Design: We used 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and

Ashima K Kant; Barry I Graubard; Elizabeth A Atchison

194

Higher Serum Heavy Metal May Be Related with Higher Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration in Koreans: Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2, 2010, 2011)  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (?-GT) may be an early and sensitive marker for oxidative stress. This study was performed to evaluate the association between serum heavy metals and ?-GT concentration. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis based on data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (V-1, 2, 2010, 2011) regarding serum heavy metal concentrations (lead, mercury, and cadmium) as well as serum ?-GT. Serum heavy metals were categorized into tertiles, and serum ?-GT concentration was compared using an analysis of covariance test after relevant variable adjustments. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT in each heavy metal tertile using logistic regression. Results The mean serum lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were 2.67, 5.08, and 1.02 µg/dL in men and 1.95, 3.60, and 1.21 µg/dL in women, respectively. Partial correlation showed a significant positive relation between each heavy metal and serum ?-GT concentration. Comparing serum ?-GT concentration by the tertile of each heavy metal, serum ?-GT concentration showed a significant increase as the tertiles of serum mercury and cadmium in men and that of serum mercury in women increased, but not with lead. The OR of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT was significant for cadmium in men (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54 to 6.35) and mercury in women (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.10) in the top tertile of each heavy metal. Conclusion Higher serum heavy metal concentration may be related with higher serum ?-GT concentration. In particular, serum cadmium in men and mercury in women showed significant correlation with serum ?-GT concentration.

Kim, Sung-Jin; Han, Sung-Woo; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

2014-01-01

195

Gene-carbohydrate and gene-fiber interactions and type 2 diabetes in diverse populations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study  

PubMed Central

Background Both environmental and genetic factors impact type 2 diabetes (T2D). To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 15 T2D-associated variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 6,414 non-Hispanic whites, 3,073 non-Hispanic blacks, and 3,633 Mexican American participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and evaluated interactions between these variants and carbohydrate intake and fiber intake. Results We calculated a genetic risk score (GRS) with the 15 SNPs. The odds ratio for T2D with each GRS point was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13) for non-Hispanic blacks, and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.17) for Mexican Americans. We identified two gene-carbohydrate interactions (P?

2014-01-01

196

Prevalence, Risk Factors, Quality of Life, and Health-Care Seeking Behaviors of Female Urinary Incontinence: Results From the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2007-2009)  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is a lack of information on female urinary incontinence (UI) in South Korea. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare-seeking behaviors of women with UI. Methods We included 9,873 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. The condition of UI was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Do you have UI?" Additionally, health care seeking behavior for UI was defined as answering "yes" to "Have you ever been treated for UI?' The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean age of our sample was 49.7 years. The overall prevalence of UI was 7.9%. The prevalence of UI significantly increased with age. The rate of healthcare-seeking behavior for UI also significantly increased with age. However, the rate of healthcare seeking for UI was significantly lower when compared to the prevalence of UI. In our multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, and marriage were significantly and independently associated with UI. As the severity of all the subscales of EQ-5D increased, the unadjusted odds ratio for UI also increased. After adjusting for potential confounders, the subscales of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from the EQ-5D were significantly associated with UI. Conclusions UI is a common disease and is significantly associated with QoL. Our results suggest the need for developing preventive measures and treatment policies for UI.

Kwon, Choon Sig

2014-01-01

197

Serum Lipid Concentrations, Prevalence of Dyslipidemia, and Percentage Eligible for Pharmacological Treatment of Korean Children and Adolescents; Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dyslipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia is the 1st step to make guidelines of screening and management plan. Although, American Academy of Pediatrics updated the guidelines for lipid in childhood, Asian study is rare. Methods The authors aimed to make a reference of each serum lipid level of Korean children and adolescents (2,363 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007–2009). Results The mean serum concentrations for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 158 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, and 49 mg/dL, respectively. The 95th percentile values for TC, LDL-C, and TG were 203 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 185 mg/dL, respectively. The 5th percentile value for HDL-C was 36 mg/dL. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, high TG, and low HDL-C was 6.5%, 4.7%, 10.1%, and 7.1%, respectively. Considering the risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, approximately 0.41% of the subjects were potentially eligible for pharmacological treatment. Conclusions This information may be useful in not only Korean but also Asian planning programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease through lipid control from childhood.

Yang, Seung; Hwang, Jin Soon; Park, Hong Kyu; Lee, Hae Sang; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Eun Young; Lim, Jung Sub

2012-01-01

198

A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition

Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2013-01-01

199

Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

PubMed Central

Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error?=?0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p?

2012-01-01

200

100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n?=?8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n?=?2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p?

2012-01-01

201

SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

202

Communication in Surveys: Examining Cognitive Effects in Survey Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Panel studies have frequently been used by mass communication researchers. While these studies allow researchers to draw inferences about mass communication effects over time, they also tend to sensitize respondents to the issue under study. A study was undertaken to investigate panel effects by examining the survey interview as a medium of…

Salmon, Charles T.; And Others

203

An International Survey on Nutrition and Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations between nutrition and the frequency of acute and chronic pancreatitis, respectively, have been studied in 24 centres in 16 countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and Europe. In these countries, consumption of ethanol, fat, proteins, and carbohydrates varies from the lowest to the highest rates. It appears that the geographical distribution of chronic calcifying pancreatitis can be linked with

H. Sarles

1973-01-01

204

Clinical examination compared with anthropometry in evaluating nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assessments of nutritional status in a group of 44 inpatients, made by a panel of experienced childcare specialists, were compared with anthropometric assessments. Assessors were uniformly poor at detecting severe malnutrition and at assessing the nutritional status of infants. Nutritional status cannot be accurately assessed clinically and anthropometry is crucial.

J H Cross; C Holden; A MacDonald; G Pearmain; M C Stevens; I W Booth

1995-01-01

205

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?

2013-01-01

206

Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to improving the recreational facility food environment, however one year following their release, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY remained low. A mandated policy approach could offer an efficacious, cost-effective means of improving the food environment within recreational facilities.

2011-01-01

207

46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 167.15-30...internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except...unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey (UWILD) under §...

2013-10-01

208

Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

(2) Abstract Objective. This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutri- tion Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. Material and Methods. The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural

Juan A Rivera; Jaime Sepúlveda Amor

2003-01-01

209

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

210

Adolescent lipoprotein classifications according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) vs. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal lipid levels in adulthood in a Middle East population  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the predictive ability of adolescent lipoprotein classification using the National Examination Survey (NHANES) cut points and those of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal levels in adulthood. Method From 1032 adolescents, aged 14–19 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, all lipid measures were determined at baseline and again after 6 years. Multivariable Odds Ratios (ORs) were calculated for borderline and high categories of lipids to predict dyslipidemia in adulthood, considering the normal level as a reference. Area under the receiving characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess the predictive ability of each adolescent lipid classification. Result Applying the NCEP classification, the prevalences of high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in males were 12.1%, 12.9%, 26.1% and 34.2% respectively; in females the corresponding prevalences were 15.4%, 17.9%, 21.4% and 25.0%, respectively. Using NHANES cut points, the prevalence of high TC, LDL-C and triglycerides were lower, than those defined by NCEP; the ORs of high categories of lipids (defined by NHANES) were higher than ORs based on the NECP classification, except for HDL-C. For all lipid measures, both classifications had similar predictive abilities, except for TC/HDL-C, which had higher predictive power applying the NHANES classification rather than the NCEP one (AUC 71% vs. 68%, respectively). Conclusion No differences were found between NCEP and NHANES classifications for prediction of adult dyslipidemia, except for TC/HDL-C. Because of their simple application, NCEP cut points can be used in clinical settings.

2012-01-01

211

Examining the use of nutrition labelling with photoelicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study using photoelicitation interviews to investigate the relationship between the habitualised and unconscious aspects of consumers' food choices, the front-of-pack nutrition labelling schemes on food products and the healthiness of their diets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To this end, photographs of ten German middle-class families at different stages

Joerg Koenigstorfer; Andrea Groeppel-Klein

2010-01-01

212

Quality and potential use of data collected during nutrition surveys: an analysis of surveys in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humanitarian agencies regularly carry out nutrition surveys to estimate the prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) and mortality as well as to collect data on a wide range of contributory or aggravating factors in order to identify interventions and to direct aid where it is most needed. In this study, the case of Ethiopia was used (i) to assess the proportion

Fiona Watson; Bekele Negussie; Carmel Dolan; Jeremy Shoham; Andrew Hall

2011-01-01

213

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:365-375, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

214

The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.  

PubMed

The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

2014-01-01

215

Sports Nutrition Knowledge Survey of High-School Health Class Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:To state areas of sports nutrition knowledge lacking in a high school population.Dietitians are often asked to present sports nutrition programs to high school classes or athletic teams. There is little data that addresses sports nutrition knowledge of this age group. A survey of 59 high school students (68% sophomores, 25% juniors, and 7% seniors), evenly divided between male

L. Grieger

1997-01-01

216

Barriers to Providing Nutrition Counseling by Physicians: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous surveys have shown that there is a disparity between physicians? beliefs about the importance of diet and nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention and the actual delivery of nutrition counseling. The primary objective of this study was to assess the current attitudes, practice behavior, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. Methods.

R. F. Kushner

1995-01-01

217

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

218

Dental Findings, Cycle I: Health Examination Survey, User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual contains a record layout and description of the Dental Findings, of the Health Examination Survey File. This file contains a variety of dental findings obtained in the Health Examination Survey of adults conducted during 1959-1962. The dental f...

G. A. Schnack

1974-01-01

219

46 CFR 169.229 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 169.229 Section 169.229 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.229 Drydock examination, internal structural...

2013-10-01

220

A Comparative Examination of the Characteristics of Participants of a Senior Citizens Nutrition and Activities Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the characteristics of the participants of a senior citizens nutrition and activities program in order to examine whether the program effectively promotes good health and well-being. The participants were 306 persons who received their meals at home and 766 who attended the programs at the congregate sites. Using a series of crosstabular analyses, persons from the

Larry C. Mullins; Christine Cook; Mary Mushel; Gil Machin; Janet Georgas

1993-01-01

221

Clinical guidelines and enteral nutrition support: a survey of dietetic practice in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Artificial nutrition support is used in treating hospital patients and has been shown to reduce hospital stays. The NICE (National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care) guidelines are the first national consensus guidelines for dietetic practice in artificial nutrition. The aim of the current survey was to explore the influence of local and national guidelines, and clinical experience on enteral tube

D Judges; S Beverly; A Rio; L M Goff

2012-01-01

222

Assessment of Nutrition Education Among Pediatric Gastroenterologists: A Survey of NASPGHAN Members  

PubMed Central

Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective. However, pediatric gastroenterology fellows feel that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of nutrition training among pediatric gastroenterologists, identify areas of need for additional education, and determine the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in obesity management. Methods A survey was sent to members and fellows of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to assess general nutrition education as well as obesity management and educational needs. Results A total of 272 responses were received, for an overall response rate of 15.2% (272/1,784). Most responders reported having average or above-average knowledge base in all nutritional topics. There was strong interest in additional resources and a continuing medical education (CME) module on several nutrition topics including: nutritional requirements in specific gastrointestinal (GI) disease, failure to thrive/growth failure, and parenteral nutrition support, with the format of CME dependent on the topic. There was also a strong interest in additional CME on the management of pediatric obesity (67%), as most responders felt that the management of obesity in children requires subspecialty care. However, the perceived role of the pediatric gastroenterologist was one of support to treat the gastrointestinal and hepatic co-morbidities of obesity rather than serve as the main provider of comprehensive obesity care. Conclusion Pediatric gastroenterologists identified gaps in their nutrition knowledge base that may be attributed to the current nutrition education training during fellowship. Multiple topics were identified for additional nutrition education, including obesity management. The nutrition management challenges of today necessitate improved baseline nutrition knowledge and this focus on nutrition should begin at the fellowship level.

Lin, Henry C; Kahana, Doron; Vos, Miriam B; Black, Dennis; Port, Zack; Shulman, Robert; Scheimann, Ann; Mascarenhas, Maria R.

2012-01-01

223

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals...unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey per § 71.50-5 of this...

2013-10-01

224

Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.  

PubMed

Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68?h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe. PMID:24781690

Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

2014-07-01

225

Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools: Latest Update of a National Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose To quantify the number of required hours of nutrition education at U.S. medical schools and the types of courses in which the instruction was offered, and to compare these results with results from previous surveys. Method The authors distributed to all 127 accredited U.S. medical schools (that were matriculating students at the time of this study) a two-page online survey devised by the Nutrition in Medicine Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. From August 2008 through July 2009, the authors asked their contacts, most of whom were nutrition educators, to report the nutrition contact hours that were required for their medical students and whether those actual hours of nutrition education occurred in a designated nutrition course, within another course, or during clinical rotations. Results Respondents from 109 (86%) of the targeted medical schools completed some part of the survey. Most schools (103/109) required some form of nutrition education. Of the 105 schools answering questions about courses and contact hours, only 26 (25%) required a dedicated nutrition course; in 2004, 32 (30%) of 106 schools did. Overall, medical students received 19.6 contact hours of nutrition instruction during their medical school careers (range: 0–70 hours); the average in 2004 was 22.3 hours. Only 28 (27%) of the 105 schools met the minimum 25 required hours set by the National Academy of Sciences; in 2004, 40 (38%) of 104 schools did so. Conclusions The amount of nutrition education that medical students receive continues to be inadequate.

Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Zeisel, Steven H.

2014-01-01

226

The 2006–2007 Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS): Nutrition labeling, trans fat labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has studied product labels from the US food supply through the Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS). The sampling frame for the latest survey, FLAPS 2006–2007, was the ACNielsen Strategic Planner food sales database. As the newest addition to

Mary Brandt; Julie Moss; Martine Ferguson

2009-01-01

227

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Carrie Gleeksman, MS, RD Clinical Dietician COPD: Lifestyle Management Nutrition Eating a balanced diet and maintaining a ... Up Mucus More Nutrition Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

228

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Pearson, Ms.

2007-10-12

229

A systematic review of practice surveys on parenteral nutrition for preterm infants.  

PubMed

Significant efforts have been made to improve the nutritional support of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to avoid cumulative nutritional deficits, reduce postnatal growth restriction, and promote optimal long-term development. The objective of this systematic review was to compare the characteristics and results of all surveys published in the past 10 y (2002-2012) that used a questionnaire to survey at least 2 NICUs receiving preterm infants with an intention to treat with parenteral nutrition (PN) and that reported information on at least 1 macronutrient. A total of 6 surveys were identified, which were conducted in the United States (n = 2) or Europe (n = 4). There was wide variability in the response rate (23-100%), with a higher response rate in the smaller studies (81-100%; 8-64 respondents) compared with the larger studies (23-58%; 296-809 respondents). Large differences were observed in the nutritional protocols both among the NICUs in the individual surveys and between surveys. PN was initiated on the first day of life (DOL) by only 24-54% of respondents (4 surveys) and within the second DOL by 67-94% of respondents (5 surveys). Lipids were initiated before the third DOL for 46-96% of respondents (3 surveys). The results of this systematic review suggest that continuous education is needed and that greater efforts are required to disseminate and implement guidelines. Repeated surveys are needed to highlight trends in clinical practices and level of compliance of NICUs with existing guidelines. PMID:24108136

Lapillonne, Alexandre; Kermorvant-Duchemin, Elsa

2013-12-01

230

Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease: The Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Frailty is common in the elderly and in persons with chronic diseases. Few studies have examined the association of frailty with chronic kidney disease. METHODS We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the prevalence of frailty among persons with chronic kidney disease. We created a definition of frailty based on established validated criteria, modified to accommodate available data. We used logistic regression to determine whether and to what degree stages of chronic kidney disease were associated with frailty. We also examined factors that might mediate the association between frailty and chronic kidney disease. RESULTS The overall prevalence of frailty was 2.8%. However, among persons with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m2), 20.9% were frail. The odds of frailty were significantly increased among all stages of chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for the residual effects of age, sex, race, and prevalent chronic diseases. The odds of frailty associated with chronic kidney disease were only marginally attenuated with additional adjustment for sarcopenia, anemia, acidosis, inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Frailty and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION Frailty is significantly associated with all stages of chronic kidney disease and particularly with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Potential mechanisms underlying the chronic kidney disease and frailty connection remain elusive.

Wilhelm-Leen, Emilee R.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Tamura, Manjula K.; Chertow, Glenn M.

2014-01-01

231

Nutritional care of the obese adult burn patient: a U.K. Survey and literature review.  

PubMed

Obesity is an emerging healthcare problem and affects an increasing number of burn patients worldwide. An email survey questionnaire was constructed and distributed among the 16 U.K. burn services providing adult inpatient facilities to investigate nutritional practices in obese thermally injured patients. Responses received from all dieticians invited to participate in the study were analyzed, and a relevant literature review of key aspects of nutritional care is presented. The majority of services believe that obese patients warrant a different nutritional approach with specific emphasis to avoid overfeeding. The most common algebraic formulae used to calculate calorific requirements include the Schofield, Henry, and modified Penn State equations. Indirect calorimetry despite being considered the "criterion standard" tool to calculate energy requirements is not currently used by any of the U.K. burn services. Gastric/enteral nutrition is initiated within 24 hours of admission in the services surveyed, and a variety of different practices were noted in terms of fasting protocols before procedures requiring general anesthesia/sedation. Hypocaloric regimens for obese patients are not supported by the majority of U.K. facilities, given the limited evidence base supporting their use. The results of this survey outline the wide diversity of dietetic practices adopted in the care of obese burn patients and reveal the need for further study to determine optimal nutritional strategies. PMID:24784903

Goutos, Ioannis

2014-01-01

232

A survey of chemical and nutritional characteristics of halophytes plants used by camels in Southern Tunisia.  

PubMed

The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well adapted to the utilization of vegetation of low nutritional value in its natural habitat zone, thanks to its aptitude to vary food and to search plants that are rich in water content and that can make up for its nutritional deficits, particularly as concerns mineral elements. Therefore, a survey was carried out to determine camels pasture quality, dietary preference and to characterize the chemical characteristics and nutritional value of different halophytes plants in a region of Southern Tunisia during spring season. Laboratory analysis were conducted on fourteen vegetable species appertained to seven different botanical families: Chenopodiaceae, Graminaceae, Tamaricaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Frankeniaceae and Plumbaginaceae. Data obtained indicate an high variability of nutritional content of halophytes plants preferred by camels, specially for dry matter, crude protein, fiber fractions, ash and mineral elements. PMID:18500670

Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Hammadi, Mohamed; Seddik, Mabrouk Mouldi; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Dario, Cataldo

2009-02-01

233

Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg\\/m 2

Junidah R; Siti Mariam; Fatimah S; Poh BK; Kandiah M

234

Methods of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey 2010 (SPANS 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Addressing the high prevalence of overweight and obesity and unhealthy lifestyles among New South Wales (NSW) (the most populous state in Australia) youth is a government priority. The primary aim of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS 2010; n=8058) was to monitor progress towards the NSW State Plan and State Health Plan priorities and targets for

L. L. Hardy; L. King; P. Espinel; A. D. Okely; A. Bauman

2011-01-01

235

Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children?survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children?nutritional status of indigenous peoples.

2013-01-01

236

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

237

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

238

Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).  

PubMed

Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age and ethnically diverse subgroups of the population. PMID:22691761

Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

2008-03-01

239

Anatomy of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Promoting Nutrition and Exercise in Hispanics: A Critical Examination of Existing Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these

Nelda Mier; Marcia G. Ory; Alvaro A. Medina

2010-01-01

240

Frailty in people with COPD, using the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey dataset (2003-2006)  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about frailty in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were to describe frailty, to identify, which demographic and clinical characteristics contributed to frailty, and to examine the relationship between frailty and health-related outcomes in people with COPD. Methods This was a secondary cross-sectional study, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey. The frailty index and outcome measures were derived primarily from survey responses. Results The prevalence of frailty was 57.8%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that individuals with COPD who had self-reported shortness of breath and comorbid diabetes were more likely to be frail than those who did not. Frail people tended to have a greater number of disabilities. Conclusions The findings support the importance of frailty in the COPD population. Further study is needed to understand frailty in people with COPD, using objective measures for criteria of frailty.

Park, Soo Kyung; Richardson, Caroline R.; Holleman, Robert G.; Larson, Janet L.

2014-01-01

241

Physical activity and inactivity in Chinese school-aged youth: the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity (PA) and inactivity levels and patterns in Chinese school children (aged 6–18 y).DESIGN: PA and inactivity were assessed in a youth cohort enrolled in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 1997.SUBJECTS: A total of 1423 males (11.5±3.2 y) and 1252 females (11.5±3.3 y).MEASUREMENTS: PA and inactivity were assessed by self-reported usual activity (questionnaire).

C Tudor-Locke; B E Ainsworth; L. S. Adair; S. Du; B. M. Popkin

2003-01-01

242

Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate energy and nutrient intake and ad- equacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309) and school (n=2 611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions,

Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Margarita Safdie; Mario Flores; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Fabricio Campirano

2003-01-01

243

Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey(MANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed.

Norimah AK; Safiah M; Jamal K; Siti Haslinda; Fatimah S; Siti Norazlin; Poh BK; Kandiah M; Wan Manan WM; Jalan Raja; Abdul Muda Aziz

2008-01-01

244

The Validity of Nutrition Screening Initiative DETERMINE Checklist Responses in Older Georgians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative DETERMINE Checklist (NSI) is used throughout the United States to assess nutrition risk of those requesting the services of the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP). This study examined the ability of the NSI to evaluate nutrition risk by comparing the responses between NSI and matched comparable survey questions using the self-administered mail survey data that

Stephanie Sinnett; Rebecca Bengle; Arvine Brown; Anne P. Glass; Mary Ann Johnson; Jung Sun Lee

2010-01-01

245

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

246

Trends of out-of-pocket expenditure for influenza in China health and nutrition survey during 1989–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To examine the trends of out-of-pocket expenditure for influenza during 1989–2006 in China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were extracted from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) during 1989–2006 (in seven waves). A fixed effect model\\u000a with robust standard errors was employed to examine trends of out-of-pocket expenditure (adjusted to 2006 Chinese RMB).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The out-of-pocket expenditure increased from 11.92 RMB in 1989 to

Jinan Liu; Lizheng Shi; Mahmud Khan; Lingzhong Xu; Liya Wang

247

Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

2010-01-01

248

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

249

Physical activity in Filipino youth: the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity (PA) and inactivity levels of Filipino youth aged 14–16 y.DESIGN: PA type and patterns were assessed in an adolescent cohort enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey.SUBJECTS: A total of 1053 males (aged 15.6±0.5 y; body mass index (BMI)=18.6±2.6 kg\\/m2) and 990 females (aged 14.6±0.5 y; BMI=18.8±2.4 kg\\/m2).MEASUREMENTS: PA was assessed by (1)

C Tudor-Locke; B E Ainsworth; L S Adair; B M Popkin

2003-01-01

250

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

251

Nutritional and Health Consequences Are Associated with Food Insecurity among U.S. Elderly Persons1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences associated with food insecurity for the nutritional and health status of the elderly in the United States. The data analyzed were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 -1994) and the Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo

252

Examining preschoolers' nutrition knowledge using a meal creation and food group classification task: age and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty?nine three? to six?year?old children were interviewed. Findings suggest that the healthy meals children created were lower

Shayla C. Holub

2010-01-01

253

Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children,

Jayanta Bhattacharya; Janet Currie; Steven Haider

2004-01-01

254

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...once every five years. (d) Whenever damage or deterioration to hull plating or structural members that may affect the seaworthiness of a vessel is discovered or suspected, the cognizant OCMI may conduct an internal structural examination in any...

2013-10-01

255

Biomarkers of diabetes risk in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (2008-2011)  

PubMed Central

This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008–2009), year 2 (2009–2010) and year 3 (2010–2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5?years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19–64?years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged ?65?years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1–6.9?mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged ?65?years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (?7?mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations ?6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged ?65?years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention.

Almoosawi, S; Cole, D; Nicholson, S; Bayes, I; Teucher, B; Bates, B; Mindell, J; Tipping, S; Deverill, C; Stephen, A M

2014-01-01

256

Nutritional vitamin D use in chronic kidney disease: a survey of pediatric nephrologists  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and infections, in addition to known effects on mineral metabolism. Controversy remains regarding the use of nutritional vitamin D supplementation in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the supplementation practices of pediatric nephrologists are unknown. Methods An electronic survey containing eight vignettes was sent to physician members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association in 2011 to identify physician and patient characteristics that influence nephrologists to supplement CKD patients with nutritional vitamin D. Vignettes contained patient characteristics including light vs dark skin, CKD stage, cause of renal disease, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 25(OH) vitamin D levels. Multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression was used to identify predictors of supplementation. Results Of 1,084 eligible physicians, 504 (46%) completed the survey. Supplementation was recommended in 73% of cases overall (ranging from 91% of those with vitamin D levels <10 ng/mL to 35% with levels >30). Greater CKD severity was associated with greater recommendation of supplementation, especially for patients with higher vitamin D levels (test for interaction p<0.0001). PTH level above target for CKD stage was associated with greater recommendation to supplement in pre-dialysis CKD, but did not have an impact on recommendations in dialysis patients (test for interaction p<0.0001). Skin color, cause of CKD, and albumin levels were not associated with supplementation recommendation. Conclusions Recommending nutritional vitamin D is common worldwide, driven by CKD stage and vitamin D and PTH levels. Future studies are needed to establish the risks and benefits of supplementation.

Griffin, Lindsay M.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Shults, Justine; Furth, Susan L.; Salusky, Isidro B.; Hwang, Wenke; Leonard, Mary B.

2014-01-01

257

Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition). Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; McCargar, Linda J.

2012-01-01

258

Adolescent weight status and related behavioural factors: web survey of physical activity and nutrition.  

PubMed

Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition). Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents. PMID:22175005

Storey, Kate E; Forbes, Laura E; Fraser, Shawn N; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim D; McCargar, Linda J

2012-01-01

259

An examination of the calcium and phosphorus nutrition of thoroughbred racehorses.  

PubMed

The calcium and phosphorus nutrition of thoroughbred racehorses was assessed by analysis of serum and urine samples collected from 90 horses in 1975 and 139 horses in 1980-81 at racetracks in Melbourne. Horses that were excreting greater than 15 mumole Ca/mosmole and which had a calcium to creatinine clearance ratio greater tha 2.5% were considered to have adequate Ca intake. Horses that were excreting greater than 15 mumole P/mosmole and which had a phosphorus to creatinine clearance ratio greater than 4% were considered to have excessive phosphorus intake. Sixty-percent of the horses sampled had adequate Ca intake, and 44% had excessive intakes of P. Twenty-five percent of the horses were excreting more P in urine than Ca. This would indicate these horses were subjected to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, and horses entered in races by 53 of 99 trainers were in this category. It may be concluded that a high proportion (40%) of thoroughbred racehorses receive inadequate calcium nutrition while they are fed high-grain diets during racing. PMID:7126062

Caple, I W; Bourke, J M; Ellis, P G

1982-04-01

260

Examining the Medical Blogosphere: An Online Survey of Medical Bloggers  

PubMed Central

Background Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. Objectives To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers’ Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. Methods We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants’ ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants’ characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. Results A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated with journalism, the participants most frequently reported including links to original source of material and spending extra time verifying facts, while rarely seeking permission to post copyrighted material. Bloggers who have published a scientific paper were more likely to quote other people or media than those who have never published such a paper (U= 506.5, n1= 41, n2= 35, P= .016). Those blogging under their real name more often included links to original sources than those writing under a pseudonym (U= 446.5, n1= 58, n2= 19, P= .01). Major motivations for blogging were sharing practical knowledge or skills with others, influencing the way others think, and expressing oneself creatively. Conclusions Medical bloggers are highly educated and devoted blog writers, faithful to their sources and readers. Sharing practical knowledge and skills, as well as influencing the way other people think, were major motivations for blogging among our medical bloggers. Medical blogs are frequently picked up by mainstream media; thus, blogs are an important vehicle to influence medical and health policy.

Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

2008-01-01

261

Understanding Needs Is Important for Assessing the Impact of Food Assistance Program Participation on Nutritional and Health Status in U.S. Elderly Persons1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the impact of food assistance programs on nutritional and health status of nutritionally needy elderly persons. Two cross-sectional and one longitudinal data sets were used: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 -94), Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994) and Longitudinal Study of Aging (1984 -1990). Multiple logistic and linear

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo

262

Energy and nutrient intake among Mexican school-aged children, Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Material and Methods. Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban\\/rural areas,

Mario Flores; Nayeli Macías; Marta Rivera; Simón Barquera; Lucía Hernández; Armando García-Guerra; Juan A Rivera

2009-01-01

263

Energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women 12-49 years of age: analysis of the National Nutrition Survey 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the reported energy and nutrient intake and adequacies in Mexican women. Material and Methods. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to obtain nu- trient intake in a representative sub-sample of 2 630 women from 12 to 49 years of age from the National Nutrition Survey 1999. Nutrient adequacies were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intakes and stratified

Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Juan Espinosa-Montero; Margarita Safdie; Fabricio Campirano; Eric A Monterrubio

2003-01-01

264

Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

Sells, S. B.

265

Nutritional status of elderly residents in Missouri?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional assessment of white persons over 59 who participated in the 1973 Missouri Nutrition Survey was based upon biochemical measurements, dietary intakes using food frequency histories, anthropometric measurements, and a dental examination. There were three major nutritionally related problems: poor dental health, obesity, and anemia. The mean for DMF, periodontal index, and oral hygiene index for males was 20.5, 4.9,

Mary Bess Kohrs; Robert O'Neal; Alan Preston

266

German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave  

PubMed Central

Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79?years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79?years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79?years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health.

2012-01-01

267

Examination of Front-of-Package Nutrition Rating Systems and Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., advises the nation on science, engineering, and medicine, and their website allows the general public to be privy to their findings. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies has released on their website a Phase I report of their recent study on "Front-of-Package Nutrition Rating Systems and Symbols". Visitors can find the full Report on the right side of the page, and can be read online or downloaded as a PDF, both for free. A paperback version of the report can also be ordered for a charge. Visitors interested in a "Report Brief" or "Press Release" can view one in PDF or HTML. One of the most important things the report concludes is that due to the epidemic of obese Americans, "it would be useful to display calorie and serving size information prominently in front-of-package symbols." This would show the importance of calories in weight control. Visitors interested in receiving regular e-mails about the Institute of Medicine's work can sign up under the heading "Stay up to date!" on the right-hand menu.

268

The Andalusian Nutritional Survey: comparison of the nutritional status of Andalusian children aged 6-60 months with that of the NCHS/CDC reference population.  

PubMed Central

Presented are the results of the anthropometric component of the 1985 Andalusian Nutritional Survey. The heights and weights of a representative sample of children aged 6-60 months were compared with data for the National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control (NCHS/CDC) reference population. Of the 1181 preschool-age children surveyed, the great majority fell within +/- standard deviation (SD) scores for height-for-age (93.6%) and weight-for-height (93.5%), and most (87.7%) were within +/- 2 SD scores of the mean value for the NCHS/CDC reference population for both height-for-age and weight-for-height. The proportion of stunting was 3.2%, that of wasting 1.0%, and that of both stunting and wasting 0.4%. For both sexes, the distribution of height-for-age was comparable with that of the NCHS/CDC reference population, while that for weight-for-height was skewed to the right. This suggests that for the same height, the weight of Andalusian children increased more over the 5 years preceding the survey than that of the reference population over the period 1971-74. The data obtained could be used as a baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of future nutrition programmes for children who are at a high risk of undernutrition or obesity.

Briones, E.; Perea, E.; Ruiz, M. P.; Torro, C.; Gili, M.

1989-01-01

269

A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

270

A survey of multidisciplinary cleft palate and craniofacial team examination formats.  

PubMed

We surveyed 229 multidisciplinary cleft and craniofacial teams listed in the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association directory regarding frequency of meetings, numbers of patients treated, sources of funding, their format of examination of children, and their satisfaction with that format. One hundred fifteen (50%) of 229 surveys were completed. Thirty-seven percent of clinics report meeting monthly; 43% of clinics report actively following up 300 or less patients; 40% of clinics report funding by third-party insurance reimbursement, and 38% by government funding; 48% of clinics report the patients moving from one examination room to another to see specialists, in another 33%, the patient stays in 1 examination room while the specialists move, and in only 20%, all specialists see a patient simultaneously. Significantly more specialists are dissatisfied with clinics where they move to examine children; significantly more families are satisfied in clinics where specialists move to examine the child or examine them simultaneously. PMID:22777453

Laub, Donald R; Ajar, Amir H

2012-07-01

271

The expanding burden of cardiometabolic risk in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

China faces a major increase in cardiovascular disease, yet there is limited population-based data on risk factors, particularly in children. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure were collected on 9,244 children and adults aged ?7 years in late 2009 as part of the national China Health and Nutrition Survey. Prevalent overweight, elevated blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk factors: glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are presented. We found that 11% of Chinese children and 30% of Chinese adults are overweight. Rates of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and inflammation are high and increased with age and were associated with urbanization. Approximately 42% of children have at least one of the following: pre-diabetes or diabetes, hypertension, high TC, LDL-C, TG, and CRP and low HDL-C, as do 70% men and 60% women aged 18-40 years and >90% of men and women ?60 years. In sum, the HbA1c findings suggest that as many as 27.7 million Chinese children and 334 million Chinese adults may be pre-diabetic or diabetic. The high prevalence in less urban areas and across all income levels suggests that cardiometabolic risk is pervasive across rural and urban China. PMID:22738663

Yan, S; Li, J; Li, S; Zhang, B; Du, S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Adair, L; Popkin, B

2012-09-01

272

The Expanding Burden of Cardiometabolic Risk in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Background China faces a major increase in cardiovascular disease, yet there is limited population-based data on risk factors, particularly in children. Methods and Results Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure were collected on 9,244 children and adults aged ?7 years in late 2009 as part of the national China Health and Nutrition Survey. Prevalent overweight, elevated blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk factors: glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are presented. Results 11% of Chinese children and 30% of Chinese adults are overweight. Rates of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and inflammation are high and increased with age and were associated with urbanization. Approximately 42% of children have at least one of the following: pre-diabetes or diabetes, hypertension, high TC, LDL-C, TG, and CRP and low HDL-C, as do 70% males and 60% females aged 18–40 years and >86% of males and females ?40 years. Conclusions HbA1c findings suggest that as many as 29.4 million Chinese children and 415.8 million Chinese adults may be prediabetic or diabetic. The high prevalence in less urban areas and across all income levels suggests that cardiometabolic risk is pervasive across rural and urban China.

Yan, Shengkai; Li, Jiang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Bing; Du, Shufa; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

2012-01-01

273

Midwest Growers' Mail Survey of Contributors to Migrant Health and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross–sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services.

Kilanowski, Jill F.

2014-01-01

274

Midwest growers' mail survey of contributors to migrant health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross-sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

Kilanowski, Jill F

2012-01-01

275

Nutrition survey of Finnish rural children. IV. Serum cholesterol values in relation to dietary variables.  

PubMed

In connection with a survey of child nutrition in Finland a study was carried out on the serum cholesterol concentration in childhood and its relationship to dietary and other variables. The material consisted of 1496 children ages 5, 9, and 13 years from 14 local districts in Finland. Total cholesterol was determined from nonfasted venous serum samples by a modification of the p-toluenesulfonic acid reaction. Food consumption was investigated by the 24-hr recall method and nutrient intakes determined from these results using food composition tables. For analysis, children in each age group were classified into low, medium, and high cholesterol groups. The serum cholesterol concentrations of the 5, 9, and 13 year olds were 6.03 +/- 1.03, 6.16 +/- 1.04, and 6.08 +/- 1.01 mmole/liter (233 +/- 40, 238 +/- 40, and 235 +/- 39 mg/100 ml), respectively. Of the children 10% had serum cholesterol concentrations of 7.4 mmole/liter (286 mg/100 ml) or more. Serum cholesterol concentration was not correlated with sex, relative body weight, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. High cholesterol concentrations appeared to be associated with traditional dietary habits and especially with a high proportion of saturated fats in the diet. PMID:665549

Räsänen, L; Wilska, M; Kantero, R L; Näntö, V; Ahlström, A; Hallman, N

1978-06-01

276

Nutrition and eating in female college athletes: a survey of coaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention/intervention services for athletes at their school, experience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches (51% response rate) involved in six sports (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, basketball, softball, track, and volleyball) at all levels of collegiate competition (NCAA Divisions I, II, III, and NAIA) completed a 40-item survey. Gender was found to be related to differential responding on only one of the 40 items, while sport and level of competition were related to responses on multiple items. Gymnastics coaches and NCAA Division I coaches differed significantly from coaches of other sports and divisions in that they reported more monitoring/management behaviors, had more experience with athletes exhibiting eating disturbances, and had more resources available for preventing and treating athletes with eating disorders. Gymnastics coaches also differed from other coaches on a number of items related to their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. Many coaches have encountered disturbed eating among their athletes, and some of their coaching attitudes and behaviors may inadvertently increase the risk for such disturbances. Implications for clinical and sport psychologists providing prevention or intervention services to intercollegiate athletes are discussed. PMID:16801252

Heffner, Jaimee L; Ogles, Benjamin M; Gold, Ellsa; Marsden, Kimberlyann; Johnson, Michael

2003-01-01

277

Indicators to Examine Quality of Large Scale Survey Data: An Example through District Level Household and Facility Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) is used as an example dataset. Methods Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. Results The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. Conclusion The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey.

Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

2014-01-01

278

Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school- age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed

Bernardo Hernández; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A Monterrubio; Claudia Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Raquel García-Feregrino; Juan A Rivera; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor

2003-01-01

279

The Psychological Autopsy and Determination of Child Suicides: A Survey of Medical Examiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the decision-making processes of medical examiners in the determination of child suicide. Ninety-four medical examiners completed a survey regarding those factors considered when making a child suicide determination, sources of information used, and considerations in accident vs. suicide classifications. No significant differences between groups of respondents were observed. Well-known risk factors such as suicide notes were considered

Franci Crepeau-Hobson

2010-01-01

280

Examining Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases: A Survey of Mental Health and Legal Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Internet survey was conducted to examine the views of mental health and legal professionals about parental alienation (PA) in child custody cases. Findings from 448 respondents revealed much awareness about the PA concept and controversies, along with the need for further research in the field. In general, respondents were cautious and conservative\\/moderate in their view of PA and very

James N. Bow; Jonathan W. Gould; James R. Flens

2009-01-01

281

Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential…

Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

2013-01-01

282

Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Senior Leader Equal Opportunity Survey: Equal Opportunity Perceptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Equal Opportunity Perceptions (EOP) portion of the Senior Leader Equal Opportunity Survey was examined for its psychometric properties. In a data set of 346 senior leaders from a variety of Services and DoD agencies, the following actions were taken: ...

R. M. McIntyre

1995-01-01

283

An Examination of Demographic, SocioCultural, and Health Differences Between Congregate and Home Diners in a Senior Nutrition Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon prior research, this study investigates characteristics of participants in a senior nutrition program in Hillsborough County, Florida. The Senior Citizens Nutrition and Activities Program serves approximately 2,600 meals per day to county residents 60 years of age and over. In this study, a sample of 1,071 participants are sweyed for background characteristics, interpersonal relationships and emotional closeness, health

Roxenne Smith; Larry Mullins; Mary Mushel; James Roorda; Rachel Colquitt

1994-01-01

284

A survey of physical examination skills taught in undergraduate nursing programs: are we teaching too much?  

PubMed

Because content saturation is a growing concern, as reflected in the nursing literature, the content taught in undergraduate nursing curricula should be critically examined. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional research was to determine and analyze the physical assessment content currently taught in undergraduate nursing programs. A total of 198 individuals teaching in undergraduate nursing programs completed a Web-based survey. Of the 122 skills included on the survey, 81% were reportedly being taught in most of the nursing programs. Total scores for 18 systems-based assessment categories were significantly different among associate and baccalaureate nursing programs in all but three categories: assessment of integument, breast, and female genitals. Previous research has shown that nurses use less than 25% of these same skills regularly in clinical practice, regardless of their educational preparation. Findings from this research raise questions about the breadth to which physical examination content should be taught in undergraduate nursing education. PMID:19227752

Giddens, Jean Foret; Eddy, Linda

2009-01-01

285

Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 1967–72. Food consumption

Jan Dich; Ritva Järvinen; Paul Knekt

1996-01-01

286

Nutritional Guidelines for School Lunch Programs: A Survey of Islamic Schools and Recommendations for Creating a Culture of Healthful Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the status of lunch programs in Islamic schools in the United States and develop recommendations for improving them. Study Design: The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) conducted a survey of lunch programs by mailing questionnaires to 100 Islamic schools in the United States. Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition (MIDAN) developed lunch menus using American and ethnic foods conforming to nationally recommended guidelines. Results: Forty-eight Islamic schools responded to the survey, revealing that 20 schools follow guidelines and only six have dietitians advising on menu planning. Based on this survey, IMANA, with the assistance of MIDAN, has developed a summary of guidelines that schools can follow. These guidelines include sample menus of American and ethnic foods, recommendations for creating a n environment for healthful eating, and sources for funding school lunch programs. Conclusions: IMANA and MIDAN, recognizing the scientific significance and religious relevance of a nutritious diet, have developed these recommendations. This information is provided to aid Islamic schools in implementing guidelines for nutritionally balanced school lunch menus and in creating a culture that fosters a healthful lifestyle.

Khan, Sumiya; Saeed, Ziena; Diwan, Hanifa Hameed; Hussain, Iqra; Amer, Sarah; Haq, Mohamed M.

2011-01-01

287

Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.  

PubMed

Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

2010-04-01

288

The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results  

PubMed Central

Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical-epidemiological parameters evaluated for indigenous women point to the accentuated occurrence of nutrition transition in all regions of Brazil. Many outcomes also reflected a pattern whereby indigenous women’s and children’s health indicators were worse than those documented for the national Brazilian population, with important regional variations. Observed disparities in health indicators underscore that basic healthcare and sanitation services are not yet as widely available in Brazil’s indigenous communities as they are in the rest of the country.

2013-01-01

289

Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data ‘cleaning criteria’ are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6–59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4–3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed regarding choice of criteria to improve the comparability of nutrition survey data.

Crowe, Sonya; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

2014-01-01

290

Use of enteral nutritional supplementation: a survey of level II and III neonatal units in England.  

PubMed

Enteral nutritional supplementation is widely used in preterm babies on Neonatal Units (NNUs). There is little published evidence on appraising their long-term efficacy. We evaluated the current practice of enteral nutritional supplementation in 96 level II and III NNUs in England. 96%, 98%, 98% and 56% units use breast milk fortification (BMF), iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplementation respectively. Iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplements are routinely commenced in babies < 35 weeks gestation by 73%, 68% and 39% NNUs respectively. Seventy eight percent NNUs only use BMF for babies that are not gaining weight. Continuing variable practice of enteral nutritional supplementation and current use of anecdotal evidence and best guess recommendations highlights the need for a unified approach and collaborative multinational research to produce standardised guidelines. PMID:24034203

Ahmed, Mansoor; Brent, Julie; Ginn, Emma

2013-09-01

291

Online Survey Examining Practitioners' Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr.

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

2014-01-01

292

Nutrition and Eating in Female College Athletes: A Survey of Coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring\\/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention\\/intervention services for athletes at their school, expience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches

Jaimee L. Heffner; Benjamin M. Ogles; Ellsa Gold; Kimberlyann Marsden; Michael Johnson

2003-01-01

293

Knowledge, Attitudes, Reported Practices and Anthropometric Indicators of Children's Nutritional Status: A Baseline Survey Conducted for Nutrition Communication Project Activities in Dioro, Koutiala and Macina (Republic of Mali), November 11-December 16, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1990, Mali's Ministry of Health collaborated with several Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO's) to conduct a survey of child nutrition-related behaviors and status. Research involved interviews with parents of 657 children aged 0-3 years in 47 villag...

M. Holley C. Fishman K. D. Toure

1991-01-01

294

FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

Abelson, Herbert; And Others

295

[Assessing social inequality in microcensus data and German national health examination survey].  

PubMed

To analyse the impact of social inequality on health and illness public health officials in Germany request for more data on socio-demographic indicators in official population statistics at Federal and State level. The aim of the study was to examine whether the national sample census Microcensus is suitable for scaling social inequality. For this purpose, coding instructions for calculating social strata index by Winkler were applied to databases of the Microcensus. The results were compared with the German Health Survey, because social data of this survey are already scaled according to the coding instruction for social strata index by Winkler. Data analyses were based on subgroups of North Rhine-Westphalia originated from national samples of Microcensus and German Health Survey. For index indicators "education" and "income" coding structure was transferred to databases of Microcensus without any problems. For index indicator "occupational status" occupational groups were less comparable. This refers to the classification of the occupational status of formerly employed people. However this limitation applies also to employees because the model for "occupational status" is assessed only on a four-year basis. From a methodical point of view it seems to be a problem that "household" has a different meaning in the index by Winkler and Microcensus and is only partly transferable to Microcensus databases. Additionally, identification of the main income earner of the household proved extremely difficult. Therefore, at the present conceptional stage of Microcensus it seems appropriate to classify occupational status as an individual criterion. PMID:14639520

Dulon, M; Bardehle, D; Blettner, M

2003-11-01

296

Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009), household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. Results In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476) respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863) had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p?

2012-01-01

297

Factors associated with low drinking water intake among adolescents: the Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, 2007.  

PubMed

There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (<3 glasses water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it <1 time/day, and drinking it 1 to 2 times/day (vs drinking it ?3 times/day; ORs 1.83, 1.91, and 1.32, respectively), drinking no milk and drinking <2 glasses of milk/day (vs drinking ?2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking <1 soda/day (vs drinking none; OR 1.40), drinking fruit-flavored drinks/sports drinks <1 time/day and drinking it ?1 time/day (vs drinking none; ORs 1.49 and 1.41, respectively), eating at a fast-food restaurant ?3 days/week (vs none; OR 1.38, respectively), not participating on team sports or participating on 1 to 2 team sports in previous 12 months (vs participating on ?3 teams; ORs 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), and consuming snack/soda while watching television/movies "sometimes" and "most/every time" (vs never; ORs 1.65 and 2.20, respectively). The strongest factor associated with low water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption. PMID:21802569

Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; O'Toole, Terrence; Huang, Youjie

2011-08-01

298

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented.

2013-01-01

299

Survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing eight routine common types of X-ray examination in Syria. These types cover chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head and shoulder. This work consisted of measurements for 926 X-ray examinations for patients in 26 governmental hospitals. The mean and third quartile of the dose area product (DAP) to each patient per examination have been measured. The corresponding average effective doses have been computed from the DAP measurement for each examination using NRPP X-Dose software. Comparison of the results was done with those from similar surveys published by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000, 2007). The present measurements will provide a useful baseline to establish, for the first time, national diagnostic reference levels. These results can be used in the future to evaluate the collective dose to the population from medical exposure and the radiation risks from the various radiological procedures. PMID:20332131

Kharita, M H; Khedr, M S; Wannus, K M

2010-07-01

300

Nutrition knowledge of senior medical students: a collaborative study of southeastern medical schools13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SERMEN) comprises 11 medical schools with varied nutrition training programs. A faculty representative from each school rated 41 topics in nutrition as to their importance for medicalpractice. From the seven topics unanimously chosen, a 90-item examination was prepared using the University of Alabama School of Medicine's Nutrition Test-Item Bank. Thirteen additional items surveyed student

Roland L Weinsier; John R Boker PH; Elaine B Feldman; Merrill S Read; C Michael Brooks

301

UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Consensus Report: the choice of method for measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D to estimate vitamin D status for the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

The consensus workshop, organised on behalf of the Food Standards Agency, was convened to recommend the most appropriate and secure method for measuring vitamin D status in the UK. Workshop participants (the Expert Panel) were invited on the basis of expertise in current 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays, or expertise in vitamin D nutrition and metabolism or detailed knowledge and experience in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). A decision support matrix, which set out the particular criteria by which the different options were scored and evaluated, was used to structure the discussion. The Expert Panel agreed that five methods for measuring 25OHD should be evaluated according to eleven criteria, selected on the basis of their relevance to the NDNS. All three of the evaluating subgroups of the Expert Panel produced similar total scores over the eleven criteria for the different methods; they scored LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV similarly highly, while the scores for the immunoassay methods were lower. The Expert Panel recommended that an LC-MS/MS method should be the preferred method for the NDNS. A detailed specification for the method will be required to ensure comparability between NDNS and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US facilitating future comparisons. The Expert Panel also recommended that the method should be carried out in a laboratory with appropriate expertise, competency and history of records of good performance. The method should be standardised against the National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 972. If the recommended LC-MS/MS is adopted, the Expert Panel indicated that the method should be able to discriminate the C-3 epimer of 25OHD(3), especially if used to measure 25OHD in young infants in the forthcoming Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children, who are known to have high circulating concentrations of the C-3 epimer. PMID:20712915

de la Hunty, Anne; Wallace, A Michael; Gibson, Sigrid; Viljakainen, Heli; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Ashwell, Margaret

2010-08-01

302

Descriptive epidemiology of body mass index in Japanese adults in a representative sample from the National Nutrition Survey 1990–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and reference percentile curves of body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2) in Japanese adults.DESIGN: Cross-sectional nationwide surveys (The National Nutrition Survey, Japan) carried out in 1990–1994. A sample of 23 556 males and 28 751 females aged 15–84 y was used for this analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of grades 1 (BMI: 25.0–29.9), 2 (30.0–39.9) and

N Yoshiike; Y Matsumura; MM Zaman; M Yamaguchi

1998-01-01

303

A survey on clinical presentation and nutritional status of infants with suspected cow' milk allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Cow's milk is the most common food allergen in infants and the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is difficult, even with the use of several diagnostic tests. Therefore, elimination diets and challenge tests are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. The aim of this study is to report the clinical presentation and nutritional status of children evaluated by pediatric gastroenterologists for the assessment of symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was performed among 9,478 patients evaluated by 30 pediatric gastroenterologists for 40 days in 5 different geographical regions in Brazil. Clinical data were collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. The nutritional status of infants (age ? 24 months) seen for the first time was evaluated according to z-scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age. Epi-Info (CDC-NCHS, 2000) software was used to calculate z-scores. Results The prevalence of suspected cow's milk allergy in the study population was 5.4% (513/9,478), and the incidence was 2.2% (211/9,478). Among 159 infants seen at first evaluation, 15.1% presented with a low weight-for-age z score (< -2.0 standard deviation - SD), 8.7% with a low weight-for-height z score (< -2.0 SD), and 23.9% with a low height-for-age z score (< -2.0 SD). Conclusion The high prevalence of nutritional deficits among infants with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy indicates that effective elimination diets should be prescribed to control allergy symptoms and to prevent or treat malnutrition.

2010-01-01

304

Dietary aspects in fibromyalgia patients: results of a survey on food awareness, allergies, and nutritional supplementation.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common disease that results in poor quality of life, causing widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, fatigue, sleep disorders, and cognitive impairment among other symptoms. The lack of an effective treatment makes necessary a multidimensional management. FM patients usually seek, from different sources, information about possible benefits from foods, nutrients, or diets. Our objective was to investigate the dietary awareness, food allergies and/or intolerances (FAIs), and nutritional supplement (NS) consumption of FM patients. A questionnaire was prepared with six questions regarding dietary habits, FAIs, and NS use. The questionnaire was filled out by patients recruited in local fibromyalgia associations. One hundred and one women were suffering from FM, diagnosed for more than 6 months, mean age of 53.88 ± 7.78 years; 30% of them changed their diet because of their disease, trying to improve it, and most of them were also using some NS; 7% of women in this group had FAIs, a figure slightly higher than the FAI prevalence in the general population (2-5%) and positively associated with consumption of supplements. Among NS users, some differences were observed; past NS users currently consume a wider range of products, more than new NS users. Magnesium was one of the supplements most recommended specifically for FM. Seventy-four percentage of these patients used NS following advice from health professionals. Once patients are diagnosed, they change their dietary habits and nutritional supplement intake, seeking nutritional strategies to improve their symptoms. Health professionals' advice plays a relevant role. PMID:21833524

Arranz, Laura-Isabel; Canela, Miguel-Ángel; Rafecas, Magda

2012-09-01

305

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

306

Caloric and nutrient intake in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with extended-release methylphenidate: analysis of a cross-sectional nutrition survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Design Observational (case-control). Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). Main outcome measures A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p?nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered.

Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

2014-01-01

307

Examining the Range of Cometary Dust Characteristics with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cometary dust provides insight into the composition of nuclei, as well as the forces behind its ejection and evolution. In this work, we will explore the characteristics of dust as seen in the near-nucleus environments around more than 100 active comets that were observed by the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) mission. WISE conducted an all-sky survey at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns) between January and December 2010. Many of the comets detected showed comae, tails, and/or trails, making this a rich dataset with which to examine the ensemble properties of cometary dust in the Solar System. Our work includes computing thermal fits for the dust, creating color temperature maps, and constraining the grain size distributions around the comets. With these results, we aim to provide context for the Rosetta mission results as well as a broad understanding of the range of cometary dust traits within the Solar System.

Stevenson, R.; Bauer, J. M.; Kramer, E.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Lisse, C. M.; Meech, K. J.; Weissman, P. R.; Tholen, D.; Walker, R.; Wright, E. L.

2012-12-01

308

The transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm toolkit: survey and content validation in the United States, Mexico, and taiwan.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Evidence demonstrates that medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) improves glycemic control and reduces diabetes risks and complications. Consequently, MNT is included in current clinical practice guidelines. Guideline recommendations, however, are frequently limited by their complexity, contradictions, personal and cultural rigidity, and compromised portability. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed to overcome these limitations. To facilitate tDNA uptake and usage, an instructional Patient Algorithm Therapy (PATh) toolkit was created. Content validation of tDNA-PATh is needed before widespread implementation. Subjects and Methods: Healthcare providers (n=837) in Mexico (n=261), Taiwan (n=250), and the United States (n=326) were questioned about challenges implementing MNT in clinical practice and the projected utilization and impact of tDNA-PATh. To assess the international portability and applicability of tDNA-PATh, the survey was conducted in countries with distinct ethnic and cultural attributes. Potential respondents were screened for professional and practice demographics related to diabetes. The questionnaire was administered electronically after respondents were exposed to core tDNA-PATh components. Results: Overall, 61% of respondents thought that tDNA-PATh could help overcome MNT implementation challenges, 91% indicated positive impressions, 83% believed they would adopt tDNA-PATh, and 80% thought tDNA-PATh would be fairly easy to implement. Conclusions: tDNA-PATh appears to be an effective culturally sensitive tool to foster MNT in clinical practice. By providing simple culturally specific instructions, tDNA-PATh may help to overcome current impediments to implementing recommended lifestyle modifications. Specific guidance provided by tDNA-PATh, together with included patient education materials, may increase healthcare provider efficiency. PMID:24471559

Hamdy, Osama; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

2014-06-01

309

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009  

PubMed Central

This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20?yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20)?mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

2014-01-01

310

Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance for the prevention of childhood obesity.

Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina

2007-01-01

311

Nutrition knowledge of senior medical students: a collaborative study of southeastern medical schools.  

PubMed

The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SERMEN) comprises 11 medical schools with varied nutrition training programs. A faculty representative from each school rated 41 topics in nutrition as to their importance for medical practice. From the seven topics unanimously chosen, a 90-item examination was prepared using the University of Alabama School of Medicine's Nutrition Test-Item Bank. Thirteen additional items surveyed student attitudes toward their nutrition training. Twenty-one percent of senior students from 10 SERMEN schools took the examination. Results showed significant variation in knowledge levels among the schools on the overall examination and on the seven topics. Eighty-five percent were dissatisfied with the quantity and 60% with the quality of their medical-nutrition education. Knowledge scores correlated with the students' assessments with r values of 0.28 and 0.35, respectively (p less than 0.001). Findings indicate significant variation in nutrition knowledge of US medical students. PMID:3717071

Weinsier, R L; Boker, J R; Feldman, E B; Read, M S; Brooks, C M

1986-06-01

312

How nutritional risk is assessed and managed in European hospitals: A survey of 21,007 patients findings from the 2007–2008 cross-sectional nutritionDay survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: Recognition and treatment of undernutrition in hospitalized patients are not often a priority in clinical practice. Objectives: We investigated how the nutritional risk of patients is determined and whether such assessment influences daily nutritional care across Europe and in Israeli hospitals. Methods: 1217 units from 325 hospitals in 25 countries with 21,007 patients participated in a longitudinal

Karin Schindler; Elisabeth Pernicka; Alessandro Laviano; Pat Howard; Tatjana Schütz; Peter Bauer; Irina Grecu; Cora Jonkers; Jens Kondrup; Olle Ljungqvist; Mohamed Mouhieddine; Claude Pichard; Pierre Singer; Stéphane Schneider; Christian Schuh; Michael Hiesmayr

2010-01-01

313

Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ? 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health enhancing behaviours of Chinese-Australian adolescents.

2011-01-01

314

Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both

David H Price; C Shawn Tracy; Ross EG Upshur

2005-01-01

315

Homemaker Reaction to EFNEP/Food Stamp Pilot Nutrition Education Project. A 1983 Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Survey. Extension Studies 92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1982 and 1983, more than 750 homemakers from Pennsylvania and Massachusetts participated in a national study to test selected methods of delivering nutrition education to low-income families. The study, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Food Stamp Pilot Project, was conducted through the EFNEP in 10 states. At the…

Dunn, Polly P.; And Others

316

Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35 % on school-days and 65 % on week-ends) compared with 13 % of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9 % of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland. PMID:24598015

Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

2014-05-01

317

Nutrition in agricultural development: The case of irrigated rice cultivation in West Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study on the nutritional aspects of agricultural and rural development, examines the case of irrigated rice cultivation in Western Kenya. Large?scale irrigation schemes were established in the region two decades ago; in the past few years, paddy production by independent smallholders has been expanding rapidly. Nutrition surveys were conducted among four groups of farmers differing in degree of participation

Rudo Niemeijer; Marian Geuns; Ted Kliest; Vincent Ogonda; Jan Hoorweg

1988-01-01

318

URINARY CADMIUM AND BETA2-MICROGLOBULIN: CORRELATION WITH NUTRITION AND SMOKING HISTORY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the indivi...

319

The Morphology of Europa's Ridges Examined in a Detailed Topographic and Kinematic Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed kinematic and topographic survey was performed on numerous Europan double ridges to quantify ratios of ridge-orthogonal and ridge-parallel motions and to provide a greater understanding of their morphological characteristics. Double ridges (usually referred to simply as ridges) consist of two raised edifices that flank a central trough. We first explored possible ridge formation mechanisms using a displacement ratio

C. E. Coulter; S. A. Kattenhorn

2010-01-01

320

Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

2011-01-01

321

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2009  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults. Methods Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009, which was a cross-sectional and partially nationally representative study including a total of 7488 Chinese adults (age ? 18 years). Results The overall age-standardized prevalence estimates of the MS were 21.3% (95%confidence interval (CI): 20.4%–22.2%), 18.2% (95%CI: 17.3%–19.1%) and 10.5% (95%CI: 9.8%–11.2%) based on definitions of revised NCEP ATPIII, IDF and CDS criteria, respectively. Individuals who were women (compared to men: odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% CI=1.16–1.61), 40 years or older (compared to less than 40 years old: OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.37–3.34 for 40–59 years; OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 3.68–5.29 for 60 years or older), overweight/obese (compared to normal weight: OR=4.32, 95%CI=3.77–4.95 for overweight; OR=11.24, 95%CI=9.53–13.26 for obese), and living in urban area (compared to living in rural area: OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.12–1.43) were more likely to have a higher prevalence estimate of MS. In addition, frequency of alcohol consumption and cigarette intake were also found to be significantly associated with probability of MS. Conclusions Our results suggest an urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, treatment and control of obesity and MS in China.

Xi, Bo; He, Dan; Hu, Yuehua; Zhou, Donghao

2014-01-01

322

Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 and over screened for cholesterol, by sex and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2011–2012 1 Significantly different from Hispanic ( p < 0.001). 2 Significantly different from women of the same racial and ethnic group ( p < 0.01). NOTE: ...

323

Urinary cadmium in the 1999–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic low-level cadmium (Cd) exposure is linked to kidney and cardiovascular disease, fractures, and cancer. Diet and smoking are primary sources of exposure in the general population. We analyzed urinary Cd in NHANES 1999-2008 to determine whether levels declined significantly...

324

Hemoglobin A1c as a marker for identifying diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been recommended as an optional method for diagnosing diabetes. The impact of HbA1c on the diagnosis of diabetes has not been evaluated in China, a country with the greatest number of people with diabetes in the world. Hence, we aim to examine how well HbA1c performs as compared with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for diagnosing diabetes in Chinese population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7,641 Chinese men and women aged ?18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 in which FPG and standardized HbA1c were measured. HbA1c was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography system. Diabetes is defined as having FPG ?7 mmol/l or HbA1c ?6.5 %. Overall, 5.0 and 5.8 % had undiagnosed diabetes by FPG ?7 mmol/l and HbA1c ?6.5 %, respectively. Overlap between HbA1c- and FPG-based diagnosis of diabetes was limited (n = 214, 34.9 %). Similar trends were noted in both genders, all age groups, urban/rural settings, regions, body mass index (BMI) categories, waist circumference (WC) groups, and blood pressure status. Solely HbA1c-defined individuals exhibited higher levels of BMI, WC, total cholesterol, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein and lower levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. We note limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes. The limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes persisted in each evaluated subgroup. HbA1c criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes identifies individuals with a worse cardiovascular risk profile compared with FPG. PMID:24072380

Sun, Xingxing; Du, Tingting; Huo, Rui; Xu, Lixian

2014-06-01

325

Clinical, social and rehabilitation status of long-term home parenteral nutrition patients: results of a European multicentre survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a lifesaving treatment in patients with intestinal failure. Dependency of nutritional support becomes permanent for the majority of patients who had received HPN for at least 2 years. The alternative to long term HPN in selected patients is intestinal transplantation.Aims: To study some of the clinical, social and rehabilitation aspects of long-term HPN treatment.Methods:

A. VAN GOSSUM; K. VAHEDI; ABDEL-MALIK; M. STAUN; M. PERTKIEWICZ; J. SHAFFER; X. HEBUTERNE; P. BEAU; C. GUEDON; A. SCHMIT; L. TJELLESEN; B. MESSING; A. FORBES

2001-01-01

326

Nutrition, lactation, and birth spacing in filipino women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is used to examine the roles of women’s nutrition and infant feeding in\\u000a determining time from birth to menses and time from menses to conception. The analysis sample includes 2,648 Filipino women\\u000a followed for 24 months postpartum. Recently devised statistical estimation techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity\\u000a and endogeneity are employed in estimating

Barry M. Popkin; David K. Guilkey; John S. Akin; Linda S. Adair; J. Richard Udry; Wilhelm Flieger

1993-01-01

327

Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear\\u000a association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity\\u000a and type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative,

Hilary K. Seligman; Andrew B. Bindman; Eric Vittinghoff; Alka M. Kanaya; Margot B. Kushel

2007-01-01

328

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention.

2013-01-01

329

A survey of search methodologies and automated system development for examination timetabling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination timetabling is one of the most important ad- ministrative activities that takes place in all academic institutions. In this paper we present a critical discussion of the research on exam timetabling in the last decade or so. This last ten years has seen a signicantly in- creased level of research attention for this important area. There has been a

Rong Qu; Edmund K. Burke; Barry Mccollum; Liam T. G. Merlot; S. Y. Lee

2009-01-01

330

Nutritional Risk in Community-dwelling Older Men: The Manitoba Follow-up Study.  

PubMed

Purpose: The role of nutrition in older men's health and successful aging has been inadequately studied. We examined the relationships among nutritional risk, self-rated health, and successful aging in community-dwelling Canadian older men. Methods: The surviving cohort of the Manitoba Follow-up Study (n=690, mean age = 86.8 years) were sent a self-administered nutrition survey in December 2007. The survey consisted of the Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II (SCREEN II), a validated tool for assessing nutritional risk of cognitively intact community-living older adults, and questions about successful aging and health. Results: Of the 553 surveys returned (80% response), 522 with complete SCREEN II data were included in the analysis. Forty-four percent of respondents were at high nutritional risk, 24% were at moderate risk, and 32% were at low risk. Significant relationships were found between nutritional risk and self-rated health (P<0.0001) and successful aging (P=0.008), with greater nutritional risk associated with lower self-ratings of health and successful aging. Higher use of prescription medication was related to greater nutritional risk (P=0.004). Conclusions: Nutritional screening programs for community-dwelling older men are warranted as two-thirds of the study participants were at nutritional risk. Identifying older men at nutritional risk is a critical step in the process of nutritional assessment, and subsequent nutrition interventions and follow-up are required to prevent further health decline. PMID:24897014

Lengyel, Christina O; Tate, Robert B; Bayomi, Dennis J

2014-01-01

331

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

332

Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.  

PubMed

Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PMID:23477606

Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

2013-03-01

333

Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys12345  

PubMed Central

Background: The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice. Objective: We applied VDSP protocols to existing ELISA-derived serum 25(OH)D data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) as a case-study survey and evaluated their effectiveness by comparison of the protocol-projected estimates with those from a reanalysis of survey serums by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–tandem MS). Design: The VDSP reference system and protocols were applied to ELISA-based serum 25(OH)D data from the representative NANS sample (n = 1118). A reanalysis of 99 stored serums by using standardized LC–tandem MS and resulting regression equations yielded predicted standardized serum 25(OH)D values, which were then compared with LC–tandem MS reanalyzed values for all serums. Results: Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30, <40, and <50 nmol/L were 6.5%, 21.9%, and 40.0%, respectively, via original ELISA measurements and 11.4%, 25.3%, and 43.7%, respectively, when VDSP protocols were applied. Differences in estimates at <30- and <40-nmol/L thresholds, but not at the <50-nmol/L threshold, were significant (P < 0.05). A reanalysis of all serums by using LC–tandem MS confirmed prevalence estimates as 11.2%, 27.2%, and 45.0%, respectively. Prevalences of serum 25(OH)D concentrations >125 nmol/L were 1.2%, 0.3%, and 0.6% by means of ELISA, VDSP protocols, and LC–tandem MS, respectively. Conclusion: VDSP protocols hold a major potential for national nutrition and health surveys in terms of the standardization of serum 25(OH)D data.

Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T

2013-01-01

334

[Oral Health Conditions in Women with or without Occupation - Results from a Regional Examination and Survey].  

PubMed

In the present study oral health conditions and oral hygiene measures of women with and without occupation were examined and compared. In addition to a dental assessment, oral hygiene measures and socio-demographic data were collected by means of a questionnaire.A total of 415 subjects (210 women with and 205 women without occupation) with an age range of 25-65 years were enrolled in this study. All women underwent a dental assessment, including a radiographic examination (orthopanthomogram). The dental assessment comprised the number of teeth, caries frequency (DMFT index), type and frequency of restorations, quality of oral hygiene (API), degree of gingival inflamma-tion (SBI), probing depths and the presence of recessions. In addition, a questionnaire, concerning anamnestic data and information about the familial situation, level of education and occupation, was filled in. The study was approved by the ethics commission (Rhineland-Palatinate).Of the women without occupation (mean age: 38.1±9.7 years) 90% were married, only 3% were heavy smokers, and only 2% had a university degree. Of the working women (mean age: 43.2 ±11years) 73% were married, 17% were heavy smokers (>?20 cigarettes/day), and 10% had a university degree. Oral hygiene of the working women was slightly better than that in women without occupation; however, severe periodontal disease was seen more frequently in working women (15% vs. 3.3%; p<0.027). With respect to the periodontal situation, the probability of developing an aggressive periodontitis was with an odds ratio of 4.23 (95% CI: 0.77-23.17) considerably higher for the group of working women.The oral health of women with or without occupation differed slightly. These findings suggest that occupation, level of education and life style of the women have an influence on oral hygiene measures and on oral health. PMID:23780856

Ehlers, V; Willershausen, I; Weyer, V; Leskov-Hamza, T; Lampe, F; Willershausen, B

2014-04-01

335

Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys.  

PubMed

We present: 1) indicators of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) and median age of introduction of foods analyzed by geographic and socioeconomic variables for the 2006 national probabilistic Health Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006); and 2) changes in IYCFP indicators between the 1999 national probabilistic Nutrition Survey and ENSANUT-2006, analyzed by the same variables. Participants were women 12-49 y and their <2-y-old children (2953 in 2006 and 3191 in 1999). Indicators were estimated with the status quo method. The median age of introduction of foods was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using recall data. The national median duration of breastfeeding was similar in both surveys, 9.7 mo in 1999 and 10.4 mo in 2006, but decreased in the vulnerable population. In 1999 indigenous women breastfed 20.8 mo but did so for only 13.0 mo in 2006. The national percentage of those exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo also remained stable: 20% in 1999 and 22.3% in 2006. Nevertheless, exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo changed within the indigenous population, from 46% in 1999 to 34.5% in 2006. Between surveys, most breastfeeding indicators had lower values in vulnerable populations than in those better-off. Complementary feeding, however, improved overall. Complementary feeding was inadequately timed: median age of introduction of plain water was 3 mo, formula and non-human milk was 5 mo, and cereals, legumes, and animal foods was 5 mo. Late introduction of animal foods occurred among vulnerable indigenous population when 50% consumed these products at 8 mo. Mexican IYCFP indicate that public policy must protect breastfeeding while promoting the timely introduction of complementary feeding. PMID:23514772

González de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Reyes-Vázquez, Horacio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

2013-05-01

336

Nutritional vulnerability of older persons living in urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa: a cross sectional survey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of malnutrition and (2) investigate factors affecting nutritional status of older persons living in urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin. The prevalence of underweight was 16.5%, with men (24.1%) being significantly more likely to be underweight (P < 0.05) than women (12.3%). Overall, 61.2% had normal body mass indices, 13.2% were overweight, and 9.1% were obese. Energy intake was low (1596.3-1630.5 Kcal), with only 22% and 38% of men and women, respectively, meeting their daily requirements. Protein intake was adequate in more than half of men and women. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc intakes were moderate, while calcium intake was low (P < 0.05). Inadequate food access, poor health, living arrangements, and poor eating patterns were the main nutritional risk factors. There is a need to plan nutrition programs that can improve living conditions, health, and nutritional status of older adults in these urban areas of the Lake Victoria Basin. PMID:22335442

Cheserek, Maureen J; Waudo, Judith N; Tuitoek, Prisca J; Msuya, John M; Kikafunda, Joyce K

2012-01-01

337

National Kidney Foundation Council on renal nutrition survey: past-present clinical practices and future strategic planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early nutritional intervention is thought to play a major role in the preservation of renal function and the overall wellbeing in the renal patient. In preparation for renal replacement therapy (RRT), a consultation with the renal nutritionist to establish a diet consistent with the existing diagnosis may increase the likelihood of reducing cardiovascular risk factors, preventing malnutrition and anemia, and

Harold Moore; Susan M. Reams; Karen Wiesen; Karl D. Nolph; Ramesh Khanna; Chonwit Laothong

2003-01-01

338

Ten-State Nutrition Survey in the United States, 1968-70. Preliminary Report to the Congress, April 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Congress concerns the nutrition of people living in 10 states, from 1968-70. The data presented in this booklet present the preliminary findings for New York City and New York State. The data represent selected characteristics and findings in the population groups that were…

Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

339

Survey of dose area product received by patients undergoing common radiological examinations in four centers in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Patient dosimetry studies in diagnostic radiology in Nigeria have been on measurement of entrance skin dose and effective dose. Another important and easy to measure radiation dose descriptor that could be used to assess patient dose in radiological procedures is dose area product (DAP). Knowledge of DAP with location and projection of X-ray beam allows direct calculation of organ dose and effective dose. In this study, DAP for commonly performed radiological examinations (abdomen, chest, lumbo sacral joint, pelvis, paranasal sinus, and skull) in four diagnostic centers in Nigeria were determined. These centers comprise of three classes of health care center namely tertiary, private, and specialist hospitals. Mathematical method was used to determine DAP received by 336 patients undergoing radiological examinations at the selected diagnostic centers. The DAP received by patient from each radiological examination varies from center to center. The range factor (RF) of DAP for individual patients ranged from 1.55-4.56, while RF of DAP among the selected centers was 2.27-55.84. The highest RF of DAP (55.84) was obtained from X-ray examination of the chest. This variation was due to the application of anti-scatter grid, and high kVp and high mAs values for chest examination by only one of the centers. The very wide variation in DAP found among diagnostic centers in this survey showed that there is need to harmonize radiological techniques of common X-ray examination among different diagnostic centers. This would ensure optimal protection of patient against excessive radiation dose. PMID:22766942

Akinlade, Bidemi I; Farai, Idowu P; Okunade, Akintunde A

2012-01-01

340

Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III to examine the effect of the availability of the school breakfast program (SBP). Our work builds on previous research in four ways: First, we develop a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without. Second, we examine serum measures of

Jayanta Bhattacharya; Janet Currie; Steven J. Haider

2004-01-01

341

Nutrition and oral health.  

PubMed

The link between nutrition and oral health can be overt (vitamin B deficiency) or subtle (exacerbation of already existing periodontal disease). Medical, social, and clinical examinations can be useful tools for uncovering those patients at risk for nutrition deficiencies and can be used to guide these patients to healthy eating. Along with routine home care instruction, the practicing dentist and hygienist can provide a service for patients through nutrition counseling and by pointing out reputable sources of nutrient supplements. PMID:12024745

Dorsky, R

2001-01-01

342

Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status.

Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

343

Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects) and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects). Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level of undernutrition was still high in 2005. The shifts of underweight to overweight were most obvious among population groups with higher food expenditure levels.

2011-01-01

344

Examining the spatial congruence between data obtained with a novel activity location questionnaire, continuous GPS tracking, and prompted recall surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Place and health researchers are increasingly interested in integrating individuals’ mobility and the experience they have with multiple settings in their studies. In practice, however, few tools exist which allow for rapid and accurate gathering of detailed information on the geographic location of places where people regularly undertake activities. We describe the development and validation of a new activity location questionnaire which can be useful in accounting for multiple environmental influences in large population health investigations. Methods To develop the questionnaire, we relied on a literature review of similar data collection tools and on results of a pilot study wherein we explored content validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity. To estimate convergent validity, we used data from a study of users of a public bicycle share program conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2011. We examined the spatial congruence between questionnaire data and data from three other sources: 1) one-week GPS tracks; 2) activity locations extracted from the GPS tracks; and 3) a prompted recall survey of locations visited during the day. Proximity and convex hull measures were used to compare questionnaire-derived data and GPS and prompted recall survey data. Results In the sample, 75% of questionnaire-reported activity locations were located within 400 meters of an activity location recorded on the GPS track or through the prompted recall survey. Results from convex hull analyses suggested questionnaire activity locations were more concentrated in space than GPS or prompted-recall locations. Conclusions The new questionnaire has high convergent validity and can be used to accurately collect data on regular activity spaces in terms of locations regularly visited. The methods, measures, and findings presented provide new material to further study mobility in place and health research.

2013-01-01

345

Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009  

PubMed Central

We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009.

Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2014-01-01

346

Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits. PMID:23866261

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

2014-05-01

347

Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-1982 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented on graduate student enrollments, applications for graduate study, availability of assistantships and fellowships, graduate degrees awarded, and stipends for teaching assistants, based on the 1981-1982 Survey of Graduate Enrollment of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS)-Graduate Record Examinations Board. Of the survey

Cox, Virginia B.; Khoury, Bernard V.

348

Nutrition Education to Prevent Obesity in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15.3% of children ages 6-11 are obese; an 8% increase since 1980. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys have provided nationally representative data on health statistics since the 1960’s. Comparing these surveys, the growing rates of childhood obesity are undeniable, as are the increasing rates of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and multiple other conditions associated

Marilyn Susanne Lee

2004-01-01

349

Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards.

Pencharz, P. B.

1982-01-01

350

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

351

Nutrition advice in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny

2013-10-01

352

Local survey of optometrists about dilated funduscopic examinations for patients with diabetes: making use of phone book yellow-page listings.  

PubMed

The risk of blindness from retinopathy and macular edema is significantly greater in people with diabetes than in the general public. Annual dilated funduscopic examinations are recommended for early detection and treatment before these problems become serious and threaten vision. Yet national health survey data indicate that only about half of patients with diabetes obtain an annual dilated funduscopic examination. This study surveyed optometrists listed in the NYNEX Yellow Pages (for the Bronx, NY) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to dilated funduscopic examinations for patients with diabetes. Over half of the optometry practices in the survey indicated that dilated funduscopic examinations were available at a relatively modest cost. However, the optometrists reported that less than one fourth of the patients they saw with diabetes had knowledge about the purpose of an annual dilated examination. Optometrists are readily available through yellow-page listings. Their role as primary eye care providers in retinopathy screening may increase with managed care. PMID:8970291

Foster, D T; Wylie-Rosett, J; Walker, E A

1996-01-01

353

National survey beverage consumption data for children and adolescents indicate the need to encourage a shift toward more nutritive beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently issued recommendations for 100% fruit juice consumption for children and adolescents. National survey data (1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals) were used to evaluate intake of 100% fruit juice for comparison with AAP recommendations. Mean daily intakes of 100% fruit juice were 0.9, 4.6, and 3.4 ounces in children aged

Gail C Rampersaud; Lynn B Bailey; Gail P. A Kauwell

2003-01-01

354

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

355

Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE) would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE); 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83%) having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17%) of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE.

2012-01-01

356

Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) availability with the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Our work builds on previous research by developing a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without, using serum…

Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.

2006-01-01

357

A Survey of the Nutritional Status of Adults and Children Using the Learning Disability Services of a Health Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the body mass indices (BMIs) of 101 child and adult users of the learning disability services of a Health Trust in the UK was carried out. It was found that 61.3 percent of the children and 27.1 percent of the adults were underweight, with BMIs below 20. Being underweight was associated with profound and multiple disability, the

John Aldridge; Julia Pullen; Carol Whelan

2000-01-01

358

Food Practices and Nutrition Knowledge after Graduation from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally funded nutrition program designed to educate low-income families about key areas of nutrition and food safety. This study examined the benefits gained and maintained by participants in EFNEP in food practices, nutrition knowledge, nutrient intake, and other areas. A prospective, within-subject design was used to examine a randomly selected

Catherine Greenwell Arnold; Jeffery Sobal

2000-01-01

359

Assessment and management of nutritional challenges in children’s cancer care: A survey of current practice in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe maintenance of an adequate nutritional intake is vital for the child or young person undergoing treatment for cancer. Inability to maintain nutrition can lead to poor tolerance of treatment, increased risk of infectious complications and a potential poorer overall outcome. Good nutritional support is vital however there does not appear to be a national or consistent approach to either

Karen Selwood; Evelyn Ward; Faith Gibson

2010-01-01

360

Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Improves Participants' Food Security in Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to use convincing research methodology to demonstrate the benefits of nutrition assistance programs targeted to vulnerable older adults. We examined the impact of Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) participation on food security in participants and waitlisted people in Georgia using two waves of self-administered mail surveys conducted 4 months apart (n = 717, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5, 70.9% female,

Jung Sun Lee; Mary Ann Johnson; Arvine Brown

2011-01-01

361

Instrument Development: Examining the Appropriateness of Student and Teacher Surveys for Determining the Need for Testing Accommodations. Technical Report #31  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical report documents the procedures followed in developing student and teacher surveys to gather information about the accommodations students are accustomed to receiving and those that might be beneficial on a mathematics test delivered on the computer. It provides documentation of the technical adequacy of the survey instruments, as…

Alonzo, Julie; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne; Tindal, Gerald

2004-01-01

362

Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact. As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. Methods A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). Results The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4?±?6.3 vs. 43.4?±?8.9; p?

2013-01-01

363

Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98)  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. Methods The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. Results After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity – with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Conclusions In Germany adults with a lower level of education are more physically active, both at work and overall, compared to adults with a higher education level, although they are less physically active in their leisure time. Higher work-related activity levels among adults with lower education may explain why they are less active in their leisure time.

2012-01-01

364

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

365

Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

2013-01-01

366

Variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Britain. An analysis from the dietary and nutritional survey of British adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Using a national representative sample to examine variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in the UK, with particular reference to consumers with high and low reported intakes.Design: National representative dietary survey using 7-d weighed diet records of men and women aged 16–64 y living in private households in the UK in 1986–1987.Setting: The UK.Subjects: 1087 men and

H Billson; JA Pryer; R Nichols

1999-01-01

367

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

368

Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

Swinward

2010-04-12

369

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

370

Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta

2003-01-01

371

Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Adult Body Mass Index and Overweight from 1991 to 2009 in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Contributions of age-period-cohort effects to increases in BMI and overweight among Chinese adults must be resolved in order to design appropriate interventions. The objectives were to (i) describe the period effect on BMI and overweight among Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009 and assess modification of this effect by age (e.g. cohort effect) and gender, and (ii) quantify the influence of household income and community urbanicity on these effects. Methods Data are from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a prospective sample across nine provinces in China; 53 298 observations from 18 059 participants were collected over a 19-year period. A series of mixed effects models was used to explicitly assess differences in BMI within individuals over time (age effect) and population-wide differences in BMI over time (period effect), and implicitly assess differences in the experienced period effect across individuals of varying ages (cohort effect). Results Stronger period effects on BMI and overweight were observed among males compared with females; and younger cohorts had higher BMIs compared with older cohorts. Simulations predicted that increases in income and urbanicity in the order of magnitude of that observed from 1991 to 2009 would correspond to shifts in the BMIs of average individuals of 0.07 and 0.23 kg/m2, respectively. Conclusions Although period effects had a stronger influence on the BMI of males, interventions should not overlook younger female cohorts who are at increased risk compared with their older counterparts.

Jaacks, Lindsay M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry

2013-01-01

372

Impacts of China's Edible Oil Pricing Policy on Nutrition  

PubMed Central

China’s health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991 to 2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need.

Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

2008-01-01

373

Impacts of China's edible oil pricing policy on nutrition.  

PubMed

China's health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991-2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

Ng, Shu Wen; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry M

2008-01-01

374

Public health aspects of nutritional science in Estonia: status, research activities, and perspectives.  

PubMed

At the beginning of the 1990s Estonia was characterized by remarkable social and economic changes that also affected nutrition. An important step in the development of a Food and Nutrition policy was the adoption of a new 'Food Law' in February 1995. The publication of dietary recommendations followed recently. Scientific activities in Estonia are promoted by the 1993 established 'Estonian Society of Nutrition Researchers' (ESNS). The 'Ministry of Social Affairs' is of great importance for coordination of research into nutrition and it is making a great effort to connect Estonian nutrition research activities to European and international programs. An important field of scientific interest is concentrated on the nutrition of children and elderly people. With support of the 'Ministry of Social Affairs' a national health program for children and teenagers was established in which a school lunch project is integrated. Such a project has the aim to improve the quality of school lunches and to enable school teachers to conduct nutritional education. Within this national health program 1,900 schoolchildren were interviewed. This examination will also help to detect inequalities of the nutritional situation between social groups and to identify specific aims for a nutritional program in the different counties of Estonia. Health promoting units at schools will play an important role in realizing these aims. The nutritional supply and status of older persons will become an increasing problem. A survey of food supply with 429 subjects in social care facilities for older people was used to develop a new menu-planning system which meets the nutritional recommendations. Nutritional epidemiology is concentrated at the 'Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics' of the 'Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine' in Tallinn. This department is also running the cancer registry of Estonia which has international reputation. Nutritional research of Estonia should aim to continue with the development of a new Food and Nutrition Policy. Important areas of activities will be concentrated on the training of young scientists, development of a food and nutrient data base, regular national nutrition and health surveys, and etiological-epidemiological studies on the basis of the Estonian Cancer Registry. The main targets of the 'Estonian Society of Nutrition Researchers' are directed to improve the scientific basis for research into nutrition and health. PMID:9800312

Vokk, R; Boeing, H

1998-09-01

375

Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population: results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS) is the first government mandated nationwide study to investigate jointly the prevalence of somatic and mental disorders within one study in the general adult population in Germany. This paper reports results from its Mental Health Supplement (GHS-MHS) on 4-week 12-month, and selected life- time prevalence of a broad range of

F. JACOBI; H.-U. WITTCHEN; C. HÖLTING; M. HÖFLER; H. PFISTER; N. MÜLLER; R. LIEB

2004-01-01

376

[Nutrition and andrological problems].  

PubMed

Andrologic problems were considered as nutrition is concerned: vitamin and oligo-element deficiencies, metabolic alterations, and toxic intake. Ethanol role was examined and discussed for its relevance in psychological and organic impairment due to both chronic abuse and acute intake, mainly for its role on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rational nutrition is a clue in sexual disturbance prevention, correction and integrated care. PMID:1838822

Calcamuggi, G; Marcarino, C; Emanuelli, G

1991-12-01

377

Student Understanding of Tunneling in Quantum Mechanics: Examining Interview and Survey Results for Clues to Student Reasoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are studying student understanding of the phenomenon of quantum tunneling through a potential barrier, a standard topic in most introductory quantum physics courses. When a series of interviews revealed that many students believe energy is lost in the tunneling process, a survey was designed to investigate the prevalence of the energy-loss idea. This survey was administered to populations of physics majors at the sophomore and senior levels. Data indicate that interview results are shared by a somewhat larger population of students and give insight into additional models of reasoning (e.g. analogies to macroscopic tunnels) not found in the interviews.

Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.

2005-10-27

378

The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines  

PubMed Central

Background Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007. However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. Methods All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p?survey, but in 4 cases the questionnaire was not fully completed (with single items missing). More than half of the study participants (n?=?34/59; 58%) have experienced (at least sometimes or rarely) candidates that they deemed incompetent and perhaps even dangerous to the patients’ health who nevertheless passed the oral exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included “strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations”, “reliability”, “validity”, “competence in grading”, “critical grading”, and “departmental improvements” concerning oral examinations. Conclusions In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical problems and a criteria-based critical grading system for oral examinations. Since the impact of the training was particularly high for colleagues from the operative disciplines, the training program should be offered especially in surgical departments.

2013-01-01

379

A Case Law Survey of the Personality Assessment Inventory: Examining Its Role in Civil and Criminal Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although professional surveys suggest that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a popular instrument among forensic and correctional psychologists, relatively little is known about the specific types of legal cases in which it is applied, the particular types of questions it is used to address, or the extent to which its admissibility has been at issue in court

Kacy L. Mullen; John F. Edens

2008-01-01

380

The national survey of student engagement as a predictor of undergraduate GPA: a cross?sectional and longitudinal examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) collected across seven years were used to predict final, cumulative grade point averages (GPA). Cross?product regression was used to explore the predictive abilities of the NSSE benchmark scores for freshmen (n = 2578) and seniors (n = 2293) collected in cross?sectional cohorts. Hierarchical regression was also used with 127 longitudinal responses

M. B. Fuller; M. A. Wilson; R. M. Tobin

2011-01-01

381

The National Survey of Student Engagement as a Predictor of Undergraduate GPA: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) collected across seven years were used to predict final, cumulative grade point averages (GPA). Cross-product regression was used to explore the predictive abilities of the NSSE benchmark scores for freshmen (n = 2578) and seniors (n = 2293) collected in cross-sectional cohorts.…

Fuller, M. B.; Wilson, M. A.; Tobin, R. M.

2011-01-01

382

Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random mailed survey was sent to 425 members of a seniors recreation center in Guelph, Ontario for the purpose of identifying the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences of these seniors. This needs assessment was used to plan an education initiative called “Action Nutrition.” SCREEN, a 15-item nutritional risk screening instrument, demographic data, participation

Heather H. Keller; Margaret R. Hedley

2002-01-01

383

Iodine Nutrition and the Prevalence of Thyroid Disease after Salt Iodization: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Shanghai, a Coastal Area in China  

PubMed Central

Background Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of children aged 8–10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. Objective To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted with general participants aged 5–69 years (n?=?7,904) plus pregnant and lactating women (n?=?380 each) selected by stratified multistage sampling. The iodine concentrations in their salt, drinking water and urine were measured. Daily iodine intake was estimated using the total diet study approach. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations and thyroid-related antibodies were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results The median iodine concentration in salt was 29.5 mg/kg, and 12.8 µg/L in drinking water. Iodized salt, used by 95.3% of participants, contributed 63.5% of total dietary iodine. Estimated daily iodine intake was 225.96 µg. The median UIC of general participants was 146.7 µg/L; UIC <100 µg/L (iodine insufficiency) was seen in 28.6%; UIC >300 µg/L (iodine excess) in 10.1%. Pregnant women had a median UIC of 135.9 µg/L, with UIC <150 µg/L in 55.4%. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were found in 27.44% and 9.17%, respectively. Conclusions According to published criteria, the current dietary iodine intake in Shanghai was generally sufficient and safe, but insufficient in pregnant women. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were the commonest thyroid diseases identified.

Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan; Guo, Changyi; Song, Jun; Huang, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Yu, Huiting; Guo, Yanfei; Lu, Xi; Ruan, Ye

2012-01-01

384

Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11?835 male and 12?561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004?kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults.

Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

385

Maternal nutritional knowledge and the nutritional status of preschool children in a Nairobi slum.  

PubMed

Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge