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Sample records for nutritional examination survey

  1. HISPANIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HHANES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) was a nationwide probability sample of approximately 16,000 persons, 6 months-74 years of age. Hispanics were included in past health and nutrition examinations, but neither in sufficient numbers to produce estimates o...

  2. THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94, was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 33,994 persons 2 months and over. The survey was designed to obtain nationally representative information on the health and nutritio...

  3. SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

  4. NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES) 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES I)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 32,000 persons 1-74 years of age. The NHANES I sample was selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition ...

  5. The Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnier, Isadore I.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines Public Health Service preliminary findings in a study designed to establish health and nutrition baseline data for future comparison and for government food policies. Data collected include caloric and nutrient intake from recollection, nutrient content of blood and urine, examination for incipient malnutrition, and bone and body…

  6. HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

  7. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  8. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;

  9. Data resource profile: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-02-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviours, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases and dietary intakes with three component surveys: health interview, health examination and nutrition survey. The health interview and health examination are conducted by trained staff members, including physicians, medical technicians and health interviewers, at a mobile examination centre, and dieticians' visits to the homes of the study participants are followed up. KNHANES provides statistics for health-related policies in Korea, which also serve as the research infrastructure for studies on risk factors and diseases by supporting over 500 publications. KCDC has also supported researchers in Korea by providing annual workshops for data users. KCDC has published the Korea Health Statistics each year, and microdata are publicly available through the KNHANES website (http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr). PMID:24585853

  10. National health and nutrition examination survey: plan and operations, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Zipf, George; Chiappa, Michele; Porter, Kathryn S; Ostchega, Yechiam; Lewis, Brenda G; Dostal, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Background-Starting in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, ongoing annual survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident population of the United States. A continuous survey allowed content to change to meet emerging needs. Objective-This report describes how NHANES for 1999-2010 was designed and implemented. NHANES is a national survey designed to provide national estimates on various health-related topics. Methods-The survey used in-person face-to-face interviews and physical examinations for data collection. Approximately 5,000 people per year participated in NHANES. The 5,000 people surveyed each year are representative of the entire U.S. population. PMID:25078429

  11. Developing a metadata data model for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Berman, Lewis E; Fisher, Allan L; Evans, Leighton; Tilert, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a large and comprehensive health survey utilizing leading edge technologies to produce national estimates of health measures and the nutritional status of the U.S. population. Early NHANES metadata models grouped data by categories with little specificity and often not capturing the complexity of the survey. Subsequently, existing models at the Census Bureau, CDC, and the EPA were evaluated in addition to industry standards, such as DDI, Dublin Core, and ISO 1179. For the NHANES metadata model, the DDI standard and CDC Public Health Conceptual Model were chosen as the backbone for constructing the data model. The new model has led to increased data accuracy and several value-added products for producing codebooks, automatically checking questionnaire skip patterns, and producing questionnaire instrumentation. PMID:14728294

  12. Developing a Metadata Data Model for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Lewis E.; Fisher, Allan L.; Evans, Leighton; Tilert, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a large and comprehensive health survey utilizing leading edge technologies to produce national estimates of health measures and the nutritional status of the U.S. population. Early NHANES metadata models grouped data by categories with little specificity and often not capturing the complexity of the survey. Subsequently, existing models at the Census Bureau, CDC, and the EPA were evaluated in addition to industry standards, such as DDI, Dublin Core, and ISO 1179. For the NHANES metadata model, the DDI standard and CDC Public Health Conceptual Model were chosen as the backbone for constructing the data model. The new model has led to increased data accuracy and several value-added products for producing codebooks, automatically checking questionnaire skip patterns, and producing questionnaire instrumentation. PMID:14728294

  13. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won; Kang, Se Woong

    2015-12-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea. PMID:26635451

  14. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea. PMID:26635451

  15. Validity of U.S. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Caloric Energy Intake Data, 19712010

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Edward; Hand, Gregory A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Methodological limitations compromise the validity of U.S. nutritional surveillance data and the empirical foundation for formulating dietary guidelines and public health policies. Objectives Evaluate the validity of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) caloric intake data throughout its history, and examine trends in the validity of caloric intake estimates as the NHANES dietary measurement protocols evolved. Design Validity of data from 28,993 men and 34,369 women, aged 20 to 74 years from NHANES I (19711974) through NHANES 20092010 was assessed by: calculating physiologically credible energy intake values as the ratio of reported energy intake (rEI) to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), and subtracting estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) from NHANES rEI to create disparity values. Main Outcome Measures 1) Physiologically credible values expressed as the ratio rEI/BMR and 2) disparity values (rEITEE). Results The historical rEI/BMR values for men and women were 1.31 and 1.19, (95% CI: 1.301.32 and 1.181.20), respectively. The historical disparity values for men and women were ?281 and ?365 kilocalorie-per-day, (95% CI: ?299, ?264 and ?378, ?351), respectively. These results are indicative of significant under-reporting. The greatest mean disparity values were ?716 kcal/day and ?856 kcal/day for obese (i.e., ?30 kg/m2) men and women, respectively. Conclusions Across the 39-year history of the NHANES, EI data on the majority of respondents (67.3% of women and 58.7% of men) were not physiologically plausible. Improvements in measurement protocols after NHANES II led to small decreases in underreporting, artifactual increases in rEI, but only trivial increases in validity in subsequent surveys. The confluence of these results and other methodological limitations suggest that the ability to estimate population trends in caloric intake and generate empirically supported public policy relevant to diet-health relationships from U.S. nutritional surveillance is extremely limited. PMID:24130784

  16. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19992002

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David; Adler, Nancy; Gregorich, Steven; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between leukocyte telomere length a marker of cell aging and mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 5084. We also examined moderating effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education. Methods Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 19992002 (n=3,091). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, body mass index, and chronic conditions. Results 870 deaths occurred over an average of 9.5 years of follow-up. In the full sample, a decrease of 1 kilobase pair in telomere length at baseline was marginally associated with a 10% increased hazard of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.4) and a 30% increased hazard of death due to diseases other than cardiovascular disease or cancer (HR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9). Among African-American but not white or Mexican-American respondents, a decrease of 1 kilobase pair in telomere length at baseline was associated with a two-fold increased hazard of cardiovascular mortality (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.1). There was no association between telomere length and cancer mortality. Conclusions The association between leukocyte telomere length and mortality differs by race/ethnicity and cause of death. PMID:26039272

  17. Prevalence of Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction and Its Risk Factors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population. Methods The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n = 10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.01–2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR = 2.18, CI = 1.33–3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR = 3.10, CI = 1.25–7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR = 1.78, CI = 1.26–2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR = 14.55, CI = 10.06–21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required. PMID:23671628

  18. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  19. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI ; Lee, Sundong; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  1. Dietary acrylamide exposure and hemoglobin adducts--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-04).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tran NL; Barraj LM; Murphy MM; Bi X

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between dietary AA and hemoglobin adducts using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003-04). Measured acrylamide (AA-Hb) and glycidamide (Gly-Hb) hemoglobin adducts for over 7000 participants >3 years, 24-h dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), lifestyle and demographic data, and anthropometric measurements are available from NHANES (2003-04). The 24-h dietary recall and FFQ data were combined with AA concentration data in food from the US FDA to estimate "usual" AA dietary exposure. The associations between dietary AA and AA-Hb and Gly-Hb were evaluated using linear regression models with smoking, age, gender, energy and macronutrient intake, body surface area, and activity level as covariates. Dietary AA positively correlates with AA-Hb and Gly-Hb (p<0.05) but the correlation is small (R-Squared<3.5%). Relative to the background adduct levels, the incremental increase in AA-Hb and Gly-Hb from average dietary AA is small (7% and 9% for AA-Hb and Gly-Hb, respectively). Non-dietary sources of exposure, measurement errors associated with the use of the FFQ, and uncertainty in the data on AA levels in foods are possible explanations for the observed lack of association between dietary AA and AA-Hb and Gly-Hb.

  2. Extermination strategies reported in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004: prevalence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nancy L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    It is likely that household extermination is a major source of pesticide exposure for urban residents. Little is known about the predictors of residential pest control strategies in urban areas, and greater knowledge of these may help identify who is at risk for higher pesticide exposure. Study data is from the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a cross-sectional, population-based study using a three-stage sampling scheme. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of pesticide use overall, and of application strategy: (1) consumer-applied pesticides only, (2) use of a professional exterminator only, or (3) use of both. Consumer-applied extermination was more prevalent than professional or both professional and consumer (39.9% versus 27.8% and 15.9%, respectively, and non-exclusively). In multivariate models among those who used any extermination, consumer application was associated with age 60 years+, being black or Asian, and being widowed, divorced, or single. Lower income households were more likely to use both strategies, and less likely to use professional extermination only. Urban residents may benefit from targeted education on how and when to self-apply pesticides, and on best-practice pest control to avoid unnecessary pesticide exposure. Higher prevalence of consumer-applied and conjoint consumer and professionally applied extermination in low-income households may reflect both economic determinants of first recourse and higher neighborhood infestation levels. PMID:23093104

  3. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  4. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ?30?mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%)?=?total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg]??100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P?

  5. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20072010*

    PubMed Central

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MERCADO, Carla I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function (OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. Methods We used data from 3109 participants aged ?20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20072010. Subjects MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. Results After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9% (1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Conclusions Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. PMID:26677470

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology of Objectively Measured Walking Among US Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 20052006

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine population-based prevalence of walking in the United States among pregnant women. Objectively measured walking data on 197 pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052006 were analyzed. In general, pregnant women showed a level of walking below the recommendation; most walking was at low-intensity levels. These findings suggest that walking, particularly at higher intensity than usual, should be promoted among pregnant women. PMID:26652217

  7. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 20052006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Pivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ? 10 m (PM10), particulate matter ? 2.5 m (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 20052006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 g/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 g/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  8. Oral pathogens and allergic disease: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, Samuel J.; Sever, Michelle L.; Vaughn, Ben; Cohen, Eric A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infection have led to increases in the prevalences of asthma and other allergic diseases. Objective: This study evaluated the association between asthma, wheeze, and hay fever and antibodies to 2 oral bacteria associated with periodontal disease. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum levels of IgG antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were quantified by enzyme-linked immunoassays in 9385 subjects age 12 years and older. The outcomes were current asthma, wheeze, and hay fever. Odds ratios (ORs) representing a 1log-unit increase in IgG concentrations were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were adjusted for 8 confounders and weighted to represent the US population. Results: For each disease outcome, geometric mean antibody concentrations were higher in persons without the disease outcome than with the disease outcome. For a 1log-unit increase in P gingivalis antibody concentration, adjusted ORs were 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20-0.87) for asthma, 0.43 (0.23-0.78) for wheeze, and 0.45 (0.23-0.93) for hay fever. For A actinomycetemcomitans, those ORs were 0.56 (0.19-1.72), 0.39 (0.17-0.86), and 0.48 (0.23-1.03), respectively. Conclusion: Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, higher concentrations of IgG antibodies to P gingivalis were significantly associated with lower prevalences of asthma, wheeze, and hay fever, and higher concentrations of IgG antibodies to A actinomycetemcomitans were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of wheeze. Clinical implications: Colonization of the oral cavity by bacteria and other microbes might play a protective role in the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:17088145

  9. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

    2004-01-01

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

  10. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. Methods We used data from adults aged ? 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. Results In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p < 0.001, each). In 12,885 subjects with no sequalae on CXR, those with prior pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p < 0.001) than those without. Subjects with prior pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p < 0.001, each). In total subjects, prior pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.9222.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.6063.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. Conclusion In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease. PMID:26496500

  11. CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

  12. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25. PMID:25602463

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20092011

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 20092011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

  14. Prevalence of Otolaryngologic Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yang-Sun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Park, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hong Ju; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Moon, Il Joon; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Sun, Dong-Il; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Kun Hee; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Kyung Won; Pyo, Eun Young; Lee, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n=4,930). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist, nurses, and interviewers moved with a mobile examination unit and performed otolaryngologic interviews and physical examinations. Results The prevalence of subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, preauricular fistua, tympanic membrane perforation, and cholesteatoma were 11.97%, 20.27%, 2.08%, 1.60%, and 1.18%, respectively. Dizziness and vestibular dysfunction were common among Korean adults, since 23.33% of the participants reported symptoms of dizziness or imbalance, and the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction was 3.86%. The prevalence of nasal diseases was relatively high, as the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and a deviated nasal septum were 28.01%, 7.12%, and 42.94%, respectively. Subjective dysphonia was found in 6.60% of the participants, and the prevalence of subjective dysphonia increased with age. Conclusion This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study to assess the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases by both the Korean Otolaryngologic Society and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Considering the high prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea, the results call for additional studies to better prevent and manage otolaryngologic diseases. PMID:21217958

  15. Is Hypozincemia Related to Tinnitus?: A Population Study Using Data From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Sohea; Tyler, Richard; Hwang, Soon Young; Chae, Sungwon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of present study was to determine the relationship between serum zinc level and tinnitus using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods The present study examined the relationship between serum zinc level and tinnitus using data from the KNHANES. A total of 2,225 KNHANES participants responded to the tinnitus questionnaire and provided blood samples to measure serum zinc concentration. Based on questionnaire responses, participants were categorized into control, mild tinnitus, moderate tinnitus, and severe tinnitus subgroups. Results There were no significant differences between groups in serum zinc level after adjustment for sex, age, and hearing loss. Conclusion It was concluded that hypozincemia is not related to tinnitus in a large population. PMID:26622950

  16. Obesity and osteoarthritis of the knee: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I).

    PubMed

    Davis, M A; Ettinger, W H; Neuhaus, J M

    1990-12-01

    The importance of systemic/metabolic factors in the association of obesity with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) was examined for 3,905 adults aged 45 to 74 from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971 to 1975 (NHANES I). Obesity was associated with both bilateral and unilateral OA, but more strongly with bilateral OA. Obesity was also associated with both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic knee OA. Controlling for age, sex, serum cholesterol, serum uric acid, diabetes, body fat distribution, bone density, and blood pressure did not significantly reduce the association between obesity and knee OA. Findings from these data are not supportive of a metabolic link between obesity and knee OA. PMID:2287947

  17. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES anticipates that the DNA Bank will...

  18. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES will announce when it...

  19. Biomarkers of Insecticide Exposure and Asthma in Children: A National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2008 Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure is a potential risk factor for increased asthma prevalence among children. The authors used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2008) biomarker data to evaluate dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary concentrations, serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and asthma among school-aged children (Mexican American, Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White). Poisson logistic regression included age, sex, nativity, poverty index ratio, tobacco smoke exposure, and body mass index covariates. No association was found between DAP (N = 2,777) and asthma outcomes; adverse effect of DDE (N = 940) was suggested for Current Wheeze. Subgroup analyses identified positive associations with some asthma outcomes among Non-Hispanic Blacks, whereas inverse associations were identified among Mexican Americans. Results support previous associations observed among children's DDE exposure and wheeze. Characterization of risk factors for pesticide exposure and disease recognition among Mexican Americans is needed. PMID:25147971

  20. High-risk oral human papillomavirus load in the US population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anil K; Graubard, Barry I; Pickard, Robert K L; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the association of demographic and behavioral factors with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) load for 18 high-risk types among 211 individuals with prevalent high-risk HPV within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Factors independently associated with HPV load above the median included older age (odds ratio, 1.04 per year increase [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07]; P = .004) and intensity of current smoking (P for trend <.001). A marginally greater percentage of men than women had an HPV load above the median (55.7% vs 32.8%; P = .069), and HPV load increased marginally with increasing alcohol use (P for trend = .062). In conclusion, older age and current smoking are associated with a high oral load of high-risk HPV types among individuals with a prevalent infection. PMID:24625808

  1. Diet and Airway Obstruction: A Cross Sectional Study from the Second Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Sim, Yun Su; Suh, Gee Young; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Shin, Dong Ho; Koh, Kyung Haeng; Kim, Yeon Jae; Park, Wan; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Man Jae

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Several dietary factors, such as antioxidant vitamins, have potential roles in the development of obstructive lung diseases. However, the results of studies on the relationships between dietary factors and obstructive lung diseases are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine which nutrients are related to airway obstruction (AO) in the Korean population. Methods We used data obtained as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) in 2001. Analysis was restricted to 1,005 adults who were 18 years of age and older, who had two or more acceptable spirometry curves, and who had participated in the nutrition examination survey. AO was defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.7. Results Of the 1,005 study subjects, 78 (7.8%) had AO. Statistically significant factors associated with AO were 55 years of age or older (p = 0.032), central obesity (p = 0.047), hypertension (p < 0.001), smoking of 20 pack-years or more (p < 0.001), low income (p < 0.001), and low dietary protein intake expressed as a ratio of protein to recommended dietary allowance for Koreans (p = 0.037). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed four factors that were independently associated with AO: smoking of 20 pack-years or more (odds ratio [OR], 5.801; p < 0.001), hypertension (OR, 3.905; p < 0.001), low protein intake (OR, 0.992; p = 0.004), and low income (OR, 1.962; p = 0.018). Conclusions In the Korean NHANES, smoking, hypertension, and low income were related to AO. Among dietary factors, only low protein intake was associated with AO. PMID:20526385

  2. Prevalence of Eye Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Mun, Gui-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Park, Hye-Jin; Pyo, Eun-Young; Yang, Ji-Eun; Kim, Young-Taek

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey and examinations of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea (n = 14,606), conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Field survey teams included an ophthalmologist, nurses, and interviewers, traveled with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and ophthalmologic examinations. Results The prevalence of visual impairment, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in participants over 5 years of age was 0.4 0.1%, 53.7 0.6%, 10.7 0.4%, and 58.0 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence of strabismus and blepharoptosis in participants over 3 years of age was 1.5 0.1% and 11.0 0.8%, respectively. In participants over 40 years of age, the prevalence of cataract, pterygium, early and late age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma was 40.2 1.3%, 8.9 0.5%, 5.1 0.3%, 0.5 0.1%, 13.4 1.5%, and 2.1 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study conducted in South Korea for assessment of the prevalence of eye diseases by both the Korean Ophthalmologic Society and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study will provide preliminary information for use in further investigation, prevention, and management of eye diseases in Korea. PMID:22131780

  3. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using ...

  4. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 19992004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  5. Use of Selected Drugs among Hispanics: Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban-Americans. Findings from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    As part of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-84), prevalences of marijuana, cocaine, inhalant, and sedative use were examined among Hispanic Americans, aged 12-74. This report analyzes data on 3,394 Mexican-Americans in the Southwest, 1,286 Puerto Ricans in the New York City area, and 555 Cuban-Americans in the Miami area,

  6. Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. WIC-08-NH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nancy; Fox, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This report uses the most recently available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) to provide a comprehensive picture of the diets of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant children--the largest segment of the WIC population. The report examines nutrient intakes, diet quality, and food…

  7. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  8. Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined u...

  9. Smoothed Urinary Iodine Percentiles for the US Population and Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Li, Yan; Caudill, Samuel P.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Jones, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine intake is essential for normal growth, development and metabolism throughout life, especially for women during gestation and lactation. The present study applies a novel statistical approach, providing smoothed urinary iodine (UI) percentile curves for the total US population as well as the categories of sex, race/ethnicity, women of childbearing age and pregnant women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to NHANES nutritional biomarker data. Methods We used UI and urinary creatinine that were measured in participants aged 6 and older in the NHANES survey periods 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. A nonparametric double-kernel method was applied to smooth percentile curves for UI and creatinine-corrected results. Results The UI population estimates showed a U-shaped distribution by age for the total US population. Overall, females had lower UI concentrations and median values compared to males (median UI for females, 141.8 µg/l; median UI for males, 176.1 µg/l; p < 0.0001). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest median UI concentrations compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.0001). Among women of childbearing age (15-44 years), UI concentrations mostly declined with increasing age. Pregnant women aged 35 years and older tended to have higher UI concentrations than younger pregnant women at similar percentiles. Conclusions The smoothed reference distribution of UI concentrations provides an improved and visual display of the entire distribution of values for the US population and specific demographic categories. PMID:24783051

  10. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels and Measures of Obesity: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20032008

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Teppala, Srinivas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical. We examined the association between urinary BPA levels and obesity in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 20032008. The main outcome of interest was obesity defined as (1) body mass index (BMI) ? 30?Kg/m2 and (2) waist circumference (WC) ? 102?cm in men and ? 88?cm in women. Urinary BPA levels were examined in quartiles. Overall, we observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and both measures of obesity, independent of potential confounding factors including, smoking, alcohol consumption, and serum cholesterol levels. Compared to quartile 1 (referent), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with quartile 4 for BMI-based obesity was 1.69 (1.302.20); P-trend < 0.0001 and for WC-based obesity was 1.59 (1.212.09); P-trend = 0.0009. This association between BPA and both measures of obesity was consistently present across gender and race-ethnic groups (all P-trend < 0.05). Elevated levels of urinary BPA are associated with measures of obesity independent of traditional risk factors. This association is consistently present across gender and race-ethnic groups. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm or disprove this finding. PMID:22852093

  11. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  12. Temporal Trends in Phthalate Exposures: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate [BBzP; metabolite, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)], di-n-butyl phthalate [DnBP; metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates; however, little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: We examined temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the general U.S. population and whether trends vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11,071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ΣDEHP metabolites decreased between 2001–2002 and 2009–2010 [percent change (95% CI): –42% (–49, –34); –17% (–23, –9); –32% (–39, –23) and –37% (–46, –26), respectively]. In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period [percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively]. Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults, but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: Exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends, but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Citation: Zota AZ, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. 2014. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect 122:235–241; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306681 PMID:24425099

  13. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  14. Arthritis and mortality in the epidemiological follow-up to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. P.; Fries, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    Subsets were analyzed of respondents from the Epidemiological Follow-up to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) who (1) answered a general arthritis question reflecting whether a doctor told the respondent that she or he had arthritis, (2) answered seven pain, swelling, and stiffness questions, and (3) had radiographs of knees and hips assessed for osteoarthritis at the time of the initial survey during the early 1970s. Data for the follow-up were collected between 1982 and 1984 and included 1,491 fatalities in the largest subsample analyzed here. The dependent variable was months of survival after the initial interview. No distinction was drawn between rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis. The NHANES I contained only limited information on rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis. Additional covariates included age, age squared, education, race, marital status, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass. After adjusting for age, no statistically significant associations emerged between answers to the general arthritis questions or any of the seven pain questions on the one hand, and mortality on the other. Similar statistically insignificant results were found when the association between radiographic diagnoses of osteoarthritis in the hips and months of survival was considered after adjusting for age. These statistically insignificant results persisted in repeated testing, which alternately included and excluded a number of covariates, and in separate subsamples of women, men, and persons older and younger than age 50. Some evidence was found, however, for a negative, statistically significant association between radiographic knee diagnoses of osteoarthritis and survival, especially among women, even after adjusting for covariates. These mixed results (1) do not discredit findings elsewhere suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis is associated with early death, since it is likely that the great majority of respondents answering in the affirmative to the general arthritis or seven pain questions in the NHANES I had osteoarthritis, and (2) suggest that future surveys should make greater attempts to distinguish between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. PMID:8069278

  15. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  16. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20082012

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Soo; Han, Kyung-do; Park, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic laryngitis (CL) has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 20082012. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL. Results Among the population ? 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.793.95%). CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049) and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001) from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457), age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001), sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179), and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054). Conclusion Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL. PMID:26177353

  17. Asthma Cases Attributable to Atopy: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, Samuel J.; Gergen, Peter J.; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The percentage of asthma cases attributable to atopy is the subject of debate. Objectives The objectives were to estimate the percentage of asthma cases in the U.S. population attributable to atopy and to examine associations between allergen-specific skin tests and asthma. Methods Data were obtained from NHANES III in which subjects aged 659 years were skin tested with 10 allergens. Atopy was defined as at least one positive allergen-specific test. Doctor-diagnosed current asthma was assessed by questionnaire. Results In the U.S., 56.3% of the asthma cases were attributable to atopy, and that percentage was greater among males than females, among persons in the highest education category than in lower education categories, and among persons living in highly populated metropolitan areas than in all other areas. Each allergen-specific test was strongly associated with asthma before adjustment (odds ratios varied from 2.1 to 4.5); however, after adjustment by all the allergens, only tests to cat, Alternaria, white oak, and perennial rye were independently associated with asthma. Perennial rye was inversely associated with asthma. Of the 10 allergens, a positive response to cat accounted for the highest percentage of asthma cases (29.3%). Conclusions About half of the current asthma cases in the U.S. population represented by NHANES III were attributable to atopy. Some allergen-specific skin tests were not independently associated with asthma. Clinical Implications If atopy could be prevented or reversed, or its effect on asthma blocked, then a large percentage of asthma cases in the U.S. population could be prevented. PMID:17889931

  18. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N.; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S.; Lambert, Lauren A.; Navin, Thomas R.; Castro, Kenneth G.; LoBue, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011–2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Methods Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999–2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999–2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. Results For NHANES 2011–2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011–2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4–6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999–2000 (4.3%; 3.5–5.3). In 2011–2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2–5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5–2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5–18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1–25.8) in 2011–2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in U.S.-born persons (2.8%; 2.0–3.8) was higher than for TST (1.5%; 0.9–2.6). Conclusions No statistically significant decline in the overall estimated prevalence of TST positivity was detected from 1999–2000 to 2011–2012. The prevalence of TB infection, whether measured by TST or IGRA, remains lower among persons born in the United States compared with foreign-born persons. PMID:26536035

  19. Urinary concentrations of dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L; Needham, Larry L

    2011-08-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003-2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 ?g/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 ?g/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population-children and older adults-have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  20. Establishing the level of digitization for wrist and hand radiographs for the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Ostchega, Y; Long, L R; Goh, G H; Hirsch, R; Ma, L D; Scott, W W; Johnson, W; Thoma, G R

    1998-08-01

    In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, radiographs of the hands and knees were taken of participants 60 years and older as part of the study of arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of the study was to decide the digitizing resolution to be used for these radiographs. A set of wrist and hand radiographs (N = 49) was graded by two radiologists for degree of bone erosions and served as a "gold standard." The radiographs were then digitized at three resolution levels; low-resolution 150 microns (2001 x 1634 x 12 bit matrix); intermediate-resolution 100 microns (3000 x 2400 x 12 bit matrix); and high-resolution 50 microns (4900 x 3000 x 12 bit matrix). A comparison of the digital images versus the gold standard reading was made at the three resolutions by two radiologists. Kappa statistics suggested fair (K > .4) to excellent (K > .75) agreement between the gold standard and the images at all levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient suggested high agreement between readers (ICC > .5), with minimal individual reader effect. Variance component estimates showed that the major contribution (78-83%) to scoring came from variability in the images themselves, not from the readers. The 100 microns resolution was selected over the 150 and 50 microns on the basis of practical considerations such as storage requirements, display time, and easier manipulation of the digital images by the readers. PMID:9718501

  1. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ? 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  2. Alcohol consumption and the CAGE questionnaire in Korean adults: results from the Second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Park JT; Kim BG; Jhun HJ

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults by evaluating alcohol consumption and responses to the CAGE questionnaire obtained from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The age-adjusted prevalence of males who consumed 0, 0.1-20, 20.1-40, or >40 g/day of alcohol were 28.0, 51.5, 12.5, and 8.0%, respectively; 26.9% of male drinkers were CAGE-positive (> or =2 affirmative responses to the CAGE). The age-adjusted prevalence of females who consumed 0, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, or >20 g/day of alcohol were 67.7, 26.6, 3.9, and 1.8%; 11.9% of female drinkers were CAGE-positive. The risk factors for high alcohol consumption were old age, low education level, smoking, and drinking onset at young ages in male drinkers, whereas low education level and smoking in female drinkers. The risk factors for a positive CAGE were young age, marriage, low education level, smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in male drinkers, whereas high household income, ex-smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in female drinkers. Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults are not negligible and require intervention.

  3. Alcohol consumption and the CAGE questionnaire in Korean adults: results from the Second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults by evaluating alcohol consumption and responses to the CAGE questionnaire obtained from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The age-adjusted prevalence of males who consumed 0, 0.1-20, 20.1-40, or >40 g/day of alcohol were 28.0, 51.5, 12.5, and 8.0%, respectively; 26.9% of male drinkers were CAGE-positive (> or =2 affirmative responses to the CAGE). The age-adjusted prevalence of females who consumed 0, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, or >20 g/day of alcohol were 67.7, 26.6, 3.9, and 1.8%; 11.9% of female drinkers were CAGE-positive. The risk factors for high alcohol consumption were old age, low education level, smoking, and drinking onset at young ages in male drinkers, whereas low education level and smoking in female drinkers. The risk factors for a positive CAGE were young age, marriage, low education level, smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in male drinkers, whereas high household income, ex-smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in female drinkers. Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults are not negligible and require intervention. PMID:18437000

  4. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. Conclusion The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved. PMID:26634091

  5. Association between Parity and Blood Pressure in Korean Women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Miae; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Beomseok; Kang, Jayeon; Kim, Yongchae; Cho, Sewook

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy considerably alters cardiovascular dynamics, and thereby affects the transition of blood pressure after delivery in women. We aimed to analyze the association between parity and blood pressure in Korean adult women. Methods We included 8,890 women who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. We divided the population according to the menopause status and analyzed the association between parity and blood pressure by using multiple regression analysis, and on hypertension, by using logistic regression analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with parity in premenopausal women (β=-0.091 [P<0.001] and β=-0.069 [P<0.001], respectively). In the analysis that excluded women receiving antihypertensive medication, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women were significantly associated with parity (β=-0.059 [P=0.022] and β=-0.054 [P=0.044], respectively). Parity was found to prevent hypertension after adjustment for confounders in postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.310-0.985). Conclusion We found that parity prevented hypertension in Korean women. PMID:26634103

  6. Association of prescription H1 antihistamine use with obesity: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Joseph; Barber, Jessica; Palmese, Laura; Reutenauer, Erin; Tek, Cenk

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity in the US has reached epidemic proportions. Previous research has shown several medications exert noticeable effects on body weight regulation. Histamine 1 (H1) receptor blockers commonly used to alleviate allergy symptoms are known to report weight gain as a possible side effect. Therefore, we investigated the association between prescription H1 antihistamine use and obesity in adults using data from the 20052006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Adults taking prescription H1 antihistamines were matched by age and gender with controls; and compared on the basis of body measurements, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and lipid levels. Prescription H1 antihistamine users had a significantly higher weight, waist circumference, and insulin concentration than matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) for being overweight was increased in prescription H1 antihistamine users. H1 antihistamine use may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adults given these medications are also commonly used as over the counter remedies. PMID:20706200

  7. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand and predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a biomarker that reflects disease severity is needed. Research Design and Methods Data from 10269 adults aged over 40 years of age were retrieved from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and 1302 patients met the criteria for COPD. The association between values of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and COPD severity including lung function and quality of life, were analyzed. Results In COPD patients, lung function was inversely related to PTH values (P = 0.02 for FVC [% predicted]; P < 0.001 for FEV1 [% predicted]); however, the association of lung function with vitamin D levels was not statistically significant in a multivariable analysis. Value of PTH was independently associated with EQ5D-index (P = 0.04), but vitamin D level showed no significant relationship with EQ5D-index (P = 0.59) or EQ5D-VAS (P = 0.81). Conclusions Elevation of PTH, unlike vitamin D, is independently associated with COPD severity, and may be a better biomarker for COPD. PMID:26398210

  8. Allostatic Load in Women with a History of Low Birth Weight Infants: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Catov, Janet M.; Roberts, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of our study was to determine whether women of reproductive age with history of low birth weight (LBW) deliveries have higher allostatic load (AL), a measure of the cumulative toll of chronic stress, than those with normal-weight deliveries. Methods: We used data from women ages 1735 who responded to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reproductive-health questionnaire, 19992006. Women reported history of LBW infants and those who were preterm. We classified preterm-LBW and term-LBW as surrogates for preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA), respectively. Normal weight included those without LBW infant history. We utilized nine biomarkers measured in NHANES to determine AL and used linear regression to compare unadjusted and adjusted means. Results: We identified 877 women divided among SGA (2%), PTB (10%), and normal groups (88%). The SGA group had higher unadjusted and adjusted AL scores than did the normal group (2.820.35 vs. 1.920.07, p=0.011); women in the PTB group had higher AL scores than did the referent in adjusted analyses (2.580.21 vs. 1.920.07, p=0.001). Conclusions: Women with history of SGA or PTB had higher AL than did those with normal birth weight outcomes. This suggests a link between adverse pregnancy outcomes, chronic stress, and subclinical disease. PMID:25495368

  9. High Urinary Tungsten Concentration Is Associated with Stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 19992010

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Galloway, Tamara S.; Abo-Zaid, Ghada; Melzer, David; Depledge, Michael H.; Osborne, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an exponential increase in tungsten demand, potentially increasing human exposure to the metal. Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the association between tungsten and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke using six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of 8614 adults (1874 years) with 193 reported stroke diagnoses and 428 reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals (1850 years). Results Elevated tungsten concentrations were strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of stroke, independent of typical risk factors (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.17, 2.34). The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.53). Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the human health effects of tungsten to date. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress. PMID:24244278

  10. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living: Analysis of the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Method We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years (N = 5,017). Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]). In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (? = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]). This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (? = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36]) and hypertension (? = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18]) on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities. PMID:26753170

  11. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  12. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ji-Sun; Jung, Su-Kyung; Han, Kyung-Do; Kim, Sang-Duck; Park, Yong-Moon; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population. Methods We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women) aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF), according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis. Results The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05). As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women); the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders); the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ?0.001 for both genders). Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.32-3.47); and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97) and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease. Conclusions The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population. PMID:26162079

  13. The Association between Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jeong Ah; Han, Jae-Hyung; Park, Yong-Moon; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in a representative population of Korean diabetic adults. Methods We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). A total of 15,409 individuals (weighted frequency, 32,168,636) aged 19 and over who completed ophthalmologic and renal functional examinations were evaluated. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria greater than 1+. Seven standard photographs from the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study were obtained from each eye after pharmacological pupil dilatation. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was defined as the presence of 1 or more retinal microaneurysms or retinal blot hemorrhages with or without more severe lesions. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) was defined as the presence of a clinically significant macular edema (CSME) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Results CKD was significantly associated with DR and VTDR (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI); 2.49(1.43-4.35) and 3.74(1.56-8.95), respectively) in the diabetic population. After controlling for confounders, however, CKD was significantly associated only with DR [adjusted OR (aOR), 95% CI; 2.34(1.04-5.28)]. In the subgroup analysis for CKD, only proteinuria was significantly associated with DR and VTDR (aOR, 95% CI; 4.56(1.51-13.77) and 5.61(1.06-29.87), respectively) in this population. Conclusions Our results show that CKD appears to be associated with DR and VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. In particular, proteinuria, not decreased eGFR, is more significantly associated with DR or VTDR. PMID:25849364

  14. Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 20082010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the socio-demographic and health-related risk factors associated with cataract subtypes in Korea. Methods A total of 11,591 participants (aged ?40years) were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2010. The Korean Ophthalmologic Society conducted detailed ophthalmologic examinations on these participants based on the Lens Opacity Classification System III. Risk factors for developing any type of cataract, and its subtypes (nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular and mixed), were identified from univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of cataracts was 40.1% (95% CI, 37.8???42.3%) in participants over 40 years old. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) were independent risk factors for development of any cataract. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure cortical cataracts. Older age, lower education, metabolic syndrome, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure nuclear cataracts. Older age and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure posterior subcapsular cataracts. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, and DM were independent risk factors for development of mixed cataracts. Conclusion Although socioeconomic disparities are related to cataract development, this study identified several modifiable risk factors that may help to lower the incidence of cataracts and associated vision loss. Improved control of blood pressure, blood, glucose, and cholesterol may help to reduce the incidence of cataracts in the general Korean population. PMID:24410920

  15. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

  16. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

  17. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Han, Kyungdo; Song, Jae Jun; Im, Gi Jung; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA) of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM), expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR) for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92–2.68) in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03–3.08) in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females. PMID:26978776

  18. Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20072010

    PubMed Central

    Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 20072010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation 1.71 (95% CI, 1.312.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.112.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.273.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19881994

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (2059 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (19881994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

  20. Gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lee K

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns (average drinking frequency, typical drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in the Korean population.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses.SETTING: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, which was conducted in 2008.SUBJECTS: Current drinkers (n 3793, 1963 men and 1830 women).RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders (age, educational level, income, physical activity, smoking, energy intake and drinking frequency in the analysis for drinking quantity), the associations of drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking with the prevalence of MetS were gender-specific. Seven or more drinks for men and ? 3 drinks for women per typical occasion and binge drinking ? 1 time/week for both sexes resulted in significantly higher odds for the prevalence of MetS compared with men and women who had 1 or 2 drinks and no instances of binge drinking. The association of drinking quantity and the criteria of MetS was stronger for men with high blood pressure and abdominal obesity, whereas it was stronger for women with high glucose. Binge drinking frequency was dose-dependently associated with high TAG, high glucose, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity in men, and with high glucose and high blood pressure in women. Interestingly, average drinking frequency was not associated with the prevalence of MetS in either sex.CONCLUSIONS: Higher drinking quantity and frequent binge drinking are indicators of a higher prevalence of MetS, and the association strength is thought to be gender-specific.

  1. A Sustained Decline in Postmenopausal Hormone Use: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19992010

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Short-term declines in postmenopausal hormone use were observed following the Womens Health Initiative trial results in 2002. While concerns about the trials generalizability have been expressed, long-term trends in hormone use in a nationally representative sample have not been reported. We sought to evaluate national trends in the prevalence of hormone use, and assess variation by type of formulation and patient characteristics. Methods We examined postmenopausal hormone use during 19992010 using cross-sectional data on 10,107 women aged 40 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In 19992000, the prevalence of oral postmenopausal hormone use was 22.4% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.8) overall, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.2, 19.3) for estrogen only, and 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.8) for estrogen plus progestin. A sharp decline in use of all formulations occurred in 20032004, when the overall prevalence dropped to 11.9% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.2). This decline was initially limited to non-Hispanic whites; use among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics did not decline substantially until 20052006. Hormone use continued to decline through 20092010 across all patient demographic groups, with the current prevalence now at 4.7% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.1) overall, 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1, 3.7) for estrogen only, and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) for estrogen plus progestin. Patient characteristics currently associated with hormone use include history of hysterectomy, non-Hispanic white race or ethnicity, and income. Conclusions Postmenopausal hormone use in the United States has declined in a sustained fashion to very low levels across a wide variety of patient subgroups. PMID:22914469

  2. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14–30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71–36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66–39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85–45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95–27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13–41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24–41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77–38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society. PMID:26933654

  3. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWGS recommended cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean women. Results The prevalence rates of sarcopenia using a cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 were 385 (19.5%) in women in their 50s, 286 (16.6%) in women in their 60s, 293 (23.7%) in women in their 70s, and 91 (30.8%) in women ≥80 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 307 (19.0%) in women 65 to 74 years, 194 (27.4%) in women 75 to 84 years, and 32 (40.5%) in women ≥85 years. The overall prevalence among women >50 years was 20.2%. The prevalence of sarcopenia in women >65 years was 22.1%. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women was within the range of values of previous research about sarcopenia. Furthermore, using 5.4 kg/m2 as the cutoff value was useful to compare various studies about sarcopenia in Koreans. PMID:26981517

  4. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-03-01

    We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95 % CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95 % CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95 % CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption. PMID:26759221

  5. Milk Consumption and Framingham Risk Score: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data (2008-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Sung-Jin; Song, Byeng Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The benefit of milk intake remains controversial. The association between milk consumption and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in a population consuming relatively low amounts of dairy products is undetermined. Materials and Methods A total of 13736 adults (5718 male and 8018 female) aged 20-80 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to milk consumption (rarely, monthly, weekly, and daily) and compared according to FRS after relevant variable adjustments. Results The mean FRS in males and females were 6.53 and 5.74, respectively. Males who consumed milk daily (15.9%) had a significantly lower FRS than males having milk rarely (31.6%) or monthly (17.4%; p=0.007). Females who consumed milk daily (22.3%) also had significantly lower FRS than rarely (29.8%), monthly (13.8%), or weekly (34%; p=0.001) consumers. In particular, males ≥60 years old who consumed milk daily had a significantly lower FRS than males who consumed less milk (p<0.001). The odds ratio in this age group showed a significant and gradual increase in the weekly [OR=2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-4.03], monthly (OR=2.29; 95% CI 1.15-4.54), and rarely (OR=3.79; 95% CI 2.01-7.14) milk consumption groups when compared with the daily milk consumption group. Conclusion Milk consumption was associated with a lower FRS in a low milk-consuming population. In particular, daily milk consumption in males over 60 years old may be beneficial for those at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26632401

  6. Urinary phthalate metabolites and depression in an elderly population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-02-01

    Previous animal studies have demonstrated that phthalate exposure is associated with depression-like behaviors. However, no human study has explored this relationship. We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and depression in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. We analyzed 2030 participants aged 60 years or older with available data on phthalates and depression from the 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We selected 10 urinary phthalate metabolites with a weighted detection rate >60%. Depression was defined as a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10. The models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, income-to-poverty ratio, health insurance coverage, marital status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, moderate physical activity, body mass index, comorbidity status, NHANEs cycle, and urinary creatinine levels. One-unit increases in log-transformed mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) (odds ratio [OR]=1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-1.52) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP) (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.15-1.75) were positively associated with depression. When we stratified the urinary phthalate metabolites into quartiles, the highest quartiles (Q4) of MCNP (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.25-5.27) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.10-5.22) were associated with depression compared with the lowest quartiles (Q1). Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites MCPP, MCNP, and MBP were positively associated with the risk of depression in a representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. However, the present cross-sectional study is hypothesis generating and the associations need to be investigated through further longitudinal studies. PMID:26624239

  7. P wave duration is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality outcomes: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Gorodeski, Eiran Z.; Johnson, Victor M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    Background P wave indices are an intermediate phenotype modulated by atrial conduction and electrophysiology. Their clinical correlates and association with all-cause mortality have received limited scrutiny. Objective To determine the relationship between P wave indices and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a highly representative United States sample. Methods NHANES III (1988 1994) quantified PR interval and P wave duration and amplitude. Mortality data through 2006 were obtained from National Death Index (NDI) records. Results Of 8,561 subjects with electrocardiograms (ECGs), 7,486 (mean age 60.0 13.3 years., 51.9% women, 50.1% ethnic minorities) had ECGs in sinus rhythm, linked mortality data, and complete assessments. Over a median 8.6-year follow-up (range 0.112.2 years), there were 679 cardiovascular deaths and 1,559 all-cause mortality deaths. Older age, male sex, and higher body mass index were significantly associated with greater PR interval and P wave duration and with lower P wave amplitude. African Americans had higher mean values of all three P wave indices. In a multivariable model adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, P wave duration was the only P wave index significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, per 1 standard deviation [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 1.23; P = .004) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.06 per 1 SD; 95% CI 1.00 1.13; P = .050). Conclusions In a highly representative U.S. sample, P wave duration was significantly associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. P wave duration may reflect subclinical disease and merits elucidation as a marker of risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:20868770

  8. Depressive Symptom Frequency and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases-Analysis of Patients in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Although depression has been reported to be associated with various cardiovascular risk factors, whether an association exists between depression and prevalence of cardiovascular events is not well known. In particular, the effect of symptom frequency and cardiovascular events has not been described. Data were collected for patients older than 45 years from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to study whether an association exists between depression and prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and stroke. The NHANES database is a nationally representative probability sample of noninstitutionalized US civilians. We divided patients feeling down/depressed/hopeless into 1 of the 2 categories: symptoms less than half the days of the week and those with less frequent symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for other covariates. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. More than 2700 patients were studied to analyze the association between severity of depression and prevalence of CAD, MI, CHF, and stroke. Significant associations were noted between depressive symptoms and prevalence of CAD, MI, CHF, and stroke. Those who reported being depressed more than half of the days of the week had 1.95 times greater odds of CAD [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2473-3.0523], 2.54 times greater odds of CHF (95% CI, 1.6114-4.0126), 2.65 times greater odds of MI (95% CI, 1.7789-3.9521), and 1.91 greater odds of stroke (95% CI, 1.2002-3.0356) when compared with those who reported being depressed less than half of the days of the week. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of CAD, MI, CHF, and stroke are significantly increased in individuals who report feeling down/depressed/hopeless for more than half the days of the week. PMID:25658955

  9. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

  10. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  11. Association between HSV1 Seropositivity and Obesity: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 20072008

    PubMed Central

    Karjala, Zuzana; Neal, Diane; Rohrer, James

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the United States and worldwide. HSV has a high incidence of undetected cases. In addition, there is no treatment, and there is a lack of knowledge why disparities among populations exist. Research studies suggest that fat tissue may participate in body's immune responses, and the impact of obesity on susceptibility to HSV1 infection is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether obesity is a risk factor for HSV1 infection using a large sample from the general population. Methods/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Examination and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) from 20072008. Variables, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, poverty level, and diabetes represented potential confounders and were included in analyses. The two-tailed Pearson's chi square, student's t test, and a multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate associations using a significance value of p?0.05. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval represented the degree of these associations. The prevalence of HSV1 infection in US population between 20 and 49 years old was 60.3% (n?=?1,536). In this study, having a BMI classified as the obese group (BMI 3039.9) was significantly associated with HSV1 infection before [unadjusted OR?=?1.74 (95% CI 1.202.51), p?=?0.006] and after controlling for socio-demographic factors [adjusted OR?=?1.50 (95%CI 1.062.13)], p?=?0.026]. This association was stronger than three already established risk factors of age, female gender, and poverty level. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that obesity may play a role in the susceptibility to HSV1 infection. Findings from this study suggest that obesity should be considered when designing preventive measures for HSV1 infection. These results may also explain why some people acquire HSV1 infections and some do not. Further, these findings may justify an increased emphasis on the control and prevention of HSV1 transmission and other pathogens in overweight and obese populations. PMID:21589933

  12. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20102012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Students t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and environmental factors. Further research on its relationships and the pathogenesis are needed. PMID:25978376

  14. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. PMID:22171961

  15. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity alone. PMID:26866948

  16. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kang, Jun-Myung; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1) WC ?90 cm in men and ?80 cm in women; (2) fasting blood sugar ? 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3) fasting triglyceride ? 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4) HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5) SBP ? 130 mmHg and/or DBP ? 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 3.4% vs. 34.7 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 2.8% vs. 37.8 0.8%, p = 0.0026). However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.820) only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women. PMID:26859830

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Morgan, Ian G.; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Kang, Seungbum; Jee, Donghyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. Methods A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 20082011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. Results Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.448.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.74.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.624.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.480.4) in 2029 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.917.3) in 6069 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.972.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.760.93, p = 0.002). Conclusions This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures. PMID:24224049

  18. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kang, Jun-Myung; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010). A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1) WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women; (2) fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3) fasting triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4) HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5) SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 ± 3.4% vs. 34.7 ± 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 ± 2.8% vs. 37.8 ± 0.8%, p = 0.0026). However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005–1.820) only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women. PMID:26859830

  19. Age-Related Association of Refractive Error with Intraocular Pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. Methods A total of 7,277 adults (≥19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19–39 years), middle- (40–59 years), and old- (≥60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. Results The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0±0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9±0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1±0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8±0.2 mmHg (P for trend = 0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P<0.05). In the young- and middle-age groups, higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all P<0.05). In the old-age group, the association between IOP and refractive error was not significant (P = 0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta = −0.08 and −0.12; P = 0.002 and <0.001 for young- and middle-age group, respectively), but not in the old-age group (beta = 0.03; P = 0.728), after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, region of habitation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Myopic refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age. PMID:25369147

  20. Risk Factors for Pterygium in Korea: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, 20102012

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Chuck, Roy S.; Lee, Jimmy K.; Park, Choul Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to report general and age-specific risk factors for pterygium prevalence in the Korean population. This in an observational case series study. Data from total 24,812 participants (age 40 years or older) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2010 to 2012 were retrieved. After applying exclusion criteria, data from 13,204 participants (821 with pterygium and 12,383 without) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. General risk factors were identified and participants were grouped by decade: 40?s, 50?s, 60?s, 70?s, and 80+. Age-specific risk factors were investigated for each group. After univariate analysis, 2 multiple regression models were constructed. Model 1: age?+?sex?+?spherical equivalent (SE)?+?sun exposure hours?+?occupation (indoor vs outdoor)?+?residency area (rural vs urban)?+?education level; model 2: age?+?sex?+?SE?+?sun exposure hours. In model 1, older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.051.06), male gender (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.011.61), and longer sun exposure hours (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.111.94) were significant risk factors for pterygium prevalence whereas higher level of education (elementary school vs college, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.247.06) and urban residency (vs rural residency, OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.450.70) were protective factors. Higher SE (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.031.19) refractive error was considered a risk factor when using model 2 for the analysis. Age-specific risk factors were different in each age group. Male gender was associated with higher pterygium prevalence in younger age groups while longer sun exposure (5+ hours/day) increased pterygium prevalence in older age groups. Previously characterized risk factors were also found in this large population study. However, we found that risk factors may vary according to the age group. Myopic eyes were found to have lower prevalence than hyperopic eyes. PMID:26266358

  1. Risk Factors for Pterygium in Korea: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Chuck, Roy S; Lee, Jimmy K; Park, Choul Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report general and age-specific risk factors for pterygium prevalence in the Korean population.This in an observational case series study.Data from total 24,812 participants (age 40 years or older) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2010 to 2012 were retrieved. After applying exclusion criteria, data from 13,204 participants (821 with pterygium and 12,383 without) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. General risk factors were identified and participants were grouped by decade: 40?s, 50?s, 60?s, 70?s, and 80+. Age-specific risk factors were investigated for each group.After univariate analysis, 2 multiple regression models were constructed. Model 1: age?+?sex?+?spherical equivalent (SE)?+?sun exposure hours?+?occupation (indoor vs outdoor)?+?residency area (rural vs urban)?+?education level; model 2: age?+?sex?+?SE?+?sun exposure hours. In model 1, older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.06), male gender (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.61), and longer sun exposure hours (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.11-1.94) were significant risk factors for pterygium prevalence whereas higher level of education (elementary school vs college, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.24-7.06) and urban residency (vs rural residency, OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.45-0.70) were protective factors. Higher SE (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19) refractive error was considered a risk factor when using model 2 for the analysis. Age-specific risk factors were different in each age group. Male gender was associated with higher pterygium prevalence in younger age groups while longer sun exposure (5+ hours/day) increased pterygium prevalence in older age groups.Previously characterized risk factors were also found in this large population study. However, we found that risk factors may vary according to the age group. Myopic eyes were found to have lower prevalence than hyperopic eyes. PMID:26266358

  2. The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioeconomic status as an independent variable, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios reflecting the likelihood of injury according to socioeconomic status while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In 797 subjects who had injury experience over the past 1year, 290 persons (36.4%) had a work-related injury. As their income, home value, and educational status increased, their injury experiences decreased. Among occupational groups, the craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers showed the highest rate (10.6%) of injury experience, and the lowest rate (5.7%) was found in the unemployed group. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the experience of injury was significantly related to several socioeconomic factors: high income (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86), high home value (OR?=?0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96), low education status (OR?=?1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and specific occupations such as craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling work (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI: 1.60-2.47), skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery work (OR?=?1.43; 95% CI: 1.02-2.01), and simple labor (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82). Conclusions The injury experience rate differed depending on the socioeconomic status. A negative correlation was found between the injury experience rate and income, low home value, and education level. Moreover, a higher rate of injury experience was found in occupation groups and physical worker groups in comparison to the unemployed group and white-collar worker groups. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for injury management in Korea. PMID:24472308

  3. Comorbidities in obstructive lung disease in Korea: data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Leem, Ah Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Ju Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Comorbidities can occur frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can influence mortality and morbidity independently. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with COPD have comorbidities that have a major impact on their quality of life and survival. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of comorbidities in Korean COPD populations. Methods We used data obtained in the 6 years of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V. Among 50,405 subjects, 16,151 subjects aged ?40 years who performed spirometry adequately were included in this study. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7, and the Global Initiative For Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage was used to evaluate the severity of airway obstruction. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Results Among the 16,151 subjects (43.2% male, 56.8% female; mean age: 57.1 years for men and 57.2 years for women), 13.1% had obstructive lung function; 11.3%, restrictive lung function; and 75.6%, normal lung function. Among individuals with obstructive lung function, 45.3%, 49.4%, and 5.3% had mild, moderate, and severe and very severe airflow limitation. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), underweight, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the obstructive lung function group than in the normal lung function group (49.6% vs 35.2%; 16.8% vs 10.5%; 3.3% vs 1.3%; 19.7% vs 17.0%). According to the severity of airway obstruction, hypertension and underweight were more common as severity increased, although the prevalence of DM and hypertriglyceridemia was lower in subjects with severe airway obstruction. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, overweight, and osteoarthritis was lower in the obstructive lung function group, especially in the severe airway obstruction groups. Conclusions Overall, our analysis is similar to research that was conducted earlier. Our study showed that hypertension and underweight are common comorbidities in COPD patients, and are higher as the severity of airflow obstruction increased in both men and women. DM, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are more common in subjects with airway obstruction, although their incidence is lower in the severe group. PMID:26300636

  4. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m(2), women <0.512 kg/m(2)). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ?25%, women ?35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m(2) in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations. PMID:26472145

  5. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Children 1 to 5 Years of Age in the United States from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Dollard, Sheila C.

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence among U.S. children 1 to 5 years old was assessed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012. The overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) of IgG was 20.7% (14.4 to 28.2%), that of IgM was 1.1% (0.4 to 2.4%), and that of low IgG avidity was 3.6% (1.7 to 6.6%), corresponding to a 17.3% (10.1 to 26.7%) prevalence of recent infection among IgG-positive children. PMID:25520150

  6. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook

    2015-08-01

    Based on data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2-18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C) was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001), and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:26247964

  7. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C) was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001), and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:26247964

  8. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance-specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex." PMID:25975212

  9. Effects of exercise on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on glycemic control using data from fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to provide appropriate exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] We selected 1,328 patients from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database who had type 2 diabetes and ranged in age from 30 to 90 years. Statistical analyses included χ2 tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. [Results] Factors found to be significantly related to glycemic control included income level, physical activity based on intensity of aerobic exercise, use of diabetes medicine, presence of hypertension, duration of diabetes, and waist circumference. In addition, engaging in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise when adjusted for resistance exercise was found to lower the risk of glycemic control failure. [Conclusion] Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea should engage in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise such as walking for 30 minutes or more five times a week. Physical activity is likely to improve glycemic control and thus prevent the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26696738

  10. Effects of exercise on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on glycemic control using data from fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to provide appropriate exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] We selected 1,328 patients from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database who had type 2 diabetes and ranged in age from 30 to 90?years. Statistical analyses included ?(2) tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. [Results] Factors found to be significantly related to glycemic control included income level, physical activity based on intensity of aerobic exercise, use of diabetes medicine, presence of hypertension, duration of diabetes, and waist circumference. In addition, engaging in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise when adjusted for resistance exercise was found to lower the risk of glycemic control failure. [Conclusion] Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea should engage in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise such as walking for 30 minutes or more five times a week. Physical activity is likely to improve glycemic control and thus prevent the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26696738

  11. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers. PMID:26287236

  12. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Campbell, Karen J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers. PMID:26287236

  13. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C) PMID:26566308

  14. Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. However, few studies have attempted to examine the vitamin D status of wage workers and the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the association between occupational conditions and vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers. Methods Wage workers aged 20–65 years from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012; n = 5409) were included in our analysis. We measured the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identified the correlations with the working conditions of these subjects. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in male and female subjects was 69.5% and 83.1%, respectively. Among the male subjects, a significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions was observed among shift workers, office workers, and permanent workers. No significant correlation with any type of working conditions was observed among female subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers was very high and was found to correlate significantly with working conditions, likely because of insufficient exposure to sunlight associated with certain types of work. Wage workers require more frequent outdoor activity and nutrition management to maintain sufficient vitamin D level. PMID:25852939

  15. Prevalence of dermatologic disease in the United States: a review of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M L; Roberts, J

    1985-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974, provides the only data on the prevalence of dermatologic disease in the United States. Details are given about specific diagnoses, disability, disfigurement, discomfort, and the relationship of skin change to environmental and occupational exposure. One-third of the individuals, which extrapolates to 60 million Americans, had dermatological problems that should have been seen at least once by a physician. Of those, at least a third considered their skin problems to be a handicap, 10% a handicap to employment or housework. These data provide a basis for evaluating the effect of environment and occupation and should be of interest to those concerned with chronic effects of mechanical injury to the skin. PMID:4073044

  16. Awareness of Federal Dietary Guidance in persons aged 16 years and older: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2011-02-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 included questions on awareness of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the Food Guide Pyramid, and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program. Prevalence of awareness of federal dietary guidance was estimated and differences were tested across demographic traits, health characteristics, and diet-related attitudes and behavior. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a nationally representative cross-sectional sample design. The analytic sample consisted of 5,499 persons aged 16 years and older with complete data. Among persons aged 16 years and older, 83.8% had heard of at least one of the initiatives: 49.2% had heard of the DGA, 80.6% had heard of the Food Guide Pyramid, and 51.2% had heard of the 5 A Day program. There was a linear trend of decreasing awareness of at least one of the guidance efforts with increasing age. Differences by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income were also observed. Differences by body mass index were not statistically significant; however, significant differences were seen with fatalistic beliefs about body weight. Differences by smoking, self-assessed diet quality, and eating out frequency were not statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. These results may be useful in promotion of the upcoming edition of the DGA and to suggest population groups that may benefit from strengthened and more innovative education efforts at the public health program level and at the clinic level. PMID:21272706

  17. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). Participants 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. Results The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) g/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1?h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) g/L, and for those exposed for more than 1?h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) g/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1?h and more exposed group, and the 1?h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50?g/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. Conclusions This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. PMID:26185180

  18. Effects of Diet Modification on Meal Quality and Quality of Life in Korean Diabetic Patients: Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that diet modification provides beneficial effects on the management of diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diet modification on nutrient intake and quality of life in a large sample of diabetic patients. This study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). A total of 2,484 of diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Then, we compared the overall quality of dietary intake between diabetic patients with diet modification and those without dietary modification. The result showed that subjects on diabetic diet (DDG) showed lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST before and after the adjustment for covariates (all p < 0.05). The results of nutrient assessment showed that DDG had lower intakes of total energy, fat, and carbohydrate (all p < 0.05), but higher intakes of energy from protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin and vitamin C than NDG. (all p < 0.05). In addition, nutritional adequacy ratio of calcium and vitamin B2 were significantly higher in DDG than those in normal diet group (NDG) (p < 0.05). However, we observed no significant differences in quality of life between two groups. In conclusion, diet modification in diabetic patients seemed to be effective to improve blood lipid profile and the adequacy of nutrient intake without sacrificing the quality of life. PMID:25136538

  19. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

  20. Comparison of Calcium Intake Status by Region and Socioeconomic Status in Korea: The 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential element nutrient in our body, and insufficient calcium intake is very common in Korean. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with quality of diet and health. The purpose of this study was to compare between calcium intake by region and SES. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=19,249) from 2011 to 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into six regions: Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Chungcheong-do, Jeolla-do, Gyeongsang-do, and Jeju-do. Daily calcium intake and dietary quality based on 24 hr recall data was calculated and analyzed by the sex, age, SES. Results The regions with the highest calcium intakes in both males and females were Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The age groups with a significant difference in calcium intake, nutrient adequacy ratio, and nutrient density by region were 14 to 19, 20 to 29, and ?65 years. Calcium intake and dietary quality were lowest in the low household income group. In terms of being a recipient of the dietary life supply, the calcium intake and dietary quality of the recipient group was low. Conclusions We found that daily calcium intake was very different by region and was significantly lower in region with lower SES. The findings of this study suggest social inequalities in calcium intake by region can be addressed in the development and implementation of tailored nutritional interventions to promote calcium nutritional status of Koreans. PMID:26389087

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  2. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  3. Rationale, design and respondent characteristics of the 2013–2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES 2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Lorna E.; Greene, Carolyn; Freeman, Amy; Snell, Elisabeth; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica S.; Frankel, Martin; Punsalang, Amado; Chernov, Claudia; Lurie, Elizabeth; Friedman, Mark; Koppaka, Ram; Perlman, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Capacity to monitor non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at state or local levels is limited. Emerging approaches include using biomeasures and electronic health record (EHR) data. In 2004, New York City (NYC) performed a population-based health study on adult residents using biomeasures (NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Study, or NYC HANES), modeled after NHANES. A second NYC HANES was launched in 2013 to examine change over time, evaluate municipal policies, and validate a proposed EHR-based surveillance system. We describe the rationale and methods of NYC HANES 2013–2014. Methods NYC HANES was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of NYC adults using three-stage cluster sampling. Between August 2013 and June 2014, selected participants completed a health interview and physical exam (blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference). Fasting biomeasures included diabetes, lipid profiles, kidney function, environmental biomarkers, and select infectious diseases. Results Of the 3065 households approached, 2742 were eligible and 1827 were successfully screened (67%). A total of 1524 of eligible participants completed the survey (54%), for an overall response rate of 36%. Conclusion Completing a second NYC HANES a decade after the first study affords an opportunity to understand changes in prevalence, awareness and control of NCDs and evaluate municipal efforts to manage them. PMID:26844121

  4. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  5. Soda and Cell Aging: Associations Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations between the consumption of SSBs, diet soda, and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. The study population included 5309 US adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (b = –0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.020, −0.001; P = .04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (b = 0.016; 95% CI = −0.000, 0.033; P = .05). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or noncarbonated SSBs and telomere length. Conclusions. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

  6. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. Methods We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. Results About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  8. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen’s behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to geographic location. Specifically, associations between 3 dimensions of QOL (health-related QOL [HQOL], social functioning, and emotional well-being) and needs and health behaviors were examined. Methods The 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey was linked with the 2007 Area Resources File via the National Center for Health Statistics’ remote access system. Frequencies and distribution patterns were assessed according to rural, adjacent, and urban locations. Findings Older adults reported high levels of QOL; however, rural older adults had lower social functioning than their urban counterparts. Older blacks and Hispanics had lower scores than whites on 2 dimensions of QOL. Associations between QOL and needs and health behaviors varied. Although activities of daily living were associated with all 3 dimensions, others were associated with 1 or 2 dimensions. Conclusions The lower scores on social functioning in rural areas suggest that rural older adults may be socially isolated. Older rural adults may need interventions to maintain physical and mental health, strengthen social relationships and support, and increase their participation in the community to promote QOL. In addition, older blacks and Hispanics seem more vulnerable than whites and may need more assistance. PMID:23083080

  9. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. PMID:26826428

  10. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  11. Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9 g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9 g), and ≥3 servings (≥120 g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40 g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

  12. Trends in Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Blood Lead Levels Among Youths and Adults in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19992008

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Kaufmann, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation. Results Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking. Conclusion Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general. PMID:24355106

  13. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  14. Plasma Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in the United States population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No large-scale, population-based study has considered the descriptive epidemiology of vitamin B6 status using the biological marker, plasma pyridoxal 5 - phosphate (PLP). Consequently, how vitamin B6 status varies with basic demographic and lifestyle factors is unclear. We sought to examine the epi...

  15. Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. PMID:24304610

  16. Factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services by women aged ? 40 years in Korea: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, until recently most women have not undergone regular mammogram examinations in Korea. We aimed to identify factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services. Methods The Health Promotion Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey (HP-KAP survey) is part of the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III), a nationwide health survey in Korea. Of 7,802 individuals who participated in the HP-KAP survey, 4,292 were female. Of these, 2,583 were women aged at least 40 years and without a history of breast cancer; these women were included in this study. Information about breast cancer screening participation was obtained from the responses to questionnaires. The overall rate of regular breast cancer screening was measured. Factors that affect participation in a breast cancer screening program were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Among women aged at least 40 years, 30.4% complied with breast screening recommendations. Age of at least 65 years (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88), education level (no [ref], elementary school [aOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-1.47], middle/high school [aOR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36-2.92], university/higher [aOR 2.73, 95% CI: 1.71-4.35]), private health insurance (aOR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.71-4.35), attitude towards screening tests (aOR 0.18, 95% CI: 0.14-0.23), self-reported health status of 'fair' (aOR 1.26 95% CI: 1.00-1.58), and smoking (aOR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79) were associated with the rate of regular breast cancer screening Conclusions To increase the nationwide breast cancer screening rate, more attention should be given to underrepresented groups, particularly the elderly, those with a low education level, smokers, and those with a negative attitude towards screening tests. These issues highlight the need for a new emphasis in health education, promotional campaigns and public health policy aimed at these underrepresented groups. PMID:20398358

  17. Improved diet quality and increased nutrient intakes associated with grape product consumption by U.S. children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Keast, Debra R; Painter, James E; Romano, Courtney S; Wightman, JoLynne D

    2013-06-01

    Fruit contributes to dietary nutrient density and consumption of fruit in several forms (whole, dried, or 100% juice) has been reported to be associated with a healthier dietary pattern. The goal of this study was to examine the associations of the consumption of grapes (including fresh grapes, raisins, and 100% grape juice) with diet quality and food group/nutrient intake. A secondary analysis of Natl. Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003 to 2008 data was conducted to compare grape consumers (GC) with nongrape consumers (NGC) among children aged 2 to 19 y (n = 9622) and adults 20+ y (n = 12251). GC were defined as those who mentioned the consumption of fresh grapes, raisins, or 100% grape juice during 1 or both 24-h recall interviews. Compared to NGC, GC had higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores and higher intakes of total and whole fruit along with lower intakes of solid fat, added sugars, and calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). Among adults, GC also had higher intakes than NGC of total and dark green/orange vegetables. Among both age groups, GC had higher intake than NGC of several key nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Consumption of grape products is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and higher intake of key nutrients by both children and adults. PMID:23789930

  18. The association between the socioeconomic status and thyroid cancer prevalence; based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Woo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Han, Mi-ah; Park, Jong

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has recently increased in most industrialized countries, including Korea. To date, few studies have examined the association between thyroid cancer and socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was based on data collected from a total of 12,276 subjects (5,277 men and 6,999 women) by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (odds ration [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.05), being female (OR, 8.16; 95%CI, 2.99-22.24), being overweight (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.01-1.06), monthly household income (OR, 3.27; 95%CI, 1.16-9.20 for medium-highest household income vs lowest household income; OR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.16-9.34 for highest household income vs lowest household income), educational level (OR, 2.74; 95%CI, 1.16-6.46 for 10-12 yr vs < 7 yr) and alcohol consumption (OR, 1.89; 95%CI 1.08-3.32) were significant risk factors for thyroid cancer. Our results indicate that the recent increase in thyroid cancer is attributable to better early detection rather than to any increase in actual prevalence. PMID:24339702

  19. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Cancer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Yang-Hyun; KIM, Kyunghee; Han, Kyung-do; KIM, Ji-su

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and differences in screening rates by gender. Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined. Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78), one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71), and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94) had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203) after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs. PMID:26587491

  20. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20072009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  1. Does smoking initiation in adolescence increase risk for depression across the lifespan? Evidence from the South korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Romer, Daniel; Lim, Sungwon

    2013-01-01

    The association between smoking and depression has been well stated in the literature. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. Recent research using an animal model suggests that even low-level nicotine exposure during adolescence has long-lasting effects on the development of depression. This study aims to examine the association between smoking initiation and depression analyzing secondary data. A sample that is representative of the South Korean adult population was selected from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2007 to 2009 (N = 18,406). Regardless of life stage of smoking initiation, smokers had greater risk for depression in adulthood than nonsmokers after adjusting for demographics and other depression-related covariates. The results indicate that, with regard to risk for depression, it is important to prevent smoking initiation at any life stage. Successful implementation of smoking prevention strategies should lead to enhanced mental (i.e., reduced risk for depression) as well as physical health of adults in the long run. PMID:24621543

  2. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  3. Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Seven Other Phenols in Pooled Sera from 311 Year Old Children: 20012002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Wong, Lee-Yang; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns exist regarding childrens exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and other phenols because of the higher sensitivity, compared to adults, of childrens developing organs to endocrine disruptors. Several studies reported the urinary concentrations of these phenols in children, but data on levels of these compounds in childrens serum are limited. We present here the total (free plus conjugated) and free concentrations of BPA and seven other phenols in 24 pooled serum samples prepared from individual specimens collected from 936 children 311 years old who participated in the 20012002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We detected benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5- dichlorophenol, and three parabens in at least 60% of the pools suggesting childrens exposure to these compounds or their precursors. Conjugated phenols were the major species. However, although many previous studies have shown widespread detection of BPA in childrens urine, we only detected total or free BPA in 3 and 2 pooled serum samples, respectively, at concentrations of 0.10.2 g/L. The non-persistent nature of BPA and the phenols examined and the likely episodic nature of the exposures to these compounds (or their precursors) suggest that for general population biomonitoring of these non-persistent phenols, urine, not serum or plasma, is the preferred matrix. PMID:23102149

  4. Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in the United States: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19881994

    PubMed Central

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Purcell, Robert H.; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Engle, Ronald E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent and causes disease worldwide, but its epidemiological profile is only partially understood. Methods We used an enzyme immunoassay to measure anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies in 18,695 serum samples collected in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated estimates of HEV seroprevalence and examined associations with putative risk factors. Results The seroprevalence of HEV in the civilian noninstitutionalized United States (US) population during the period from 1988 through 1994 was 21.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.0%22.9%). Among US-born individuals, males, non-Hispanic whites, and individuals residing in the Midwest and/or in metropolitan areas had the highest seroprevalence estimates. Having a pet in the home (odds ratio [OR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.011.40]) and consuming liver or other organ meats more than once per month (OR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.011.88]) were significantly associated with increased odds of HEV seropositivity. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in the US population, although hepatitis E is rarely reported. Having pets and consuming organ meats may play a role in HEV transmission in the United States, but other mechanisms of transmission may also exist. HEV may be considered a possible etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in US patients reporting no travel history. PMID:19473098

  5. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20082010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  6. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Marilyn; Breslow, Rosalind A; DeVellis, Robert F; Ziegler, Regina G

    2004-01-01

    Ecological studies implicate a "Western" diet in prostate cancer development, but whether dietary patterns measured in individuals are associated with risk has not been studied previously. We examined this issue using prospective data from the nationally representative United States Health Examination Epidemiological Follow-up Study. Among 3,779 men followed from 1982-84 to 1992, 136 incident cases were identified. Using principal component analysis on responses to a 105-item dietary questionnaire, the following three distinct patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit pattern; a red meat-starch pattern characterized by red meats, potatoes, cheese, salty snacks, and desserts; and a Southern pattern characterized by such foods as cornbread, grits, sweet potatoes, okra, beans, and rice. In adjusted proportional hazards models, prostate cancer risk was not associated with the vegetable-fruit or red meat-starch pattern, but higher intake of the Southern pattern showed a reduction in risk (3rd versus 1st tertile relative risk, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.1; trend P = 0.08) that approached statistical significance. The inverse association was observed in black and non-black men and was not attributable to intake of any individual foods or nutrients. A Southern dietary pattern may reflect a history of living in the South and serve as an integrative marker of sunlight exposure and protection through 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Further evaluation and better characterization of the pattern would offer more information on potentially beneficial features of the diet or its associated lifestyle. PMID:14744736

  7. Association between alcohol consumption and Korean young women's bone health: a cross sectional study from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine Andrea; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between alcohol consumption and healthy Korean young women bone by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and drinking consumption; frequency and amount. Design Cross-sectional study composed of three parts: health interview, health examination, nutrition survey. Setting 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Of the 21 303 participants whose bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed, 1176 healthy women aged 19–30 years were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean BMD T-scores of the total femur (TF), femur neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LB) by drinking consumption and AUDIT scores, and the odds of having a low BMD (T-score <−1) at the sites by AUDIT scores. Results After adjustment, lower BMD was found at three sites in those who drank more and had higher AUDIT scores. These associations were significant by AUDIT scores at TF (p=0.002) and FN (p=0.004) and by drinking frequency and amount at FN (p=0.029 and 0.039, respectively). The adjusted OR of having low BMD increased significantly, particularly at FN, in those who had higher AUDIT scores such as 16–17 harmful drinking (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.16 to 16.06) and 20–40 alcohol dependence (OR 5.99; 95% CI 1.69 to 21.21), compared with young women who scored 0–7 low-risk drinking or abstinence. No beneficial effect of moderate drinking was observed at any of the sites and the association between alcohol consumption and bone health was most evident at FN. Conclusions It is crucial to promote the awareness of alcohol harm on Korean young women's bone health. At the same time, since alcohol's effect on the bone is complex with cumulative effects of various factors over the years and there is an absence of studies with young women in their twenties, more studies, in particular for FN, are needed with more precise and appropriate design to confirm our findings. PMID:26463219

  8. Association of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus with Health-Related Quality of Life: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Han, Kyung-do; Park, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss and tinnitus are global public health concerns. There have been some studies suggesting a relationship between hearing loss and tinnitus and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of the entire country population investigating this possible association. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hearing loss and tinnitus and HRQoL in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2010–2012. Methods Cross-sectional data of 11,266 adults who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups as follows: normal hearing without tinnitus, normal hearing with tinnitus, hearing loss without tinnitus, and hearing loss with tinnitus. Results Among the population that was ≥19 years of age, the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss was 9.69% and that of tinnitus in the prior 12 months was 32.76%. The hearing loss with tinnitus group had the highest percentage of subjects who responded “some or extreme problems” in all five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) of HRQoL. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, house income, education level, diabetes, hypertension, and stress level, the HRQoL odds ratios (OR) were 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.02) for mobility, 1.59 (95% CI, 1.07–2.37) for usual activity, and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.25–2.70) for anxiety/depression in the hearing loss with tinnitus group, compared with the normal hearing without tinnitus group. The ORs for the normal hearing with tinnitus group compared with the hearing loss without tinnitus group was increased in all five dimensions of HRQoL after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Hearing loss with tinnitus has a considerable impact on HRQoL in the Korean population. In our study, the hearing loss without tinnitus group showed better a HRQoL than the normal hearing with tinnitus group. PMID:26121026

  9. Relationship between Food-frequency and Glycated Hemoglobin in Korean Diabetics: Using Data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Lack; Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate the association between food intake frequencies and long-term blood glucose control using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Korean diabetes. Methods This study used data collected from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients with diabetes were defined as people who responded "yes" to the question "Are you currently suffering from diabetes?" or in whom serum fasting glucose was 126 mg/dL or more. Using the food frequency questionnaire and HbA1c in surveys, we examined the association between the annual food-frequencies of each food group and long-term blood glucose control. Results After adjustment for other covariates, HbA1c decreased significantly as the frequency of the intake of fish increased in each population (P = 0.001 for all, P = 0.043 for men, P = 0.001 for women). The intake of mackerel played an especially important role in the control of diabetes. Among women, HbA1c decreased as the frequency of intake of legumes increased (P = 0.029) and increased as the frequency of intake of staple carbohydrates increased (P = 0.015). On the other hand, any intake of other food groups showed no significant relationship with HbA1c. Conclusion Frequent intake of fish in all populations and legumes in woman were associated with good glycemic control in diabetics. Frequent intake of carbohydrates was associated with elevated HbA1c in women. PMID:23115702

  10. The relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Chan Kwon; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Potential associations between oral health and respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), have been suggested in several studies. Among the indicators reflecting oral health, the number of natural teeth is an integrated and simple index to assess in the clinic. In this study, we examined the relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction, which is a central feature of COPD. Methods A total of 3,089 participants over 40 years, who underwent reliable spirometry and oral health assessments were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey. Spirometry results were classified as normal, restrictive, or obstructive pattern. Total number and pairs of natural teeth were counted after excluding third molars. Results After adjusting for other variables, such as age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and oral health factors, the group with airflow obstruction showed significantly fewer natural teeth than the other groups in males (P=0.014 and 0.008 for total number and total pairs of natural teeth, respectively). Compared with participants with full dentition, the adjusted odds ratio for airflow obstruction in males with fewer than 20 natural teeth was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.06–8.49) and with fewer than 10 pairs of natural teeth was 4.74 (95% confidence interval: 2.34–9.62). However, there was no significant association between the total number or pairs of natural teeth and airflow obstruction after adjustment in females. Conclusions Loss of natural teeth was significantly associated with the presence of airflow obstruction in males. Our finding suggests that the number of natural teeth could be one of the available indices for obstructive lung diseases, including COPD. PMID:26730184

  11. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

  12. Sexual orientation disparities in smoking vary by sex and household smoking among US adults: Findings from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Reisner, Sari L.; Mereish, Ethan H.; Matthews, Alicia K.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether sexual orientation-related smoking disparities in males and females varied by household smoking behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Data were drawn from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which assessed 14,972 individuals ages 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, current smoking status, and household smoking. Weighted multivariable logistic models were fit to examine whether differences in current smoking status among sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals was moderated by household smoking and sex, adjusting for covariates. Results The main effects of identifying as a sexual minority, being male, and living with a household smoker were all associated with a significantly higher odds of being a current smoker. However, there also was a significant three-way interaction among these variables (AOR=3.75, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.54). Follow-up analyses by sex indicated that the interaction between sexual identity and household smoking was significant for both males (AOR=6.40, 95% CI: 1.27, 32.28) and females (AOR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.81) but was in the opposite direction. Among male, living with a smoker was associated more strongly with greater odds of smoking among gay and bisexual males, compared to heterosexual males. In contrast, among females, living with a smoker was more strongly associated with greater odds of smoking for heterosexuals compared to lesbians and bisexuals. Conclusions Future research is warranted to examine characteristics of households, including smoking behaviors and composition, to guide more effective and tailored smoking cessation interventions for males and females by sexual orientation. PMID:26598804

  13. Systematic evaluation of environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag J; Rehkopf, David H; Leppert, John T; Bortz, Walter M; Cullen, Mark R; Chertow, Glenn M; Ioannidis, John PA

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental and behavioural factors are thought to contribute to all-cause mortality. Here, we develop a method to systematically screen and validate the potential independent contributions to all-cause mortality of 249 environmental and behavioural factors in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We used Cox proportional hazards regression to associate 249 factors with all-cause mortality while adjusting for sociodemographic factors on data in the 1999–2000 and 2001–02 surveys (median 5.5 follow-up years). We controlled for multiple comparisons with the false discovery rate (FDR) and validated significant findings in the 2003–04 survey (median 2.8 follow-up years). We selected 249 factors from a set of all possible factors based on their presence in both the 1999–2002 and 2003–04 surveys and linkage with at least 20 deceased participants. We evaluated the correlation pattern of validated factors and built a multivariable model to identify their independent contribution to mortality. Results We identified seven environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality, including serum and urinary cadmium, serum lycopene levels, smoking (3-level factor) and physical activity. In a multivariable model, only physical activity, past smoking, smoking in participant’s home and lycopene were independently associated with mortality. These three factors explained 2.1% of the variance of all-cause mortality after adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our association study suggests that, of the set of 249 factors in NHANES, physical activity, smoking, serum lycopene and serum/urinary cadmium are associated with all-cause mortality as identified in previous studies and after controlling for multiple hypotheses and validation in an independent survey. Whereas other NHANES factors may be associated with mortality, they may require larger cohorts with longer time of follow-up to detect. It is possible to use a systematic association study to prioritize risk factors for further investigation. PMID:24345851

  14. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  15. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates→T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen's kappa of 0.31 (p < 0.001). Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001–2010 participants. PMID:26798652

  16. Health-related quality of life in coronary heart disease in Korea: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Tak; Shin, Jinho; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Kil

    2015-04-01

    Using data from 2007 to 2011 of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we evaluated the influence of coronary heart disease (CHD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the EQ-5D in comparison with the general population and the predictors of HRQoL in CHD. Compared with the general population, HRQoL was impaired in the EQ-5D dimensions of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. The impairment of HRQoL was much greater in the older age group and in females. In subjects with CHD, the predictors for a low EQ-5D index were old age, female sex, low education, stroke, and noncardiovascular comorbidities, and the predictors for a low EQ Visual Analogue Scale were low income and noncardiovascular comorbidities. For the improvement in HRQoL, preventing stroke and noncardiovascular comorbidities is important, especially among female and older Asian patients with CHD. PMID:24792833

  17. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers. Part 3: evaluation and comparison with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Marano, Kristin M; Kathman, Steven J; Jones, Bobbette A; Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE), including hematologic biomarkers, serum lipid-related biomarkers, other serum BoBE, and one physiological biomarker, were evaluated in adult cigarette smokers (SMK), smokeless tobacco consumers (STC), and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Data from adult males and females in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a single site, cross-sectional study of healthy US males were analyzed and compared. Within normal clinical reference ranges, statistically significant differences were observed consistently for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, hemoglobin, white blood cells, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in comparisons between SMK and NTC; for CRP, white blood cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes in comparisons between SMK and STC; and for folate in comparisons with STC and NTC. Results provide evidence for differences in CVD BoBE associated with the use of different tobacco products, and provide evidence of a risk continuum among tobacco products and support for the concept of tobacco harm reduction. PMID:25787702

  18. Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yirang; Han, Byoung-Duck; Han, Kyungdo; Shin, Koh Eun; Lee, Halla; Kim, Tae Ri; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Yang Hyun; Kim, Hyunjin; Nam, Ga Eun

    2015-11-01

    The possible association between low skeletal muscle mass and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors necessitates estimation of muscle mass even in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI). This study was aimed to investigate optimal cutoffs for skeletal muscle mass reflecting CVD risk factors and to evaluate the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and CVD risk factors in the general population and in subjects with normal BMI using these cutoffs. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We enrolled 5120 men and 6559 women aged?20years. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was defined as the weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, SMI cutoffs associated with CVD risk factors were determined. Lower SMI was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cutoffs in men and women were 32 and 25%, respectively, and the second cutoffs were 30 and 23.5%. Subjects in stage I and stage II SMI categories showed increased prevalence and risk for several CVD risk factors. These tendencies persisted in the association between cardiometabolic characteristics and SMI even in subjects with normal BMI. Using cutoffs of low skeletal muscle mass reflecting CVD risk factors, lower skeletal muscle mass was associated with increased prevalence and risk of several CVD risk factors. A higher prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities was observed among subjects with normal BMI but low skeletal muscle mass. PMID:25862070

  19. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n=5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p=0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.300.16ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 0.15ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.020.16ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.600.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.550.28ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.520.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p=0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.490.19ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.160.09ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  20. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  1. Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Catherine Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican) (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706), non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602), and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957). Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 2039 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.0064.879) and 4059 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.16340.637) are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important. PMID:25485292

  2. Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Landgren, O; Graubard, B I; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Ahmadizadeh, I; Clark, R; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Greenberg, A J; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Caporaso, N; Korde, N; Roschewski, M; Costello, R; McQuillan, G M; Rajkumar, S V

    2014-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the US population. Stored serum samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12,482 individuals of age ?50 years (2331 'blacks', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'whites' and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum-free light-chain assay and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the United States, respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the United States was found, which has etiologic implications. PMID:24441287

  3. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  4. Influenza vaccination and associated factors among Korean cancer survivors : a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Joo-Sung

    2014-08-01

    Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services. PMID:25120314

  5. Association between Living Arrangements and Influenza Vaccination Rates among Elderly South Korean People: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye Min; Hwang, Seo Eun; Kim, Jae Chul; Kim, Moo-Young; Lee, Soo Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the association between living arrangements and influenza vaccination among elderly South Korean subjects. Methods We used data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants older than 65 years were included and categorized into 4 groups according to the type of living arrangement as follows: (1) living alone group; (2) living with a spouse group; (3) living with offspring (without spouse) group; and (4) living with other family members group. A total of 1,435 participants were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Results A lower vaccination rate was observed in the living with offspring (without spouse) group, whereas the living with a spouse group had higher rates of both seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccination. After adjusting for age, sex, region, education level, income level, and number of comorbidities, the living with offspring (without spouse) group had a higher H1N1 vaccination non-receipt rate than the living alone group (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.82). Conclusion Influenza vaccination rates differed according to the type of living arrangement. Particularly, those living with offspring (without spouse) had the lowest H1N1 influenza vaccination rate compared to those with other living arrangements, and this difference was significant. Interventions to improve influenza vaccination coverage should target not only elderly persons who live alone, but also those living with offspring. PMID:26217483

  6. Association of Urinary Phthalates with Self-Reported Eye Affliction/Retinopathy in Individuals with Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. An epidemiological association between exposure to phthalates and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known. However, the potential role of environmental phthalates in the complications of T2D is unknown. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010, we studied the association of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites with self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in 1,004 participants with diabetes. Data from retinal imaging was used to validate this outcome. Independence of the phthalates?T2D association was studied by adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, poverty income ratio, physical activity, glycated hemoglobin levels, total serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, blood pressure, duration of diabetes, total calorie intake, and obesity. Results. Self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy had 82% accuracy with Cohen's kappa of 0.31 (p < 0.001). Urinary mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) was independently associated with the likelihood of self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy in subjects with T2D after accounting for all the confounders. This significance of this association was robust to the potential misclassification in cases and controls of retinopathy. Further, a significant dose-response relationship between MOP and self-reported eye affliction/retinopathy was demonstrable. Conclusions. We show a novel epidemiological link between the environment and diabetic complications in NHANES 2001-2010 participants. PMID:26798652

  7. Prevalence of asbestos-related pleural changes on x-ray in the United States: Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) data

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; Ragan, N.B.; Anderson, H.A.

    1986-09-01

    Pleural thickening on x-ray is a specific marker for exposure to asbestos, which in turn carries an excess risk for lung disease and cancer. In World War II, a large cohort of asbestos workers was employed in shipyards in the United States. About 30 years have elapsed between their exposure and the 1974 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), done on a probability sample of US residents. A defined subgroup of subjects between ages 18 and 75 years (n = 6758) had chest x-rays. All films read by HANES as showing pleural changes (n = 289), and a 3 to 1, age-, sex-, race-matched control series were re-read by three readers using the International Labor Organization criteria for diagnosis of pleural pneumoconiosis. Using 2/3 readings as positive, 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had pleural changes on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with pleural changes in the mid-1970s. If about 12% of asbestos workers develop pleural changes, there would have been about 10 million workers or persons with substantial asbestos exposure to produce those with pleural changes. This estimate is in line with those made by other investigators, but was arrived at by a different and more direct method. This cohort will make a substantial contribution to cancer morbidity into the next century.

  8. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002)

    PubMed Central

    Best, Elizabeth A.; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; James, Katherine; LeBlanc, William G.; Serdar, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers) and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST)) was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution. PMID:26849365

  9. Dietary Very Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Factors: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Sue; Cho, Yoonsu

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate the association between very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean population. The study population were recruited from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013). Using the cross-sectional study design, socio-demographic factors, medical history, and clinical measurements were investigated according to quartiles of VLSFAs intake. The associations between each and sum of VLSFAs intake and MetS were assessed by logistic regression. The result indicated that higher intake of VLSFAs was significantly associated with favorable metabolic status, including lower levels of circulating triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.05). Additionally, subjects with higher intake of arachidic acid and total VLSFAs were negatively associated with MetS risk compared to subjects with lower intake of those fatty acids (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary VLSFAs intake was associated with metabolic risk factors and lower risk of MetS in Korean population. PMID:26251837

  10. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risks of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yup; Kwon, Ah Reum; Ahn, Jung Min; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have revealed many inconsistent results regarding the relationship between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and factors that characterize metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from 2,880 children and adolescents aged 10-18 years collected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We investigated the data according to quartiles of 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with adjustment for sex and age differed significantly between the serum 25(OH)D groups and exhibited negative trend as 25(OH)D concentrations increased. The number of subjects with metabolic syndrome was greater in the low 25(OH)D groups (I, II, and III quartile) than in the high 25(OH)D group (IV quartile) (P=0.029). BMI and waist circumference were lower in the high 25(OH)D group. Serum 25(OH)D concentration correlated negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (ρ=-0.073, P<0.001) and correlated positively with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (ρ=0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with an increase of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. PMID:25883927

  11. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20082011

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ?25 kg/m2). In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 ?g/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 ?g/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4914.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.9916.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  12. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (?20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. PMID:24120902

  13. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  14. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002).

    PubMed

    Best, Elizabeth A; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; James, Katherine; LeBlanc, William G; Serdar, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers) and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST)) was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution. PMID:26849365

  15. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. PMID:26494025

  16. Associations of Cadmium and Lead Exposure With Leukocyte Telomere Length: Findings From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19992002

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Needham, Belinda L.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (19992002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 g/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 g/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 g/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with ?5.54% (95% CI: ?8.70, ?2.37) and ?4.50% (95% CI: ?8.79, ?0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks. PMID:25504027

  17. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. Methods The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from the dataset of the 2003-2004 National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). They categorized children into four groups according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, separately. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. Results The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], ?14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analyses, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, ?6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Conclusions Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Practical Implications Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time. PMID:24982281

  18. Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 20082009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Kim, Young A; Yang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was 5.44 ?g/L. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population. PMID:25580399

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2-19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (155) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 10. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 131, 815 and 54 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 188, 723 and 88 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents. PMID:26525591

  20. The Status of Dietary Supplements Intake in Korean Preschool Children: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of dietary supplements (DS) has increased in most nations. We investigated the amount of DS intake in the Korean population by analyzing a national survey, to support the preparation of a national institutional strategy regarding DS intake and marketing. Methods The data of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a year between 2010 and 2012) were investigated, analyzing the rate of DS intake, and the characteristics of the intake group and non-intake group in Korean preschool children. Results The intake rate of DS was 49.0-54.2% (1,313,874-1,491,240) and 19.6-30.3% (250,603-421,922) in children from 1 to 6 years old and in those less than 1 year, respectively, from 2010 to 2012. The highest intake rate was observed in the age group of five. The mean age was significantly higher in the DS intake group than in the non-intake group. Intake of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins were also higher in the DS intake group. The level of family income was significantly associated with the intake rate (p<0.001). In children less than 1 year, probiotics accounted for the highest intake of DS. Conclusion Korean preschool children have high consumption of DS. Therefore, problems may arise from the waste of money purchasing unnecessary DS, and from the overuse of DS in preschoolers who do not require DS intake. We hope these results can be used to produce an appropriate national institutional strategy regarding DS intake and marketing. PMID:25349834

  1. Association of Vitamin D Status and Acute Rhinosinusitis: Results From the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ayesha N; Ladha, Karim S; Luong, Amber U; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2015-10-01

    Although vitamin D status may be a modifiable risk factor for various respiratory ailments, limited data exists regarding its role in sinonasal infections. Our goal was to investigate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in a large, nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. In this cross-sectional study of individuals ≥ 17 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006, we used multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARS, while adjusting for season, demographics (age, sex, race, and poverty-to-income ratio), and clinical data (smoking, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and neutropenia). A total of 3921 individuals were included in our analyses. Median 25OHD level was 22 (interquartile range 16-28) ng/mL. Overall, 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.4-17.7) of participants reported ARS within the 24 hours leading up to their survey participation. After adjusting for season, demographics, and clinical data, 25OHD levels were associated with ARS (odds ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 per 10 ng/mL). When vitamin D status was dichotomized, 25OHD levels < 20 ng/mL were associated with 33% higher odds of ARS (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.72) compared with levels ≥ 20 ng/mL. Our analyses suggest that 25OHD levels are inversely associated with ARS. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of sinonasal infections. PMID:26447998

  2. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life. PMID:25792237

  3. Additive effect of heavy metals on metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-06-01

    There have been increasing concerns regarding health problems due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We investigated association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in the Korean population. Participants included 1,961 males and 1,989 females 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). We examined the relationship of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels with MS and the additive effect of three heavy metals on MS after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. Blood concentration of lead showed a significant but modest association with prevalence of MS (P = 0.04). Other heavy metals did not show such a relationship with MS. When the participants were classified according to the sum of category numbers of the three heavy metals, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 1.355, 1.638, and 1.556 (P < 0.01). Among components of MS, significant relationship of the sum of heavy metals with hypertension and elevated triglyceride was demonstrated. Blood concentration of lead was positively associated with the prevalence of MS. Of particular interest, cumulative effect of a mixture of lead, mercury, and cadmium on prevalence of MS was stronger than the sum of effect of each heavy metal. Accumulative effect of exposure to heavy metals could be more additive or synergistic than individual exposure in the general population. PMID:24065312

  4. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19821984

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Shanna; Niskar, Amanda Sue; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes is higher among Mexican Americans than among non-Hispanic whites. Higher serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in Mexican Americans have been reported. Few studies have explored the association between pesticide exposure and diabetes. Objectives We set out to examine the association between self-reported diabetes and serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides among Mexican Americans residing in the southwestern United States from 1982 to 1984. Methods This study was conducted among a sample of 1,303 Mexican Americans 2074 years of age from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum concentrations were available for seven pesticides or pesticide metabolites at quantifiable levels in at least 1% of the study population: p,p?-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene), dieldrin, oxychlordane, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of self-reported diabetes with exposure to organochlorine pesticides, with and without adjustment for total serum lipids. Nonfasting serum glucose values were compared among exposure groups. Results Self-reported diabetes was significantly associated with serum levels above the detectable limit for trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane and among those with the highest level of exposure to p,p?-DDT and p,p?-DDE. On adjustment for total serum lipids, the association with p,p?-DDT remained significant. Serum glucose levels were elevated among those exposed to trans-nonachlor and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conclusion This study suggests that higher serum levels of certain organochlorine pesticides may be associated with increased prevalence of diabetes. Additional studies with more extensive clinical assessment are needed to confirm this association. PMID:18087594

  5. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 2069 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] g/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) g/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  6. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Hoy, Mary K; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-02-01

    Efforts to sharpen the focus of sodium reduction strategies include identification of major food group contributors of sodium intake. Although sandwiches are a staple of the American diet, previous examinations of their contribution to sodium intake captured only a small subset of sandwiches. One day of dietary intake data from 5,762 adults aged 20 years and older in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Sandwiches were defined in a manner that more accurately reflected their frequency of consumption. Two-sided t tests were used to compare percentages of men and women reporting sandwiches; contributions of sandwiches to energy and sodium intakes (amounts in kilocalories and milligrams, respectively, and percent of daily totals) by sex; and total energy, total sodium, and sodium density (mg/1,000 kcal) by sandwich reporting status (reporter/nonreporter). On any given day, 49% of American adults ate sandwiches. A significantly higher percentage of men than women reported sandwiches (54% vs 44%, respectively; P<0.001), and sandwiches accounted for higher percentages of men's total energy and sodium intakes. Compared with individuals who did not report a sandwich on the intake day, sandwich reporters had significantly higher energy and sodium intakes; however, sodium density of the diet did not vary by sandwich reporting status. Although much national attention is appropriately focused on reducing sodium in the food supply, consumer choices still play a vital role. Due to sandwiches' frequent consumption and considerable contributions to sodium intake, substituting lower-sodium for higher-sodium ingredients in sandwiches could significantly influence sodium intakes. PMID:25300226

  7. The association of physical activity and colorectal and breast cancer: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic importance of physical activity during and after cancer treatment has been supported. To examine the patterns of physical activity according to the stages of breast and colorectal cancer survivor-ship in Korean, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2011 were used. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate weekly time spent in vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity, and walking, and to calculate MET-minute/week. Depending on the survivorship, the subjects were categorized into "never diagnosed with cancer" (group 1), "0-4 yr since cancer diagnosis" (group 2), and "5 or more years since cancer diagnosis" (group 3), separately for colorectal and breast cancer. The associations between physical activity and the cancer survivorship were studied. Following results were obtained: (1) Breast cancer (n=10,167, mean age=48.5516.27): The mean physical activity levels expressed in MET-minutes/week were 2,064.83, 1748.82, and 1998.36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even though cancer survivors tended to be less active compared to people without cancer, there were no statistically significant difference among the three groups. (2) Colorectal cancer (n=17,270, mean age=48.62): MET-minutes/week was 2064.30, 1084.83, and 709.04 36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The differences were significant between group 1 and 2 (F=5.87, P=0.016) and group 1 and 3 (F=28.99, P<0.001). Despite potential therapeutic benefits of physical activity, colorectal cancer survivors were less active than people without cancer in Korea. PMID:26171382

  8. Daily physical activity predicts degree of insulin resistance: a cross-sectional observational study using the 20032004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status. Methods Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20032004, a cross-sectional observational study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control that uses a stratified, multistage probability design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. The analysis included 402 healthy U.S. adults with valid accelerometer, cardiorespiratory fitness, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. After controlling for relevant confounding variables we performed a multiple linear regression to predict homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) based on average daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In our bivariate models, MVPA, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat percentage were all significantly correlated with log HOMA-IR. In the complete model including MVPA and relevant confounding variables, there were strong and significant associations between MVPA and log HOMA-IR (?= ?0.1607, P=0.004). In contrast the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and log HOMA-IR was not significant. Conclusion When using an objective measure of physical activity the amount of time engaged in daily physical activity was associated with lower insulin resistance, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was not. These results suggest that the amount of time engaged in physical activity may be an important determinant for improving glucose metabolism. PMID:23351329

  9. Blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the United States; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.; Crider, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with adverse neurological development in children. We examined total blood mercury (BHg) concentrations and predictors of higher BHg concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from 1,183 pregnant and 5,587 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated geometric mean BHg concentrations and characteristics associated with higher mercury concentrations (≥3.5 μg/L) in crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Results After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, geometric mean BHg concentrations were clinically similar but significantly lower for pregnant (0.81 μg/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.91) and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (0.93 μg/L, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99); 94% of pregnant and 89% of non-pregnant women had BHg concentrations below 3.5 μg/L. The most significant predictor of higher BHg concentrations for both pregnant and non-pregnant women was any seafood consumption vs. no consumption in the last 30 days (Odds ratio [OR]: 18.7, 95% CI: 4.9, 71.1; OR: 15.5, 95% CI: 7.5, 32.1, respectively). Other characteristics associated with ≥3.5 μg/L BHg concentrations were older age (35+ years), higher education (greater than high school), and higher family income to poverty ratio (3.501+) for both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Conclusion Pregnancy status was not strongly associated with BHg concentrations in women of childbearing age and BHg concentrations above the 3.5 μg/L cut were uncommon. PMID:24189168

  10. The Relationship between Body Fat Percent and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1), 2010

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hee-Cheol; Park, Tae-Jin; Kang, Dae-Won; Park, Da-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of total and regional body fat percent with bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adolescents were examined using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1), 2010. Methods Body fat percent at whole body (WBFP), trunk (TBFP), and extremities (both upper and lower extremities fat mass/body weight, EBFP), ratio of trunk fat mass to extremities fat mass (TEFR), and BMD at whole body, total femur, and lumbar spine were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in a population-based sample of 433 boys and 362 girls, aged 12 to 18 years. The analyses were conducted using linear regression analysis with complex sampling design. Results After adjusting for confounders such as age, height, weight, serum 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration, energy intake, calcium intake, physical activity, and menarche status for girls, WBFP, TBFP, and EBFP were inversely associated with whole and regional BMD in both sexes (P < 0.05). TEFR was positively associated with whole and regional BMD in boys after adjusting for confounders, while it was negatively associated in girls (P < 0.05). However, the associations were non-significant when bone mass-free lean mass was adjusted instead of bodyweight except for a positive association between TEFR and BMD in boys. Conclusion In Korean adolescents, total and regional body fat percent is not independently associated with BMD after adjusting for bone mass-free lean mass but higher fat in trunk as compared to extremities may be protective for BMD in boys. PMID:25426278

  11. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 20052006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cows milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 20052006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.442.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.411.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.835.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

  12. Total IgE and Asthma Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006

    PubMed Central

    Gergen, Peter J.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Calatroni, Agustin; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The inability to measure IgE-based sensitivity to all allergens has limited our understanding of what portion of asthma is related to IgE. Total IgE can potentially overcome this limitation. Objective Determine the association between total IgE and asthma Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006 examined a representative sample of the U.S. population 6 years of age and older. Results The median total IgE was 40.8 kU/L (IQR 15.5 114). Total IgE levels varied with age, sex, race/ethnicity, serum cotinine, body size, and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8%. The prevalence of atopy was 42.5% as defined by 15 specific IgEs. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma with a 10-fold increase in total IgE was 2.18 (95% CI: 1.662.87). Total IgE predicted asthma only among atopics OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.623.60) not non-atopics OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.721.71) (interaction p=0.005). Among atopics, the association between total IgE and asthma became stronger as the number of positive specific IgE tests increased. Asthma was present at even the lowest levels of total IgE, regardless of atopic status. Approximately 92% of atopics were identified by six specific IgEs, but to increase the identification to over 99% required 11 specific IgEs. Conclusion Total IgE is associated with asthma only among persons who are positive to at least one allergen-specific IgEs. Asthma independent of IgE is not uncommon in the US populations. The complete identification of atopics in a population requires a large panel of allergen-specific IgEs. PMID:19647861

  13. Associations of Allostatic Load with Sleep Apnea, Insomnia, Short Sleep Duration, and Other Sleep Disturbances: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Redline, Susan; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether allostatic load (AL), a measure of cumulative physiologic dysregulation across biological systems, was associated with sleep apnea, insomnia, and other sleep disturbances. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 were used. AL was measured using nine biomarkers representing cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic system functioning. A total of 7,726 US adults aged 18 years and older were included in this study. Results The prevalence of high AL (AL score ?3) was the highest among African Americans (25.2%), followed by Hispanic Americans (21.0%), Whites (18.8%), and other racial/ethnic group (16.5%). After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and depression status, high AL was significantly associated with sleep apnea (odds ratio (OR)=1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.95), snoring (1.65, 95% CI: 1.41-1.93), snorting/stop breathing (OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.25-2.10), prolonged sleep latency (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56), short sleep duration (<6 hours) (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.04-1.61), and diagnosed sleep disorder (OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.53-2.24). There was no clear evidence that observed associations varied by sociodemographic characteristics or depression status. Conclusions This study suggests significant associations of high AL with sleep apnea, sleep apnea symptoms, insomnia component, short sleep duration, and diagnosed sleep disorder among US adults. PMID:24985316

  14. Periodontal Infection, Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Results from The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Nidhi; Papapanou, Panos N.; Rosenbaum, Michael; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated the relationship between periodontal disease, a clinical manifestation of periodontal infection, and prediabetes. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 enrolled 1,165 diabetes-free adults (51% female) aged 30–80 years (mean ± SD=50±14) who received a full-mouth periodontal examination and an oral glucose tolerance test. Participants were classified as having none/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis and also according to mean probing depth≥2.19 mm or attachment loss≥1.78 mm, (respective 75th percentiles). Pre-diabetes was defined according to ADA criteria as either: i) impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds of IFG and IGT were regressed on levels of periodontitis category. Results The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having IGT among participants with moderate or severe periodontitis, relative to participants with none/mild periodontitis were 1.07[0.50,2.25] and 1.93[1.18,3.17], P=0.02. The ORs for having IFG were 1.14[0.74, 1.77] and 1.12[0.58, 2.18], P =0.84. PD≥75th percentile was related to a 105% increase in the odds of IGT: OR[95%CI] =2.05[1.24, 3.39], P=0.005. Conclusions Periodontal infection was positively associated with prevalent impaired glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional study among a nationally representative sample. PMID:24708451

  15. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to perchlorate than others.

  16. Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

  17. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. Methods We combined data from 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday’s framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables — child’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables — family income (<100% of the federal poverty level [FPL]; 100%–200% of the FPL; and >200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable — future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Results Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (<100% FPL). Sealant prevalence was higher among children with parental education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Conclusion Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts. PMID:26312383

  18. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  19. Albuminuria Prevalence in First Morning Void Compared with Previous Random Urine from Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Saydah, Sharon H.; Pavkov, Meda E.; Zhang, Cindy; Lacher, David A.; Eberhardt, Mark S.; Burrows, Nilka Rios; Narva, Andrew S.; Eggers, Paul W.; Williams, Desmond E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Albuminuria, defined as urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g, is a diagnostic component of chronic kidney disease (CKD). National estimates of ACR and CKD prevalence have been based on single random urine samples. Although 2 urine samples or a first morning void are known to produce different estimates of ACR, the impact of differing urine sampling schemes on nationally estimated rates of CKD is unknown. METHODS In 2009–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants provided 2 untimed urine samples for sequential ACR measurement: an initial random urine collected in the NHANES mobile examination center and a subsequent first morning void collected at home. Rates of albuminuria were calculated in the overall population and broken down by demographics, diagnosed diabetes and hypertension status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Overall, 43.5% of adults with increased ACR (≥30 mg/g) in a random urine also had increased ACR in a first morning urine. This percentage was higher among individuals ≥50 years old (48.9%), males (53.3%), participants with diagnosed diabetes (56.3%) and hypertension (51.5%), and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.72m2 (56.9%). The use of confirmed increased ACR (defined as the presence of ACR ≥30 mg/g in both samples taken within 10 days) to define CKD resulted in a lower overall prevalence (11.6%) than first morning urine (12.7%) or random spot urine only (15.2%). CONCLUSIONS ACR measured on random urine samples appears to overestimate the prevalence of albuminuria compared to first morning urine collections. PMID:23315482

  20. Racial and Ethnic Patterns of Allostatic Load Among Adult Women in the United States: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 19992004

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study provides a descriptive sociodemographic profile of allostatic load (AL) among adult women of all age groups, focusing on how age patterns of AL vary across racial/ethnic groups. Allostatic load, an index of cumulative physiological dysregulation, captures how the cumulative impact of physiological stress responses from person-environment interactions causes wear and tear on the body's regulatory systems, which in turn can lead to disease outcomes and health disparities. Methods Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992004, this study examines AL in a nationally representative sample of women ?18 years of age (n=5765). Measures of AL using 10 biomarkers representing cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic system functioning were created. Multivariate negative binomial regression models were used, and predicted AL scores were computed. Results Black women had the highest predicted AL scores relative to other racial/ethnic groups, and a marked black/white gap in AL persisted across all age groups. Age by race/ethnicity interaction terms revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in AL patterns across age groups. Black women 4049 years old had AL scores 1.14 times higher than white women 5059 years old, suggesting earlier health deterioration. Mexican women not born in the United States had lower predicted AL scores than those born in the United States. Conclusions This study provides one of the first descriptive profiles of AL among a nationally representative sample of adult women in the United States and presents racial/ethnic trends in AL across age groups that are useful for identifying demographically and clinically important subgroups at risk of having high cumulative physiological dysregulation. PMID:21428732

  1. Weight Status and Dietary Factors Associated with Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among Korean Children and Adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kwon, Sung-Ok

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing concern about the role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in the development of obesity. This study investigated factors associated with SSB intake among Korean children (7-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years). We examined associations between SSB intake and demographic and dietary factors using nationally representative data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 3,179 children and 2,242 adolescents were included in the final analysis. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for factors associated with high SSB intake (? 300 ml/day) by multivariable logistic regression. The mean daily SSB intake of school children was 98.7 ml/day, with a mean of 64.7 ml/day for those aged 7-12 years and 120.2 ml/day for those aged 13-18 years. SSB intake of ? 300 ml/day was found in 12.0% of the children and adolescents. Factors associated with a greater OR for high SSB intake were high energy intake (? 125% of EER; OR = 3.17 for boys aged 7-12 years, OR = 2.74 for girls aged 7-12 years, OR = 3.0 for girls aged 13-18 years), low milk consumption (< 1 cup/day; OR = 1.93 for boys aged 7-12 years; OR = 2.53 for girls aged 7-12 years; OR = 1.83 for boys aged 13-18 years), and not meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake (< 400 g/day; OR = 1.71 for boys aged 7-12 years). Being overweight and obese was significantly associated with greater ORs for high SSB intake among boys aged 7-12 years (OR = 1.72). These findings may be used to develop targeted education programs for reducing SSB intake and encouraging healthier food choices. PMID:23908980

  2. Health Insurance Status as a Barrier to Ideal Cardiovascular Health for U.S. Adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Colby; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Suresh, Visakha; Nothwehr, Ann; Barrington, Debbie S.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between cardiovascular (CV) health and health insurance status. We hypothesized that U.S. adults without health insurance coverage would have a lower likelihood of ideal cardiovascular health. Methods and Results Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007–2010, we examined the relationship between health insurance status and ideal CV health in U.S. adults aged ≥19 years and <65 (N = 3304). Ideal CV health was defined by the American Heart Association (AHA) as the absence of clinically manifested CV disease and the simultaneous presence of 6–7 “ideal” CV health factors and behaviors. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between health insurance status and the odds of ideal CV health. Of the U.S. adult population, 5.4% attained ideal CV health, and 23.5% were without health insurance coverage. Those without health insurance coverage were more likely to be young (p<0.0001), male (p<0.0001), non-white (p<0.0001), with less than a high school degree (p<0.0001), have a poverty-to-income ratio less than 1 (p<0.0001) and unemployed (p<0.0001) compared to those with coverage. Lack of health insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of ideal CV health; however, this relationship was attenuated by socioeconomic status. Conclusions U.S. adults without health insurance coverage are less likely to have ideal CV health. Population-based strategies and interventions directed at the community-level may be one way to improve overall CV health and reach this at-risk group. PMID:26535890

  3. Risk of Mortality Associated With QT and JT Intervals at Different Levels of QRS Duration (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Waqas T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Shah, Amit J; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2015-07-01

    QT prolongation in the setting of QRS >120 ms is believed to be triggered by prolonged depolarization rather than repolarization. Hence, JT interval is suggested as an alternative to QT interval when QRS duration is prolonged. It is unclear, however, if JT and QT intervals portend similar risk of mortality for different durations of QRS. We examined the association between QT and JT, separately, with all-cause mortality across different levels of QRS duration in 8,025 participants (60 13 years, 41% white and 54% women) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. At baseline (1986 to 1994), 486 participants (6%) had QRS duration ?120 ms. During a follow-up of up to 18 years, 3,045 deaths (38%) occurred. There were significant nonlinear relations of QT and JT intervals with mortality (p <0.001). Hence, QT and JT were categorized as prolonged (>95th percentile), shortened (<5th percentile), and normal (reference group). In multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models, prolonged JT (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 12.11) was associated with increased risk of mortality more than prolonged QT (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17) in participants with QRS ?120 ms (interaction p = 0.02). In participants with QRS duration <120 ms, prolonged QT and JT were equally predictive of all-cause mortality (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.54, and HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.55, respectively). Similar patterns were observed with shortened QT and JT intervals. In conclusion, although both QT and JT intervals are predictive of mortality, JT is more predictive in the setting of QRS duration >120 ms supporting the use of JT interval in patients with prolonged QRS. PMID:25929581

  4. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (198894)

    PubMed Central

    Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 19881994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. PMID:12151605

  6. Characterization of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes according to Body Mass Index: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Park, Kyeong Seon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean adults according to body mass index (BMI) and to analyze the association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011. A total of 3,370 patients with T2DM were divided into categories according to BMI. We conducted a comparison of the T2DM patient population composition by BMI category between different countries. We investigated the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and target control of T2DM according to BMI. Results Patients with T2DM had a higher BMI, and were more likely to have a history of CVD than healthy controls. For Korean adults with T2DM, 8% had BMI ≥30 kg/m2. By contrast, the population of patients with T2DM and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 was 72% in patients in the USA and 56% in the UK. The rate of recognition, treatment, and control has worsened in parallel with increasing BMI. Even in patients with BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, the prevalence of CVD or high risk factors for CVD was significantly higher than in patients with BMI 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.07). Conclusion Korean patients with T2DM had lower BMI than those in Western countries. Higher BMI was associated with lower awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes, and a positive association was observed between CVD or high risk factors for CVD and BMI, even for patients who were overweight but not obese. PMID:26354494

  7. Dietary factors related to hypertension risk in Korean adults-data from the Korean national health and nutrition examination survey III

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Sug; Park, Juyeon

    2011-01-01

    Regional differences between large cities and rural areas are observed in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). This present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary factors on hypertension risk in Korean populations, especially residents of the Chungcheong province which was not in metropolitan area, using KNHANES III. A total of 544 adults aged ≥ 19 years were placed into either the normotensive or the hypertensive group. Subject characteristics, BMI, blood pressure, and nutrient intakes were compared between the two groups using a chi-square test and t-test. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for energy intake and selected covariates. There were significant differences in age, education level, alcohol consumption, and BMI between the normotensive and hypertensive groups. We found decreased ORs for the medium versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88), for the highest versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90) with significant trends in risk (P = 0.040), and for the medium versus lowest tertile of potassium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89). Subjects with the highest sodium/calcium ratio had a 2.10-fold greater risk of hypertension compared to the subject with the lowest, with significant trends in risk (P = 0.002). Adequate calcium and potassium intake should be encouraged and regional differences should be considered in making a healthy plan for hypertension management. PMID:21487498

  8. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-<3 oz eq; high, ?3 oz eq) and total dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (?19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. PMID:24655489

  9. Factors and common conditions associated with adolescent dietary supplement use: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Buettner, Catherine; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S; Kemper, Kathi J

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in American adolescents. We conducted this study to analyze the prevalence of DS use and factors associated with this use in a national population-based sample. Methods We used data from the 1999 – 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for adolescents age 11 to 19. Using weighted logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical factors associated with the use of any DS, vitamins or minerals, herbs and other DS. Results Among the 5,306 responses representing approximately 36 million Americans 11–19 years old, 27% reported use of one or more DS in the prior month. The most commonly used DS were: multivitamins (16%) and vitamin C (6%). In the multivariable analysis, African American [adjusted odds ratio 0.40 (0.31–0.50) 95% CI] and Mexican American [0.55 (0.44–0.69)] adolescents were less likely to use DS compared with non-Hispanic whites. DS use was more common in those who used prescription medications [1.37 (1.10–1.72)] and among those who had a diagnosis of chronic headaches [1.25 (1.04–1.50)]. DS use was less common among those reporting fair or poor health status [0.59 (0.40–0.88)]. Conclusion Twenty seven percent of American adolescents use DS. DS use is higher among teens that use prescription medications; physicians and pharmacists should be aware of this, ask patients, and check for potential interactions. PMID:18377653

  10. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 19881994

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, Mariana; Hernaez, Ruben; Eberhardt, Mark S.; Bonekamp, Susanne; Kamel, Ihab; Guallar, Eliseo; Koteish, Ayman; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous estimates of the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the US population relied on measures of liver enzymes, potentially underestimating the burden of this disease. We used ultrasonography data from 12,454 adults who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in the United States from 1988 to 1994. We defined NAFLD as the presence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. In the US population, the rates of prevalence of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD were 21.4% and 19.0%, respectively, corresponding to estimates of 32.5 (95% confidence interval: 29.9, 35.0) million adults with hepatic steatosis and 28.8 (95% confidence interval: 26.6, 31.2) million adults with NAFLD nationwide. After adjustment for age, income, education, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), and diabetes status, NAFLD was more common in Mexican Americans (24.1%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (17.8%) and non-Hispanic blacks (13.5%) (P = 0.001) and in men (20.2%) compared with women (15.8%) (P < 0.001). Hepatic steatosis and NAFLD were also independently associated with diabetes, with insulin resistance among people without diabetes, with dyslipidemia, and with obesity. Our results extend previous national estimates of the prevalence of NAFLD in the US population and highlight the burden of this disease. Men, Mexican Americans, and people with diabetes and obesity are the most affected groups. PMID:23703888

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, H.C. Michelle; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Methods Youth age 8–15 (n=3,050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Obesity defined as ≥95th percentile of US BMI-for-age reference. ADHD determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Results Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 – 0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43 – 2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52 – 2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79–2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Conclusions Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. PMID:23325553

  12. Association between Coffee Consumption and Renal Impairment in Korean Women with and without Diabetes: Analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Ha; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye Mi; Sung, Ji Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that coffee consumption has an influence on kidney function. This study investigated the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and renal impairment in Korean women, in consideration of diabetic status. Methods This study involved 2,673 women aged 35 to 84 years who had participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted in 2008. Habitual coffee consumption was classified into three categories: less than 1 cup per day, 1 cup per day, and 2 or more cups per day. Renal function impairment was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The prevalence of diabetes and renal function impairment was higher in women who drank < 1 cup of coffee per day. Compared with drinking < 1 cup of coffee per day, the odds ratio (OR) for renal function impairment was significantly lower (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.95; P = 0.03) in those who habitually drank ? 2 cups per day after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. When data were stratified according to the presence of diabetes, coffee consumption ? 2 cups of coffee per day showed an inverse association with renal function impairment in only diabetic women (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88; P = 0.04), compared with consumption < 1 cup of coffee per day. Conclusion In a representative sample of Korean women, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of renal impairment especially in middle and elderly-aged diabetic women. PMID:23904956

  13. Relationship between blood levels of heavy metals and lung function based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV–V

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy metal exposure may contribute to inflammation in the lungs via increased oxidative stress, resulting in tissue destruction and obstructive lung function (OLF). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between lead and cadmium levels in blood, and lung function in the Korean population. Methods Pooled cross-sectional data from 5,972 subjects who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012 were used for this study. OLF was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.7. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure levels of lead and cadmium in blood. Results Adjusted means for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status in blood lead and cadmium levels were increased with age and were higher in men and current smokers. The FEV1/FVC ratio was lower in the highest quartile group of lead (78.4% vs 79.0%; P=0.025) and cadmium (78.3% vs 79.2%; P<0.001) concentrations, compared with those in the lowest quartile groups. Multiple linear regression demonstrated an inverse relationship between the FEV1/FVC ratio and concentrations of lead (estimated −0.002; P=0.007) and cadmium (estimated −0.005; P=0.001). Of the 5,972 subjects, 674 (11.3%) were classified into the OLF group. Among current smokers, the risk of OLF was higher in subjects in the highest quartile group of cadmium concentration than in those in the lowest quartile group (odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.57). Conclusion We demonstrated a significant association between the FEV1/FVC ratio and blood concentrations of lead and cadmium in the Korean population. The risk for OLF was elevated with increasing concentrations of cadmium among current smokers. PMID:26345298

  14. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.091.70) for males and 1.38 (1.111.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 68 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. PMID:26080022

  15. Age at type 2 diabetes onset and glycaemic control: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052010

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that age younger than 65 years at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 20052010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. For adults with self-reported diabetes, we dichotomised age at diabetes diagnosis as younger (<65 years) vs older (?65 years). The primary outcome of interest was HbA1c >9.0% (75 mmol/mol). Secondary outcomes were HbA1c >8.0% (64 mmol/mol) and >7.0% (53 mmol/mol). We used multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Among 1,438 adults with diabetes, a higher proportion of those <65 years at diagnosis compared with those ?65 at diagnosis had an HbA1c >9.0% (14.4% vs 2.5%, p<0.001). After adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, insurance, usual source of care, hyperglycaemia medication, duration of diabetes, family history, BMI and waist circumference, age <65 years at diagnosis remained significantly associated with greater odds of HbA1c > 9.0% (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.54, 6.72), HbA1c > 8.0% (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.43, 5.16) and HbA1c >7.0% (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18, 3.11). The younger group reported fewer comorbidities, but were less likely to report good health (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83). Conclusions/interpretation Younger age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is significantly associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Because patients who are younger at diagnosis have fewer competing comorbidities and complications, safe, aggressive, individualised treatment could benefit this higher-risk group. PMID:23995472

  16. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with anemia in adults without chronic kidney disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 20052010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperphosphatemia, serum phosphorus ? 4.4 mg/dL, is associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown a weak association between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations. While much less common in the general population, hypophosphatemia (< 2.5 mg/dL) may be associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. Methods Using three cycles from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (20052010), this study evaluated independent risk factors for hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia. Results Risk factors for hyperphosphatemia included higher adjusted calcium (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.45), increasing cholesterol (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.001-1.005), female gender (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.39-1.87) and low hemoglobin (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.98). Advanced age was protective (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.977-0.987). Models that included fasting serum glucose found lower body mass index (BMI) to be protective (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99) and adjusting for serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone removed the association with low hemoglobin and BMI. Risk factors for hypophosphatemia included the following protective factors: higher albumin (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.93), higher BUN (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86, 0.95), corrected calcium (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63) and female gender (OR 0.47, 95% 0.24-0.94). In men, higher fasting glucose levels increased risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.0004-1.01). Conclusion This study is the first to show an association between low hemoglobin levels and increased risk for hyperphosphatemia among individuals without chronic kidney disease. We did not find any association between diabetes mellitus, increasing BMI or fasting glucose levels and hypophosphatemia. PMID:23965134

  17. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  18. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Reidy, John A; Malek, Nicole A; Hodge, Carolyn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Brock, John W; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in > 75% of the samples, suggesting widespread exposure in the United States to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate or diisobutylphthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, respectively. We infrequently detected monoisononyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, and mono-n-octyl phthalate, suggesting that human exposures to di-isononyl phthalate, dioctylphthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate, respectively, are lower than those listed above, or the pathways, routes of exposure, or pharmacokinetic factors such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination are different. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher concentrations of MEP than did Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Compared with adolescents and adults, children had significantly higher levels of MBP, MBzP, and MEHP but had significantly lower concentrations of MEP. Females had significantly higher concentrations of MEP and MBzP than did males, but similar MEHP levels. Of particular interest, females of all ages had significantly higher concentrations of the reproductive toxicant MBP than did males of all ages; however, women of reproductive age (i.e., 20-39 years of age) had concentrations similar to adolescent girls and women 40 years of age. These population data on exposure to phthalates will serve an important role in public health by helping to set research priorities and by establishing a nationally representative baseline of exposure with which population levels can be compared. PMID:14998749

  19. Association between Low-Grade Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Korean Adults: The 20112012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that low UACR levels (<30 ?g/mg) previously considered to be in the normal range (low-grade albuminuria) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We studied 9,736 participants with albuminuria in the normal range from the 20112012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Results The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease measured using the Framingham risk score (FRS) ? 20% (high risk) were 22.5 0.7% and 14.5 0.7%, respectively, in males and 23.3 0.8% and 8.5 0.4%, respectively in females. Weighted comparisons among the tertiles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS increased with increasing UACR (MS: males, 15.9 1.1, 20.2 1.2, 32.4 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 17.6 1.0, 22.7 1.0, 30.2 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. High-risk FRS: males, 9.5 0.7, 12.3 0.9, 22.5 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 5.8 0.6, 7.9 0.7, 12.0 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive association persisted after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes. The weighted comparisons among the deciles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS began to increase at the ranges of 3.895.15 and 5.167.36 mg/g Cr, respectively. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with estimated cardiovascular risk and MS in a nationally representative sample of Koreans. PMID:25742159

  20. Prevalence of Spirometrically-defined Restrictive Ventilatory Defect in Korea: The Fourth-2, 3, and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Ki Uk; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Sheen, Sueng Su; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Heung Bum; Lim, Sung Chul; Jung, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Yuna; Chun, Chaemin; Yoo, Kwang Ha

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect and to determine the risk factors in subjects with spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect. We used the population-based, fourth-2, 3 (2008, 2009) and fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to analyze 15,073 subjects, aged ≥40 yr who underwent spirometry. Chest radiographs were also analyzed to identify restrictive lung disease. Spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect (FEV1/FVC≥70% and FVC<80% of mean predicted value) was detected in 11.3% (n= 1,709) of subjects aged ≥40 yr. The prevalence increased to 12.3% on using the lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Approximately 99.4% of subjects were classified as mild restrictive. Among these, 11.3% had inactive tuberculosis (TB) lesion, 2.2% cardiac disease, 2.0% previous operation scar or radiation injury and/or mediastinal disease, and 7.4% other pulmonary disease suggestive of restrictive lung diseases on chest radiograph. Evidence of previous TB history was independently associated with restrictive ventilatory defect (odds ratios [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.18) after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, area for residence and body mass index. The prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect among the nationwide population in Korea was 11.3% with fixed ratio criterion and 12.3% with LLN criterion. Most cases were of the mild restrictive category and previous TB history is the independent risk factor for restrictive ventilatory defect. PMID:26028924

  1. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  2. Validation of FRAX without BMD: an age-related analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2010).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Wan; Koh, Jung-Min; Park, Jai Hyung; Chang, Jae Suk

    2015-06-01

    Although the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) is widely used to evaluate probabilities of fractures, there is no consensus regarding whether it is accurate when bone mineral density (BMD) is not included. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the 10-year predicted fracture probabilities calculated using FRAX with and without BMD. Data were collected from the 2010 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 2706 participants (1260 men and 1446 women) aged 50-90 years were analyzed. Ten-year predicted probabilities for major osteoporotic and hip fractures were calculated using the FRAX model. In men, the 10-year probabilities without BMD were 3.91.8% and 1.31.4% for major osteoporotic and hip fractures, respectively. In women, the 10-year probabilities without BMD were 7.74.4% and 2.62.9% for major osteoporotic and hip fractures, respectively. These probabilities were significantly correlated with the probabilities calculated using FRAX with BMD (all, p<0.001). When participants were divided into 10-year age groups and compared with the 10-year predicted fracture probability with BMD, the 10-year predicted fracture probability without BMD was lower in men 50-59 years old, similar to men 60-69 years old, and higher in men ?70 years old. The FRAX scores without BMD were generally lower for all women. The FRAX model without BMD appears to be a slightly lower fracture probability compared to that calculated with BMD, especially in younger participants. Although these results have important clinical implications for areas with limited ability to evaluate BMD, they must be confirmed by a large prospective study. PMID:25697083

  3. Sodium Intake and Socioeconomic Status as Risk Factors for Development of Age-Related Cataracts: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jeong Hun; Shin, Doo Sup; Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cataract is a very prevalent ocular disorder, and environmental risk factors for age-related cataracts have been widely investigated. We aimed to evaluate an association of dietary sodium intake and socioeconomic factors with the development of age-related cataracts. Methods A cross-sectional case-control study based on the 20082011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary sodium intake was estimated using urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (U[Na+]/Cr). Results Among a total 12,693 participants, 2,687 (21.1%) had cataracts and 10,006 patients without cataracts served as controls. The prevalence of cataracts increased with age and quartiles of U[Na+]/Cr (p for trend < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that factors related to the development of cataracts were age ? 50 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.31?17.69), low income (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.642.09), low educational attainment (aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.571.96), and high sodium intake (U[Na+]/Cr > 16.4 mmol/mmol; aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.161.44). In a subgroup analysis, a robust effect on cataracts across U[Na+]/Cr quartiles was observed in patients ? 50 years of age (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.041.18), though not in younger patients (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.961.17). Conclusions Our results suggest that high sodium intake and low socioeconomic status may affect the development of cataracts, and that a low-salt diet could be helpful for the prevention of cataracts in an older population. Furthermore, efforts to close gaps in health services due to socioeconomic factors may contribute to a reduction in the prevalence of cataracts. PMID:26287670

  4. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  5. Associations Between the Periodontal Disease in Women Before Menopause and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity: The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-02-01

    The association between menstrual cycle irregularities and system disease has been evaluated in previous studies. However, the association between periodontal disease and menstrual cycle irregularity has not been fully investigated. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and tooth loss in women before menopause and menstrual cycle irregularity using nationally representative data.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The analysis in this study was confined to a total of 1553 respondents over 19 years old who had not gone through menopause and had no missing values for the reproductive factors and outcome variables. A community periodontal index was greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal treatment needs.The risk of periodontal treatment needs tended to increase in the presence of menstrual cycle irregularity after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios?=?.0481 in model 1; 0.0613 in model 2; 0.0369 in model 3; 0.0456 in model 4). The number of natural teeth of 28 did not reach statistically significant differences (P for trend in the odds ratios?=?0.2204 in model 1; 0.2373 in model 2; 0.2814 in model 3; 0.2609 in model 4).Menstrual cycle irregularity was positively associated with the risk of periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. However, there was no significant association between tooth loss and menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual cycle irregularity may be considered to be a potential risk indicator for periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. PMID:26871840

  6. Thyroid Hormones in Relation to Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium Exposure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 20072008

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephani S.; Chung, Ethan; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd), are known toxicants, but their associations with the thyroid axis have not been well quantified at U.S. background levels. Objectives: We investigated the relationships between thyroid hormones (total and free thyroxine [TT4 and FT4], total and free triiodothyronine [TT3 and FT3], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) and levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd in blood and Cd in urine. Methods: We separately analyzed a sample of 1,109 adolescents (1219 years of age) and a sample of 4,409 adults from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20072008. We estimated associations after adjusting for age, sex, race, urinary iodine, body mass index, and serum cotinine. Results: The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood Pb (BPb), total Hg, and Cd were 0.81 g/dL, 0.47 g/L, and 0.21 g/L in adolescents and 1.43 g/dL, 0.96 g/L, and 0.38 g/L in adults, respectively. The GMs of urinary Cd were 0.07 and 0.25 g/g creatinine in adolescents and adults, respectively. No consistent pattern of metal and thyroid hormone associations was observed in adolescents. In adults, blood Hg was inversely related to TT4, TT3, and FT3 and urinary Cd was positively associated with TT4, TT3, FT3, and Tg, but there were no associations with Pb. Associations were relatively weak at an individual level, with about 14% change in thyroid hormones per interquartile range increase in Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests an inverse association between Hg exposure and thyroid hormones, and a positive association between Cd exposure and thyroid hormones in adults. PMID:23164649

  7. A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

  8. A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang; Chung, Hea-Jung

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

  9. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  10. Low muscle mass is associated with metabolic syndrome only in nonobese young adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Sae-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between body composition and metabolic risk factors in young adults. We hypothesized that low muscle mass (LMM) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in young adults and that the associations vary by obesity. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. In total, 5300 young adults aged 19 to 39 years were evaluated. Low muscle mass was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight less than 1 SD below the mean for each participant's corresponding sex and age group. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM was higher in obese than nonobese participants (37.6% vs 9.6%). In the nonobese participants, the prevalence of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure was significantly greater in the LMM group than in the high muscle mass group. In the nonobese group, compared with high muscle mass participants, those with LMM had odds ratios for MetS of 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-8.76; P < .001) and 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-8.71; P < .001) in men and women, respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. However, no significant association of LMM with MetS or its components was found in obese participants. In conclusion, our results suggest that young adults with LMM may have a high risk of MetS, especially when they are nonobese. Interventions aimed at increasing muscle mass at younger ages may have the potential to reduce MetS. PMID:26602833

  11. Prevalence of Inadequate Hydration Among US Children and Disparities by Gender and Race/Ethnicity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Long, Michael W.; Cradock, Angie L.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the hydration status of US children and adolescents. Methods. The sample included 4134 participants aged 6 to 19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2012. We calculated mean urine osmolality and the proportion with inadequate hydration (urine osmolality > 800 mOsm/kg). We calculated multivariable regression models to estimate the associations between demographic factors, beverage intake, and hydration status. Results. The prevalence of inadequate hydration was 54.5%. Significantly higher urine osmolality was observed among boys (+92.0 mOsm/kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.5, 114.6), non-Hispanic Blacks (+67.6 mOsm/kg; 95% CI = 31.5, 103.6), and younger children (+28.5 mOsm/kg; 95% CI = 8.1, 48.9) compared with girls, Whites, and older children, respectively. Boys (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.49, 2.07) and non-Hispanic Blacks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.74) were also at significantly higher risk for inadequate hydration. An 8-fluid-ounce daily increase in water intake was associated with a significantly lower risk of inadequate hydration (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93, 0.98). Conclusions. Future research should explore drivers of gender and racial/ethnic disparities and solutions for improving hydration status. PMID:26066941

  12. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  13. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, V) from 20072012

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Ho; Han, Chang Hoon; Park, Seon Cheol; Kim, Cheong Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is good evidence for an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression, but there are few studies on the relationship between COPD and suicidal ideation/suicidal attempts. Aims: To evaluate the mental health of patients with COPD in Korea and to compare it with that of the general population. Methods: We analysed data of 15,718 subjects (age ?40 years) who participated in the 20072012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for people aged ?40 years. We compared the mental health outcomes of 2,506 patients with COPD (2,355 GOLD stages I and II; 151 GOLD stages III and IV) with those of 13,212 controls. Results: Suicidal thoughts were reported by 16.0% of patients in stages I and II, by 23.8% of those in stages III and IV and by 15.7% of controls (P=0.023). Suicidal attempts were reported by 0.6% of patients in stages I and II, by 2.6% of those in stages III and IV and by 1.0% of controls (P=0.019). The crude odds ratio (OR) for suicidal ideation in those in stages III and IV was 1.68 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162.46), and the OR for suicidal attempts in stages III and IV was 2.83 (95% CI, 1.037.75). In multivariate analysis, the OR for suicidal ideation in stages III and IV was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.122.49) and that for suicidal attempts was 2.94 (95% CI, 1.038.31). Conclusions: GOLD stages III and IV COPD were associated with a marked increase in suicidal behaviour. PMID:25356541

  14. Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hye; Song, Young-Hwan; Park, Sangshin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children. Methods We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010. Results During 1998–2010, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in boys, but no changes were observed in girls. Over this period, there was a small but significant decrease in the mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level in boys (1998, 87.5 mg/dL; 2010, 83.6 mg/dL; P=0.019) and mean triglyceride levels in girls (1998, 90.8 mg/dL; 2010, 85.8 mg/dL; P=0.020). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia in boys, but a modest decrease was noted in girls (1998, 25.1%; 2010, 18.3%; P=0.052). During the study period, the prevalence of breakfast skipping decreased, whereas that of regular exercise increased in both groups. Daily total energy intake did not change between these years. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, breakfast skipping was associated with increased risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in boys (odds ratio [OR], 5.77) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 2.27) in girls. Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (OR, 0.40) in boys. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity in boys increased, favorable or constant trends in lipid profiles were observed among Korean adolescents during 1998–2010. Decrease in breakfast skipping and increase in regular exercise may have contributed to these trends. PMID:26958065

  15. Age at First Delivery and Osteoporosis Risk in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 20082011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Choi, Yun Rak; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported in several studies that there may be a significant correlation between reproductive history and the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of estrogen. Under this hypothesis, however, it is unclear whether the age at first delivery has any major influences on the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the age at first delivery and the risk of osteoporosis in Korean menopausal women. This study was performed using data from the 20082011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 2,530 Korean postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made using the World Health Organization T-score criteria (T-score ? -2.5, at the femoral neck or lumbar spine). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to age at first delivery: ?23, 2429, and ?30 years. Older age, lower body mass index, lower calcium intake, later menarche, and earlier menopause increased the risk of osteoporosis, whereas hormone therapy and oral contraceptive use were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred at age 2429 years were shown to have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.0964.113; P = 0.026) compared to those who first gave birth after the age of 30 years. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred in their mid to late 20s, a period during which bone mass slowly accumulates to the peak, are at an increased risk of osteoporosis. PMID:25946162

  16. Prevalence and Trends of Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Systolic and diastolic blood pressure may have different effects on cardiovascular disease, but limited data is available for hypertension subtypes in the Korean population. Thus, the prevalence, and absolute number of hypertension subtypes among Korean adults was estimated. Subjects and Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and absolute number of each hypertension subtype among Korean adults aged ≥20 years. Hypertension was classified into four subtypes: treated hypertension (TH), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH). Results In 2012, approximately 9.5 million adults were estimated to have hypertension, which consists of 5675671 TH (60.0%), 954253 ISH (10.1%), 1649486 IDH (17.4%), and 1175506 SDH (12.4%). Between 2010 and 2012, the proportion of IDH steadily decreased with age, but ISH increased especially in older ages (≥40). Between 1998 and 2012, TH markedly increased from 1.4 million to 5.7 million while the number of untreated hypertension remained relatively constant. During the same time, the number of hypertensive elderlies increased from 507000 to 2822000 along with rapid ageing of the Korean population. Despite of significant improvement in treatment rate, there are still around 583000 elderlies with untreated hypertension (423000 ISH; 42000 IDH; 118000 SDH) as of 2012. Conclusion Although the prevalence of hypertension has been constant over the last decades, absolute number of people with hypertension has been increasing. Along with the rapid population ageing, the number of elderly hypertension is increasing and the ISH is also becoming more prevalent. PMID:26617652

  17. The Association between Atopic Dermatitis and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sewon; Lee, Jee-Yon; Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions, which often cause depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, sleep disturbances, social withdrawal, and stigmatization. Methods In total, 23,442 subjects (434 AD patients and 23,008 control subjects) aged 19 years or older and without a history of major medical illness or depressive disorders were selected from The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Following the initial selection, 2,170 age- and sex-matched control subjects were selected using 1:5 propensity score matching. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the presence of depressive symptoms of at least 2 weeks in duration. Results The demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of AD patients and control subjects were presented and compared, and some variables differed significantly between groups. Presence of depressive symptoms was set as dependent variable, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed as follows: (1) unadjusted; (2) with alcohol use, exercise status, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for; and (3) with alcohol use, exercise status, smoking status, marital status, occupation, BMI, total caloric intake, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus adjusted for. Depressive symptoms were significantly higher (odds ratios, 1.46, 1.40, and 1.36; 95% confidence intervals, 1.09-1.95, 1.0.4-1.88, and 1.01-1.85, respectively) in AD patients relative to those of matched controls. Conclusion AD and clinical depression interact closely, and causal relationships between the two conditions have frequently been observed. Physicians should consider mental health interventions cautiously. It is particularly important that primary care physicians provide comprehensive, continuous long-term care. PMID:26634090

  18. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Zambrana, Ruth E; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES "gets under the skin" to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ? 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ? 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ? 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ? 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. PMID:26703686

  19. Gender Difference in the Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Age-Related Cataract: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jeong Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with age-related cataract in a representative Korean population. Methods We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (20082010). A total of 11,076 adults (4,811 men and 6,265 women) aged 40 and over who completed ophthalmologic examination were evaluated. Cataract was defined as the presence of cortical, nuclear, anterior (sub)capsular or posterior subcapsular cataract, from slit-lamp examination or previous cataract surgery. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement proposed in 2009 from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results The prevalence of cataract and MetS in this population was 39.4% (37.1% for men and 41.6% for women) and 38.5% (37.6% for men and 39.4% for women), respectively. Cataract prevalence tended to increase with the number of MetS components in both genders (both P< 0.001). After being controlled for confounders, however, MetS was significantly associated with cataract only in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.021.50]. Reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting glucose, and elevated triglycerides were also significantly associated with cataract in women (aOR, 95% CI; 1.27 (1.071.50), 1.23 (1.011.50), and 1.26 (1.041.52), respectively). In the subgroup analysis for cataract subtype, MetS and reduced HDL cholesterol were significantly associated with nuclear cataract in women (aOR, 95% CI; 1.25 (1.071.55) and 1.25 (1.031.52), respectively). However, such associations were not found in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that MetS and its components appear to be associated with age-related cataract only among Korean women, especially in nuclear cataract. PMID:24416342

  20. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. PMID:26703686

  1. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in U.S. adults. • Cadmium in both blood and urine was borderline significantly associated with the risk of AMD. • Blood lead was not associated with the risk of AMD. • The association between urine cadmium and AMD was stronger in whites than in blacks.

  2. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ?20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 19881994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01mol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.151.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75mol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11mol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.290.58mol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for confirmation. PMID:21481711

  3. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. Objective This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. Methods This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. Results A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. Conclusions The data from KNHANES 2010–2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds at all of the tested frequencies worsened with increasing age. The mean hearing thresholds suggested in this study will be useful for the formulation of healthcare-related hearing policies and used as reference data for disability ratings for hearing loss due to various causes. PMID:26950935

  4. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1991-1994

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), as ACR ? 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value < 0.05) with log(ACR) in at least one race/ethnic group, but none remained significant in crude or fully-adjusted models when correcting for the false-discovery rate (FDR). In analyses of sex-specific albuminuria, IL1B (rs1143623) among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623), CRP (rs1800947) and NOS3 (rs2070744) were significantly associated with ACR ? 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P < 0.05). In contrast, no variants were found to be associated with albuminuria among non-Hispanic blacks after adjustment for multiple testing. The only variant among non-Hispanic whites significantly associated with any outcome was TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P < 0.05) with log(ACR) or albuminuria in at least one race/ethnic group. Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the susceptibility to kidney damage. PMID:21054877

  5. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  6. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20012010

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 1950 years (y) was 16.1 (0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 20012010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 1950 y was 0.61 (0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 20012010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  7. Association between low-grade albuminuria and hearing impairment in a non-diabetic Korean population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hui; Jung, Da Jung; Choi, Eun Woo; Park, Jong Won; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Yoon, Kyung Woo; Do, Jun Young

    2015-12-01

    Introduction The objective of the present study was to examine the association between low-grade albuminuria and hearing impairment in the non-diabetic population. Materials and methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2013 were used in the analyses. Participants were excluded from this study if they were younger than 19 years old, or had urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR)???30?mg/g or diabetes mellitus. There were 10?608 participants included in this study. The participants were divided into three groups according to their UACR tertiles. Results There were 1560; 1561; and 1552 male and 1982; 1975; and 1978, female participants in the low, middle, and high tertile groups, respectively. The results indicated the association between low-grade albuminuria and the numbers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components or Framingham risk score, and the presence of MetS or the proportions of participants at high cardiovascular risk. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses demonstrated an association between the UACR and average hearing threshold (AHT) that was observed in both sexes. Multivariate analyses showed that mean AHTs in the low, middle, and high tertile groups were, respectively, 16.127 dB, 17.139 dB, and 18.604 dB for men, and 14.842 dB, 15.100 dB, and 16.353 dB, respectively, for women. Low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high-frequency hearing thresholds according to UACR tertiles showed similar trends. In both sexes, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that participants in the low and middle tertile groups had a decreased risk for hearing loss compared to participants in the high tertile group. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was associated with hearing impairment in the non-diabetic participants of this study. Key messages Low-grade albuminuria is associated with MetS and cardiovascular risk in the non-diabetic population. Low-grade albuminuria is associated with hearing thresholds and hearing loss in the non-diabetic population. Participants with low-grade albuminuria may be closely monitored for hearing impairment. PMID:26542850

  8. Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45–0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

  9. Stage A Heart Failure Is Not Adequately Recognized in US Adults: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kovell, Lara C.; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Russell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stage A heart failure (HF) is defined as people without HF symptoms or structural heart disease, but with predisposing conditions for HF. This classification is used to identify high risk patients to prevent progression to symptomatic HF. While guidelines exist for managing HF risk factors, achievement of treatment goals in the United States (US) population is unknown. Methods We examined all adults with Stage A HF (?20 years, N =4,470) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2007-2010, a nationally representative sample. Stage A HF was defined by coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease. We evaluated whether nationally accepted guidelines for risk factor control were achieved in Stage A patients, including sodium intake, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP). Pharmacologic interventions and socioeconomic factors associated with guideline compliance were also assessed. Results Over 75 million people, or 1 in 3 US adults, have Stage A HF. The mean age of the Stage A population was 56.9 years and 51.5% were women. Seventy-two percent consume ?2g sodium/day and 49.2% are obese. Of those with CHD, 58.6% were on a statin and 51.8% were on a beta-blocker. In people with diabetes, 43.6% had HbA1c ?7%, with Mexican Americans more likely to have HbA1c ?7% . Of those with hypertension, 30.8% had a systolic BP ?140 or diastolic BP ?90 mm Hg. Having health insurance was associated with controlled blood pressure, both in those with hypertension and diabetes. In CHD patients, income ?$20,000/year and health insurance were inversely associated with LDL ?100mg/dL with prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.58 (P=0.03) and 0.56 (P=0.03), respectively. Conclusions One-third of the US adult population has Stage A HF. Prevention efforts should focus on those with poorly controlled comorbid disease. PMID:26171960

  10. Prevalence of allergic sensitization in the U.S.: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Jaramillo, Renee; Calatroni, Agustin; Weir, Charles H.; Sever, Michelle L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Liu, Andrew H.; Gergen, Peter J.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of atopic disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006 provides the most comprehensive information on IgE-mediated sensitization in the general US population. Objective We investigated clustering, sociodemographic and regional patterns of allergic sensitization and examined risk factors associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 20052006. Participants aged ?1 year (N=9440) were tested for sIgEs to inhalant and food allergens; participants ?6 years were tested for 19 sIgEs, and children aged 15 years for 9 sIgEs. Serum samples were analyzed using the ImmunoCAP System. Information on demographics and participant characteristics was collected by questionnaire. Results Of the study population aged 6 and older, 44.6% had detectable sIgEs, while 36.2% of children aged 15 years were sensitized to ?1 allergen. Allergen-specific IgEs clustered into 7 groups that might have largely reflected biological cross-reactivity. Although sensitization to individual allergens and allergen types showed regional variation, the overall prevalence of sensitization did not differ across census regions, except in early childhood. In multivariate modeling, young age, male gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, geographic location (census region), and reported pet avoidance measures were most consistently associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Conclusions The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization does not vary across US census regions, except in early life, although allergen-specific sensitization differs by sociodemographic and regional factors. Biological cross-reactivity may be an important, but not a sole, contributor to the clustering of allergen-specific IgEs. Clinical implications IgE-mediated sensitization shows clustering patterns and differs by sociodemographic and regional factors, but the overall prevalence of sensitization may not vary across US census regions. PMID:24522093

  11. Vitamin D Status and the Risk of Anemia in Community-Dwelling Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Monlezun, Dominique J; Camargo, Carlos A; Mullen, John T; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2015-12-01

    Low vitamin D status has been implicated in several chronic medical conditions and unfavorable health outcomes. Our goal was to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a potentially modifiable risk factor for anemia in a nationally representative cohort of community-dwelling individuals in the United States.We performed a cross-sectional study of 5456 individuals (?17 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) was used to graphically depict the relationship between serum 25OHD levels and the cumulative frequency of anemia. Multivariable logistic regression models were then used to assess the independent association of 25OHD levels with anemia, while controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, chronic kidney disease, as well as serum levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid.The mean (standard error) 25OHD and hemoglobin levels in the analytic group were 23.5 (0.4) ng/mL and 14.4 (0.1) g/dL, respectively. Prevalence of anemia was 3.9%. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing analysis demonstrated a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and cumulative frequency of anemia up to 25OHD levels of approximately 20?ng/mL. With increasing 25OHD levels, the curve flattened out progressively. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated an inverse association of 25OHD levels with the risk of anemia (adjusted odds ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.99 per 1?ng/mL change in 25OHD). Compared to individuals with ?20?ng/mL, individuals with 25OHD levels <20?ng/mL were more likely to be anemic (adjusted odds ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.49).In a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling individuals in the United States, low 25OHD levels were associated with increased risk of anemia. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether optimizing vitamin D status can reduce the burden of anemia in the general population. PMID:26683908

  12. Maternal Hypertension after a Low-Birth-Weight Delivery Differs by Race/Ethnicity: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992006

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Kuller, Lewis H.; Youk, Ada O.; Catov, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 19992006 (n?=?6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ?2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ?2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.021.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR?=?1.21, 95% CI 0.761.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR?=?2.09, 95% CI 1.123.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR?=?1.49, 95% CI 0.932.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% CI 0.922.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR?=?1.22, 95% CI 0.622.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United States population, women with a history of preterm- or SGA-LBW deliveries have increased odds of hypertension and this risk appears to be higher for black women and younger women. PMID:25093324

  13. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L; Hamner, Heather C; Bailey, Regan L; Rader, Jeanne I; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R J; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-28

    Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ?1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (375nmol/l; 100%), UMFA (121nmol/l; 999%), MeFox (153nmol/l; 988%), and THF (101nmol/l; 852%) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (36%) and 5,10-methenylTHF (44%) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (867%); UMFA (40%), non-methyl folate (47%) and MeFox (45%) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's r<04) but significant (P<005) correlations with physiological and lifestyle variables. Fasting, kidney function, smoking and alcohol intake showed negative associations. BMI and body surface area showed positive associations with MeFox but negative associations with other folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics. PMID:25917925

  14. Retinopathy and CKD as Predictors of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Parvathaneni, Sharmila; Goodin, Sean; Ching, Alice; Lash, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is associated with increased mortality risk in general populations. We evaluated the joint effect of retinopathy and chronic kidney disease (CKD) on mortality in a representative sample of US adults. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 7,640 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988–1994 with mortality linkage through 12/31/2006. Predictors CKD, defined as low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) or albuminuria (urine protein-creatinine ratio ≥30mg/g), and retinopathy, defined as presence of microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, microvascular abnormalities, or other evidence of diabetic retinopathy by fundus photograph. Outcomes All-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measurements Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards. Results Overall, 4.6% of participants had retinopathy and 15% had CKD. Mean age was 56 years, 53% were women and 81% non-Hispanic white. Prevalence of retinopathy in CKD was 11%. We identified 2,634 deaths during 14.5 years’ follow-up. In multivariable analyses, compared with individuals with neither CKD nor retinopathy, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.75–1.38), 1.52 (95% CI, 1.35–1.72), and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.77–3.22) for individuals with retinopathy only, for those with CKD only, and for those with both CKD and retinopathy, respectively. Corresponding HRs for cardiovascular mortality were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.50–1.84), 1.72 (95% CI, 1.47–2.00) and 2.96 (95% CI, 2.11–4.15), respectively. There was a significant synergistic interaction between retinopathy and CKD on all-cause mortality (p=0.04). Limitations Presence of retinopathy was evaluated only once. Small sample size of some of the subpopulations studied. Conclusions In the presence of CKD, retinopathy is a strong predictor of mortality in this adult population. PMID:24656452

  15. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ≤20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  16. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was independently associated with higher HbA1c levels in a cigarette exposure-dependent manner in a representative population of Korean non-diabetic adults. In this study, we have observed an association between smoking status and HbA1c levels in non-diabetics drawn from a non-Western population, consistent with previous findings in Western populations. PMID:26011526

  17. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking.We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation.The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables as covariates yielded identical results.Our data suggest that age, sex, education level, occupation, total energy intake, obesity, and hypertension management status are associated with excessive sodium intake in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Factors associated with high sodium intake should be considered in policy-based interventions to reduce dietary salt consumption and prevent cardiovascular disease as a public health target. PMID:26945369

  18. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

  19. Maternal hypertension after a low-birth-weight delivery differs by race/ethnicity: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Kuller, Lewis H; Youk, Ada O; Catov, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 (n?=?6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ?2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ?2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR?=?1.21, 95% CI 0.76-1.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR?=?2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR?=?1.49, 95% CI 0.93-2.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR?=?1.22, 95% CI 0.62-2.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United States population, women with a history of preterm- or SGA-LBW deliveries have increased odds of hypertension and this risk appears to be higher for black women and younger women. PMID:25093324

  20. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)—0.18 × age (years)—1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP–CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups. Results In the normal population (n = 12,069), the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg) was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15), but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636). Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16). Conclusions TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients. PMID:26840184

  1. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 20082010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (20082010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ? 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ? 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (? 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ? 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ? 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (? 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ? 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (? 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  2. Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Eun Kyung; Jeung, In Cheul; Kim, Chan Joo; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) and quality of life (QOL) in Korean postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We included 4,028 postmenopausal women who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). From the KNHANES questionnaire data, we ascertained the UI status of participants, defined as self-reported or medically diagnosed UI, and calculated their total daily caffeine intake through questions regarding the frequency of food consumption. The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QOL among the study population. Results The mean age of the study population was 63.19±0.25 years. Among the 4,028 women, the prevalence of medically diagnosed UI was 2.6% (n = 151), the prevalence of self-reported UI was 11.9% (n = 483), and the lifetime prevalence of UI was 15.8% (n = 639). In the study population, the presence of UI was not significantly different by age group, but daily caffeine consumption and the percentage of caffeine consumer decreased with age (P<0.001). Higher caffeine intake led to significantly higher prevalence of both medically diagnosed UI (p = 0.012) and self-reported UI (p = 0.040) in the study population. Even after adjusting for factors including age, parity, smoking status, hypertension and diabetes in logistic regression analysis, the positive association between caffeine intake and UI prevalence was observed in both medically diagnosed UI and self-reported UI (P = 0.017) among participants. In a subgroup analysis for EQ-5D (using continuous variables) in which we categorized participants into four groups according to UI presence and caffeine consumption, the EQ-5D scores were lower in the caffeine non-user group with UI than in the caffeine consumer group with or without UI. Conclusion In a sample of Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of UI increased with higher caffeine consumption. Additionally, QOL was lower in caffeine non-users with UI than in the caffeine consumer groups. However, additional prospective studies are required to identify clear causation between caffeine consumption, UI prevalence and QOL. PMID:26901426

  3. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria in the Korean Adults: The 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Although the associations between albuminuria and renal and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, have been extensively studied, few studies have investigated the association between albuminuria and hearing impairment. In this study, we assessed the relationship between albuminuria and hearing impairment in 9786 adult Korean subjects, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011-2012. The range of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was divided into 4 grades: grade 1 (first tertile of low-grade albuminuria [LGA]), 0.00 to 1.99 mg/g Cr; grade 2 (second tertile of LGA), 2.00 to 5.49 mg/g Cr; grade 3 (third tertile of LGA), 5.50 to 29.99 mg/g Cr; grade 4 (albuminuria), ≥30.00 mg/g Cr.The age- and sex-adjusted weighted UACR was higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with those without hearing impairment (26.2 ± 4.7 mg/g Cr vs 14.1 ± 1.5 mg/g Cr, P = 0.020). The age- and sex-adjusted weighted prevalence of albuminuria was also higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with subjects without hearing impairment. (8.3 ± 0.9% vs 5.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.013) The age- and sex-adjusted weighted percentage of hearing impairment increased as UACR increased (18.0% ± 0.6%, 20.0% ± 0.8%, 22.2% ± 0.9%, 25.3% ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses were performed for hearing impairment by albuminuria, with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m as covariates. Using grade 1 of UACR as the control, grade 3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.53, P = 0.005) and grade 4 (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.90, P = 0.026) of UACR were correlated with hearing impairment, respectively. When the level of hearing impairment (dB) was analyzed as a continuous variable, it was positively correlated with log UACR (Spearman correlation, unadjusted r = 0.226, adjusted r = 0.076, P < 0.001).In conclusion, we are the first to demonstrate that albuminuria is associated with hearing impairment in the Korean general population, using nationally representative data. Screening for albuminuria would allow for interventions for the prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:26512589

  4. The direction of the difference between Canadian and American erythrocyte folate concentrations is dependent on the assay method employed: a comparison of the Canadian Health Measures Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Colapinto, Cynthia K.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Aufreiter, Susanne; Bushnik, Tracey; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Fortification of select grain products with folic acid and periconceptional supplementation recommendations in Canada and the USA have improved folate status, and have been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a comparison of erythrocyte folate concentrations from the 2007–9 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the 2007–8 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Erythrocyte folate concentration was assessed in participants aged 6–79 years (CHMS, n 5248; NHANES, n 7070). To account for different folate assays employed – Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) and microbiological assay (NHANES) – a conversion equation was generated (n 152 adults) to adjust the CHMS data. t Tests were used to examine country differences. Median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations (method-adjusted) were lower than those of Americans (988 and 1100 nmol/l, respectively), but unadjusted median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations were higher (1250 nmol/l). The upper 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate distribution overlapped that of the American erythrocyte folate concentrations, while the lower 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate data was below the American distribution. In summary, the fact that erythrocyte folate concentrations were either higher or lower in Canadians compared with Americans, depending on whether an adjustment was made to account for assay differences, suggests that caution must be exercised in evaluating erythrocyte folate data from different countries because analytical methods are not readily comparable. Furthermore, we cannot unequivocally conclude that there are true differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the Canadian and American populations in the post-fortification era. PMID:25296277

  5. Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri

    2013-01-01

    There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

  6. Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Monlezun, Dominique J.; Bittner, Edward A.; Christopher, Kenneth B.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Quraishi, Sadeq A.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006 in this cross-sectional study. We used locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) to depict the relationship between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and ARI. We then performed a multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARI, while adjusting for known confounders. The median serum 25OHD level was 21 (IQR 15–27) ng/mL. Overall, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5–5.2) of participants reported an ARI within 30 days before their participation in the national survey. LOWESS analysis revealed a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of ARI up to 25OHD levels around 30 ng/mL. After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33) compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. Among the 14,108 participants in NHANES 2001–2006, 25OHD levels were inversely associated with ARI. Carefully designed, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of ARI. PMID:25781219

  7. Vitamin D status and acute respiratory infection: cross sectional results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Monlezun, Dominique J; Bittner, Edward A; Christopher, Kenneth B; Camargo, Carlos A; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006 in this cross-sectional study. We used locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) to depict the relationship between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and ARI. We then performed a multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARI, while adjusting for known confounders. The median serum 25OHD level was 21 (IQR 15-27) ng/mL. Overall, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5-5.2) of participants reported an ARI within 30 days before their participation in the national survey. LOWESS analysis revealed a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of ARI up to 25OHD levels around 30 ng/mL. After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07-2.33) compared to levels ?30 ng/mL. Among the 14,108 participants in NHANES 2001-2006, 25OHD levels were inversely associated with ARI. Carefully designed, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of ARI. PMID:25781219

  8. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    SciTech Connect

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  9. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 20112012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Hroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20112012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  10. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  11. U.S. HEALTH AND NUTRITION: SAS SURVEY PROCEDURES AND NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to evaluate the health and nutrition of the United States. It is composed of cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. A complex, stratified, mult...

  12. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others

  13. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-03-01

    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables. PMID:25524523

  14. Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

  15. ALKYL PHOSPHATE RESIDUE VALUES IN THE URINE OF FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HANES) SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 1981 Florida citrus pesticide usage survey, it was found that substantial quantities of ethion, carbophenothion, malathion, and dioxathion are used on Florida citrus crops. Ethion is used for Snow scale and Rust mites; carbophenothion is used on Rust and Spider mites, Snow s...

  16. Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 20032010): Trends and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population. Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type. Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 20032010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income. Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.112.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.81.0 ?g/L) throughout 20032010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (611 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003. Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 20032010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds. Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 20032010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816 PMID:24451842

  17. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  18. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 20082009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 20082009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 20082009, which was conducted for 3 years (20072009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  19. Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most children do not meet the recommendation for fruit consumption. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the US; however, no studies have examined the association of total apple products, apples, apple sauce, and 100 % apple juice consumption on diet quality and weight/adiposity in ...

  20. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to

  1. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: Results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to sharpen the focus of sodium reduction strategies include identification of major food group contributors of sodium intake. Although sandwiches are a staple of the American diet, examinations of their contribution to sodium intake have been limited to “single-code” sandwiches. One day of...

  2. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  3. Graded Associations of Blood Lead and Urinary Cadmium Concentrations with Oxidative-StressRelated Markers in the U.S. Population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Lim, Ji-Sun; Song, Kyungeun; Boo, Yongchool; Jacobs, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Although oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism of lead and cadmium toxicity mostly based on in vitro experiments or animal studies, it is uncertain whether this mechanism is relevant in the pathogenesis of lead- or cadmium-related diseases in the general population with low environmental exposure to lead and cadmium. We examined associations of blood lead and urinary cadmium levels with oxidative stress markers of serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E among 10,098 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for race, sex, and age (plus serum total cholesterol in the case of serum carotenoids and vitamin E), blood lead and urinary cadmium levels both showed graded associations, positive with serum GGT and inverse with serum vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E (p for trend < 0.01, respectively). These associations were consistently observed among most subgroups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, men, women, all age groups, non-drinkers, drinkers, nonsmokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and body mass index (< 25, 2529.9, and ?30). The strong association of blood lead and urinary cadmium levels with oxidative stress markers in this population suggests that oxidative stress should be considered in the pathogenesis of lead- and cadmium-related diseases even among people with low environmental exposure to lead and cadmium. PMID:16507456

  4. Sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea: Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Choi, Moonjung; Yoon, Jin Sook; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea. Design Nationwide cross-sectional study Methods 25 752 Koreans over the age of 30 were assessed from a national representative survey. We analysed independent variables of self-reporting eye clinic visits through multivariable analyses of sociodemographic factors. The time since the last visit to an eye clinic was used to assess access to and utilisation of eye care. Results Of the 25 752 respondents, 8237 (32.0%) visited an eye clinic in the past year, 11 028 (42.8%) were seen more than 1 year ago, while 6487 (25.2%) had never seen an ophthalmologist. Eye clinic utilisation was statistically associated with older age, female sex, higher household income, higher education levels, living in an urban area, and having comorbidities including diabetes and hypertension. Middle-aged men between 30 and 49 years were found to be less likely to receive eye care compared to the rest of the population, and the proportion that did plummeted after the financial crisis of 2007. Conclusions There is a substantial sociodemographic disparity in eye care utilisation in Korea, and men with low financial income and education level are especially at risk. Use of eye care among middle-aged men has decreased since the global financial crisis that began in 2007, and therefore healthcare policies and public interventions should be targeted at vulnerable groups to promote access to medical care. PMID:26185177

  5. Nutrition-focused physical examination in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    A complete nutrition assessment includes several components: medical record review, anthropometric measurements, diet/nutrition intake, interview, and physical examination. The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) can identify or confirm muscle wasting, subcutaneous fat loss, and edema and clarify information gathered during the medical record review. The physical examination component of the nutrition assessment is more critical in pediatric patients because pediatric patients can become malnourished more quickly than adults and because prolonged malnutrition can negatively affect growth and development. In addition, case studies of micronutrient deficiencies, essential fatty acid deficiency, and protein-calorie malnutrition with skin manifestations have been reported in developed countries. The etiologies of the deficiencies are chronic disease, long-term tube feedings, or long-term parenteral nutrition. An NFPE involves an in-depth examination of the patient from head to toe by a trained nutrition professional. Nutrition professionals recognize the importance and value of an NFPE, yet it is seldom completed, particularly in pediatrics, most likely due to lack of training and lack of pediatric-specific information or training opportunities. Although there are similarities between NFPE in pediatric and adult patients such as the techniques used (inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation), there are important differences related to growth and development. This review provides an overview of nutrition assessment with focus on the NFPE and aspects unique to the pediatric patient. PMID:25739708

  6. Sarcopenia as a Determinant of Blood Pressure in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 20082010

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is directly and causally associated with body size in the general population. Whether muscle mass is an important factor that determines BP remains unclear. Objective To investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with hypertension in older Koreans. Participants We surveyed 2,099 males and 2,747 females aged 60 years or older. Measurements Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight (ASM/Wt) that was <1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg/m2. Subjects were divided into four groups based on presence or absence of obesity or sarcopenia. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ?140 mmHg, a diastolic BP (DBP) ?90 mmHg, or a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medications. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in the four groups was as follows 49.7% for non-obese non-sarcopenia, 60.9% for non-obese sarcopenia, 66.2% for obese non-sarcopenia and 74.7% for obese sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, gender, regular activity, current smoking and alcohol use, the odds ratio (OR) for having hypertension was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.231.84) in subjects in the non-obese sarcopenia group, 2.08 (95% CI?=?1.682.57) in the obese non-sarcopenia group and 3.0 (95% CI?=?2.483.63) in the obese sarcopenia group, compared with the non-obese non-sarcopenia group (p for trend <0.001). Controlling further for body weight and waist circumference did not change the association between hypertension and sarcopenia. The association between sarcopenia and hypertension was more robust in the subjects with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Body composition beyond BMI has a considerable impact on hypertension in elderly Koreans. Subjects with sarcopenic obesity appear to have a greater risk of hypertension than simply obese or sarcopenia subjects. PMID:24489804

  7. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  8. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ?30.0?kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200?cells/?L.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  9. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Conclusion Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children. PMID:26445211

  10. Urinary lignans and inflammatory markers in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992004 and 20052008

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Aline; Nicastro, Holly L.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of various chronic diseases. We previously found that certain urinary isoflavones are associated with markers of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count with lignans, which are more frequent in the Western diet than isoflavones. Methods Our analysis included 2,028 participants of NHANES 20052008 and 2,628 participants of NHANES 19992004 aged 18 years and older. The exposures of interest were urinary mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone). Outcome variables were two inflammatory markers (CRP [?10 mg/L] and WBC [?3.0 and ?11.7 (1,000 cells/?L)]). Log-transformed CRP concentration and WBC count by log-transformed creatinine-standardized concentrations of mammalian lignans were used for linear regression. Results Statistically significant inverse associations of urinary lignan, enterodiol, and enterolactone concentrations with circulating CRP and WBC counts were observed in the multivariate-adjusted models: In NHANES 20052008, per one-percent increase in lignan concentrations in the urine, CRP concentrations and WBC counts decreased by 8.1 % (95 % CI ?11.5, ?4.5) and 1.9 % (95 % CI ?2.7; ?1.2), respectively. Per one-percent increase in enterodiol and enterolactone, WBC counts decreased by 2.1 % (95 % CI ?2.8, ?1.3) and 1.3 % (95 % CI ?1.9, ?0.6), respectively. In NHANES 19992004, analogous results were 3.0 % (95 % CI ?5.6, ?0.3), 1.2 % (95 % CI ?2.0; ?0.4), 1.0 % (95 % CI ?1.8, ?0.2), and 0.8 % (95 % CI ?1.4, 0.2). Conclusions Mammalian lignans were inversely associated with markers of chronic inflammation. Due to the cross-sectional design, our findings require confirmation in prospective studies. PMID:24463788

  11. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (20032006)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ?2years (n?=?16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 20032006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to as consumed food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended consequence of lowering overall dietary quality. PMID:23927718

  12. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals age two years and older reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruits and Dairy). Methods To assess if the foods currently consumed by Americans are in concordance with the DGA, food consumption data from What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA-NHANES) 2007–2008 (n = 8 527) was used to estimate the proportion of foods that contained SoFAS and to report them by food group. Weighted analysis was conducted to be nationally representative. Results The Dairy group contained the highest proportion (93%) of either SoF or AS, followed by Grains (70% SoF; 70% AS; 50% both). Fruits contained the least SoFAS (7%). Conclusions Results suggest that the high proportion of SoFAS in each recommended food group makes it challenging for Americans to reduce their intake of SoFAS. PMID:24649969

  13. The Association between Stress Level in Daily Life and Age at Natural Menopause in Korean Women: Outcomes of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byoung-O; Choi, Ji-Ho; Cho, Se-Wook; Im, Hyun-Jung; An, Jee-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several risk factors associated with reduced age at natural menopause (ANM) have been investigated, the results are inconsistent. Excessive stress, which leads to elevation of stress hormones, can also negatively affect reproductive ability, including by accelerating menopause. However, a direct association between stress level and ANM has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the object of this study was to investigate the association between stress level and ANM in Korean women. Methods Study participants were Korean women between 40 and 70 years old who were in natural menopause during the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3,176). The level of stress in daily life was estimated based on data from the mental health topics of the survey. We used the t-test and one-way analysis of variance to analyze the correlation between stress level and ANM. Regression (β) coefficients calculated by multiple regression analysis were used to estimate various factors affecting ANM. Results Women who experienced a high level of stress in daily life had a lower mean ANM than women with a low stress level (50.17±3.7 and 50.58±3.5 years, respectively), with a statistically significant correlation (P<0.05). This correlation was still observed after adjusting for age, body mass index, menstrual regularity, and personal income (P<0.05 for variables). Conclusion In Korean women between 40 and 70 years of age who are in natural menopause, there is a statistically significant correlation between stress level and ANM. In particular, women who experience a high level of stress in daily life have reduced ANM. PMID:26634097

  14. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults of Age 30 Years and Older without Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Failure, or Overt Proteinuria: The 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Gong-Myung; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and obesity markers are known risk factors for cardiovascular or renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria according to body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity criteria. Methods The study subjects included 3,979 individuals aged 30 years or older who did not have diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, or overt proteinuria, from among those who participated in The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. BMI and waist circumference were classified according to the Asia-Pacific criteria. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.1%. In the normoalbuminuria group, 3.4%, 41.7%, 24%, 27.6%, and 3.2% of participants were included in the underweight, normal, overweight, obesity 1, and obesity 2 groups, respectively. These percentages in the microalbuminuria group were 7.1%, 34.5%, 19.2%, 28.6%, and 10.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The waist circumference in men was 21.4% in the normoalbuminuria group and 36.5% in the microalbuminuria group (P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of microalbuminuria and BMI or waist circumference groups. The risk of microalbuminuria was significant only in the underweight group (odds ratio, 13.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.5568.63; P=0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria in a general population in Korea was associated with underweight in men and was not associated with waist circumference in either men or women. PMID:26885324

  15. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotypephenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (Genetic NHANES) from NHANES III and NHANES 19992002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 19992002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic NHANES. Despite the lack of genome-wide data, our results suggest the presence of cryptic relatedness in this epidemiologic collection and highlight the limitations of restricted datasets such as NHANES in the context of modern day genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26579192

  16. The Manitoba Nutrition Survey: fat consumption data.

    PubMed

    Sevenhuysen, G P; Fieldhouse, P; Young, T K; McNeil, C; Gelskey, D E; McDonald, S M

    1993-01-01

    A nutrition survey was conducted as part of a larger cardiovascular risk study undertaken by the Manitoba Heart Health Project. A representative group of Manitobans participated in the study, 68% of whom reported their food intake using a food frequency questionnaire. After verifying and merging data from the nutrition and risk factor questionnaires used in the survey, 2,115 were used in data analysis. Results are reported by gender for three age groups. The proportion of food energy derived from total fat varied between 35.3% for senior females and 40.2% for young males. Food of seniors contained a lower proportion of energy from fat than that of either of the two younger age groups. In all three age groups, men consumed diets with a higher proportion of fat than did women. People in regional centres and rural areas obtained higher proportions of energy from fat than did people in Winnipeg. Fat intake from butter, margarine or spreads eaten with bread and potatoes was high compared to the intake from other foods. PMID:8131141

  17. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 – 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 – 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  18. Usual Dietary Intake Among Female Breast Cancer Survivors is Not Significantly Different From Women With No Cancer History: Results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Tooze, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24 hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit, total vegetables, dark green and orange vegetables, whole grains, red meat, processed meat, alcohol, and calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to non-cancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. Over 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2% consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and less than 10% of either group met the recommendation for percent calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar. The diet of breast cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer. PMID:24169415

  19. Caloric and Selected Nutrient Values for Persons 1-74 Years of Age: First Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 1971-1974. Vital and Health Statistics, Data from the National Health Survey, Series ll, Number 209.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sidney; And Others

    This report presents data on dietary intake obtained to assess the nutritional status of the United States population, aged 1-74 years. Age, sex, race, and income level differences in dietary intake are among the variables considered. Data are analyzed for certain groups at high risk of malnutrition (e.g., the poor, preschool children, women of

  20. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M.; Wei, Stanley C.; Mattson, Christine L.; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Bell, Tanvir K.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5–0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1–1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL. Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  1. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone and the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases with age, while parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases. There are a few reports only on the relationship between GFR and PTH under the category of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, a cross-sectional study was conducted on the association between serum 25(OH)D concentration, GFR and PTH in Korean adults aged 50 years or older. Serum PTH concentration was compared to the tertiles of GFR after adjustment for relevant variables. In addition, the serum PTH concentration was compared with the GFR under the category of serum 25(OH) D concentration (<20, 20-30, >30 ng/mL). Results The mean estimated GFR (eGFR) was 74.8 mL/min in men and 73.1 mL/min in women. The mean PTH and 25(OH) D was 66.8 pg/mL, 20.5 ng/mL in men and 69.0 pg/mL, 18.2 ng/mL in women. The serum PTH concentration showed a significant negative correlation with the serum 25(OH) D and eGFR in both genders. The serum PTH concentration significantly increased at the lower tertile of eGFR in male adults In addition, a decrease of serum PTH concentration was marked in the vitamin D sufficient male adults (>30 ng/mL). Conclusion This present study demonstrated that serum PTH concentration showed negative correlation with eGFR, however, serum PTH increase may be minimized by maintaining proper serum 25(OH)D concentrations under similar eGFR status in Korean adults aged 50 and above. PMID:24724005

  2. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence in Postmenopausal Non-Diabetic Adult Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung Il; Han, Kyung-Do; Lee, Kyu Won; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Sun Wook; Sohn, Dong Wan; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Ha, U-Syn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR) and urinary incontinence in Korean adult women by analyzing the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES) 20072009 Methods A nationally representative sample of 5318 non-diabetic Korean women ?19-years-of-age (3043 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal women) was included from KNHANES 20082010. IR was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants in the highest and lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were defined as insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive respectively. Women who have current physician-diagnosed urinary incontinence were classified as having urinary incontinence. Results Incontinence was found in 9.18% of the total population, 8.51% of the premenopausal population, and 10.86% of the postmenopausal population. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age, reaching a peak at 60-69-years-of-age. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increased significantly with higher HOMA-IR quartiles in pre- and post-menopausal women (p for linear association = 0.0458 and 0.0009 respectively). Among post-menopausal women, those in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.072.77]. However premenopausal population exhibited no association between incontinence and HOMA-IR quartiles Conclusion Our results suggest that the prevalence of incontinence increased across HOMA-IR in non-diabetic adult women, and especially, IR might be a risk factor for incontinence in postmenopausal non-diabetic women. PMID:26529410

  3. The relationship of physical activity (PA) and walking with sarcopenia in Korean males aged 60 years and older using the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have reported the association between age related changes in muscle mass and the functional impairments of the elderly, few have reported on the modifiable lifestyle factors that are related to sarcopenia. Three thousand five hundred ninety-eight men in nationally representative cross-sectional, population-representative sampled survey using data from the KNHANES IV aged 19 years and older who completed a body composition using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. To determine whether there are any associations between physical activities, nutritional status and sarcopenia were examined in 1156 men among those over 60 years of age. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle in the arms and legs. Sarcopenia was defined as the ASM/Ht(2) of less than two standard deviations (SD) below the sex-specific normal mean for the younger reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean men aged 60 years and older was 9.9%. Sarcopenia was negatively associated with the third quartile (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.20-0.80) and fourth quartile of PA (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.11-0.52), and negatively associated with the highest quartile of protein intake (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.14-0.76). In logistic regression models, sarcopenia was negatively associated with walking PA (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.83) after an adjustment for age, smoking habits, alcohol drinking, family income, education status and protein intake. Sarcopenia was associated with PA, especially walking PA. PMID:23298535

  4. Negative Association between Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate Concentrations in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20052006

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.153.62), 40363 (3751243431), and 1129 (10291239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P?=?0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P?=?0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P?=?0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI)?=?0.77 (0.600.98) and 0.69 (0.610.79), respectively]. Conclusions A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation. PMID:25514572

  5. Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for metabolic disorders. No study of the association of sarcopenia with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS) according to age group and obesity status in the general population has been reported. We investigated these associations in the Korean population. Participants included 4558 males and 5874 females, who were ?20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). Age was categorized according to three groups (20-39, 40-59, and ? 60 years). Obesity was defined according to body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by weight (Wt) (%) of > 2SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. After adjustment for confounding variables, sarcopenia showed a significant association with HOMA-IR in the non-obese group (P<0.001). Sarcopenia was found to be a risk factor for diabetes in the non-obese group (OR, 2.140; 95% CI, 1.549-2.956; P<0.001). Sarcopenia also showed an association with MS in the non-obese group (OR, 2.209; 95% CI, 1.679-2.906; P<0.001), but not in the obese-group. However, these results were not relevant to young age group. In conclusion, sarcopenia showed an association with insulin resistance, diabetes, and MS, in the non-obese population. Sarcopenia may be an early predictor for diabetes and MS susceptibility in the non-obese population, particularly in elderly people. PMID:24088600

  6. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20072010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During 20072010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 679 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 4079 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on persons age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 20072010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 4079 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 4079 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence decreased by approximately 33% when airflow limitation was based on post-bronchodilator as compared to pre-bronchodilator spirometry, regardless of which diagnostic criterion was used. PMID:24107140

  7. Ethnic variation in validity of classification of overweight and obesity using self-reported weight and height in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, RF; Sempos, Christopher T

    2005-01-01

    Background Few data have been published on the validity of classification of overweight and obesity based on self-reported weight in representative samples of Hispanic as compared to other American populations despite the wide use of such data. Objective To test the null hypothesis that ethnicity is unrelated to bias of mean body mass index (BMI) and to sensitivity of overweight or obesity (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) derived from self-reported (SR) versus measured weight and height using measured BMI as the gold standard. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted in 19881994. Participants American men and women aged 20 years and over (n = 15,025). Measurements SR height, weight, cigarette smoking, health status, and socio-demographic variables from home interview and measured weight and height. Results In women and Mexican American (MA) men SR BMI underestimated true prevalence rates of overweight or obesity. For other men, no consistent difference was seen. Sensitivity of SR was similar in non-Hispanic European Americans (EA) and non-Hispanic African Americans (AA) but much lower in MA. Prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2) is consistently underestimated by self-report, the gap being greater for MA than for other women, but similar for MA and other men. The mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI was greater in MA (men -0.37, women -0.76 kg/m2) than in non-Hispanic EA (men -0.22, women -0.62 kg/m2). In a regression model with the difference between self-reported and measured BMI as the dependent variable, MA ethnicity was a significant (p < 0.01) predictor of the difference in men and in women. The effect of MA ethnicity could not be explained by socio-demographic variables, smoking or health status. Conclusion Under-estimation of the prevalence of overweight or obesity based on height and weight self-reported at interview varied significantly among ethnic groups independent of other variables. PMID:16209706

  8. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 20092010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    PubMed Central

    St. Hill, Catherine A.; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 20092010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 20092010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.0291.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.3241.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.0301.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer. PMID:26380255

  9. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  10. A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition

  11. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n?=?8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n?=?2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p?

  12. SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

  13. Communication in Surveys: Examining Cognitive Effects in Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Charles T.; And Others

    Panel studies have frequently been used by mass communication researchers. While these studies allow researchers to draw inferences about mass communication effects over time, they also tend to sensitize respondents to the issue under study. A study was undertaken to investigate panel effects by examining the survey interview as a medium of…

  14. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of

  15. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  16. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p < 0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p < 0.0001); vitamin K (p = 0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p < 0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations. PMID:23282226

  17. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to improving the recreational facility food environment, however one year following their release, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY remained low. A mandated policy approach could offer an efficacious, cost-effective means of improving the food environment within recreational facilities. PMID:21631946

  18. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally…

  19. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally

  20. Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

  1. A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition…

  2. Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses. PMID:22764138

  3. Examining the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals marketed to children.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Vartanian, Lenny R; Wharton, Christopher M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-04-01

    There are both public health and food industry initiatives aimed at increasing breakfast consumption among children, particularly the consumption of ready-to-eat cereals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were identifiable differences in nutritional quality between cereals that are primarily marketed to children and cereals that are not marketed to children. Of the 161 cereals identified between January and February 2006, 46% were classified as being marketed to children (eg, packaging contained a licensed character or contained an activity directed at children). Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare children's cereals and nonchildren's cereals with respect to their nutritional content, focusing on nutrients required to be reported on the Nutrition Facts panel (including energy). Compared to nonchildren's cereals, children's cereals were denser in energy, sugar, and sodium, but were less dense in fiber and protein. The proportion of children's and nonchildren's cereals that did and did not meet national nutritional guidelines for foods served in schools were compared using chi2analysis. The majority of children's cereals (66%) failed to meet national nutrition standards, particularly with respect to sugar content. t tests were used to compare the nutritional quality of children's cereals with nutrient-content claims and health claims to those without such claims. Although the specific claims were generally justified by the nutritional content of the product, there were few differences with respect to the overall nutrition profile. Overall, there were important differences in nutritional quality between children's cereals and nonchildren's cereals. Dietary advice for children to increase consumption of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals should identify and recommend those cereals with the best nutrient profiles. PMID:18375229

  4. Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2014-07-01

    Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumb (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

  5. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health. PMID:25516308

  6. Worry as a predictor of nutrition behaviors: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Bergman, Hannah E; Klein, William M P

    2013-02-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey (n = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of nutrition behaviors. Greater worry was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption (B = 0.19, p < .01), but also more meals eaten when watching television (B = 0.34, p < .01) and fewer with family (B = -0.13, p = .02). Importantly, and counterintuitively, greater worry appeared to reverse the conventional relationship between self-efficacy and dietary restriction; those who were self-efficacious and worried were less likely to restrict unhealthy foods. Similarly, worry attenuated the relationship between perceived benefits and special effort to buy produce. A complex relationship between worry and nutrition emerged, with potentially important clinical implications. PMID:22505569

  7. Evaluation of forest nutrition based on large-scale foliar surveys: are nutrition profiles the way of the future?

    PubMed

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Sulkava, Mika; Raitio, Hannu; Hollmn, Jaakko

    2004-02-01

    This paper introduces the use of nutrition profiles as a first step in the development of a concept that is suitable for evaluating forest nutrition on the basis of large-scale foliar surveys. Nutrition profiles of a tree or stand were defined as the nutrient status, which accounts for all element concentrations, contents and interactions between two or more elements. Therefore a nutrition profile overcomes the shortcomings associated with the commonly used concepts for evaluating forest nutrition. Nutrition profiles can be calculated by means of a neural network, i.e. a self-organizing map, and an agglomerative clustering algorithm with pruning. As an example, nutrition profiles were calculated to describe the temporal variation in the mineral composition of Scots pine and Norway spruce needles in Finland between 1987 and 2000. The temporal trends in the frequency distribution of the nutrition profiles of Scots pine indicated that, between 1987 and 2000, the N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg and Al decreased, whereas the needle mass (NM) increased or remained unchanged. As there were no temporal trends in the frequency distribution of the nutrition profiles of Norway spruce, the mineral composition of the needles of Norway spruce needles subsequently did not change. Interpretation of the (lack of) temporal trends was outside the scope of this example. However, nutrition profiles prove to be a new and better concept for the evaluation of the mineral composition of large-scale surveys only when a biological interpretation of the nutrition profiles can be provided. PMID:14760461

  8. The association of dietary quality and food group intake patterns with bone health status among Korean postmenopausal women: a study using the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Go, Gyeongah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lim, Youngsook; Jung, Soyeon; Min, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related disease are drawing a lot of attention in Korea as one of the serious health problems. Bone health status may be influenced by the general dietary quality and dietary pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS To determine the relationship between dietary quality and intake patterns and bone health status, the %RNI, NAR, DDS, and food group intake patterns were assessed according to their bone health status for 847 postmenopausal women using the 2010 KNHANES data after eliminating those of likely changing their diet under the advice of doctors or those taking estrogen. RESULTS Bone health became worse as dietary quality deteriorated. All NAR and %RNI values were highly associated with bone health levels and the consumption frequency of Ca sources, DDS and the food group intake patterns also confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that dietary quality and dietary patterns were important for bone health. Nutritional education on eating foods from the five basic food groups has to be emphasized to prevent osteoporosis among older women. PMID:25489406

  9. An Examination of Correlates and Effects Associated with a Concise Measure of Consumers' Nutrition Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Tracy A.; Burton, Scot

    1996-01-01

    Consumers in two studies (n=374 and 500) were surveyed regarding their nutrition knowledge and the information on food labels. Validity of the survey instrument was supported by comparing results from professional nutritionists and dietitian students. Knowledge level was an important factor in consumer comprehension of and attitudes toward label

  10. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  11. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

  12. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

  13. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Fengying; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

  14. Reliability and validity of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey (CAPANS-C) questionnaire examining potential correlates of physical activity participation among Chinese-Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, few questionnaires examining psychosocial influences of physical activity (PA) participation have been psychometrically tested among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) youth. An understanding of these influences may help explain the observed differences in PA among CALD youth. Therefore, this study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a brief self-report questionnaire examining potential psychological and social correlates of physical activity among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods Two Chinese-weekend cultural schools from eastern metropolitan Melbourne consented to participate in this study. In total, 505 students aged 11 to 16 years were eligible for inclusion in the present study, and of these, 106 students agreed to participate (21% response rate). Participants completed at 37-item self-report questionnaire examining perceived psychological and social influences on physical activity participation twice, with a test–retest interval of 7 days. Predictive validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated using exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach’s α coefficient, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Predictive validity was assessed by correlating responses against duration spent in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed a nine factor structure, with the majority of factors exhibiting high internal consistency (α ≥ 0.6). In addition, four of the nine factors had an ICC ≥ 0.6. Spearman rank-order correlations coefficients between the nine factors and self-reported minutes spent in MVPA ranged from -0.5 to 0.3 for all participants. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of a potential psychological and social correlates questionnaire among Chinese-Australian youth. The questionnaire was found to provide reliable estimates on a range of psychological and social influences on physical activity and evidence of predictive validity on a limited number of factors. More research is required to improve the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. PMID:24512223

  15. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and

  16. Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

  17. Nutrition Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Statistical Analysis Report. Fast Response Survey System (FRSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebuski, Carin; Farris, Elizabeth

    This report presents the findings from the "Nutrition Education in Public Schools, K-12" survey that was designed to provide data on the status of nutrition education in U.S. public schools. Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 school principals of a nationally representative sample of U.S. elementary, middle, and high schools. The survey requested…

  18. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tu, Su-Hao; Chen, Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 was funded by the Department of Health to provide continued assessment of health and nutrition of the people in Taiwan. This household survey collected data from children aged less than 6 years and adults aged 19 years and above, and adopted a three-stage stratified, clustered sampling scheme similar to that used in the NAHSIT 1993-1996. Four samples were produced. One sample with five geographical strata was selected for inference to the whole of Taiwan, while the other three samples, including Hakka, Penghu and mountainous areas were produced for inference to each cultural stratum. A total of 6,189 household interviews and 3,670 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency and habits, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, as well as blood and urine collection. Response rate for the household interview was 65%. Of these household interviews, 59% participated in the health exam. Only in a few age subgroups were there significant differences in sex, age, education, or ethnicity distribution between respondents and non-respondents. For the health exam, certain significant differences between participants and non-participants were mostly observed in those aged 19-64 years. The results of this survey will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and the public to understand and improve the nutrition and health status of pre-school children and adults in Taiwan. PMID:21669592

  19. Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys--toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets. PMID:25407161

  20. 46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 167.15-30 Section 167.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections 167.15-30 Drydock examination, internal structural...

  1. Serum Nutritional Biomarkers and Their Associations with Sleep among US Adults in Recent National Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Canas, Jose A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Shah, Mauli T.; McNeely, Jessica M.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005–2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20–85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A) Sleep duration; (B) Sleep disorder; (C) Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as “Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction” (Factor 1), “Sleepiness” (Factor 2) and “Sleep disturbance” (Factor 3). Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene), folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models. Results Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OH)D and sleepiness (as well as insomnia), and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5–6 h per night) compared to normal sleep duration (7–8 h per night). Conclusions A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships. PMID:25137304

  2. A National Survey of Nutritional Education in U.S. Schools of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Ronald M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A survey of 71 schools of pharmacy and 22 post-entry-level doctoral pharmacy programs revealed that most have at least one course containing nutrition information in the curriculum, with varying course content and emphasis. Instructors prefer more formalized lecture to therapeutic and nutrition of health topics. (MSE)

  3. Exit examination: a survey of UK psychiatrists' views

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nicholas S.; Haselgrove, Angela; Tovey, Matthew S.; Khokhar, Waqqas A.; Husain, Muj; Osman-Hicks, Victoria C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method The Royal College of Psychiatrists is considering how best to introduce a post-MRCPsych-examination assessment (exit examination) in anticipation of external pressures to ensure patient safety through the use of such assessments. The Psychiatric Trainees' Committee conducted an online survey to gather the views of psychiatrists regarding the possible format and content of this examination in the hope that this information can be used to design a satisfactory assessment. Results Of the 2082 individuals who started the survey, 1735 completed all sections (83.3%). Participants included consultants and trainees from a range of subspecialties. There was general agreement that the content and structure of the exit examination should include assessment of clinical and communication skills. Clinical implications UK psychiatrists believe that an exit assessment should focus on clinical and communication skills. It should assess both generic and subspecialty-specific competencies and incorporate a mixture of assessment techniques. PMID:26755972

  4. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet & Nutrition - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign ... with MS Health and Wellness Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. ...

  5. Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

    2014-07-01

    Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schoolswhere, on average, 23.68?h of required nutrition education wasprovided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe. PMID:24781690

  6. [Nutritional surveys in some centers of 3 provinces of Sardinia. II. Nutrition and tradition].

    PubMed

    Carbini, L; Lantini, T; Peretti Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L

    1981-01-30

    The differences between the nutritional habits we noticed in the villages under study, concern the geographical position, the kind of agricultural or pastoral economy and industrialization. However, these are not the only decisive factors. In some villages where average income in high, tradition still influences nutritional habits, as the preference for some typical dishes suggests. In other villages, where income is low, but where progress has been rapidly reached, the preference for more sophisticated or advertised foods seems to prevail. PMID:7236397

  7. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  8. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF NUTRITIONAL SURVEYS IN UNITED STATES ARMY CAMPS

    PubMed Central

    Murlin, John R.; Miller, Caspar W.

    1919-01-01

    Before the war there had never been presented to food experts in this country an opportunity for the extended study of nutrition comparable to that afforded these investigators. Their report sets forth details of observations which support the training ration, which is appetizing and secures a proper distribution of the nutrients. Imagesp413-a PMID:18010111

  9. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevi?, Dragana; Mandi?, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish, lower consumption of meat and meat products, sweetened foods and drinks etc. The final outcome would result in longterm positive impact on dietary habits. PMID:26040077

  10. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  11. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development ... nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased from 76.0% in 2000 to 88. ...

  12. Examination of specific nutrition/health behaviors using a social cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C J; Sims, L S; Shannon, B

    1989-02-01

    Nutrition intervention programs are not always successful. In some cases, an insufficient understanding of the interrelationships among factors influencing health behaviors may be responsible for the failures. This study used social cognitive theory, a framework for studying behaviors, to structure the relationships between measurable factors important to the frequency of health-oriented food consumption. We developed a model that incorporated factors for social environment, reinforcement, commitment, behavior modeling, knowledge, and attitude relative to the frequency of consumption of four beverages (whole milk, low-fat/skin milk, regular soda, and diet soda). Four-hundred fifty-seven middle-aged adults (mean age, 47 years; 58% female) and 709 college students (mean age, 21 years; 50% female) responded to a written questionnaire designed as a self-report on frequency of consumption and measures for 10 social cognitive variables. For all four beverages, the model explained 35% or more of the variance in frequency of consumption, thus confirming its predictive power. We used the statistical approach known as path analysis to examine the relationships within the model. The analysis demonstrated that factors influencing the consumption varied between the two age groups (e.g., nutrition knowledge was related to attitude in adult soda-drinking models but not in student soda-drinking models) and between forms of the beverages (e.g., for student models, nutrition knowledge was related to taste enjoyment for low-fat/skim milk but not for whole milk).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2915091

  13. The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense surveys: lasting impacts.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Barbara A

    2005-05-01

    The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND) Surveys provided previously unavailable representative information on the food and nutrition situations of military or civilian populations in 33 developing countries. Information on related social and economic conditions also were assessed. These data provided a framework for planning follow-up programs to correct problems identified and to prevent them from recurring, such as fortification of salt with iodine and sugar with vitamin A. Educational materials specific to the nutrient content of local foods, dietary patterns, and availability within countries and cultures were also developed, such as food composition tables and dietary guidelines. In-country scientists were motivated to continue nutrition research, and, in several countries, institutes and departments of nutrition evolved. Impact was documented by improved nutritional status in several countries, although success is not always attributed directly to the impetus provided through the ICNND Surveys. Furthermore, the surveys and their leaders provided inspiration and role models for aspiring young nutritionists both within their own countries and internationally. PMID:15867321

  14. Nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households and primary health care staff: NUTRIKAP Survey.

    PubMed

    Azemati, Bahar; Heshmat, Ramin; Sanaei, Maryam; Salehi, Forouzan; Sadeghi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Mirarefin, Mojde; Abdollahi, Zahra; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Larijani, Bagher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households and health staff on nutrition at province level. The sampling method in NUTRIKAP survey for households in each province is single-stage cluster sampling and the size of clusters is equal. The sampling method for health staff in each province is stratified random sampling. Samples are selected from physicians, health experts, health technicians, nutritionists and health assistants (Behvarz). Overall, 14136 people in 57 clusters in each province and 480 health staff over the country participate in this survey. The necessary data will be gathered by the structured questionnaire and the interview with the eligible person in each household. Data gathering from health staff will be carried out by self-administered questionnaire. The results of this study can help the bureau of community nutrition to provide the proper interventions to improve nutritional health of households. PMID:23497528

  15. School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed…

  16. Evaluation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education: Application of Behavioral Theory and Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior…

  17. School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed

  18. Evaluation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education: Application of Behavioral Theory and Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior

  19. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age and ethnically diverse subgroups of the population. PMID:22691761

  20. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam..., the vessel must undergo two alternate hull exams and two internal structural exams within any...

  1. Nutrition Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Patients: A Survey of Current Practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vihas; Romano, Michelle; Corkins, Mark R; DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Earthman, Carrie; Malone, Ainsley; Miller, Sarah; Sabino, Kim; Wooley, Jennifer; Guenter, Peggi

    2014-07-01

    Background: The Joint Commission has mandated universal screening and assessment of hospitalized patients for malnutrition since 1995. Although various validated and nonvalidated tools are available, implementation of this mandate has not been well characterized. We report results of a survey of hospital-based professionals in the United States describing their perspective on the current range of nutrition screening and assessment practices as well as associated gaps in knowledge. Methods and Materials: Data from a 2012-2013 cross-sectional, web-based survey targeting members of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, and the Society of Hospital Medicine were collected with non-hospital-based members excluded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Survey data from 1777 unique email addresses are included in this report. A majority of respondents were dietitians, nearly half were A.S.P.E.N. members, and 69.4% reported caring for a mix of adult and pediatric patients. Most respondents answered affirmatively about nutrition screening being performed in alignment with The Joint Commission mandate, but only 50% were familiar with the 2012 Consensus Statement from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/A.S.P.E.N. on adult malnutrition. In most cases, nurses were primarily responsible for nutrition screening, while dietitians had primary responsibility for assessment. No one specific assessment tool or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code was identified as being used a majority of the time in assessing or coding a patient for malnutrition. Conclusions: The survey findings affirmed compliance with accreditation standards in completing a nutrition screen within 24 hours of admission, and most hospitals appear to have a process to perform a nutrition assessment once a screen is completed. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in both use of tools and mechanisms for coding capture. Opportunities exist to improve education around nutrition screening and assessment and to identify ideal practices for these processes in hospitalized patients. PMID:24993585

  2. Child Nutritional Status: A Representative Survey in a Metropolitan School

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Paolo; Triunfo, Stefania; Scambia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and thinness among children in an Italian school. Methods. Five hundred ninety-five children (289 males and 306 females) were enrolled, aged between 6 and 19 years old, in Italian school in Rome. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to International Obesity Task Force (IOFT) cut-off points. By age criterion all participants have been classified in age classes. Results. A normal BMI was recorded in 73.6% of all cases. Obesity, overweight, and thinness prevalence was 5.9%, 9.6%, and 10.9%, respectively, without statistical differences in both genders, except the prevalence of overweight that resulted statistically significant (13.1% males versus 6.2% females, P < 0.05). Differences in the age groups have been found. About 23.4% of children between 7 to 11 years were defined obese and about 42.3% between 6 to 8 years thin grade 2, respectively. Conclusion. The study reports the low prevalence of overweight and obesity, in contrast to the unexpected thinness prevalence. The identification of specific age groups with abnormal nutritional status could be the first step to address future epidemiological investigations in order to plan strategic approach in selected age periods. PMID:23431424

  3. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  4. Examining the Cultural Competence of Third- and Fourth-Year Nutrition Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Rebekah; Hekmat, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Latifeh

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary Canadian research assessing nutrition students' cultural competence and to identify areas for future education initiatives in dietetic education that could ultimately improve dietitians' cultural competence. A mixed-methods study was conducted using a 24-item questionnaire that was administered to students enrolled in third- and fourth-year undergraduate nutrition classes (n = 133). In total, 115 questionnaires were analyzed for quantitative data, and 109 were analyzed for qualitative data. The students scored an overall medium-high level of cultural competence. Out of the 5 areas examined (skills, attitudes, awareness, desires, knowledge), students' multicultural knowledge scores were the lowest. It was found that a lower number of barriers to learning about other cultures were significantly associated with a higher overall cultural competence score, and taking a course in cultural foods significantly increased the students' knowledge and overall cultural competence (P ≤ 0.05). The qualitative data found that students felt the cultural competence curriculum had gaps and identified several ideas for improvement. In conclusion, this research data provides novel insights into the cultural competence of Canadian dietetic students and additionally supports future research and curriculum development to enhance cultural competence. PMID:26280274

  5. Texercise select effectiveness: an examination of physical activity and nutrition outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Howell, Doris; Chen, Shuai; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Swierc, Suzanne M; Stevens, Alan B

    2015-12-01

    Given the role of physical activity (PA) and good nutrition to delay the onset and progression of most chronic conditions, effective interventions are needed to influence lifestyle behaviors of community-dwelling populations. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Texercise Select to improve health indicators, PA, and dietary behaviors, and confidence to engage in healthful behaviors. Texercise Select, a 12-week exercise program, was delivered. Baseline and 12-week follow-up assessments were collected from 220 participants with baseline data who were aged 45 years and older for this non-randomized one-group pre-post design trial. Linear mixed models were fitted for continuous outcome variables and GEE models with logit link function for binary outcome variables. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were seen in physical activity scores (d = 0.64 for aerobic activity), weekly fruit/vegetable consumption (d = 0.31), daily water consumption (d = 0.29), as well as PA- and nutrition-related confidence (d =0.38 and 0.21, respectively) and social support (d =0.45). Programs rooted in best practices show promise for positively impacting large numbers of participants and becoming sustainably embedded in communities over time. PMID:26622916

  6. The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.

    PubMed

    Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the nutritional care of obese burn patients. This indicates the need for further research to determine consistent best practices. PMID:21785364

  7. The Examining Evaluator Feedback Survey. REL 2016-100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherasaro, Trudy L.; Brodersen, R. Marc; Yanoski, David C.; Welp, Laura C.; Reale, Marianne L.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a survey tool, developed by REL Central at Marzano Research, designed to gather information from teachers about their perceptions of and responses to evaluator feedback. District or state administrators can use this survey to systematically collect teacher perceptions on five key aspects of evaluation feedback: (1) feedback…

  8. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. I. Descriptive and anthropometric data.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    By sequential random numbering 10 schools in greater Winnipeg were selected for a nutrition survey. Interviews were conducted with 201 grade 3 children and 182 grade 6 children for whom parental consent was obtained. Of these, 48 in grade 3 and 51 in grade 6 were studied in further detail. There were no differences in descriptive data between the general and detailed groups or among the 10 schools. Most fathers were skilled or unskilled labourers and about 50% of the mothers were homemakers without outside employment; parental occupation did not influence eating patterns. Breakfast was the meal most often missed; 8% of the 383 children had come to school without breakfast. Since many children in grade 3 had prepared their own breakfast and since there was a relative lack of physical activity, school health programs should incorporate more than nutritional supplements and nutrition education. On the basis of body weight and height the nutritional status of the 99 children studied in detail was judged to be generally satisfactory; according to the Boston standards the boys were heavy and tall, and the girls were normal in weight but short. PMID:837314

  9. Nutrition education: a survey of practices and perceptions in undergraduate dietetics education.

    PubMed

    Short, Joy E; Chittooran, Mary M

    2004-10-01

    Electronic mail messages linked to an online survey were sent to 281 directors of didactic and coordinated programs in dietetics to investigate coverage of nutrition education in undergraduate curriculua, perceived importance of topics, and perceived trends. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were performed on responses from 117 programs. Programs addressed nutrition education through a variety of methods and materials. Fifty-three percent (n=62) offered a course dedicated to nutrition education. The most common teaching methods were didactic (88%) and experiential learning (87%). Most of the topics investigated, including those addressed by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education Accreditation Manual, were viewed as important, very important, or essential. Perceived trends included increased use of technology, theories/models, client-centered education, cultural awareness, and behavior change. Eighty-eight percent of respondents indicated satisfaction with nutrition education curriculum strategies. Dissatisfaction was associated with inadequate time and resources, need for course improvement, and lack of control over experiences. Results may aid in curriculum development. PMID:15389422

  10. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  11. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  12. A Follow-up Survey of Family Physicians' Interest in and Knowledge of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brian W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Physicians (N=71) completed a questionnaire about 33 nutrition topics. Perceived knowledge significantly increased except for nutritional biochemistry. Physicians wished to learn more only in the areas of nutrition counseling and nutrition in the life cycle. (DB)

  13. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children

  14. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  15. A survey and examination of subpixel measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, G. A. W.; Clarke, T. A.

    1990-08-01

    Increasingly sophisticated electrooptic sensors with digital image processing for such tasks as automatic inspection, surveying, remote sensing, and photogrammetry require subpixel methods in order to improve resolution above the levels facilitated by sensing-element spacing and A/D conversion resolution. Subpixel methods are presently proposed for the determination of laser spot positions on a sensing array for triangulation tasks. An evaluation is made of the spatial resolution, quantization accuracy, and noise of several experimentally analyzed techniques, namely centroiding, interpolation, correlation, edge analysis, and shape determination. The first three techniques are judged to be the most applicable.

  16. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hull exams and two internal structural exams within any five-year period. If a vessel completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved... structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel may undergo a drydock exam to satisfy any of...

  17. A preliminary survey of parasitic infections and nutritional status among school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M M; el Hady, H M

    1989-06-01

    A total of 320 school children in the Model Institute of the Capital in Riyadh, were clinically and parasitologically examined. Thirty-five (10.94%) had intestinal parasites. Entamoeba coli (61.91%) was found more frequently among the commensals, while Giardia lamblia (28.57%) was the most common pathogenic parasite. All urines were parasite free. The low infection rate with Gardia could be explained by the good physical and nutritional status and better sanitary and living conditions. PMID:2708849

  18. A National Survey to Examine Teacher Professional Development and Implementation of Desktop GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.; Palmer, Anita M.; Kerski, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the results of an online national survey of K-12 educators who attended a series of GIS training workshops conducted by the authors between 1998 and 2004. Data from the self-report survey (N = 186) suggest new information about potential changes in instruction and assessment patterns following GIS training. The survey

  19. Anatomy of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Promoting Nutrition and Exercise in Hispanics: A Critical Examination of Existing Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Medina, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these interventions were constructed. The review of 18 interventions meeting study criteria suggests that most tailored programs promoting nutrition and exercise in Hispanics are theory driven and are informed by formative research. Also, the findings indicate that salient culturally sensitive intervention components are (a) bilingual and bicultural facilitators and materials, (b) family-based activities, (c) literacy-appropriate materials, and (d) social support. A clear understanding of Hispanic cultural values is also required. Further empirical examination is warranted to determine the factors mediating or predicting the efficacy of culturally sensitive health programs for Hispanics. PMID:19193933

  20. Formative research to examine collaboration between special supplemental nutrition program for woman, infants, and children and head start programs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katie S; Wolff, Michele; Lonczak, Marilyn; Chambers, Marjorie; Cooke, Caroline; Whitney, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Both the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Head Start/Early Head Start (HS/EHS) Programs serve low-income women and children at high risk for health disparities, yet they do not have a formal state-level partnership in Connecticut. Both programs serve children up to age five, yet children's participation in the WIC Program declines sharply after 2 years of age, limiting the potential benefits of cross-program participation. The goal of this study is to examine current and prospective collaboration efforts among the WIC and HS/EHS Programs in Connecticut and identify barriers to collaboration. An online survey was administered to staff from both programs. Six focus groups were held in January, 2012 with staff and participants from both programs. Results showed areas of existing collaboration between local WIC and HS/EHS Programs, yet also identified many areas where relationships could be strengthened or established. Common themes that were identified included a need for more knowledge among staff about the other program, collaboration involving sharing of client information, and improving referral procedures. Staff from both programs strongly expressed interest in a cross-program collaboration (73 % of HS staff and 86 % of WIC staff). This research serves as a framework for how a state-level collaboration could be established in Connecticut, to enable these two programs to work together more efficiently and effectively for the benefit of mothers and children. Results can provide other State WIC Programs with a blueprint for collaborating with HS/EHS. PMID:23417212

  1. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to salt water more than three months in any 12 month period since the last examination must undergo a... that is exposed to salt water not more than three months in any 12 month period since the...

  2. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to salt water more than three months in any 12 month period since the last examination must undergo a... that is exposed to salt water not more than three months in any 12 month period since the...

  3. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to salt water more than three months in any 12 month period since the last examination must undergo a... that is exposed to salt water not more than three months in any 12 month period since the...

  4. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to salt water more than three months in any 12 month period since the last examination must undergo a... that is exposed to salt water not more than three months in any 12 month period since the...

  5. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Xun, Pengcheng; Sharma, Sangita; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action. Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight. Design: Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective open-cohort, ongoing nationwide health and nutrition survey, consisting of 10,095 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 1865 y at entry from 1991 to 2006. Diet, including MSG and other condiments, was assessed with a weighed food inventory in combination with three 24-h recalls. Incident overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ? 25 or ?23 based on World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate change in BMI, and Cox regression models with gamma shared frailty were used to determine the incidence of overweight. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.5 y. The cumulative mean (SD) MSG intake of 2.2 1.6 g/d was positively associated with BMI after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects at different levels (individual, household, and community). The adjusted hazard ratio of overweight was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.75; P for trend < 0.01) for participants in the highest quintile of MSG intake compared with those in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other major lifestyle factors. Conclusions: MSG consumption was positively, longitudinally associated with overweight development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:21471280

  6. Examining the Medical Blogosphere: An Online Survey of Medical Bloggers

    PubMed Central

    Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Background Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. Objectives To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. Methods We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearsons Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearmans rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. Results A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated with journalism, the participants most frequently reported including links to original source of material and spending extra time verifying facts, while rarely seeking permission to post copyrighted material. Bloggers who have published a scientific paper were more likely to quote other people or media than those who have never published such a paper (U= 506.5, n1= 41, n2= 35, P= .016). Those blogging under their real name more often included links to original sources than those writing under a pseudonym (U= 446.5, n1= 58, n2= 19, P= .01). Major motivations for blogging were sharing practical knowledge or skills with others, influencing the way others think, and expressing oneself creatively. Conclusions Medical bloggers are highly educated and devoted blog writers, faithful to their sources and readers. Sharing practical knowledge and skills, as well as influencing the way other people think, were major motivations for blogging among our medical bloggers. Medical blogs are frequently picked up by mainstream media; thus, blogs are an important vehicle to influence medical and health policy. PMID:18812312

  7. Predictors of Essential Health and Nutrition Service Delivery in Bihar, India: Results From Household and Frontline Worker Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kosec, Katrina; Avula, Rasmi; Holtemeyer, Brian; Tyagi, Parul; Hausladen, Stephanie; Menon, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Bihar, India, coverage of essential health and nutrition interventions is low. These interventions are provided by 2 national programs—the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Health/National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)—through Anganwadi workers (AWWs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), respectively. Little is known, however, about factors that predict effective service delivery by these frontline workers (FLWs) or receipt of services by households. This study examined the predictors of use of 4 services: (1) immunization information and services, (2) food supplements, (3) pregnancy care information, and (4) general nutrition information. Methods: Data are from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 6,002 households in 400 randomly selected villages in 1 district of Bihar state, as well as an integrated survey of 377 AWWs and 382 ASHAs from the same villages. For each of the 4 service delivery outcomes, logistic regression models were specified using a combination of variables hypothesized to be supply- and demand-side drivers of service utilization. Results: About 35% of households reported receiving any of the 4 services. Monetary immunization incentives for AWWs (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.02–2.36) and above-median household head education (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.05–1.82) were statistically significant predictors of household receipt of immunization services. Higher household socioeconomic status was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving food supplements (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.79–0.96). ASHAs receiving incentives for institutional delivery (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.99–2.33) was marginally associated with higher odds of receiving pregnancy care information, and ASHAs who maintained records of pregnant women was significantly associated with households receiving such information (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.07–4.74). AWWs receiving immunization incentives was associated with significantly higher odds of households receiving general nutrition information (OR = 1.92, CI = 1.08–3.41), suggesting a large spillover effect of incentives from product- to information-oriented services. Conclusion: Product-oriented incentives affect delivery of both product- and information-oriented services, although household factors are also important. In India, existing government programs can mitigate supply- and demand-side constraints to receiving essential interventions by optimizing existing incentives for FLWs in national programs, helping FLWs better organize their work, and raising awareness among groups who are less likely to access services. PMID:26085022

  8. A National Survey to Examine Teacher Professional Development and Implementation of Desktop GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.; Palmer, Anita M.; Kerski, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the results of an online national survey of K-12 educators who attended a series of GIS training workshops conducted by the authors between 1998 and 2004. Data from the self-report survey (N = 186) suggest new information about potential changes in instruction and assessment patterns following GIS training. The survey…

  9. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health. PMID:22938722

  10. Do doctors know how much nutrition patients need--a survey from Germany?

    PubMed

    Wirth, R; Smoliner, C; Spamer, C; Marburger, C; Schreiber, F S; Willschrei, H P; Lenzen-Großimlinghaus, R; Schäfer, R; Volkert, D

    2014-07-01

    For the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of malnutrition, it is important to estimate the energy and fluid requirements of an individual patient. To our knowledge, it is unknown how accurately medical doctors can estimate the energy and fluid requirements of patients in a clinical routine situation. Hence, we conducted the following survey. A written face-to-face survey about the energy and fluid requirements of and tube feeding and fluid recommendations for a typical patient was performed with 179 medical doctors. An estimation error of >15% was defined as relevant. The results revealed substantial variations in estimating the energy and fluid needs of the patient. A total of 25% of the participants underestimated the energy requirements, and 47% of the participants underestimated the fluid requirements. In addition, 68% of the participants recommended a daily dose of tube feeding that was <85% of the reference value. A substantial proportion of medical doctors show a lack of knowledge concerning energy and fluid requirements, which demonstrates a need for better medical education with regard to nutrition. PMID:24848626

  11. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ? 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

  12. Considerations in selection of diet assessment methods for examining the effect of nutrition on cognition.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, K; McAuley, E

    2015-03-01

    Older adults are the most rapidly growing age group in the United States, and it is estimated that 22.2 % of U.S. adults over 71 years of age have cognitive impairments without dementia and 13.9% have dementia. Cognitive impairment is associated with reduced quality of life, increased risk of hospitalization, inability to live independently, and increased health care costs; therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and delay of cognitive decline is of increasing importance. There is a growing body of research and interest in the relationship between diet and cognitive function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that cognitive function may be improved and cognitive decline prevented as a function of a particular nutrient, food group or dietary pattern; however, results from these trials have failed to be replicated in randomized controlled trials. One possible reason for the equivocality of findings in the diet and cognitive function literature may be the methodological issues and limitations in the assessment of dietary patterns and nutritional intake. Self-reported dietary data can be biased by many factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education; yet, there is limited research on the impact of cognitive function on the integrity of self-reported dietary data. Cognitive function itself may bias diet assessment methods, subsequently obscuring the evaluation of the nutrition-cognition relationship. The present review summarizes methodological validation studies that provide insight into potential errors of diet assessment methods due to cognitive function, identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for improving diet assessment accuracy in studies of individuals with cognitive impairments. PMID:25732219

  13. Using the Learning Activities Survey to Examine Transformative Learning Experiences in Two Graduate Teacher Preparation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Vicki; Woodrow, Kelli; Pérez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The Learning Activities Survey (LAS) detected whether, and to what extent, a perspective transformation occurred during two graduate courses in teacher preparation. The LAS examined the types of learning identified as contributing to their transformative experiences. This study examined pre-service teachers' critical reflection of the course…

  14. A Survey of University Policy Makers' Preferences and Expectations for Provincial Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Ross E.; McLean, Leslie D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of Ontario's college admissions officers revealed a preference for reintroduction of provincial examinations for mathematics and first language courses in the first high school year and for applicant reporting of grades and provincial examination scores rather than use of scores as a secondary school rating measure. (MSE)

  15. Status of nutrition labeling, health claims, and nutrient content claims for processed foods: 1997 Food Label and Package Survey.

    PubMed

    Brecher, S J; Bender, M M; Wilkening, V L; McCabe, N M; Anderson, E M

    2000-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts studies of food labels as part of its ongoing monitoring of the nutritional status of the US population. In 1994 FDA nutrition labeling rules were implemented and in 1997 the Food Label and Package Survey characterized various aspects of the labeling of processed, packaged foods, including nutrition labeling, health claims, and nutrient content claims. For the survey, FDA selected a multistage, representative sample of food products from the SCAN-TRACK food sales database (AC Nielsen Co, Schaumburg, Ill). FDA identified 58 product groups and selected those product classes from the database that accounted for 80% of sales in each group. From each product class, FDA selected the 3 top-selling product brands and randomly selected follower brands. Based on label information from a final sample of 1,267 food products, FDA determined the percentage of products sold that bear Nutrition Facts labels, health claims, and nutrient content claims. The purpose of this article was to present FDA findings regarding the status of food labels 3 years after implementation of the nutrition labeling rules. Nutrition-labeled products accounted for an estimated 96.5% of the annual sales of processed, packaged foods. An additional 3.4% of products sold were exempt from labeling regulations. Nutrient content claims and health claims appeared on an estimated 39% and 4%, respectively, of the products sold. Dietitians and other health care professionals can use this survey information to identify food types with specific label information and to assist the US consumer in making more varied and healthful food choices in the marketplace. PMID:11019354

  16. Marketing nutrition in restaurants: a survey of current practices and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sneed, J; Burkhalter, J P

    1991-04-01

    This study sought to determine attitudes toward nutrition, nutrition marketing practices, the relationship between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices, and nutrition training practices in restaurants. A written questionnaire was mailed to 200 research and development (R & D) directors in restaurant companies included in Restaurants & Institutions' list of top 400 foodservice organizations ranked by sales. Seventy (35%) responded. Most R & D directors did not think they were responsible for improving the health of their consumers. A positive relationship existed between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices (P = .013). Forty-four reported that they marketed nutrition and planned to add nutritious menu items in the future. Forty-six reported that nutritious meal options represented 0 to 10% of total sales. Nutrition information was provided to consumers by 27 restaurant companies but such information often had to be requested. The American Heart Association was a popular source of nutrition and menu-planning information. Twelve companies employed a registered dietitian, and 14 used registered dietitians as consultants. Nutrition-related training for restaurant employees was limited. These findings indicate that dietitians have opportunities to market their skills in developing nutritious menu items and providing staff training. Also, dietitians should encourage consumers (especially those with special dietary needs) to let restaurant managers know their menu and nutrition information needs. PMID:2016493

  17. A Survey of Nutrition Knowledge and Opinion of Wisconsin Elementary Teachers and Food Service Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Francis B.

    Conducted by the Wisconsin Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program, this study was designed to (1) assess public and private elementary school teachers' and public school food managers' nutrition knowledge, and (2) to ascertain their opinions on various topics related to nutrition education. The first section of the report provides

  18. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China. PMID:26404368

  19. Nutritional benefits from federal food assistance: a survey of preschool black children from low-income families in Memphis.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, A G; Zee, P

    1977-03-01

    Approximately 4,000 preschool black children from low-income families in South Memphis participated for three years in a supplementary food program sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture. Part of this group received additional benefit from food stamps, day-care centers, and an infant-feeding program. We evaluated the effects of this participation in 250 children selected randomly from the enrollment list of the supplemetary program. Each child was examined for height, weight, head circumference, and levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, and vitamins A and C. The data were then compared with those from a similar survey in the same area conducted three years before. The results of this comparison indicate considerable improvements in height and weight and a reduction in the incidence of anemia and in the numbers of children with low plasma vitamin A levels. In the absence of other recognizable intervening factors, we conclude that federal food assistance programs were primarily responsible for the observed nutritional improvements. PMID:842509

  20. [Examination of commercial hedgehog feed for its quality (acceptance, digestibility, and nutritional composition)].

    PubMed

    Landes, E; Struck, S; Meyer, H

    1997-04-01

    Six commercial hedgehog feedstuffs were evaluated (palatability, composition and digestibility of crude nutrients and minerals). 14 healthy adult hedgehogs were fed these products and one self mixed diet based on minced beef and egg. The composition of all commercial diets was very similar. The components used mostly were cereal products but also animals like insects and prawns were seen. Gross energy was between 1.9 and 2.3 MJ/100 g DM. The concentrations of the minerals were partly very low (Ca, P) and in some products the relation between Ca and P was unsuitable. Even with individual differences between the animals the palatability of the self mixed diet was generally higher. Contrary to the self mixed diet the digestibility of crude protein of the commercial feed was moderate (93 vs. 73-77%). Crude fat was highly digestible (80-92%). In spite of a low activity of amylase in pancreas and chyme the digestibility of the nitrogen free extracts was very high (67-86%), probably due to thermal processing of the cereals. Since crude fibre has a negative effect on total digestibility (r = -0.78) its concentration should be under 3% in the whole diet. The average net absorption rates of minerals were: Ca: +/-0%; P: 50%; Mg: 24%; K: 85% and Na: 80%. Based on this knowledge first recommendations for the composition of nutritionally balanced complete feeds are given. PMID:9198971

  1. Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Hedley, Margaret R.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed community-dwelling older adults to examine the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences. Results revealed that nutrition problems and risk were prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. Common problems included significant weight change in 6 months and low intake of fruits,…

  2. Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Hedley, Margaret R.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed community-dwelling older adults to examine the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences. Results revealed that nutrition problems and risk were prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. Common problems included significant weight change in 6 months and low intake of fruits,

  3. Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    SciTech Connect

    G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

    1999-09-07

    Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

  4. Survey of Handwriting Habit Areas Used by Forensic Document Examiners: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlen, Richard C.; Manzolillo, Patricia A.; Muehlberger, Robert J.; Sperry, Grant R.

    1999-11-15

    In April 1998, a survey was distributed to Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) requesting an evaluation of the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select a preliminary set of characteristics for analysis. It is important to use these relative rankings as an indication of general tendency and possible discriminatory dominance as compared to an absolute ranking of discriminatory dominance over the other habit areas. The particular circumstances surrounding the examination of handwriting can dictate a far different ordering of habit areas.

  5. Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age in Brazil. Methods A multi-stage sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in four Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and Southeast/South). Initially, a stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages located in these regions. Households in sampled villages were selected by census or systematic sampling depending on the village population. The survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children < 5 years, in addition to interviewing mothers or caretakers. Results Height and weight measurements were taken of 6,050 and 6,075 children, respectively. Prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. Conclusions The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four decades ago, before major health reforms greatly reduced its occurrence nationwide. Prevalence rates of undernutrition were associated with socioeconomic variables including income, household goods, schooling, and access to sanitation services, among other variables. Providing important baseline data for future comparison, these findings further suggest the relevance of social, economic, and environmental factors at different scales (local, regional, and national) for the nutritional status of indigenous peoples. PMID:23552397

  6. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study

  7. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  8. Midwest growers' mail survey of contributors to migrant health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross-sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

  9. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y; Hantoro, Inneke; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of changes in the content of phytochemicals. The survey on preparation practices was performed with food service establishments (n?=?123) and households (n?=?477) in Semarang, Indonesia, and assessed the food handlers' perception of the health benefits of these vegetables. Boiling and stir-frying are the most frequently applied techniques to prepare Brassicas. The respondents perceive that steaming, boiling, and stir-frying result in vegetables with a high health benefit. White cabbage and choysum are the most frequently prepared Brassicas. However, broccoli is perceived as the healthiest. The consequences of the various applied preparation techniques on the content of alleged health promoting phytochemicals (glucosinolates) in dishes containing Brassica vegetables are discussed. PMID:26171631

  10. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. Methods We pooled data from individuals aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997–2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003–2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Results Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%–3.9% in men and 1.3%–2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Conclusions Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake. PMID:26548354

  11. Hypertension among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Tatiana; Yoon, Sung Sug; Burt, Vicki; Gu, Quiping

    2013-10-01

    The overall prevalence of hypertension has not changed appreciably since 2009-2010. The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults was 29.1% in 2011-2012. Among adults with hypertension in 2011-2012, 82.8% were aware of their hypertension, 75.7% were currently taking medication to lower their blood pressure, and 51.9% had their blood pressure controlled to less than 140/90 mm Hg. Men and women had similar prevalence and awareness of hypertension, but more women than men were treating their hypertension and had it under control. Young adults aged 18-39 continued to have lower awareness, treatment, and control of their hypertension compared with older adults. Hypertension prevalence was still highest among non-Hispanic black adults. However, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were similar among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic adults. Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of awareness than the other race and Hispanic origin groups, and lower treatment than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults. However, hypertension control was similar among non-Hispanic Asian adults and the other race and Hispanic origin groups. Hypertension is a common and manageable chronic condition. Based on recent national data from 2011-2012, treatment of hypertension exceeded the Healthy People 2020 target goal of 69.5%. However, the control of hypertension has neither met the goal of the Healthy People 2020 (61.2% by 2020) nor the Million Hearts Initiative (65% by 2017). These results provide evidence for continued efforts to improve the management of hypertension in order to attain these goals. PMID:24171916

  12. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., 2006 [71 FR 22248]. Category (A): Studies involving the typing of the complete set of NHANES DNA... published see: (Friday, January 13, 2006 [71 FR 22248]). NHANES 1999-2002 and 2007-2008 DNA Samples The... list of currently available SNPs is available at:...

  13. The ethics of live patient use in dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Lantzy, Marlaina J; Muzzin, Kathleen B; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S; Campbell, Patricia R; Mallonee, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    A national survey of dental hygienists was conducted to explore ethical issues arising from the use of live patients for dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations. Data were collected regarding respondents' demographics, additional costs they incurred associated with their examination beyond the examination fees, delays in patients' treatment resulting from the examination, unethical candidate and/or patient behaviors they experienced, and provisions they made for patients' follow-up care related to the examination. Five hundred surveys were mailed to dental hygienists from two states in each of the five licensure examination regions. The response rate was 40.6 percent (n=203). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the majority of the respondents spent additional money on examination-related expenses (69.2 percent). Sixty-one percent of the respondents reported paying their patients; however, only 50.5 percent felt such a practice was acceptable. More than half (53.1 percent) reported believing it was appropriate to delay treatment in order to have a patient participate in the examination, although only 16.4 percent reported actually delaying treatment. Informed consent was said to be obtained by 94.9 percent of the respondents. The majority (86.6 percent) said they referred patients for follow-up dental hygiene care. When asked if they felt the examination was an accurate assessment of their clinical skills, 78.7 percent of the respondents agreed that it was. PMID:22659695

  14. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P?0025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P?0044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P?0013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD. PMID:26481949

  15. Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential…

  16. Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential

  17. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. Methods A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Results Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.5290.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.1910.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.6980.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and specificities were 0.563 and 0.920 for occlusal, 0.670 and 0.985 for smooth, and 0.838 and 0.985 for proximal surfaces. Conclusion The methodology purposed for training and calibration of several examiners designated for epidemiological surveys of dental caries in preschool children using the ICDAS is feasible, permitting the assessment of reliability and accuracy of the examiners previously to the surveys development. PMID:24090355

  18. Assessment of nutrition education among pediatric gastroenterologists: A survey of NASPGHAN members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective; however, pediatric gastroenterology fellows believe that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceived ef...

  19. Health Insurance Coverage and Hypertension Control in China: Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background China has rapidly expanded health insurance coverage over the past decade but its impact on hypertension control is not well known. We analyzed factors associated with hypertension and the impact of health insurance on the management of hypertension in China from 1991 to 2009. Methods and Findings We used individual-level data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) for blood pressure, BMI, and other socio-economic variables. We employed multi-level logistic regression models to estimate the factors associated with prevalence and management of hypertension. We also estimated the effects of health insurance on management of hypertension using propensity score matching. We found that prevalence of hypertension increased from 23.8% (95% CI: 22.5–25.1%) in 1991 to 31.5% (28.5–34.7%) in 2009. The proportion of hypertensive patients aware of their condition increased from 31.7% (28.7–34.9%) to 51.1% (45.1–57.0%). The proportion of diagnosed hypertensive patients in treatment increased by 35.5% in the 19 years, while the proportion of those in treatment with controlled blood pressure remained low. Among diagnosed hypertensives, health insurance increased the probability of receiving treatment by 28.7% (95% CI: 10.6–46.7%) compared to propensity-matched individuals not covered by health insurance. Conclusions Hypertension continues to be a major health threat in China and effective control has not improved over time despite large improvements in awareness and treatment access. This suggests problems in treatment quality, medication adherence and patient understanding of the condition. Improvements in hypertension management, quality of medical care for those at high risk, and better health insurance packages are needed. PMID:27002634

  20. The Complex Emergency Database: A Global Repository of Small-Scale Surveys on Nutrition, Health and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

  1. Socioeconomic Differentials in Smoking Duration among Adult Male Smokers in China: Result from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Sa, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Background A smokers risk of diseases and death from smoking is closely related to his/her smoking duration. But little is known about the average length of smoking and the association between smoking duration and socio-economic status (SES) among Chinese smokers. Methods A sample of male ever smokers (N = 2,637) aged 18+ years was drawn from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the average length of smoking and socioeconomic differentials in smoking duration. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to obtain median smoking duration. Log-logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative duration of smoking, adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Results Results showed that Chinese male ever smokers aged 18 years and older had a median duration of smoking of 58 years (95% CI: 5661). Male ever smokers with a lower status job (i.e. farmers, manual and skilled workers, service workers, and office staff) had a significantly longer duration of smoking than those with a professional or administrative job after adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Individuals who earned the lowest income and who had no education or were being illiterate smoked for 11% and 14% longer, respectively, relative to those who had the highest income or who had college or above education. Conclusion The findings demonstrated the problem of long smoking duration and a pattern of social disparities in smoking duration among Chinese male smokers. Social disparities in smoking behavior may exacerbate the already existing social inequalities in health. Thus, policies and interventions to promote smoking cessation should pay more attention to disadvantaged social groups. PMID:25575097

  2. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-01-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.045) were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease. PMID:26371037

  3. Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show…

  4. Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show

  5. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011–12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30–160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30–90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40–400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  6. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30-160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30-90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40-400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  7. Using satellite remote sensing and household survey data to assess human health and nutrition response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Molly E; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. PMID:25132700

  8. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  9. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

  10. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2 plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21% of adults below 20 years old consumed chicken at least once a day, while this pattern of intake was not shown in the older age groups. Our findings show that adults, aged 50 to 59 years old, had the highest prevalence of daily consumption of full cream milk with 24% while those aged 18 to 19 years old had the lowest prevalence of daily consumption at 15%. The food consumption pattern of Malaysian adults appears to be satisfactory. However, some changes in food habits are recommended especially in substituting the less wholesome sweetened condensed milk with the more nutritious full cream or skimmed milk. PMID:22691762

  11. Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Azmi, M Y; Junidah, R; Siti Mariam, A; Safiah, M Y; Fatimah, S; Norimah, A K; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Abdul Manan, Wm; Siti Haslinda, M D; Tahir, A

    2009-09-01

    The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg/m2 (CI: 24.21, 24.53) respectively. Based on the WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 12.15% (CI: 11.26, 13.10) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and 26.71% (CI: 25.50, 27.96) overweight (BMI > 25 - 29.9 kg/m2). Significantly, more women were obese [14.66% (CI: 13.37, 16.04)] while significantly more men were overweight [28.55% (CI: 26.77, 30.40)]. Ethnicitywise, prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays [15.28% (CI: 13.91, 16.77)] while overweight was highest for the Indians [31.01% (CI: 26.64, 35.76)]. Both obesity and overweight were highest among those aged 40 - 49 years. Obesity was highest for those whose household income was between RM1,500 - 3,500 while overweight was more prevalent for those whose household income exceeded RM3,500. The prevalence of overweight was highest for those with primary education [31.90% (CI: 29.21, 34.72)]. There was no significant urban rural differential in both obesity and overweight. The study found 9.02% (CI:8.82, 10.61) with chronic energy deficiency (CED) (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2). The prevalence of CED was relatively higher in the indigenous population (Orang Asli) [14.53% (CI: 5.14, 34.77)], subjects aged 18-19 years [26.24% (CI: 21.12, 32.09)], and with monthly household income of < RM1,500 [10.85% (CI: 9.63, 12.20)]. The prevalence of CED was not significantly different among the geographical zones and educational levels, and between urban/rural areas and sexes. The results call for priority action to address the serious problem of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults as it poses a grave burden to the country's resources and development. PMID:22691810

  12. Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Elham; Hassanzadeh Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Zahra; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar; Moghadami, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars province, during December 2012 to January 2013. A total of 15408 children, aged 06 years old, were studied for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Also, socio-demographic measures were obtained from structured questionnaire. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to relate underlying factors to the odds of under-nutrition indices. Results: The rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 9.53, 9.66, and 8.19%, respectively. Male children were more stunted compared to females (OR= 1.41, CI: 1.261.58). Also, stunting was significantly associated with lower family income (OR= 3.21, CI: 1.178.85) and lower maternal education (OR= 0.80, CI: 0.640.98). Living in urban areas, and poor water supply were identified as significant risk factors of all three types of childhood under-nutrition. Moreover, Khamse and Arab ethnic groups were more vulnerable to under-nutrition. There was a suggestion that non-access to health services were associated with wasting (OR= 1.87, CI: 1.392.52) and also large family size was related to underweight (OR= 1.35, CI: 1.101.65). Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition in the study population was categorized in low levels. However, planning the public preventive strategies can help to control childhood under-nutrition according to underlying factors of malnutrition in the study population including gender, settlement area, family size, ethnicity, family income, maternal education, health services, and also safe water supply. PMID:25114945

  13. Nutritional Guidelines for School Lunch Programs: A Survey of Islamic Schools and Recommendations for Creating a Culture of Healthful Eating

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumiya; Saeed, Ziena; Diwan, Hanifa Hameed; Hussain, Iqra; Amer, Sarah; Haq, Mohamed M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the status of lunch programs in Islamic schools in the United States and develop recommendations for improving them. Study Design: The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) conducted a survey of lunch programs by mailing questionnaires to 100 Islamic schools in the United States. Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition (MIDAN) developed lunch menus using American and ethnic foods conforming to nationally recommended guidelines. Results: Forty-eight Islamic schools responded to the survey, revealing that 20 schools follow guidelines and only six have dietitians advising on menu planning. Based on this survey, IMANA, with the assistance of MIDAN, has developed a summary of guidelines that schools can follow. These guidelines include sample menus of American and ethnic foods, recommendations for creating a n environment for healthful eating, and sources for funding school lunch programs. Conclusions: IMANA and MIDAN, recognizing the scientific significance and religious relevance of a nutritious diet, have developed these recommendations. This information is provided to aid Islamic schools in implementing guidelines for nutritionally balanced school lunch menus and in creating a culture that fosters a healthful lifestyle. PMID:23610485

  14. Variation in CT pediatric head examination radiation dose: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kanal, Kalpana M; Graves, Janessa M; Vavilala, Monica S; Applegate, Kimberly E; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Rivara, Frederick P

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to examine the variation in radiation dose, CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), and dose-length product (DLP) for pediatric head CT examinations as a function of hospital characteristics across the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A survey inquiring about hospital information, CT scanners, pediatric head examination protocol, CTDIvol, and DLP was mailed to a representative sample of U.S. hospitals. Follow-up mailings were sent to nonrespondents. Descriptive characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents were compared using design-based Pearson chi-square tests. Dose estimates were compared across hospital characteristics using Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test. Hospital-level factors associated with dose estimates were evaluated using multiple linear regressions and modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS. Surveys were sent out to 751 hospitals; 292 responded to the survey, of which 253 were eligible (35.5% response rate, calculated as number of hospitals who completed surveys [n = 253] divided by sum of number who were eligible and initially consented [n = 712] plus estimated number who were eligible among those who refused [n = 1]). Most respondents reported using MDCT scanners (99.2%) and having a dedicated pediatric head CT protocol (93%). Estimated mean reported CTDIvol values were 27.3 mGy (95% CI, 24.4-30.1 mGy), and DLP values were 390.9 mGy cm (95% CI, 346.6-435.1 mGy cm). These values did not vary significantly by region, trauma level, teaching status, CT accreditation, number of CT scanners, or report of a dedicated pediatric CT protocol. However, estimated CTDIvol reported by children's hospitals was 19% lower than that reported by general hospitals (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION. Most hospitals (82%) report doses that meet American College of Radiology accreditation levels. However, [corrected] the mean CTDI(vol) at children's hospitals was approximately 7 mGy (21%, adjusted for covariates), lower than that at nonchildren's hospitals. PMID:25714315

  15. Seasonal timing of the Royal College examination in general paediatrics: A survey of residents’ preferences

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Herbert; Benchimol, Eric I; Goldfarb, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, the general paediatrics examination administered by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada is offered annually in the spring. Controversy exists regarding its seasonal timing. Assessing the views of residents anticipating the examination is relevant to examination administrators. OBJECTIVE To determine paediatric residents’ opinions regarding the timing of the general paediatrics examination. METHODOLOGY A survey was electronically distributed to all resident members of the Canadian Paediatric Society with an e-mail reminder after one week. Responses were collected independently, forwarded to the authors and summarized using descriptive statistics. Multinomial regression identified predictors of examination preference and estimated prediction value. RESULTS One hundred sixty-four of 585 surveys (28%) were returned. Common preferences included ‘spring of 4th year’ (42%) and ‘fall of 4th year’ (22%). Respondents intending four years of general paediatrics demonstrated a 55% preference for ‘spring of 4th year’ and 11% for ‘fall of 4th year’, compared with preferences of 29% and 34%, respectively, for respondents intending three years of general paediatrics followed by subspecialty training (P<0.001). This was confirmed by multinomial regression (OR 2.49; P<0.0001). Increasing training year was associated with increasing support for examination in the fall relative to the spring of 4th year (OR 1.37; P=0.019). CONCLUSIONS Residents’ preferences for the timing of the examination are varied, with ‘spring of 4th year’ being most preferred. Residents demonstrated stronger support for ‘fall of 4th year’ with increasing years of training, and if planning to pursue subspecialty training after three years of general paediatrics. PMID:19030462

  16. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

  17. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Childhood Maternal Education Level, Job Status Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chun, Eun-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is known to affect cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, the relationship between childhood SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education and occupational status and adult-onset MetS in the Korean population. Methods We examined the association between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education level and occupational status during an individual's childhood, and MetS in Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. The components of MetS, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure, were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results Significant differences in the association between maternal education level, occupational status, and MetS were found between males and females. In females, the adjusted MetS OR for the highest maternal education quartile relative to the lowest quartile was 0.46 (0.21-0.99). Similarly, in females, the adjusted OR for individuals whose mothers worked when they were children relative to those whose mothers did not work was 1.23 (1.04-1.44). In males, no significant associations between maternal education, maternal occupational status, and MetS were found. Conclusion We found independent, positive associations between maternal education and occupational status and MetS in Korean females. These findings suggest that public health education targeting MetS prevention should be considered, especially among children with less opportunity for maternal support. PMID:25120892

  18. Effect of nutrition survey cleaning criteria on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Sonya; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data cleaning criteria are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 659 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.43.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed regarding choice of criteria to improve the comparability of nutrition survey data. PMID:24883244

  19. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical-epidemiological parameters evaluated for indigenous women point to the accentuated occurrence of nutrition transition in all regions of Brazil. Many outcomes also reflected a pattern whereby indigenous women’s and children’s health indicators were worse than those documented for the national Brazilian population, with important regional variations. Observed disparities in health indicators underscore that basic healthcare and sanitation services are not yet as widely available in Brazil’s indigenous communities as they are in the rest of the country. PMID:23331985

  20. Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Rickett, Katherine

    2010-10-01

    In a 1995 pivotal study, Kushner described the attitudes, practice behaviors, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. This article recognized nutrition and dietary counseling as key components in the delivery of preventive services by primary care physicians. Kushner called for a multifaceted approach to change physicians' counseling practices. The prevailing belief today is that little has changed. Healthy People 2010 and the U.S. Preventive Task Force identify the need for physicians to address nutrition with patients. The 2010 objective was to increase to 75% the proportion of office visits that included ordering or providing diet counseling for patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension. At the midcourse review, the proportion actually declined from 42% to 40%. Primary care physicians continue to believe that providing nutrition counseling is within their realm of responsibility. Yet the gap remains between the proportion of patients who physicians believe would benefit from nutrition counseling and those who receive it from their primary care physician or are referred to dietitians and other healthcare professionals. The barriers cited in recent years continue to be those listed by Kushner: lack of time and compensation and, to a lesser extent, lack of knowledge and resources. The 2010 Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation and First Lady Obama's "Let's Move Campaign" spotlight the need for counseling adults and children on diet and physical activity. PMID:20962310

  1. Online Survey Examining Practitioners’ Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

  2. Vision test validation study for the health examination survey among youths 12-17 years.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    1973-12-01

    Vision tests were included in the standardized examination given the national probability samples of children and youths in the Health Examination Surveys of 1963-65 and 1966-70, which focused primarily on health factors related to growth and development, as previously described. In the survey among children 6-11 years of age, visual acuity and the degree of eye muscle imbalance were determined using selected Armed Forces Vision-Tester targets in Master Ortho-Rater instruments under carefully controlled conditions, as shown in the first vision and eye examination reports from that study. 3,4 Children were tested only without glasses or other corrective lenses. Because of the reported substantial increase in the incidence of myopia at or around puberty, the vision test battery for the study of youths 12-17 years of age was expanded beyond that for children to include visual acuity tests with their usual refractive lenses and a set of trial lenses used to determine the presence and severity of myopia. Lensometer readings of the prescriptions used in the youths' present glasses or contact lenses were also obtained. PMID:25102253

  3. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were <80 % of the dietary reference intakes in both groups. In addition, the proportions of vitamin C and Ca intake deficiencies in the autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism. PMID:25191564

  4. A Nutritional Survey of Children in Head Start Centers in Central United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Marie Z.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a questionnaire in evaluating the nutritional status of Head Start children in rural, small city, and urban areas in central United States. The questionnaire, which was primarily concerned with the food preferences of the children, was filled out by the mother of each of the 154…

  5. Evaluation of different methods to handle misreporting in obesity research: evidence from the Canadian national nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abb, Mary R

    2016-01-01

    The association of dietary exposures with health outcomes may be attenuated or reversed as a result of energy intake (EI) misreporting. This study evaluated several methods for dealing with implausible recalls when analysing the association between dietary factors and obesity. We examined data from 16 187 Canadians aged ?12 years in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Under- and over-reporting were defined as the ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement 142, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression-generalised logit model was conducted to test the utility of different methods for handling misreporting, including (a) adjusting for variables related to misreporting, (b) excluding misreported recalls, (c) adjusting for reporting groups (under-, plausible and over-reporters), (d) adjusting for propensity score and (e) stratifying the analyses by reporting groups. In the basic model, EI showed a negative association with overweight (OR 0988; 95 % CI 0979, 0998) and obesity (OR 0989; 95 % CI 0977, 0999). Similarly, the association between total energy density and overweight (OR 0670; 95 % CI 0487, 0923) and obesity (OR 0709; 95 % CI 0495, 1016) was inverse. Among all methods of handling misreporting, adjusting for the reporting status revealed the most satisfactory results, where a positive association between EI and overweight (OR 1037; 95 % CI 1019, 1055) and obesity (OR 1109; 95 % CI 1082, 1137) was observed (P<00001), as well as direct positive associations between energy density and percentage energy from solid fats and added sugars with obesity (P<005). The results of this study can help advance knowledge about the relationship between dietary variables and obesity and demonstrate to researchers and nutrition policy makers the importance of adjusting for recall plausibility in obesity research, which is highly relevant in light of global obesity epidemic. PMID:26522666

  6. Examining the association between male circumcision and sexual function: evidence from a British probability survey

    PubMed Central

    Homfray, Virginia; Tanton, Clare; Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Miller, Robert F.; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M.; Mercer, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite biological advantages of male circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition, concern is often expressed that it may reduce sexual enjoyment and function. We examine the association between circumcision and sexual function among sexually active men in Britain using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 asked about circumcision and included a validated measure of sexual function, the Natsal-SF, which takes into account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction. Methods: A stratified probability survey of 6293 men and 8869 women aged 16–74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken 2010–2012, using computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing with computer-assisted self-interview for the more sensitive questions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to examine the association between reporting male circumcision and aspects of sexual function among sexually active men (n = 4816). Results: The prevalence of male circumcision in Britain was 20.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3–21.8]. There was no association between male circumcision and, being in the lowest quintile of scores for the Natsal-SF, an indicator of poorer sexual function (adjusted OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76–1.18). Circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to report the specific sexual difficulties asked about in Natsal-3, except that a larger proportion of circumcised men reported erectile difficulties. This association was of borderline statistical significance after adjusting for age and relationship status (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99–1.63). Conclusion: Data from a large, nationally representative British survey suggest that circumcision is not associated with men's overall sexual function at a population level. PMID:26091302

  7. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  8. Survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria.

    PubMed

    Kharita, M H; Khedr, M S; Wannus, K M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing eight routine common types of X-ray examination in Syria. These types cover chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head and shoulder. This work consisted of measurements for 926 X-ray examinations for patients in 26 governmental hospitals. The mean and third quartile of the dose area product (DAP) to each patient per examination have been measured. The corresponding average effective doses have been computed from the DAP measurement for each examination using NRPP X-Dose software. Comparison of the results was done with those from similar surveys published by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000, 2007). The present measurements will provide a useful baseline to establish, for the first time, national diagnostic reference levels. These results can be used in the future to evaluate the collective dose to the population from medical exposure and the radiation risks from the various radiological procedures. PMID:20332131

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five... age or older that operate in salt water and accommodate overnight passengers must undergo drydock and... water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination must...

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five... age or older that operate in salt water and accommodate overnight passengers must undergo drydock and... water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination must...

  11. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five... age or older that operate in salt water and accommodate overnight passengers must undergo drydock and... water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination must...

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operate in salt water must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five... age or older that operate in salt water and accommodate overnight passengers must undergo drydock and... water at least six months in every 12 month period since the last drydock examination must...

  13. Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Na Yung; Shin, Ha Young; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Methods Koreans aged ?22 years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. Results In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years (174.30.5 cm vs. 174.30.6 cm, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years (159.80.4 cm vs. 161.00.4 cm, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II (161.20.3 cm vs. 159.80.4 cm, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was 0.30.8 cm in males (P=0.721) and 0.50.6 cm in females (P=0.386). Conclusion Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans. PMID:26512259

  14. Applicability of resistivity surveys for examination of heterogeneity in continuous permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, V.; Loranty, M. M.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spektor, V.

    2013-12-01

    Electrotomography and resistivity measurements are modern visualisation methods, applicable for non-destructive underground surveys. This method is based on differences in resistivity of frozen and thawed soil, fresh and saline water, ice and mineral phases. In permafrost regions it can be applied to understand heterogeneity in the active layer and to search for ice-rich bodies. These factors are strongly connected with permafrost thaw and related processes. By using a large number of electrodes we can obtain pseudo cross-sections, where top layers of datapoints contain resistivity, measured from neighbor electrodes and bottom layers -- from electrodes with higer distances between each other. Obtained cross-section can be compared with another methods of probing, like acoustic methods and permafrost coring. We conducted resistivity surveys of continuous permafrost in Kolyma River basin in Northeastern Siberia. Measurements were made at several sites, including experimentally burned plots, near permafrost coring sites and at yedoma deposits exposure at Dyvanny Yar cliff. We changed the spacing between electrodes to measure resistivity from different depths. For measurements of active layer depth (~ 0.5-1.5m) we used 0.3-0.5m spacing and compared obtained results with direct probing of thaw layer. We found a relationship between measured and real depth. For deeper surveys (up to 10m depth) we used larger spacing -- 2-3m between electrodes. Comparsion of resistivity cross-sections with permafrost core data and visual observation at Dyvanny Yar show possibility of finding ice wedge positions and agreement between average resistivity of bottom layers and ice content in the pemafrost at a similar depth. Resistivity measurements in conti