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1

National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

Cancer.gov

We provide funds to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to support modules in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that are critical to our risk factor monitoring mission.

2

SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

3

NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES I)  

EPA Science Inventory

The First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 32,000 persons 1-74 years of age. The NHANES I sample was selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition ...

4

76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2011-11-23

5

The Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines Public Health Service preliminary findings in a study designed to establish health and nutrition baseline data for future comparison and for government food policies. Data collected include caloric and nutrient intake from recollection, nutrient content of blood and urine, examination for incipient malnutrition, and bone and body…

Sonnier, Isadore I.

1976-01-01

6

75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals To Use Samples...of describing the health of the population, DNA specimens were collected during three NHANES surveys. DNA is available in the form of crude lysates...

2010-06-07

7

77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2012-06-11

8

Characteristics of Survey Participants with and without a Telephone: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential coverage bias in telephone surveys. Data were analyzed from the first phase of the third National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey conducted from 1988 to 1991. In that survey, 10,120 persons 17 years and older were interviewed and 9034 were examined. About 2.7% of respondents reported not having a telephone. Differences in demographic and

Earl S Ford

1998-01-01

9

HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

10

Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI???85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI???95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

2012-01-01

11

Data Resource Profile: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)  

PubMed Central

The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviours, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases and dietary intakes with three component surveys: health interview, health examination and nutrition survey. The health interview and health examination are conducted by trained staff members, including physicians, medical technicians and health interviewers, at a mobile examination centre, and dieticians’ visits to the homes of the study participants are followed up. KNHANES provides statistics for health-related policies in Korea, which also serve as the research infrastructure for studies on risk factors and diseases by supporting over 500 publications. KCDC has also supported researchers in Korea by providing annual workshops for data users. KCDC has published the Korea Health Statistics each year, and microdata are publicly available through the KNHANES website (http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr). PMID:24585853

Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon

2014-01-01

12

Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Carotenoids: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about carotenoids, a diverse group of plant compounds with antioxidant activity, and their association with diabetes, a condition characterized by oxidative stress. Data from phase I of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991) were used to examine concentrations of a-carotene, |J- carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein\\/zeaxanthin, and lycopene in 40- to 74-year-old persons with a normal

Earl S. Ford; Julie C. Will; Barbara A. Bowman; K. M. Venkat Narayan

13

Dietary Supplement Use by US Adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross- sectional survey of US health and nutrition, were analyzed to assess prevalence of dietary supplement use overall and in relation to lifestyle and demographic characteristics. Fifty-two percent of adults reported taking a dietary supplement in the past month; 35% took a multivitamin\\/multimineral. Vitamin C, vitamin E,

Kathy Radimer; Bernadette Bindewald; Jeffery Hughes; Bethene Ervin; Christine Swanson; Mary Frances Picciano

14

Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

2014-01-01

15

Validity of U.S. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Caloric Energy Intake Data, 1971–2010  

PubMed Central

Importance Methodological limitations compromise the validity of U.S. nutritional surveillance data and the empirical foundation for formulating dietary guidelines and public health policies. Objectives Evaluate the validity of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) caloric intake data throughout its history, and examine trends in the validity of caloric intake estimates as the NHANES dietary measurement protocols evolved. Design Validity of data from 28,993 men and 34,369 women, aged 20 to 74 years from NHANES I (1971–1974) through NHANES 2009–2010 was assessed by: calculating physiologically credible energy intake values as the ratio of reported energy intake (rEI) to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), and subtracting estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) from NHANES rEI to create ‘disparity values’. Main Outcome Measures 1) Physiologically credible values expressed as the ratio rEI/BMR and 2) disparity values (rEI–TEE). Results The historical rEI/BMR values for men and women were 1.31 and 1.19, (95% CI: 1.30–1.32 and 1.18–1.20), respectively. The historical disparity values for men and women were ?281 and ?365 kilocalorie-per-day, (95% CI: ?299, ?264 and ?378, ?351), respectively. These results are indicative of significant under-reporting. The greatest mean disparity values were ?716 kcal/day and ?856 kcal/day for obese (i.e., ?30 kg/m2) men and women, respectively. Conclusions Across the 39-year history of the NHANES, EI data on the majority of respondents (67.3% of women and 58.7% of men) were not physiologically plausible. Improvements in measurement protocols after NHANES II led to small decreases in underreporting, artifactual increases in rEI, but only trivial increases in validity in subsequent surveys. The confluence of these results and other methodological limitations suggest that the ability to estimate population trends in caloric intake and generate empirically supported public policy relevant to diet-health relationships from U.S. nutritional surveillance is extremely limited. PMID:24130784

Archer, Edward; Hand, Gregory A.; Blair, Steven N.

2013-01-01

16

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Results Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001) than men. Among men, current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.62) and past history of cancer (OR, 2.55) were independently related to underweight. Among women, young age (OR, 2.06), former smoking (OR, 1.69), and being unmarried (OR, 1.56) were identified as independently related factors of underweight. In addition, among both men and women, alcohol drinking (men OR, 0.57; women OR, 0.77) and past history of chronic diseases (men OR, 0.55; women OR, 0.43) were independently related to a lower frequency of underweight. Conclusion We showed that various sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women. PMID:24340160

Park, Sung Il; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

2013-01-01

17

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

18

Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

2005-04-01

19

Inappropriate Survey Design Analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey May Produce Biased Results  

PubMed Central

Objectives The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. Methods This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Results Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Conclusions Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates. PMID:23573374

Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo

2013-01-01

20

Reference Values of Body Composition Indices: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Purpose An increase in the prevalence of obesity has been observed in children and adolescents. As remarkable changes in body composition occur with growth during the adolescent period, it is important that changes in body composition be monitored. The purpose of this study was to propose reference percentile values for body composition indices including body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents in Korea. Materials and Methods This study was performed using data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body composition data were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The percentile curves of body composition indices were constructed by the LMS method. Results A total of 2123 children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years were included in this study. We obtained the percentile curves for BMI and body composition indices. Conclusion The reference values for body composition from this study could help with assessing body composition in Korean adolescents. PMID:25510752

Park, Hye Won; Yoo, Ha Yeong; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Hyeoijin; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Kyo Sun

2015-01-01

21

Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:There is substantial interest in the health effects of coffee because it is the leading worldwide beverage after water. Existing literature on the connection between depression and coffee is scarce, and studies have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee consumption and depression in the Korean population.Subjects/Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study in 10?177 Korean individuals aged 20-97 years who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Consumption of coffee and depression were assessed using a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression.Results:The lifetime prevalence of self-reported depression was 14.0% and that of self-reported clinical depression was 3.7%. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted ORs for self-reported depression across coffee consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.07) for one to six cups/week, 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.79) for one cup/day, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.88) for two cups/day and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.76) for three or more cups/day (P for trend, <0.01). A similar association was observed for self-reported clinical depression, for which the multiple-adjusted ORs were 1.00 (reference) for less than one cup/week, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.92) for one to six cups/week, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.74) for one cup/day, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.84) for two cups/day and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.70) for three or more cups/day, respectively (P for trend, <0.01).Conclusions:These findings support a possible protective effect of coffee on the risk of depression.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.247. PMID:25469468

Park, R J; Moon, J D

2014-12-01

22

Dietary diversity and subsequent mortality in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relation of dietary diversity to subsequent all-cause mortality by using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1982- 1987. The analytic co- hort consisted of 4 160 men and 6264 women (including 2556 deaths), 25-74 y at baseline ( 197 1- 1975). Twenty-four-hour di- etary recalls were evaluated for

K Kant; Arthur Schatzkin; Gladys Block

23

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

24

Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.  

PubMed Central

Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

2004-01-01

25

Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes. Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes. PMID:24851205

Ahn, Jae Hee; Yu, Ji Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo; Cha, Bong-Yun

2014-01-01

26

Association between nutrition label use and chronic disease in Korean adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Nutrition labels are helpful for chronic disease management in patients requiring balanced nutritional intake. This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of nutrition labels and chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia) by using the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 10,695 individuals aged 20 and over was included in the analysis. Using multiple logistic regressions, there was no difference in nutrition label use between the chronic disease and normal groups (men with hypertension OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.27; women with hypertension OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; men with diabetes OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.08; women with diabetes OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.84-1.53; men with hyperlipidemia OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.59-1.23; women with hyperlipidemia OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.91-1.44). In hyperlipidemia patients, awareness (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.03-2.35) and control (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 2.32-3.63) of disease were related to nutrition label use; however, no significant associations were found for the hypertension and diabetes mellitus patients. Considering the importance of dietary habits in the management of chronic diseases, an improvement in nutrition label use by patients with these diseases is required. PMID:25408575

Hong, Sung-woo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, CheolMin; Kwon, Hyuktae; Hyeon, Jung-hyeon; Gwak, Jong-seop

2014-11-01

27

Relationship of Smoking Status, Energy Balance, and Body Weight: Analysis of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between smoking status and body mass index (weight\\/height2) was evaluated, controlling for demographics, dietary intake, and physical activity. Subjects were 10,778 adult respondents from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Results indicate that never smokers and long-term quitters had similar relative body weights and that low-rate current smokers were not significantly different from never

Robert C. Klesges; Lisa M. Klesges; Andrew W. Meyers

1991-01-01

28

Prevalence of Leading Types of Dietary Supplements Used In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-94  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the prevalence of the leading types of dietary supplements taken during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94. Approximately 40 percent of the U.S. population 2 months of age and older reported taking some type of dietary supplement in NHANES III, and the leading supplements taken were multivitamin\\/multiminerals (22 percent), multivitamins plus vitamin

R. Bethene Ervin; Jacqueline D. Wright; Debra Reed-Gillette

29

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

30

C-reactive protein and body mass index in children: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and body mass index (BMI) in children. Study design: With the use of data from 5305 children aged 6 to 18 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), a cross-sectional health survey, we examined whether CRP concentrations were elevated among overweight children. Results: Among

Earl S. Ford; Deborah A. Galuska; Cathleen Gillespie; Julie C. Will; Wayne H. Giles; William H. Dietz

2001-01-01

31

Candidate measures of whole plant food intake are related to biomarkers of nutrition and health in the US population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002).  

PubMed

Indices of overall dietary patterns are used in epidemiologic research to examine the relationship between nutrition and health. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an interpretable summary measure of dietary intake of whole plant foods (WPF; whole grains, vegetables, whole fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds) because of their similar nutritional characteristics and health effects. Six candidate WPF measures were calculated using data from subjects (age ? 6 years) participating in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Measures differed by the inclusion or exclusion of potatoes and whether they were expressed as total intake or as a proportion of energy (4180 kJ) or mass (kg) consumed. Both standard and nontruncated (allowed to vary proportionally with intake) Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores were calculated. Regression analysis examined the associations between WPF and HEI-2005 measures, and between all diet measures and serum carotenoid concentration, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and C-reactive protein. Mean total WPF intake was 3.6 cup/oz equivalents, or 1.7 cup/oz equivalents per 4180 kJ and per kg. The largest R² between WPF and HEI-2005 measures was found for energy-adjusted WPF including potatoes and nontruncated HEI-2005 (R² = 0.50). All diet measures were positively related to serum carotenoids (P <.001) and were similarly related to health indicators (R² range from 0.003 to 0.16, P <.045 for regressions, indicating significant associations between WPF measures and health indicators). Whole plant food measures are interpretable indicators of dietary intake that are significantly related to nutrition and health biomarkers and may be of public health use. PMID:22575037

Lipsky, Leah M; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Nansel, Tonja R; Albert, Paul S

2012-04-01

32

Prevalence of Otolaryngologic Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n=4,930). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist, nurses, and interviewers moved with a mobile examination unit and performed otolaryngologic interviews and physical examinations. Results The prevalence of subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, preauricular fistua, tympanic membrane perforation, and cholesteatoma were 11.97%, 20.27%, 2.08%, 1.60%, and 1.18%, respectively. Dizziness and vestibular dysfunction were common among Korean adults, since 23.33% of the participants reported symptoms of dizziness or imbalance, and the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction was 3.86%. The prevalence of nasal diseases was relatively high, as the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and a deviated nasal septum were 28.01%, 7.12%, and 42.94%, respectively. Subjective dysphonia was found in 6.60% of the participants, and the prevalence of subjective dysphonia increased with age. Conclusion This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study to assess the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases by both the Korean Otolaryngologic Society and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Considering the high prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea, the results call for additional studies to better prevent and manage otolaryngologic diseases. PMID:21217958

Cho, Yang-Sun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Park, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hong Ju; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Moon, Il Joon; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Sun, Dong-Il; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Kun Hee; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Kyung Won; Pyo, Eun Young; Lee, Ari

2010-01-01

33

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2009–2011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%–20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%–31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

2014-01-01

34

Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25110507

Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Boseok; Lee, So-Jin; Seo, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jaemin

2014-01-01

35

Dietary Fructose Consumption Among US Children and Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Context High fructose intake has been associated with increased de novo lipogenesis in the liver as well as increased plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and obesity. Fructose occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables; however, it is added to many processed foods as table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup. Dietary data from a nationally representative sample in 1977–1978 estimated that mean consumption of fructose was 37 g/day (8% of total intake). Little is known about more recent fructose consumption patterns. Objective We determined the amount and sources of dietary fructose among US adults and children. Design We examined fructose consumption patterns by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index for 21,483 children and adults. We used a single 24-hour dietary recall administered in the third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure Weighted estimates of fructose intake were tested for significant differences (P < .05) between groups. Results The mean consumption of fructose was estimated to be 54.7g/day (range, 38.4–72.8) and accounted for 10.2% of total caloric intake. Consumption was highest among adolescents (12–18 years) at 72.8 g/day (12.1% of total calories). One fourth of adolescents consumed at least 15% of calories from fructose. The largest source of fructose was sugar-sweetened beverages (30%) followed by grains (22%) and fruit or fruit juice (19%). Conclusions Over 10% of Americans' daily calories were from fructose. These results, when compared with a previous nationally representative study, suggest that fructose consumption has increased. Further research is needed to understand the impact of increased intake of fructose on human health. PMID:18769702

Vos, Miriam B.; Kimmons, Joel E.; Gillespie, Cathleen; Welsh, Jean; Blanck, Heidi Michels

2008-01-01

36

Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts. PMID:25121351

Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

2014-01-01

37

Etiopathogenic differences in coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999 to 2004 were pooled for this study. Compared with coronary artery disease (CAD), a greater proportion of individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) were female, black, and active smokers. Patients with PAD had significantly higher serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein than those with CAD alone. The risk of CAD increased with serum cotinine levels>0.02 ng/mL. However, the risk of PAD increased only with serum cotinine levels>138 ng/mL. Despite this association, there was no significant association of secondhand smoke exposure with CAD or PAD. In conclusion, patients with CAD and PAD differed with respect to several demographic and biochemical factors. The relationship between PAD and cotinine demonstrated a threshold phenomenon (serum cotinine levels>138 ng/mL). PMID:24202662

Agarwal, Shikhar; Naderi, Sahar

2014-11-01

38

INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

39

Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among US adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity. PMID:25491719

Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

2015-02-01

40

Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ?19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2014-01-01

41

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

42

Temporal Trends in Phthalate Exposures: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate [BBzP; metabolite, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)], di-n-butyl phthalate [DnBP; metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates; however, little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: We examined temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the general U.S. population and whether trends vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11,071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ?DEHP metabolites decreased between 2001–2002 and 2009–2010 [percent change (95% CI): –42% (–49, –34); –17% (–23, –9); –32% (–39, –23) and –37% (–46, –26), respectively]. In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period [percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively]. Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ?DEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults, but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: Exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends, but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Citation: Zota AZ, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. 2014. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect 122:235–241;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306681 PMID:24425099

Calafat, Antonia M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2014-01-01

43

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLimited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults.

Mi-Sun Lee; Sung Kyun Park; Howard Hu; Sundong Lee

2011-01-01

44

Sleep Disordered Breathing and Depression among U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To determine if symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with depression symptomology in a national sample. Design: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Setting: U.S., 2005-2008. Participants: 9,714 adults (? 18 years) Measurements: Respondents were asked about frequency of snoring and snorting, gasping, or stopping breathing while asleep and completed the PHQ-9 (a 9-item depression screener). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SDB symptom-associated probable major depression (defined as a PHQ-9 score ? 10) were obtained from sex-specific logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results: Among men, 6.0% reported physician-diagnosed sleep apnea, 37.2% snored ? 5 nights/week, 7.1% snorted/stopped breathing ? 5 nights/week, and 5.0% had PHQ-9 scores ? 10. Among women, 3.1% reported sleep apnea, 22.4% snored ? 5 nights/week, 4.3% snorted/stopped breathing ? 5 nights/week, and 8.4% had PHQ-9 scores ? 10. Sleep apnea was associated with probable major depression (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 among men; OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.9 among women). Snoring was not associated with depression symptoms in men or women. Snorting/stopping breathing ? 5 nights/week compared to never was strongly associated with probable major depression in men (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.2) and women (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4). Conclusion: Frequent snorting/stopping breathing was associated with probable major depression by the PHQ-9 in a national sample of adults. Additional research may be needed to determine whether regular screening for these conditions by mental health professionals and sleep specialists should be recommended. Citation: Wheaton AG; Perry GS; Chapman DP; Croft JB. Sleep disordered breathing and depression among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. SLEEP 2012;35(4):461-467. PMID:22467983

Wheaton, Anne G.; Perry, Geraldine S.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

2012-01-01

45

Association between Lung Function and Mental Health Problems among Adults in the United States: Findings from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the association between lung function and mental health problems among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971? 1975), with available information on a representative sample of US adults aged 25-74 years. Lung function was assessed by spirometry, and provisional diagnoses of

Renee D. Goodwin; Shirley Chuang; Nicole Simuro; Mark Davies; Daniel S. Pine

46

Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988–94)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing.Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence

A A Arif; L W Whitehead; G L Delclos; S R Tortolero; E S Lee

2002-01-01

47

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third national health and nutrition examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently developed clinical practice guidelines and calibration of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) serum creatinine assay provide a basis for estimating the prevalence and distribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States using standardized criteria based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and persistent albuminuria. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 15,625

Josef Coresh; Brad C. Astor; Tom Greene; Garabed Eknoyan; Andrew S. Levey

2003-01-01

48

Lung function and mortality in the United States: data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A study was undertaken to define the risk of death among a national cohort of US adults both with and without lung disease. Methods: Participants in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) fol- lowed for up to 22 years were studied. Subjects were classified using a modification of the Global Ini- tiative for Chronic Obstructive

D M Mannino; A S Buist; T L Petty; P L Enright; S C Redd

2003-01-01

49

Intake of Added Sugars and Selected Nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003—2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of ? 25% of energy from added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars.

Bernadette P. Marriott; Lauren Olsho; Louise Hadden; Patty Connor

2010-01-01

50

Low economic status is associated with suboptimal intakes of nutritious foods by adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and compares the social characteristics such as education, marital status and housing and food and nutrient intakes of adults from low-, medium-, and high- income households. There were 2,675 adults, ages 60 yea...

51

Iron Status and Reproduction in US Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18–49 were taken from the 1999–2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health. PMID:25375360

Miller, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

52

Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010).  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults. PMID:23766884

Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung; Kim, Yuri

2013-06-01

53

Sodium consumption among hypertensive adults advised to reduce their intake: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2004.  

PubMed

The authors estimated the prevalence of taking action to reduce intake related to actual sodium consumption among 2970 nonpregnant US adults 18?years and older with self-reported hypertension by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Adjusted multiple linear regression assessed differences in mean sodium intake by action status. A total of 60.5% of hypertensive adults received advice to reduce sodium intake. Of this group, 83.7% took action to reduce sodium. Action to reduce sodium intake differed significantly by age, race/ethnicity, and use of an antihypertensive. The mean (±standard error) sodium intake among hypertensive adults was 3341±37?mg and differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and body mass index (P<.05), with the lowest intake among adults aged 65?years and older (2780±48?mg). Mean intake did not differ significantly by action status either overall or by subgroup except for one age category: among patients 65?years and older, mean intake was significantly lower among those who took action (2715±63?mg) than among those who did not (3401±206?mg; P=.0124). Regardless of action, mean intake was well above 1999-2004 recommendations for daily sodium intake and about twice as high as the current recommendation for hypertensive adults (1500?mg). PMID:22747617

Ayala, Carma; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Molly; Keenan, Nora L; Merritt, Robert

2012-07-01

54

Identifying barriers to Papanicolaou smear screening in Korean women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to provide a nationwide analysis on barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korea. Methods Data used for this study was obtained in a survey called Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2005, which collected data from 2,590 Korean women aged older than 21 years who had not had a hysterectomy and were eligible for Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Multivariate analysis was adopted to control each demographic factor and unhealthy behavior variable. Demographic factors included age, education, income, job and region; health-related behavior factors were defined as current smoking, obesity, hormone replacement therapy and disability. Results The study found that cervical cancer screening rate was significantly positively associated with income (odds ratio [OR], 1.002; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001 to 1.002), with education (OR, 1.324; 95% CI, 1.030 to 1.703), with job (OR, 1.420; 95% CI, 1.030 to 1.957), and with hormone replacement therapy (OR, 3.732; 95% CI, 2.354 to 5.916). Meanwhile, the age (OR, 0.977; 95% CI, 0.968 to 0.985), disability (OR, 0.358; 95% CI, 0.143 to 0.894) and smoking (OR, 0.447; 95% CI, 0.280 to 0.715) were significantly negatively associated with one's chances to take cervical cytology. Conclusion In order to increase the rates of Korean women taking Pap test, cervical cancer screening programs will have to pay special attention to the elderly, low-income group, smokers, and the disabled. PMID:20613896

Park, Su Jeong

2010-01-01

55

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Diet Quality: Findings From the 2000-2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). METHODS We used urinary symptom and dietary data obtained from the 2000-2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the study. Dietary quality was assessed using the 10-component United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We used bivariate methods to examine rates of LUTS among men with poor versus good diets. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios after applying sample weights and controlling for age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes, alcohol intake, and exercise. RESULTS Our study cohort consisted of 1385 men aged ?40 years, of whom 279 (21.1%) reported LUTS. We found higher rates of LUTS among men with poor dietary intake of dairy (22.4% vs 16.4%, P = .013) and among men with poor intake of protein (24.6% vs 17.9%, P = .012) as well as among those with overall poor diet (25.8 vs 17.8%, P = .018) with little dietary variety (26.1 vs 17.6%, P = .001). On multivariate analysis, an unhealthy diet (odds ratios [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.90) was associated with more LUTS, whereas alcohol intake was protective from LUTS (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.48-0.93). CONCLUSION In an analysis of NHANES data, we found that poor diet quality was independently associated with patient-reported LUTS. PMID:22656406

Erickson, Bradley A.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Liu, Xin; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Kreder, Karl J.; Cram, Peter

2013-01-01

56

Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (? 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun

2014-01-01

57

Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

2014-01-01

58

Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (? 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

2014-02-01

59

The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2010.  

PubMed

Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults. PMID:25185135

Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

2014-11-01

60

Renal Function, Bisphenol A, and Alkylphenols: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2006)  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) was used as a biomarker in most previous studies, but no study has investigated whether urinary excretion of these environmental phenols differed by renal function. Objective We estimated the association between renal function and urinary excretion of BPA and APs. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. Renal function was measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and by the newly developed Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Regression models were used to calculate geometric means of urinary BPA and APs excretion by eGFR category (? 90, 60–90, < 60 mL/min/m2) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results When we used the MDRD Study equation, participants without known renal disease (n = 2,573), 58.2% (n = 1,499) had mildly decreased renal function or undiagnosed chronic kidney disease. The adjusted geometric means for urinary BPA excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared primarily in females (p for trend = 0.03). Urinary triclosan excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend < 0.01) for both males and females, and the association primarily appeared in participants < 65 years of age. The association between BPA and eGFR was nonsignificant when we used the CKD-EPI equation. Conclusions Urinary excretion of triclosan, and possibly BPA, decreased with decreasing renal function. The associations might differ by age or sex. Further studies are necessary to replicate our results and understand the mechanism. PMID:21147601

You, Li; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fan, Hong; Chen, Jing; Dong, Jie; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

2011-01-01

61

Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.  

PubMed

There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

2015-02-01

62

Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that alcohol use may have a protective effect on obesity. This study explores association between obesity and alcohol consumption in the non-smoking U.S. adult population. METHODS: We analyzed data on a total of 8,236 respondents who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body mass index (weight-kg\\/height-m2) was derived from measured height and

Ahmed A Arif; James E Rohrer

2005-01-01

63

The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioeconomic status as an independent variable, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios reflecting the likelihood of injury according to socioeconomic status while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In 797 subjects who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 290 persons (36.4%) had a work-related injury. As their income, home value, and educational status increased, their injury experiences decreased. Among occupational groups, the craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers showed the highest rate (10.6%) of injury experience, and the lowest rate (5.7%) was found in the unemployed group. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the experience of injury was significantly related to several socioeconomic factors: high income (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86), high home value (OR?=?0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96), low education status (OR?=?1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and specific occupations such as craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling work (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI: 1.60-2.47), skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery work (OR?=?1.43; 95% CI: 1.02-2.01), and simple labor (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82). Conclusions The injury experience rate differed depending on the socioeconomic status. A negative correlation was found between the injury experience rate and income, low home value, and education level. Moreover, a higher rate of injury experience was found in occupation groups and physical worker groups in comparison to the unemployed group and white-collar worker groups. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for injury management in Korea. PMID:24472308

2014-01-01

64

Disparities in smoking and cessation status among cancer survivors and non-cancer individuals: a population-based study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is a critical problem. This study examined smoking prevalence among all and specific\\u000a cancer survivors, and compared demographic profiles of the current smokers between cancer and non-cancer individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data from 2,188 cancer survivors and 22,441 non-cancer individuals who participated in the 10-year National Health\\u000a and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2008). All analyses

Tung-Sung Tseng; Hui-Yi Lin; Michelle Y. Martin; Ted Chen; Edward E. Partridge

2010-01-01

65

Use of nicotine replacement therapy among never smokers in the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been available without a prescription in the United States since 1996. Given that nicotine, at least as it is delivered through tobacco products, is addictive, we examined whether NRT was being used by individuals who have never smoked cigarettes. Adults (n=18,986) and adolescents (n=9187) who participated in the in-home survey and physical examination components of

Karen K. Gerlach; Jeffrey M. Rohay; Joseph G. Gitchell; Saul Shiffman

2008-01-01

66

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (?19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],?65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ?65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ? 24% of Korean adults and ? 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

67

Prevalence of dietary supplement use in Korean children and adolescents: insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/10(3) persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status. PMID:22563216

Yoon, Ji Ye; Park, Hyun Ah; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-05-01

68

Effects of Diet Modification on Meal Quality and Quality of Life in Korean Diabetic Patients: Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011)  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that diet modification provides beneficial effects on the management of diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diet modification on nutrient intake and quality of life in a large sample of diabetic patients. This study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). A total of 2,484 of diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Then, we compared the overall quality of dietary intake between diabetic patients with diet modification and those without dietary modification. The result showed that subjects on diabetic diet (DDG) showed lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST before and after the adjustment for covariates (all p < 0.05). The results of nutrient assessment showed that DDG had lower intakes of total energy, fat, and carbohydrate (all p < 0.05), but higher intakes of energy from protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin and vitamin C than NDG. (all p < 0.05). In addition, nutritional adequacy ratio of calcium and vitamin B2 were significantly higher in DDG than those in normal diet group (NDG) (p < 0.05). However, we observed no significant differences in quality of life between two groups. In conclusion, diet modification in diabetic patients seemed to be effective to improve blood lipid profile and the adequacy of nutrient intake without sacrificing the quality of life. PMID:25136538

Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-01-01

69

Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-12-01

70

Modifiable and nonmodifiable factors associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

We wished to study the relationship between modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that were correlated with osteoporosis using a national sample of women aged 50 years and older who have never been on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We used a cross-sectional study design with a nationally representative sample with a detailed clinical examination and a home interview. Between 1988 and 1994, 1953 postmenopausal women who had never been on HRT, aged 50 years and older, were examined as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks were oversampled to produce reliable estimates for these groups. Bone density measurements of four proximal femur sites were assessed by using x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A DEXA measurement at any single femur site indicated osteoporosis if it was >2.5 standard deviations (SD) below the reference mean of 20--29-year-old women. The study demonstrated that numerous factors, both modifiable and nonmodifiable, were significantly related to the prevalence of osteoporosis. The modifiable factors identified were participation in physical activity (three to five times per week) and body mass index (BMI). Nonmodifiable factors included age, race, and mother's history. With the aging population, osteoporosis is a growing concern for the medical community. It is suggested that educational strategies are needed to increase awareness of factors that contribute to maintaining bone health among postmenopausal women. Emphasis may be placed on maintaining regular physical activity. PMID:11224945

Snelling, A M; Crespo, C J; Schaeffer, M; Smith, S; Walbourn, L

2001-01-01

71

Soda and Cell Aging: Associations between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and risk of cardiometabolic disease. We examined cross-sectional associations between consumption of SSBs, diet soda and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. Methods The study population included 5,309 adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no prior history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (?=?0.010, 95% CI ?0.020, ?0.001, P=0.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (?= 0.016, 95% CI ?0.000, 0.033). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages and telomere length. Conclusions Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas may influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

2014-01-01

72

Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the national health and nutrition examination surveys.  

PubMed

Objectives. We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations between the consumption of SSBs, diet soda, and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. The study population included 5309 US adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (b?=?-0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.020, -0.001; P?=?.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (b?=?0.016; 95% CI?=?-0.000, 0.033; P?=?.05). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or noncarbonated SSBs and telomere length. Conclusions. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W; Laraia, Barbara A; Needham, Belinda L; Rehkopf, David H; Adler, Nancy E; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S

2014-12-01

73

Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

2014-01-01

74

Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

2014-01-01

75

Trends in Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Blood Lead Levels Among Youths and Adults in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2008  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation. Results Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking. Conclusion Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general. PMID:24355106

Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Kaufmann, Rachel

2013-01-01

76

Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ?20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio ?=?0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ?40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio ?=?0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

2013-01-01

77

Impact of hemoglobin A1c-based criterion on diagnosis of prediabetes: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011.  

PubMed

To examine the impact of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criterion on the diagnosis of prediabetes in Koreans, we analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional data of 5,845 Korean adults aged ?20 years from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011. Standardized prevalence rates of prediabetes in Korean adults by fasting plasma glucose (FPG; 5.6-6.9 mmol/L), HbA1c (5.7-6.4% [39-46 mmol/mol]), and combined criteria were 16.9, 28.4 and 33.8%, respectively. Among the subjects with prediabetes, 16% met FPG criteria only, 55% met HbA1c criteria only and 29% met both criteria. Prediabetic subjects who met HbA1c criteria only were significantly older, more likely to be women, and had lower hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations, whereas those who met FPG criteria only had higher body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, introduction of HbA1c criterion markedly increased the prevalence of prediabetes in Koreans, and the two criteria identified people with different characteristics. PMID:25621133

Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo

2015-01-01

78

Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population. Methods Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status. Results The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males. Conclusions This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24015265

Kim, Ho; Lee, Su Mi; Oh, Yun Jung; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

2013-01-01

79

Impact of hemoglobin A1c-based criterion on diagnosis of prediabetes: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011  

PubMed Central

To examine the impact of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criterion on the diagnosis of prediabetes in Koreans, we analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional data of 5,845 Korean adults aged ?20 years from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011. Standardized prevalence rates of prediabetes in Korean adults by fasting plasma glucose (FPG; 5.6–6.9 mmol/L), HbA1c (5.7–6.4% [39–46 mmol/mol]), and combined criteria were 16.9, 28.4 and 33.8%, respectively. Among the subjects with prediabetes, 16% met FPG criteria only, 55% met HbA1c criteria only and 29% met both criteria. Prediabetic subjects who met HbA1c criteria only were significantly older, more likely to be women, and had lower hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations, whereas those who met FPG criteria only had higher body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, introduction of HbA1c criterion markedly increased the prevalence of prediabetes in Koreans, and the two criteria identified people with different characteristics.

Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo

2015-01-01

80

Allostatic Load in Foreign-Born and US-Born Blacks: Evidence From the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Objectives. We tested whether the immigrant health advantage applies to non-Hispanic Black immigrants and examined whether nativity-based differences in allostatic load exist among non-Hispanic Blacks. Methods. We used pooled data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare allostatic load scores for US-born (n?=?2745) and foreign-born (n?=?152) Black adults. We used multivariate logistic regression techniques to assess the association between nativity and high allostatic load scores, controlling for gender, age, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Results. For foreign-born Blacks, length of stay and age were powerful predictors of allostatic load scores. For older US-born Blacks and those who were widowed, divorced, or separated, the risk of high allostatic load was greater. Conclusions. Foreign-born Blacks have a health advantage in allostatic load. Further research is needed that underscores a deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving this health differential to create programs that target these populations differently. PMID:25602865

Doamekpor, Lauren A; Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y

2015-03-01

81

Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)  

PubMed Central

We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ?3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

82

Markers of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have documented an association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and metabolic syndrome. However, it is not clear if there are gender or ethnic differences in this association. We examined 6,122 participants aged ?20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of ?3 of the following components: (1) abdominal obesity, (2) elevated blood triglycerides, (3) low HDL cholesterol, (4) high BP, and (5) hyperglycemia. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that short sleep duration, snoring, snorting, daytime sleepiness and the summary SDB score were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome independent of potential confounders. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of metabolic syndrome among those with three or more sleep disturbances was 3.92 (2.98–5.16). In subgroup analyses, this association was consistently present among men and women and all race-ethnic groups. In summary, SDB was independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of US adults. PMID:22577590

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Zhang, Ruoxin; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

83

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gout, an inflammatory arthritis, reportedly afflicts more than 2 million men and women in the United States. Previous reports have suggested an association between gout and kidney stone disease; however, these studies did not adjust for such important potential confounders as obesity and the presence of hypertension. To our knowledge, no published study has examined the independent association between

Holly Mattix Kramer; Gary Curhan

2002-01-01

84

Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

2014-01-01

85

Association between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Employment by Industry and Occupation in the US Population: A Study of Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was

Eva Hnizdo; Patricia A. Sullivan; Ki Moon Bang; Gregory Wagner

86

Systematic evaluation of environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental and behavioural factors are thought to contribute to all-cause mortality. Here, we develop a method to systematically screen and validate the potential independent contributions to all-cause mortality of 249 environmental and behavioural factors in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We used Cox proportional hazards regression to associate 249 factors with all-cause mortality while adjusting for sociodemographic factors on data in the 1999–2000 and 2001–02 surveys (median 5.5 follow-up years). We controlled for multiple comparisons with the false discovery rate (FDR) and validated significant findings in the 2003–04 survey (median 2.8 follow-up years). We selected 249 factors from a set of all possible factors based on their presence in both the 1999–2002 and 2003–04 surveys and linkage with at least 20 deceased participants. We evaluated the correlation pattern of validated factors and built a multivariable model to identify their independent contribution to mortality. Results We identified seven environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality, including serum and urinary cadmium, serum lycopene levels, smoking (3-level factor) and physical activity. In a multivariable model, only physical activity, past smoking, smoking in participant’s home and lycopene were independently associated with mortality. These three factors explained 2.1% of the variance of all-cause mortality after adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our association study suggests that, of the set of 249 factors in NHANES, physical activity, smoking, serum lycopene and serum/urinary cadmium are associated with all-cause mortality as identified in previous studies and after controlling for multiple hypotheses and validation in an independent survey. Whereas other NHANES factors may be associated with mortality, they may require larger cohorts with longer time of follow-up to detect. It is possible to use a systematic association study to prioritize risk factors for further investigation. PMID:24345851

Patel, Chirag J; Rehkopf, David H; Leppert, John T; Bortz, Walter M; Cullen, Mark R; Chertow, Glenn M; Ioannidis, John PA

2013-01-01

87

Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

88

Glycated Hemoglobin Value for Fasting Plasma Glucose of 126 mg/dL in Korean: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

We aimed to estimate the cutoff value of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, A1c) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 126 mg/dL in the Korean adult population, using the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5,421 participants without a history of diabetes and over 19 years of age were included in the analysis. A point-wise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the optimal A1c cutoff value. A1c threshold of 6.1% produced the highest sum of sensitivity (85.2%) and specificity (90.5%) for FPG of 126 mg/dL (area under the curve, 0.941, P<0.001). A1c of 6.5% produced a sensitivity of 67.7% and specificity of 98.0% for FPG of 126 mg/dL. Considering A1c as one of three criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes and the specificity of an A1c cutoff of 6.5%, the current diagnostic criteria of A1c?6.5% might be acceptable in the Korean adult population. PMID:25541612

Kim, Jung Min; Hong, Jae Won; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

89

Health effects of sunlight exposure in the United States. Results from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974.  

PubMed

The dermatologic component of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 20,637), conducted from 1971 through 1974, documented the deleterious effect of ultraviolet radiation on selected skin and eye conditions. Actinic skin damage was more frequent in white men with high as compared with low sunlight exposure, 36.7% vs 23.3%, respectively. Among white women, the corresponding figures were 34.1% vs 18.6%, respectively. Actinic damage was found more often in individuals with light eye color. Basal cell epitheliomas were found in 11.3% of white men aged 65 to 74 years who had severely actinic-damaged skin as compared with 1.0% of those with undamaged skin. Sunlight exposure was positively associated with localized hypomelanism, localized hypermelanism, seborrheic keratoses, senile lentigines, freckles, acne rosacea, spider nevi, varicose veins, venus star, dry skin, wrinkled skin, pterygia, arcus senilis, and a variety of minor oral lesions of the tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. These findings suggest that a large number of dermatologic conditions, which may in part result from overexposure to sunlight, may be preventable. PMID:3257372

Engel, A; Johnson, M L; Haynes, S G

1988-01-01

90

Selecting Adequate Exposure Biomarkers of Diisononyl and Diisodecyl Phthalates: Data from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background High-molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are used primarily as polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. Objectives We assessed exposure to DINP and DIDP in a representative sample of persons ? 6 years of age in the U.S. general population from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed 2,548 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results We detected monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), a metabolite of DINP, and monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), a metabolite of DIDP, in 95.2% and 89.9% of the samples, respectively. We detected monoisononyl phthalate (MNP), a minor metabolite of DINP, much less frequently (12.9%) and at concentration ranges (> 0.8 ?g/L–148.1 ?g/L) much lower than MCOP (> 0.7 ?g/L– 4,961 ?g/L). Adjusted geometric mean concentrations of MCOP and MCNP were significantly higher (p < 0.01) among children than among adolescents and adults. Conclusions The general U.S. population, including children, was exposed to DINP and DIDP. In previous NHANES cycles, the occurrence of human exposure to DINP by using MNP as the sole urinary biomarker has been underestimated, thus illustrating the importance of selecting the most adequate biomarkers for exposure assessment. PMID:20870567

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Silva, Manori J.; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L.; Jia, Lily T.; Needham, Larry L.

2011-01-01

91

Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the US population. Stored serum samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12,482 individuals of age ?50 years (2331 'blacks', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'whites' and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum-free light-chain assay and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the United States, respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the United States was found, which has etiologic implications. PMID:24441287

Landgren, O; Graubard, B I; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Ahmadizadeh, I; Clark, R; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Greenberg, A J; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Caporaso, N; Korde, N; Roschewski, M; Costello, R; McQuillan, G M; Rajkumar, S V

2014-07-01

92

Association of Plasma Homocysteine with Self-Reported Sleep Apnea Is Confounded by Age: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

High levels of plasma homocysteine are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases especially if accompanied by sleep apnea, but a direct pathogenetic link between plasma homocysteine levels and obstructive sleep apnea is debatable. This association can have far-reaching public health implications considering the inverse association between folate and plasma homocysteine. We used data from the 2005-2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to test the hypothesized associations. Of the 4490 subjects included in analysis, 177 reported sleep apnea. Age-standardized and design-effect-corrected prevalence rates were differential across gender, plasma homocysteine, and red cell folate status. Plasma homocysteine was positively correlated with age (r = 0.38, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses using sociodemographic and clinical covariates demonstrated that plasma homocysteine levels retained their respective associations with self-reported sleep apnea in all models except when age was included as a covariate. Our results demonstrate that the claimed association of plasma homocysteine with sleep apnea may be confounded by age. PMID:23471122

Thakre, Tushar P.; Mamtani, Manju; Ujaoney, Shweta; Kulkarni, Hemant

2012-01-01

93

Prevalence of asbestos-related pleural changes on x-ray in the United States: Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) data  

SciTech Connect

Pleural thickening on x-ray is a specific marker for exposure to asbestos, which in turn carries an excess risk for lung disease and cancer. In World War II, a large cohort of asbestos workers was employed in shipyards in the United States. About 30 years have elapsed between their exposure and the 1974 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), done on a probability sample of US residents. A defined subgroup of subjects between ages 18 and 75 years (n = 6758) had chest x-rays. All films read by HANES as showing pleural changes (n = 289), and a 3 to 1, age-, sex-, race-matched control series were re-read by three readers using the International Labor Organization criteria for diagnosis of pleural pneumoconiosis. Using 2/3 readings as positive, 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had pleural changes on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with pleural changes in the mid-1970s. If about 12% of asbestos workers develop pleural changes, there would have been about 10 million workers or persons with substantial asbestos exposure to produce those with pleural changes. This estimate is in line with those made by other investigators, but was arrived at by a different and more direct method. This cohort will make a substantial contribution to cancer morbidity into the next century.

Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; Ragan, N.B.; Anderson, H.A.

1986-09-01

94

Prevalence of occupational pleural thickening: a look at chest x-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

The prevalence of occupational pleural thickening in the United States in the mid-1970s was estimated; since asbestos often reduces pleural thickening, this estimate in turn was used to estimate the presence of asbestos exposure. Chest x-rays obtained by the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were reread by three readers using the International Labour Office criteria for diagnosis of pleural thickening consistent with dust exposure. All 289 x-rays showing any pleural abnormalities plus a 3-to-1 age-, sex-, and race-matched control series were reread. Using two of three readings as positive, and extrapolating to the US population from this defined sample, the authors showed that 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had occupational pleural thickening on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with occupational pleural thickening and approximately 8 million people with asbestos exposure in the mid-1970s. This cohort might make a substantial contribution to cancer mortality into the next century.

Rogan, W.J.; Gladenn, B.C.; Ragan, B.; Anderson, H.A.

1987-11-01

95

Noise-induced hearing threshold shift among US adults and implications for noise-induced hearing loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors of the noise-induced hearing threshold shift (NITS) in the US adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20-69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS and their association with several socio-demographic and hearing-related factors were evaluated. The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS was 9.4, 3.4 and 12.8%, respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes, and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males, and smokers. This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the US adult population and its associated risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes. PMID:22389092

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-02-01

96

Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift among U.S. Adults and Implications for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift (NITS) in the U.S. adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Methods This study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20 to 69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS and their association with several sociodemographic and hearing related factors were evaluated. Results The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS was 9.4%, 3.4% and 12.8% respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males and smokers. Conclusion This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the U.S. adult population and within the various risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes. PMID:22389092

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-01-01

97

Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

2014-10-01

98

Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican) (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706), non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602), and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957). Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879) and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637) are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important. PMID:25485292

Cohen, Catherine Crawford

2014-01-01

99

Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 µg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 µg/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 µg/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with -5.54% (95% CI: -8.70, -2.37) and -4.50% (95% CI: -8.79, -0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks. PMID:25504027

Zota, Ami R; Needham, Belinda L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H; Epel, Elissa S

2015-01-15

100

Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

2014-11-01

101

Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was 5.44 ?g/L. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population. PMID:25580399

Kim, Young-Nam; Kim, Young A; Yang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Bog-Hieu

2014-01-01

102

Antioxidant status and its association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–06  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of elevated depressive symptoms with antioxidant status. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–06 on US adults aged 20–85 years were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire with a score cutpoint of 10 to define “elevated depressive symptoms”. Serum antioxidant status was measured by serum levels of carotenoids, retinol (free and retinyl esters), vitamin C and vitamin E. The main analyses consisted of multiple logistic and zero-inflated poisson regression models, taking into account sampling design complexity. The final sample consisted of 1,798 US adults with complete data. Higher total carotenoid serum level was associated with lower likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms with a reduction in the odds by 37% overall with each SD increase in exposure, and by 34% among women (p<0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed when serum total carotenoids were expressed as quartiles [Q4 (1.62–10.1 ?mol/L) vs. Q1(0.06–0.86 ?mol/L): OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.23–0.76, P<0.001; p-value for trend=0.035], though no significant associations were found with other antioxidant levels. Among carotenoids, ?-carotene (men and women combined) and lutein+zeaxanthins (women only, after control for dietary lutein+zeaxanthin intake and supplement use) had an independent inverse association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults. None of the other serum antioxidants had a significant association with depressive symptoms, independently of total carotenoids and other covariates. In conclusion, total carotenoids (mainly ?-carotene and lutein+zeaxanthins) in serum were associated with reduced levels of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling US adults. PMID:22935166

Beydoun, May A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Boueiz, Adel; Shroff, Monal R.; Zonderman, Alan B.

2013-01-01

103

Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

2015-01-01

104

Combined Effects of Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Iodine on Thyroid Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-8  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference = 0.40 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14-0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference = 1.07 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55-1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. PMID:23473920

Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

2013-01-01

105

The Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults: Findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to examine the association between circulating vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the associations between depressive symptoms and various sociodemographic factors. Data on serum 25(OH)D levels, sociodemographic factors, and information on depressive symptoms were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 2010. A total of 3,570 Koreans aged ?20 years were included in the statistical analysis. Subjects with depressive symptoms had lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (41.6±16.2 nmol/L) than those without (44.3±16.2 nmol/L; P-value<0.05; effect size?=?0.17). In a logistic regression analysis, the 25(OH)D sufficiency group (?50 nmol/L) revealed fewer depressive symptoms (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53–0.97; P-value?=?0.032) after adjusting for multiple factors. In addition, females (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.55–5.11; P-value<0.001), problematic alcohol users (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63–3.34; P-value<0.001), current smokers (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02–1.99; P-value?=?0.036), and subjects who experienced weight loss (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.30–2.44; P-value<0.001) were more likely to answer “yes” on question for depressive symptoms. In conclusion, low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk for depression symptoms in Korean adults. In addition, several sociodemographic factors were related to the depressive symptoms. Our results provide insight into the relationships among vitamin D status, sociodemographic factors, and depression in the Korean population. PMID:24945632

Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-01-01

106

Rural–Urban Differences in Objective and Subjective Measures of Physical Activity: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower levels of physical activity among rural relative to urban residents have been suggested as an important contributor to rural–urban health disparity; however, empirical evidence is sparse. Methods We examined rural–urban differences in 4 objective physical activity measures (2 intensity thresholds by 2 bout lengths) and 4 subjective measures (total, leisure, household, and transportation) in a nationally representative sample of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. The sample comprised 5,056 adults aged 20 to 75 years. Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were matched with NHANES subjects to identify urban status and 2 types of rural status. Rural–urban and within–rural differences in physical activity were estimated without and with controls for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Rural residents were less active than urban residents in high-intensity long bout (2,020 counts per minute threshold and 10 miniutes or longer bout length) accelerometer-measured physical activity (42.5 ± 6.2 min/wk vs 55.9 ± 2.8 min/wk) but the difference disappeared with a lower-intensity threshold (760 counts per minute). Rural residents reported more total physical activity than urban residents (438.3 ± 35.3min/wk vs 371.2 ± 12.5 min/wk), with differences primarily attributable to household physical activity. Within rural areas, micropolitan residents were less active than residents in smaller rural areas. Controlling for other variables reduced the size of the differences. Conclusion The direction and significance of rural–urban difference in physical activity varied by the method of physical activity measurement, likely related to rural residents spending more time in low-intensity household physical activity but less time in high-intensity physical activity. Micropolitan residents were substantially less active than residents in smaller rural areas, indicating that physical activity did not vary unidirectionally with degree of urbanization. PMID:25144676

Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

2014-01-01

107

Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

2012-01-01

108

Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Parameters of Obesity in Korean Adults: The 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To examine the associations of various parameters of obesity including adiposity with intraocular pressure (IOP) using nationally representative data of South Korean adults. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,271 subjects (6600 men and 8671 women) participated. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentage were measured as parameters of obesity. Results: IOP showed positive linear associations with BMI, WC, total fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentages in men, and with BMI, WC, total fat mass, and trunk fat percentage in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Men with higher BMI, WC, total fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentages exhibited increasing trends in odd ratios for having IOP ? 18?mmHg after adjusting for all confounding factors (p for trend <0.001 for BMI and total fat mass; p for trend?=?0.038 for WC; 0.003 for total body fat percentage; 0.002 for trunk fat percentage; 0.004 for leg fat percentage). However, only BMI showed a significantly increasing trend in the risk of IOP ?18?mmHg in women. Conclusions: In addition to BMI, WC and total fat mass, total and regional body fat percentage in men and trunk fat percentage in women are positively associated with IOP. Increased BMI, WC, and total and regional body fat are positively associated with a risk of higher IOP (IOP ?18?mmHg), especially in Korean men. PMID:25380054

Jang, Hyung-Deok; Kim, Do Hoon; Han, Kyungdo; Ha, Suk Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, Ji Young; Yoon, Su Jung; Jung, Dong Wook; Park, Sang Woon; Nam, Ga Eun

2014-11-01

109

Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ? Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ? Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ? Some groups may be more susceptible to perchlorate than others.

Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Miller, Mark D., E-mail: ucsfpehsumiller@gmail.com [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Cushing, Lara, E-mail: lara.cushing@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States)] [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States); Blount, Benjamin C., E-mail: bkb3@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F47, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Allan H., E-mail: ahsmith@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, 1950 Addison St., Suite 204, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States)

2013-05-15

110

Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Iii, Victor L Fulgoni

2015-01-01

111

Association between Reproductive Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between female reproductive factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in postmenopausal women. Design Nationwide population-based cross-sectional study. Methods A nationally representative dataset acquired from the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. The dataset involved information for 4,377 postmenopausal women aged ?50 years with a fundus photograph evaluable for AMD in either eye. All participants were interviewed using standardized questionnaires to determine reproductive factors including menstruation, pregnancy, parity, lactation, and hormonal use. The association between reproductive factors and each type of AMD was investigated. Results The mean age of the study participants was 63.1±0.2 years. Mean ages at menarche and menopause were 16.1±0.0 and 49.2±0.1 years, respectively. The overall prevalence rates of early and late AMD were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1–12.5) and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.5–1.2), respectively. When adjusted for age, neither smoking nor alcohol use was associated with the presence of any AMD or late AMD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age (OR, 1.12 per 1 year), duration of lactation (OR, 0.91 per 6 months), and duration of use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (OR, 1.10 per 6 months) as associated factors for late AMD. The other variables did not yield a significant correlation with the risk of any AMD or late AMD. Conclusion After controlling for confounders, a longer duration of lactation appeared to protect against the development of late AMD. A longer duration of OCP use was associated with a higher risk of late AMD. PMID:25025761

Cho, Bum-Joo; Heo, Jang Won; Shin, Jae Pil; Ahn, Jeeyun; Kim, Tae Wan; Chung, Hum

2014-01-01

112

The association of prevalent kidney stone disease with mortality in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stone disease is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, kidney function decline and increased cardiovascular (CV) events. However, its association with all-cause and CV mortality is unclear. Methods We used The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large US population-based study with mortality data through 2006 determined via linkage to the National Death Index to examine kidney stone disease in relation to all-cause and CV mortality risks. Results Among 14,879 men and women over 18 years of age who were eligible for analysis, 683 participants reported a history of kidney stones. There was a total of 3,590 all-cause and 1,608 CV deaths occurred during a median follow up of 14.9 years. Stone formers had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.64–2.33, p<0.0001), and CV mortality (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60–2.62, p<0.0001) in unadjusted analyses. However, after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, race and poverty, stone formers no longer had increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.26, p=0.3) and CV mortality (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.36, p=0.6). Results remain unchanged after further adjustment for other clinical variables including history of hypertension, diabetes, and CV disease. Conclusion The increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in kidney stone formers is likely a reflection of unique demographics and associated co-morbidities. There is no independent association of prevalent kidney stone disease with all-cause and CV mortality. PMID:23635714

Tang, Jie; Mettler, Pam; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel

2014-01-01

113

Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

114

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

115

The Relationship between Total Bilirubin Levels and Total Mortality in Older Adults: The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective Due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bilirubin has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. A recent study demonstrated an L-shaped association of pre-treatment total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a statin-treated cohort. We therefore investigated the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a nationally representative sample of older adults from the general population. Methods A total of 4,303 participants aged ?60 years from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 with mortality data followed up through December 31, 2006 were included in this analysis, with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years. Results Participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl had the highest mortality rate (19.8%). Compared with participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl and in a multivariable regression model, a lower total bilirubin level of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratios, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.72; P?=?0.012), while higher levels (?0.8 mg/dl) also tended to be associated with higher risk of total mortality, but this did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratios, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–1.56; P?=?0.072). Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality was the highest among those with a level between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/dl. Further studies are needed to investigate whether higher total bilirubin levels could be associated with a higher mortality risk, compared to a level of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl. PMID:24728477

Ong, Kwok-Leung; Allison, Matthew A.; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.; Wu, Ben J.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne

2014-01-01

116

Association between Coffee Consumption and Renal Impairment in Korean Women with and without Diabetes: Analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that coffee consumption has an influence on kidney function. This study investigated the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and renal impairment in Korean women, in consideration of diabetic status. Methods This study involved 2,673 women aged 35 to 84 years who had participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted in 2008. Habitual coffee consumption was classified into three categories: less than 1 cup per day, 1 cup per day, and 2 or more cups per day. Renal function impairment was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The prevalence of diabetes and renal function impairment was higher in women who drank < 1 cup of coffee per day. Compared with drinking < 1 cup of coffee per day, the odds ratio (OR) for renal function impairment was significantly lower (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.95; P = 0.03) in those who habitually drank ? 2 cups per day after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. When data were stratified according to the presence of diabetes, coffee consumption ? 2 cups of coffee per day showed an inverse association with renal function impairment in only diabetic women (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88; P = 0.04), compared with consumption < 1 cup of coffee per day. Conclusion In a representative sample of Korean women, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of renal impairment especially in middle and elderly-aged diabetic women. PMID:23904956

Kim, Bo Ha; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye Mi; Sung, Ji Sun

2013-01-01

117

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

118

Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

2015-01-01

119

Concentrations of the Sunscreen Agent Benzophenone-3 in Residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004  

PubMed Central

Background The capability of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) to absorb and dissipate ultraviolet radiation facilitates its use as a sunscreen agent. BP-3 has other uses in many consumer products (e.g., as fragrance and flavor enhancer, photoinitiator, ultraviolet curing agent, polymerization inhibitor). Objectives Our goal was to assess exposure to BP-3 in a representative sample of the U.S. general population ? 6 years of age. Methods Using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,517 urine samples collected as part of the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results We detected BP-3 in 96.8% of the samples. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentrations were 22.9 ?g/L (22.2 ?g/g creatinine) and 1,040 ?g/L (1,070 ?g/g creatinine), respectively. Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations were significantly higher (p ? 0.04) for females than for males, regardless of age. LSGM concentrations were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than for non-Hispanic blacks (p ? 0.01), regardless of age. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.9–6.5], and non-Hispanic whites were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (adjusted OR = 6.8; 95% CI, 2.9–16.2) to have concentrations above the 95th percentile. Conclusions Exposure to BP-3 was prevalent in the general U.S. population during 2003–2004. Differences by sex and race/ethnicity probably reflect differences in use of personal care products containing BP-3. PMID:18629311

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Ye, Xiaoyun; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2008-01-01

120

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk factors for heart disease among never smokers in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

The relative risk of coronary artery disease among never smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus never smokers not exposed to ETS is approximately 1.2 based on more than a dozen epidemiologic studies. Most of these studies have controlled for the major heart disease risk factors, but residual or uncontrolled confounding remains a possible explanation for the epidemiologic findings. The authors studied 3,338 never-smoking adults aged 17 years or older, who are representative of all US never smokers, in the 1988-1991 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine whether selected risk factors for heart disease differ between ETS-exposed and -nonexposed persons. Both self-reported ETS exposure (at home and at work) and serum cotinine levels were available, the latter reflecting recent ETS exposure. After adjustments were made for age, sex, race, and education among adults aged 17 years or older, no significant differences were found between the ETS exposed and the nonexposed for any of 13 cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of dietary carotene, which was lower among the exposed. On the other hand, significant positive linear trends were found between serum cotinine and two risk factors (body mass index and alcohol consumption), and significant inverse trends were found with dietary carotene. There were also few differences between exposed and nonexposed never smokers among adults aged 40 years or older, who are most at risk of heart disease. In this group, however, there was an inverse linear trend between serum cotinine and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001). This finding could result from ETS exposure rather than be an indication of confounding; a similar inverse trend was found for children, confirming other results in the literature. Overall, these data suggest little potential for confounding by the heart disease risk factors studied here when ETS exposure is determined by self-report. PMID:9596471

Steenland, K; Sieber, K; Etzel, R A; Pechacek, T; Maurer, K

1998-05-15

121

Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988–94)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. PMID:12151605

Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

2002-01-01

122

Long Term Mortality Risk in Individuals with Atrial or Ventricular Premature Complexes– Results From The Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

PubMed Central

Premature ectopic beats are frequently detected on routine 12-lead screening-electrocardiogram (ECG). However, their prognostic importance in individuals without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well established. We evaluated prognostic value of atrial premature complexes (APC’s) and ventricular premature complexes (VPC’s) detected by a single 12-lead-ECG. A prospective cohort of 7504 participants selected from nationally-representative, community-dwelling individuals living in United States, enrolled in the Third Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) from 1988 – 94 with follow up through December 2006 without known CVD. The main outcomes were all – cause mortality, CVD related mortality and IHD related mortality. Out of 7504 participants (mean age 60 ± 14 years, 47% women, 49% whites), 89 (1.2%) had APC’s and 110 (1.5%) had VPC’s on 12 – lead ECG. During a follow up of up to 18 years, 2386 deaths occurred, of which 963 were due to CVD and 511 were due to IHD. In a multivariable adjusted for demographics, clinical variables and ECG measures, APC’s were significantly associated with all-cause mortality [HR, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.08–1.80)], CVD death [HR, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.26–2.44)] and IHD death [HR, 2.40 (95% CI, 1.59–3.47)]. For VPCs, however, there were no significant associations with all – cause mortality [HR, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80–1.36)], CVD death [HR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.62–1.43)] and IHD death [HR, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.47–1.52)]. In conclusion, APC’s, but not VPC’s, on routine screening ECG are predictive of adverse events in community-dwelling individuals without known CVD. PMID:24819898

Qureshi, Waqas; Shah, Amit J.; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Soliman, Elsayed Z.

2015-01-01

123

Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the U.S. population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20?ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults. PMID:25055347

Lee, Sang Gil; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Vance, Terrence; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

2014-10-01

124

Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001-2010.  

PubMed

Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

McGill, Carla R; Iii, Victor L Fulgoni; Devareddy, Latha

2015-01-01

125

Cocaine use and the likelihood of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous case series have implicated cocaine use as a cause of both myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke on the basis of the temporal relationship between drug use and event onset. The relatively high prevalence of cocaine use in the US population, especially in younger individuals, mandates a more extensive investigation of this relationship. Methods: We determined the relationship between cocaine use and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of 9013 US adults aged 18 to 45 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study using Cox proportional hazards analyses. We categorized the participants as nonusers if they responded to the lifetime cocaine use question as never used, as infrequent users if they responded as using <10 times, and as frequent or regular users if they reported using 10–99 times or >100 times, respectively. Potential confounding factors in the association between cocaine use and death (cardiovascular and all cause) included age, sex, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, educational attainment, body mass index, and insurance status. To estimate the impact of cocaine use on MI or stroke, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) percent for cocaine use with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We also estimated the years of life lost and total annual financial cost due to premature deaths in persons who reported regular use of cocaine. Results: A total of 60 cardiovascular deaths and 384 all causes deaths were reported during a mean follow-up period of 14.7 ± 2.6 years. After adjusting for differences in potential confounders, persons who reported regular lifetime cocaine use had a significantly higher likelihood of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–3.0 for ?100 times in lifetime) but not cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1–4.7 for ?100 times in lifetime). The PAR of regular cocaine use for all cause mortality among was 1.79%. The years of life lost due to regular cocaine use was 10.3 years for an adult aged 31 years. The overall yearly cost incurred due to premature deaths related to regular cocaine use was $1.1 billion. Conclusion: Regular cocaine use was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality but this effect was not mediated through cardiovascular events. Behavior modification by public awareness and education may reduce the mortality and financial burden associated with cocaine use. PMID:24920992

Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

2014-01-01

126

Smoking, Menthol Cigarettes and All-Cause, Cancer and Cardiovascular Mortality: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including menthol, if the scientific evidence indicates harm. Few studies, however, have evaluated the health effects of menthol cigarette use. Objective To investigate associations of cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette use with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults. Methods We studied 10,289 adults ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2004 and were followed through December 2006. We also identified studies comparing risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer for menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers and estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Results Fifty-five percent of participants were never smokers compared to 23%, 17% and 5% of former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers compared to never smokers were 1.24 (0.96, 1.62), 2.40 (1.56, 3.71) and 2.07 (1.20, 3.58), respectively, for all-cause mortality; 0.92 (0.62, 1.37), 2.10 (1.02, 4.31) and 3.48 (1.52, 7.99) for cardiovascular mortality; and 1.91 (1.21, 3.00), 3.82 (2.19, 6.68) and 2.03 (1.00, 4.13) for cancer mortality. Using data from 3 studies of all-cause mortality, 5 of cardiovascular disease and 13 of cancer, the pooled relative risks (95% CI) comparing menthol cigarette smokers to nonmenthol cigarette smokers was 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) for all-cause mortality, 1.28 (0.91, 1.80) for cardiovascular disease and 0.84 (0.76, 0.92) for any cancer. Conclusions In a representative sample of U.S. adults, menthol cigarette smoking was associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality with no differences compared to nonmenthol cigarettes. In the systematic review, menthol cigarette use was associated with inverse risk of cancer compared to nonmenthol cigarette use with some evidence of an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24205038

Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

127

Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted. PMID:23899931

Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

2014-03-01

128

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

2013-01-01

129

The direction of the difference between Canadian and American erythrocyte folate concentrations is dependent on the assay method employed: a comparison of the Canadian Health Measures Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Fortification of select grain products with folic acid and periconceptional supplementation recommendations in Canada and the USA have improved folate status, and have been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a comparison of erythrocyte folate concentrations from the 2007-9 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the 2007-8 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Erythrocyte folate concentration was assessed in participants aged 6-79 years (CHMS, n 5248; NHANES, n 7070). To account for different folate assays employed - Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) and microbiological assay (NHANES) - a conversion equation was generated (n 152 adults) to adjust the CHMS data. t Tests were used to examine country differences. Median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations (method-adjusted) were lower than those of Americans (988 and 1100 nmol/l, respectively), but unadjusted median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations were higher (1250 nmol/l). The upper 95 % CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate distribution overlapped that of the American erythrocyte folate concentrations, while the lower 95 % CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate data was below the American distribution. In summary, the fact that erythrocyte folate concentrations were either higher or lower in Canadians compared with Americans, depending on whether an adjustment was made to account for assay differences, suggests that caution must be exercised in evaluating erythrocyte folate data from different countries because analytical methods are not readily comparable. Furthermore, we cannot unequivocally conclude that there are true differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the Canadian and American populations in the post-fortification era. PMID:25296277

Colapinto, Cynthia K; Tremblay, Mark S; Aufreiter, Susanne; Bushnik, Tracey; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

2014-12-01

130

Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)  

PubMed Central

There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 ± 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 ± 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri

2013-01-01

131

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

132

Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

2005-01-01

133

Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Yoon-Kyoung

2014-02-01

134

Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors  

PubMed Central

Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population. Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type. Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 2003–2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income. Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1–12.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8–1.0 ?g/L) throughout 2003–2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (6–11 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003. Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003–2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds. Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351–355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816 PMID:24451842

Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M.

2014-01-01

135

Excess type 2 diabetes in African-American women and men aged 40–74 and socioeconomic status: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) explains differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes between African-American and non-Hispanic white women and men.DESIGNCross sectional study of diabetes prevalence, SES, and other risk factors ascertained by physical examination and interview.SETTINGInterviews were conducted in subjects' homes; physical examinations were conducted in mobile examination centres.PARTICIPANTS961 African-American women, 1641 non-Hispanic white women, 839 African-American

Jessica M Robbins; Viola Vaccarino; Heping Zhang; Stanislav V Kasl

2000-01-01

136

Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination  

E-print Network

of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). NCHS is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and has the responsibility for producing vital and health statistics for the Nation loss · Infectious diseases · Kidney disease · Nutrition · Obesity · Oral health · Osteoporosis #12;The

Serfling, Robert

137

ALKYL PHOSPHATE RESIDUE VALUES IN THE URINE OF FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HANES) SAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 Florida citrus pesticide usage survey, it was found that substantial quantities of ethion, carbophenothion, malathion, and dioxathion are used on Florida citrus crops. Ethion is used for Snow scale and Rust mites; carbophenothion is used on Rust and Spider mites, Snow s...

138

Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

2013-01-01

139

Gender, mental health service use and objectively measured physical activity: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the relationship between physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometry and the use of mental health services (MHS) in a representative sample of males and females.

Carol A. Janney; Caroline R. Richardson; Robert G. Holleman; Cristie Glasheen; Scott J. Strath; Molly B. Conroy; Andrea M. Kriska

2008-01-01

140

Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Diet and Serum and Their Relation to Age related Maculopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum to photographic evidence of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) among persons over age 40 years (n = 8,222) were examined. Inverse relations of these carotenoids in the diet or serum to any form of ARM were not observed overall. There was a direct relation of dietary levels

Julie A. Mares-Perlman; Alicia I. Fisher; Ronald Klein; Mari Palta; Gladys Block; Amy E. Millen; Jacqueline D. Wright

141

Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

2012-01-01

142

Mothers’ Working Hours and Children’s Obesity: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to find the association between mothers’ working hours and obesity of their children according to children’s age and gender. Methods This study used data from the second and third year of KNHANES IV and the first year in KNHANES V (2008–2010). We calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using survey logistic regression to assess association of mother’s working hours with overweight or obesity of her children. The model was adjusted with household income, mothers’ education and obesity and mothers’ job characteristics. Results 13–18 aged boys whose mothers worked under 40 hours per week were higher risk for obesity and overweight (including obesity) than 13–18 aged boys whose mothers worked 40–48 hours. 6–12 aged girls whose mothers worked 49–60 hours per week were more overweight (including obesity) than girls whose mothers worked 40–48 hours per week. 13–18 aged girls whose mothers worked over 60 hours were more overweight (including obesity) than the reference. Conclusion This study showed that girls’ obesity was associated with mothers’ long working hours. Long working hours can influence health of workers’ family. PMID:24472278

2013-01-01

143

Sexual Orientation–Related Differences in Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among US Adults Aged 20 to 59 Years: 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated sexual orientation–related differences in tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods. The 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys assessed 11?744 individuals aged 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, tobacco use, and SHS exposure (cotinine levels ??0.05 ng/mL in a nonsmoker). We used multivariate methods to compare tobacco use prevalence and SHS exposure among gay or lesbian (n?=?180), bisexual (n?=?273), homosexually experienced (n?=?388), and exclusively heterosexual (n?=?10?903) individuals, with adjustment for demographic confounding. Results. Lesbian and bisexual women evidenced higher rates of tobacco use than heterosexual women. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was more prevalent among lesbian and homosexually experienced women than among heterosexual women. Nonsmoking lesbians reported greater workplace exposure and bisexual women greater household exposure than heterosexual women did. Identical comparisons among men were not significant except for lower workplace exposure among nonsmoking gay men than among heterosexual men. Conclusions. Nonsmoking sexual-minority women are more likely to be exposed to SHS than nonsmoking heterosexual women. Public health efforts to reduce SHS exposure in this vulnerable population are needed. PMID:23948019

Bandiera, Frank C.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

144

Associations between omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids from fish consumption and severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Fish is the primary source of dietary omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have been reported to reduce depressive symptoms in clinical trials. We assessed the association between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of 10,480 adults from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depressive symptoms were classified by severity using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Fish meal consumption reported in 30-day food frequency questionnaires, and EPA+DHA intake computed from 24-hour dietary recalls were evaluated in relation to depressive symptoms using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Consumption of breaded fish showed an increased risk of greater depressive symptom severity, while all fish, non-breaded fish, and shell fish were not associated. Any EPA+DHA intake was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Exposure-response analyses revealed no clear patterns for any intake measures. Inconsistent patterns of associations in our study may be partially explained by exposure misclassification. PMID:22472486

Hoffmire, Claire A.; Block, Robert C.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2012-01-01

145

High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)  

PubMed Central

Background The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals age two years and older reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruits and Dairy). Methods To assess if the foods currently consumed by Americans are in concordance with the DGA, food consumption data from What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA-NHANES) 2007–2008 (n?=?8 527) was used to estimate the proportion of foods that contained SoFAS and to report them by food group. Weighted analysis was conducted to be nationally representative. Results The Dairy group contained the highest proportion (93%) of either SoF or AS, followed by Grains (70% SoF; 70% AS; 50% both). Fruits contained the least SoFAS (7%). Conclusions Results suggest that the high proportion of SoFAS in each recommended food group makes it challenging for Americans to reduce their intake of SoFAS. PMID:24649969

2014-01-01

146

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

2002-10-15

147

Gender, mental health service use and objectively measured physical activity: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometry and the use of mental health services (MHS) in a representative sample of males and females. Method NHANES 2003–2004 is a cross-sectional study of the civilian, non-institutionalized US adult population. Participants reported whether or not they had seen a mental health professional during the past 12 months. Three measures of daily physical activity (light minutes, moderate-vigorous minutes, and total activity counts) and sedentary minutes were determined by accelerometry. The relationship between physical activity and use of MHS was modeled with and without adjustments for potential socioeconomic and health confounders. Results Of the 1846 males and 1963 females included in this analysis, 7 and 8% reported seeing mental health professionals during the past 12 months, respectively. Men who used MHS were significantly less active than men who did not use MHS (227,700 versus 276,900 total activity counts, respectively, p < 0.05). Men who did not use MHS engaged in 38 min (95% CI 16.3, 59.0) more of light or moderate-vigorous physical activity per day than men who used MHS. Physical activity levels of women, regardless of MHS use, were significantly lower than men who did not use MHS. Differences in total physical activity between women who did and did not use MHS were small (1.3, 95% CI ? 14.0, 11.4). Conclusion Men and women who used MHS were relatively sedentary. Additional research is warranted to determine if increasing physical activity levels results in improved mental health in individuals who use MHS. PMID:19946571

Janney, Carol A.; Richardson, Caroline R.; Holleman, Robert G.; Glasheen, Cristie; Strath, Scott J.; Conroy, Molly B.; Kriska, Andrea M.

2009-01-01

148

Usual dietary intake among female breast cancer survivors is not significantly different from women with no cancer history: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and <10% of either group met the recommendation for percent energy from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The diet of breast cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer. PMID:24169415

Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A

2014-06-01

149

Exercise and Nutrition Survey of Nevada Air National Guard Members.  

E-print Network

??One hundred seventy-three Nevada Air National Guard members voluntarily participated in this exercise science and nutrition survey-based study. The survey consisted of ten closed-ended questions;… (more)

Demattei, Matthew Antonio

2012-01-01

150

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-01-01

151

Elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with hypertension; analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009 and V-1, 2010).  

PubMed

The impact of simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations on hypertension in the general population is not known. To determine the association of serum ferritin and mercury concentrations with hypertension, 6213 subjects (3060 men and 3153 women) over 20 years of age from 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into tertiles according to serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in each gender. Serum ferritin (258.2 vs. 94.8 pmol/L) and mercury concentrations (28.4 vs. 19.9 nmol/L) were higher in men than in women. Serum ferritin (men; P = 0.029, women; P < 0.001) and mercury (men; P < 0.001, women; P = 0.003) concentrations were significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension. In addition, significant correlation between serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in both men (r = 0.193, P < 0.001) and women (r = 0.145, P < 0.001) were found. Also, the increase of serum ferritin concentrations were more prominent in men (P < 0.001) than in women (P = 0.017) as the serum mercury tertiles increased after proper adjustments. Furthermore, significantly higher odds ratios of hypertension were found in the second (OR = 1.86, 95% CI; 1.05-3.30), and third (OR = 1.84, 95% CI; 1.01-3.36) tertiles of serum ferritin with the top tertile of serum mercury in men. The current study indicate that serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with the prevalence of hypertension and that simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are related to the risk for hypertension in men. © 2013 The Authors. The Environmental Toxicology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 101-108, 2015. PMID:23929718

Choi, Beomhee; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Joo, Nam-Seok

2015-01-01

152

Negative Association between Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate Concentrations in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006  

PubMed Central

Objectives Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15–3.62), 40363 (37512–43431), and 1129 (1029–1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P?=?0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P?=?0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P?=?0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI)?=?0.77 (0.60–0.98) and 0.69 (0.61–0.79), respectively]. Conclusions A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation. PMID:25514572

Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

2014-01-01

153

Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on person’s age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence decreased by approximately 33% when airflow limitation was based on post-bronchodilator as compared to pre-bronchodilator spirometry, regardless of which diagnostic criterion was used. PMID:24107140

2013-01-01

154

Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

155

Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Sarcopenia in Korean Females Aged 60 Years and Older Using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Context It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. Objective We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. Design and Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008–9) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years) and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years) aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Measurements Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Results Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL). The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1st tertile 6.3%, 2nd tertile 8.0%, 3rd tertile 12.0%; p?=?0.008). Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval?=?1.26–3.23) for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI?=?1.02–2.97) in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. Conclusions Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in women but not in men from a representative sample of elderly Koreans. PMID:24587226

Kim, Tae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hwan

2014-01-01

156

Out-of-hand nut consumption is associated with improved nutrient intake and health risk markers in US children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was associated with improved nutrient intake, diet quality, and, in adults, a lower prevalence of 2 risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Consumption of OOHN, as part of a healthy diet, should be encouraged by health professionals. PMID:22464805

O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

2012-03-01

157

100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n?=?8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n?=?2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p?

2012-01-01

158

SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

159

Quality and potential use of data collected during nutrition surveys: an analysis of surveys in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Humanitarian agencies regularly carry out nutrition surveys to estimate the prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) and mortality as well as to collect data on a wide range of contributory or aggravating factors in order to identify interventions and to direct aid where it is most needed. In this study, the case of Ethiopia was used (i) to assess the proportion of 291 nutrition surveys conducted between 2003 and 2008 that used the recommended sampling method to estimate the prevalence of wasting, (ii) to assess how and what data on indicators of aggravating factors were collected, (iii) to examine whether data on such factors can be used to establish priorities for emergency assistance based on Ethiopian Government guidelines and (iv) to discuss the general value of such data. All but one survey used the recommended methods to estimate the prevalence of wasting. Data were collected on more than 40 indicators of aggravating factors related to health, caring practices, food security and coping strategies, but no consistent methods or indicators were used, resulting in inconsistent data. This illustrates the need to develop and agree upon a set of core indicators of aggravating factors and then thresholds to describe the humanitarian situation in Ethiopia and elsewhere and to indicate priorities for interventions. PMID:24038180

Watson, Fiona; Negussie, Bekele; Dolan, Carmel; Shoham, Jeremy; Hall, Andrew

2011-06-01

160

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 115.600 Section 115.600 Shipping...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) The owner or managing operator...also decrease the drydock examination intervals to monitor the vessel's...

2010-10-01

161

Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

162

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

163

Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.  

PubMed

Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses. PMID:22764138

Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

2012-07-01

164

Adolescent lipoprotein classifications according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) vs. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal lipid levels in adulthood in a Middle East population  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the predictive ability of adolescent lipoprotein classification using the National Examination Survey (NHANES) cut points and those of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal levels in adulthood. Method From 1032 adolescents, aged 14–19 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, all lipid measures were determined at baseline and again after 6 years. Multivariable Odds Ratios (ORs) were calculated for borderline and high categories of lipids to predict dyslipidemia in adulthood, considering the normal level as a reference. Area under the receiving characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess the predictive ability of each adolescent lipid classification. Result Applying the NCEP classification, the prevalences of high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in males were 12.1%, 12.9%, 26.1% and 34.2% respectively; in females the corresponding prevalences were 15.4%, 17.9%, 21.4% and 25.0%, respectively. Using NHANES cut points, the prevalence of high TC, LDL-C and triglycerides were lower, than those defined by NCEP; the ORs of high categories of lipids (defined by NHANES) were higher than ORs based on the NECP classification, except for HDL-C. For all lipid measures, both classifications had similar predictive abilities, except for TC/HDL-C, which had higher predictive power applying the NHANES classification rather than the NCEP one (AUC 71% vs. 68%, respectively). Conclusion No differences were found between NCEP and NHANES classifications for prediction of adult dyslipidemia, except for TC/HDL-C. Because of their simple application, NCEP cut points can be used in clinical settings. PMID:22937812

2012-01-01

165

National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.  

PubMed

Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health. PMID:25516308

Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

2014-01-01

166

An Examination of Correlates and Effects Associated with a Concise Measure of Consumers' Nutrition Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumers in two studies (n=374 and 500) were surveyed regarding their nutrition knowledge and the information on food labels. Validity of the survey instrument was supported by comparing results from professional nutritionists and dietitian students. Knowledge level was an important factor in consumer comprehension of and attitudes toward label…

Suter, Tracy A.; Burton, Scot

1996-01-01

167

Nutrition labeling and public health: survey of American Institute of Nutrition members, food industry, and consumers13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred thirty-one members of the American Institute of Nutrition, 177 persons from the food industry, and 107 consumers from a Food and Drug Administration mailing list responded to a survey dealing with nutrition labeling of foods. They identified obesity and heart disease as the major diet-related national health problems and chose information about calories, sodium, fat, protein, iron, calcium,

James T Heimbach; Raymond C Stokes

168

The association of dietary quality and food group intake patterns with bone health status among Korean postmenopausal women: a study using the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related disease are drawing a lot of attention in Korea as one of the serious health problems. Bone health status may be influenced by the general dietary quality and dietary pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS To determine the relationship between dietary quality and intake patterns and bone health status, the %RNI, NAR, DDS, and food group intake patterns were assessed according to their bone health status for 847 postmenopausal women using the 2010 KNHANES data after eliminating those of likely changing their diet under the advice of doctors or those taking estrogen. RESULTS Bone health became worse as dietary quality deteriorated. All NAR and %RNI values were highly associated with bone health levels and the consumption frequency of Ca sources, DDS and the food group intake patterns also confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that dietary quality and dietary patterns were important for bone health. Nutritional education on eating foods from the five basic food groups has to be emphasized to prevent osteoporosis among older women. PMID:25489406

Go, Gyeongah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lim, Youngsook; Jung, Soyeon; Min, Younghee

2014-01-01

169

46 CFR 169.229 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 169.229 Section 169.229 Shipping...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except as provided for in...and internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed 5 years unless it has...

2010-10-01

170

46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 167.15-30 Section 167.15-30...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except as provided for in...and internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed 5 years unless it has...

2010-10-01

171

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

172

A Preliminary Study Examining Nutritional Risk Factors, Body Mass Index, and Treatment Retention in Opioid-Dependent Patients.  

PubMed

Poor nutritional health among opioid-dependent individuals is well established, yet no nutritional screening tool exists for this specific population. The utility of "Determine Your Nutritional Health" developed by the Nutrition Screening Initiative is considered. The study examines the questionnaire's relevance in patients beginning opioid dependence treatment at a methadone-assisted treatment program (N?=?140) by examining nutritional risk factor prevalence, body mass index, and association between nutritional risk level and treatment retention. The majority of patients reported at least one nutritional risk factor (89 %) and 59 % were at high nutritional risk. Body mass index was not related to nutritional risk; however, a trend was identified between increasing nutritional risk and decreased retention in treatment. These preliminary findings suggest the need for incorporation of nutritional screening at intake in opioid treatment programs, consideration of the effect of dietary risk on treatment retention, and the potential utility of this screening tool. PMID:24091612

Richardson, Robin A; Wiest, Katharina

2013-10-01

173

Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

174

The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

175

A Survey of the Nutritional Status of Homeless Adults in Rural Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The health and nutritional status of the homeless population is effected by limited access to regular, nutritious meals. There are few published studies evaluating the nutritional status of homeless populations and all data collected have been from urban areas. The purpose of this survey was to assess the nutritional status of

K. Silliman; M. M. Yamanoha; A. E. Momssey

1995-01-01

176

Barriers to Providing Nutrition Counseling by Physicians: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous surveys have shown that there is a disparity between physicians? beliefs about the importance of diet and nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention and the actual delivery of nutrition counseling. The primary objective of this study was to assess the current attitudes, practice behavior, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. Methods.

R. F. Kushner

1995-01-01

177

The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989–2011  

PubMed Central

The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Fengying; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M.

2013-01-01

178

Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.  

PubMed

The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. PMID:25130685

Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

2014-01-01

179

Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys-toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.  

PubMed

Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets. PMID:25407161

Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

2014-12-01

180

Examining Reliability and Validity of Job Analysis Survey Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job analysis has played a fundamental role in developing and validating licensure and certification examinations, but research on what constitutes reliable and valid job analysis data is lacking. This paper examines the reliability and validity of job analysis survey results. Generalizability theory and the multi-facet Rasch item response theory…

Wang, Ning; Wiser, Randall F.; Newman, Larry S.

181

Nutritional status, health conditions and socio-demographic factors in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: Data from SABE survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race\\/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension,\\u000a diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based\\u000a household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ? 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected\\u000a by probabilistic sampling.

R. Da Silva Coqueiro; Aline Rodrigues Barbosa; A. Ferreti Borgatto

2010-01-01

182

Assessment of Nutrition Education Among Pediatric Gastroenterologists: A Survey of NASPGHAN Members  

PubMed Central

Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective. However, pediatric gastroenterology fellows feel that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of nutrition training among pediatric gastroenterologists, identify areas of need for additional education, and determine the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in obesity management. Methods A survey was sent to members and fellows of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to assess general nutrition education as well as obesity management and educational needs. Results A total of 272 responses were received, for an overall response rate of 15.2% (272/1,784). Most responders reported having average or above-average knowledge base in all nutritional topics. There was strong interest in additional resources and a continuing medical education (CME) module on several nutrition topics including: nutritional requirements in specific gastrointestinal (GI) disease, failure to thrive/growth failure, and parenteral nutrition support, with the format of CME dependent on the topic. There was also a strong interest in additional CME on the management of pediatric obesity (67%), as most responders felt that the management of obesity in children requires subspecialty care. However, the perceived role of the pediatric gastroenterologist was one of support to treat the gastrointestinal and hepatic co-morbidities of obesity rather than serve as the main provider of comprehensive obesity care. Conclusion Pediatric gastroenterologists identified gaps in their nutrition knowledge base that may be attributed to the current nutrition education training during fellowship. Multiple topics were identified for additional nutrition education, including obesity management. The nutrition management challenges of today necessitate improved baseline nutrition knowledge and this focus on nutrition should begin at the fellowship level. PMID:22699840

Lin, Henry C; Kahana, Doron; Vos, Miriam B; Black, Dennis; Port, Zack; Shulman, Robert; Scheimann, Ann; Mascarenhas, Maria R.

2012-01-01

183

Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.  

PubMed

Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68?h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe. PMID:24781690

Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

2014-07-01

184

Strategies to optimize the impact of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session "Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies" focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance and encourage the production of reliable, objective evidence for use in developing dietary guidance for the public. The speakers called for more transparency of research, raw data, consistent data-staging techniques, and improved data analysis. New approaches to collecting data are urgently needed to increase the credibility and utility of findings from nutrition epidemiological studies. Such studies are critical for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the effects of diet on health. PMID:24038252

Webb, Densie; Leahy, Margaret M; Milner, John A; Allison, David B; Dodd, Kevin W; Gaine, P Courtney; Matthews, Robert A J; Schneeman, Barbara O; Tucker, Katherine L; Young, S Stanley

2013-01-01

185

Nutritional survey of the US Navy SEAL trainees14  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of267 male US Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) train- ees was assessed to determine dietary patterns. Diet records, blood samples, 24-h urine collec- tions, and physical characteristics were analyzed. Energy intake was 3886 ± 73 kcal\\/d (SEM) with 15.7 ± 0.2, 42.9 ± 0.6, and 41 .2 ± 0.5% ofthe energy derived from protein, carbohydrate (CHO),

Anita Singh; Barbara A Day; Patricia A Deuster

186

Nutritional care of the obese adult burn patient: a U.K. Survey and literature review.  

PubMed

Obesity is an emerging healthcare problem and affects an increasing number of burn patients worldwide. An email survey questionnaire was constructed and distributed among the 16 U.K. burn services providing adult inpatient facilities to investigate nutritional practices in obese thermally injured patients. Responses received from all dieticians invited to participate in the study were analyzed, and a relevant literature review of key aspects of nutritional care is presented. The majority of services believe that obese patients warrant a different nutritional approach with specific emphasis to avoid overfeeding. The most common algebraic formulae used to calculate calorific requirements include the Schofield, Henry, and modified Penn State equations. Indirect calorimetry despite being considered the "criterion standard" tool to calculate energy requirements is not currently used by any of the U.K. burn services. Gastric/enteral nutrition is initiated within 24 hours of admission in the services surveyed, and a variety of different practices were noted in terms of fasting protocols before procedures requiring general anesthesia/sedation. Hypocaloric regimens for obese patients are not supported by the majority of U.K. facilities, given the limited evidence base supporting their use. The results of this survey outline the wide diversity of dietetic practices adopted in the care of obese burn patients and reveal the need for further study to determine optimal nutritional strategies. PMID:24784903

Goutos, Ioannis

2014-01-01

187

Examining XMM Observations Made in the Galactic Bulge Survey Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray catalog (VXMM) was created to find low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). VXMM consists of XMM-Newton detections made in the GBS region, two 6x1 degree regions located 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane respectively. XMM data were downloaded from NASA’s database. Source detection was conducted on filtered data sets, using the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey as a guideline for the procedure but incorporating data more recent than 2XMM. Detected sources make up the VXMM catalog, which was used to cross reference with the GBS catalog to find GBS sources in the XMM data. The VXMM catalog contains 107 GBS sources also detected by XMM. The spectra of several of these sources were examined to see which could be classified based on the XMM data. Here we focus on CX13, the brightest unclassified GBS source detected. CX13 was determined not to be an active star as its temperature would be too high. Using a power-law model fit an LMXB was ruled out, as was a background AGN after the variability power spectrum was analyzed. The most likely remaining interpretation of its X-ray spectrum and variability is that it is an absorbed magnetic cataclysmic variable. For comparison, two other GBS sources (CX5 and CX2) are presented.

Estrada-Carpenter, V.; Hynes, R.

2013-10-01

188

School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed…

Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

2009-01-01

189

Examining XMM Observations in the Galactic Bulge Survey Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VXMM catalog was created in an effort to find help find low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) as part of the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). VXMM consists of XMM-Newton detections made in the GBS region, two 6x1 degree regions 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The goal of the project was to find GBS X-ray sources that exist in XMM observations in order to classify them. The XMM data were downloaded from NASA’s database. Source detection was conducted on the filtered data sets using the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey as a guideline for the procedure but incorporating more recent data than 2XMM. The sources detected make up the VXMM catalog, which was used to cross reference with the GBS catalog to find GBS sources in the XMM data. In total the VXMM catalog found 107 GBS sources also detected by XMM. The spectra of several of these sources were examined to see which could be classified based on the XMM data. We focus on CX13 as it was the brightest unclassified GBS source detected by XMM. CX13 was determined to not be an active star as its temperature would to be high. Using a power-law model fit an LMXB was ruled out, as was a background AGN after the variability power spectrum was analyzed. The most likely remaining interpretation of its X-ray spectrum and variability is that it is an absorbed magnetic cataclysmic variable. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789. Vicente Estrada-Carpenter also acknowledges support from the REU Site in Physics and Astronomy (NSF Grant No. 1262890) at Louisiana State University

Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente; Hynes, R. I.; Britt, C.; Johnson, C.; Jonker, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Torres, M.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Nelemans, G.; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

2014-01-01

190

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Mrs. Huish

2009-11-02

191

Development and Validation of the Type 1 Diabetes Nutrition Knowledge Survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to develop a survey of general and diabetes-specific nutrition knowledge for youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents and to assess the survey’s psychometric properties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A multidisciplinary pediatric team developed the Nutrition Knowledge Survey (NKS) and administered it to youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 282, 49% females, 13.3 ± 2.9 years) and their parents (82% mothers). The NKS content domains included healthful eating, carbohydrate counting, blood glucose response to foods, and nutrition label reading. Higher NKS scores reflect greater nutrition knowledge (score range is 0–100%). In youths, glycemic control was assessed by A1C, and dietary quality was determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) derived from 3-day diet records. Validity was based on associations of NKS scores with A1C and dietary quality. Reliability was assessed using the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) and correlations of domain scores to total score. RESULTS Mean NKS scores (23 items) were 56.9 ± 16.4% for youth and 73.4 ± 12.5% for parents. The KR-20 was 0.70 for youth and 0.59 for parents, representing acceptable internal consistency of the measure. In multivariate analysis, controlling for youth age, family income, parent education, diabetes duration, and insulin regimen, parent NKS scores were associated with corresponding youth A1C (? = ?0.13, P = 0.03). Both parent (? = 0.20, P = 0.002) and youth (? = 0.25, P < 0.001) NKS scores were positively associated with youth HEI-2005 scores. CONCLUSIONS The NKS appears to be a useful measure of general and diabetes-specific nutrition knowledge for youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents. PMID:22665217

Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Higgins, Laurie A.; Haynie, Denise L.; Laffel, Lori M.

2012-01-01

192

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental health ...

193

Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense surveys in Asia and Africa.  

PubMed

I suppose I should establish my bonafides for participation in this symposium. I did participate in 3 Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND) surveys as far separated as one on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1) in Montana and 2 in Asia-Burma (2) and East Pakistan (3). In fact, the Blackfeet Reservation and Burma surveys were my training grounds for becoming the clinical chief for the East Pakistan survey and later the codirector. More importantly, in 1962, I followed Alan Forbes, who is much missed at this symposium, as the deputy to Arnie Schaefer at ICNND and NIH, and did have experience of an office in the Stone House on the NIH campus. There I participated in the transmutation of the ICNND to the Interdepartmental Committee on National Development and its alignment with the Office of International Research at the NIH and a repositioning within the Department of Health and Human Services. It was from this position that ICNND went on to organize some civilian surveys in the mid-1960s, including those in Central America and Panama (4), and it was from this position that the groundwork was laid for the application of ICNND techniques to the first U.S. domestic survey outside of an Indian reservation, culminating in the Ten State Nutrition Survey (5), which documented that there was hunger in America, as well as abroad. PMID:15867320

Rosenberg, Irwin H

2005-05-01

194

The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.  

PubMed

Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the nutritional care of obese burn patients. This indicates the need for further research to determine consistent best practices. PMID:21785364

Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

2011-01-01

195

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3...underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. (a) If your vessel is operated...and internal structural examinations at intervals not to exceed 18 months. (3)...

2010-10-01

196

Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

Roberts, Jean

197

Zinc intake and its dietary sources: results of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.  

PubMed

The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2-16 years old children (n = 4834) was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD) zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0) mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14-16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR). Children (2-3 years) were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14-16 years) or excessive (children 2-3 years) zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required. PMID:22852053

Rangan, Anna M; Samman, Samir

2012-07-01

198

Survey of current enteral nutrition practices in treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background and aims Enteral nutrition (EN) is commonly prescribed for dysphagia and weight loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there are currently no ALS-specific EN guidelines. We aimed to survey current practices prescribing EN to ALS patients. Methods An online survey was distributed using list servers administered by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA), and ALS Association (ALSA). Results A total of 148 dietitians, nurses, and physicians participated in the survey, of whom 50% were dietitians and 68% were associated with an ALS clinic. Only 47% of respondents reported their patients to be fully compliant with EN recommendations. Side effects (fullness, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) were the most important reason for patient noncompliance, followed by dependence on caregivers. By contrast, only 3% of providers rated depression/hopelessness as the most important reason for noncompliance. Half of those surveyed reported that more than 25% of patients continued to lose weight after starting EN. Conclusions Our survey results show a high frequency of gastrointestinal side effects and weight loss in ALS patients receiving EN. These findings may be limited by sampling error and non-response bias. Prospective studies are needed to help establish EN guidelines for ALS.

Zhang, May; Hubbard, Jane; Rudnicki, Stacy A.; Johansen, Carolyn S.; Dalton, Kate; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Forshew, Dalles A.; Wills, Anne-Marie

2014-01-01

199

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

200

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... about meeting with a nutritionist to create a nutrition plan designed just for you. Not only will they help with meal planning, but you'll also have someone supporting and monitoring your progress. NEXT: ... to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email ...

201

Nutritional status of the older adult is associated with dentition status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study was designed to examine associations between the number of posterior occlusal pairs of teeth and the nutritional status of older adults participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) survey. Design Impaired dentition was assessed by number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth (grinding teeth, n=8 pairs) and complete denture status. Nutritional status

Nadine R Sahyoun; Chien-Lung Lin; Elizabeth Krall

2003-01-01

202

Nutritional and Health Consequences Are Associated with Food Insecurity among U.S. Elderly Persons1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences associated with food insecurity for the nutritional and health status of the elderly in the United States. The data analyzed were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 -1994) and the Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo

203

A National Survey to Examine Teacher Professional Development and Implementation of Desktop GIS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the results of an online national survey of K-12 educators who attended a series of GIS training workshops conducted by the authors between 1998 and 2004. Data from the self-report survey (N = 186) suggest new information about potential changes in instruction and assessment patterns following GIS training. The survey

Baker, Thomas R.; Palmer, Anita M.; Kerski, Joseph J.

2009-01-01

204

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

205

An evidence-based method for examining and reporting cognitive processes in nutrition research.  

PubMed

Cognitive outcomes are frequently implemented as endpoints in nutrition research. To reduce the number of statistical comparisons it is commonplace for nutrition researchers to combine cognitive test results into a smaller number of broad cognitive abilities. However, there is a clear lack of understanding and consensus as to how best execute this practice. The present paper reviews contemporary models of human cognition and proposes a standardised, evidence-based method for grouping cognitive test data into broader cognitive abilities. Both Carroll's model of human cognitive ability and the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence provide empirically based taxonomies of human cognition. These models provide a cognitive 'map' that can be used to guide the handling and analysis of cognitive outcomes in nutrition research. Making use of a valid cognitive nomenclature can provide the field of clinical nutrition with a common cognitive language enabling efficient comparisons of cognitive outcomes across studies. This will make it easier for researchers, policymakers and readers to interpret and compare cognitive outcomes for different interventions. Using an empirically derived cognitive nomenclature to guide the creation of cognitive composite scores will ensure that cognitive endpoints are theoretically valid and meaningful. This will increase the generalisability of trial results to the general population. The present review also discusses how the CHC model of cognition can also guide the synthesis of cognitive outcomes in systematic reviews and meta-analysis. PMID:25268900

Pase, Matthew P; Stough, Con

2014-12-01

206

Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed community-dwelling older adults to examine the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences. Results revealed that nutrition problems and risk were prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. Common problems included significant weight change in 6 months and low intake of fruits,…

Keller, Heather H.; Hedley, Margaret R.

2002-01-01

207

Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Sleep Variables: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Sleep disordered breathing as well as high serum uric acid levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and hyperuricemia are limited. We examined the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey's sleep variables and high serum uric acid among 6491 participants aged ?20 years. The sleep variables included sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. The main outcome was high serum uric acid level, defined as levels of serum uric acid >6.8?mg/dL in males and >6.0?mg/dL in females. We found that snoring more than 5 nights per week, daytime sleepiness, and an additive composite score of sleep variables were associated with high serum uric acid in the age- , sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors. The association was attenuated with the addition of variables related to clinical outcomes such as depression, diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol levels. Our results indicate a positive relationship between sleep variables, including the presence of snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness, and high serum uric acid levels. PMID:22970407

Wiener, R. Constance; Shankar, Anoop

2012-01-01

208

Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on

Christos Pitsavos; George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

209

Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

1999-09-07

210

Survey of Handwriting Habit Areas Used by Forensic Document Examiners: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power  

SciTech Connect

In April 1998, a survey was distributed to Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) requesting an evaluation of the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select a preliminary set of characteristics for analysis. It is important to use these relative rankings as an indication of general tendency and possible discriminatory dominance as compared to an absolute ranking of discriminatory dominance over the other habit areas. The particular circumstances surrounding the examination of handwriting can dictate a far different ordering of habit areas.

Hanlen, Richard C.; Manzolillo, Patricia A.; Muehlberger, Robert J.; Sperry, Grant R.

1999-11-15

211

Indicators to Examine Quality of Large Scale Survey Data: An Example through District Level Household and Facility Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) is used as an example dataset. Methods Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. Results The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. Conclusion The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey. PMID:24598760

Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

2014-01-01

212

Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show…

Shotland, Jeffrey

213

Examining the potential for nutritional stress in young Steller sea lions: physiological effects of prey composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high- and low-lipid prey on the body mass, body condition, and metabolic rates of young captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined to better understand how changes in prey composition might impact the physiology and health of wild sea lions and contribute to their population decline. Results of three feeding experiments suggest that prey lipid content

David A. S. Rosen; Andrew W Trites

2005-01-01

214

Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children?survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children?nutritional status of indigenous peoples. PMID:23552397

2013-01-01

215

Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).  

PubMed

The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

2013-09-01

216

Nutrition and eating in female college athletes: a survey of coaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention/intervention services for athletes at their school, experience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches (51% response rate) involved in six sports (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, basketball, softball, track, and volleyball) at all levels of collegiate competition (NCAA Divisions I, II, III, and NAIA) completed a 40-item survey. Gender was found to be related to differential responding on only one of the 40 items, while sport and level of competition were related to responses on multiple items. Gymnastics coaches and NCAA Division I coaches differed significantly from coaches of other sports and divisions in that they reported more monitoring/management behaviors, had more experience with athletes exhibiting eating disturbances, and had more resources available for preventing and treating athletes with eating disorders. Gymnastics coaches also differed from other coaches on a number of items related to their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. Many coaches have encountered disturbed eating among their athletes, and some of their coaching attitudes and behaviors may inadvertently increase the risk for such disturbances. Implications for clinical and sport psychologists providing prevention or intervention services to intercollegiate athletes are discussed. PMID:16801252

Heffner, Jaimee L; Ogles, Benjamin M; Gold, Ellsa; Marsden, Kimberlyann; Johnson, Michael

2003-01-01

217

Selenium status and associated factors in a British National Diet and Nutrition Survey: young people aged 4–18 y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of selenium status to provide normative reference values, and investigation of associated socio-demographic factors, in a national sample of British young people aged 4–18 y.Setting: National Diet and Nutrition Survey—a nationwide cross-sectional sample of young people aged 4–18 y living in mainland Britain in 1997.Methods: Selenium status was measured, mainly in fasting blood samples, by plasma selenium concentration

CJ Bates; CW Thane; A Prentice; HT Delves; J Gregory

2002-01-01

218

X-ray examinations during pregnancy: National natality surveys, 1963 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

Given the increased awareness during the 1960s and 1970s of the danger of fetal exposure to ionizing radiation, many observers predicted a decline in fetal dose from medical diagnostic procedures that utilize ionizing radiation. Ultrasound became increasingly available during the 1970s, and was widely believed to have reduced fetal dose. We utilized data from the 1963 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS) to obtain information about exposure to ionizing radiation among mothers who had live births. Based on these surveys, the rate of medical x-ray examinations during pregnancy per 100 mothers fell 43.2 percent. A decrease in chest x-ray examinations. The reductions were greater for older mothers and those who were not White. While the number of births fell from 4 071 000 in 1963 to 3 612 000 in 1980, the number of pelvimetry examinations actually increased by 45 000.

Kaczmarek, R.G.; Moore, R.M. Jr.; Keppel, K.G.; Placek, P.J. (Office of Science and Technology, Rockville, MD (USA))

1989-01-01

219

The Complex Emergency Database: A Global Repository of Small-Scale Surveys on Nutrition, Health and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2014-01-01

220

Socioeconomic Differentials in Smoking Duration among Adult Male Smokers in China: Result from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Background A smoker’s risk of diseases and death from smoking is closely related to his/her smoking duration. But little is known about the average length of smoking and the association between smoking duration and socio-economic status (SES) among Chinese smokers. Methods A sample of male ever smokers (N = 2,637) aged 18+ years was drawn from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the average length of smoking and socioeconomic differentials in smoking duration. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to obtain median smoking duration. Log-logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative duration of smoking, adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Results Results showed that Chinese male ever smokers aged 18 years and older had a median duration of smoking of 58 years (95% CI: 56–61). Male ever smokers with a lower status job (i.e. farmers, manual and skilled workers, service workers, and office staff) had a significantly longer duration of smoking than those with a professional or administrative job after adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Individuals who earned the lowest income and who had no education or were being illiterate smoked for 11% and 14% longer, respectively, relative to those who had the highest income or who had college or above education. Conclusion The findings demonstrated the problem of long smoking duration and a pattern of social disparities in smoking duration among Chinese male smokers. Social disparities in smoking behavior may exacerbate the already existing social inequalities in health. Thus, policies and interventions to promote smoking cessation should pay more attention to disadvantaged social groups. PMID:25575097

Guo, Hong; Sa, Zhihong

2015-01-01

221

The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Childhood Maternal Education Level, Job Status Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is known to affect cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, the relationship between childhood SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education and occupational status and adult-onset MetS in the Korean population. Methods We examined the association between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education level and occupational status during an individual's childhood, and MetS in Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. The components of MetS, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure, were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results Significant differences in the association between maternal education level, occupational status, and MetS were found between males and females. In females, the adjusted MetS OR for the highest maternal education quartile relative to the lowest quartile was 0.46 (0.21-0.99). Similarly, in females, the adjusted OR for individuals whose mothers worked when they were children relative to those whose mothers did not work was 1.23 (1.04-1.44). In males, no significant associations between maternal education, maternal occupational status, and MetS were found. Conclusion We found independent, positive associations between maternal education and occupational status and MetS in Korean females. These findings suggest that public health education targeting MetS prevention should be considered, especially among children with less opportunity for maternal support. PMID:25120892

Choi, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chun, Eun-Hye

2014-01-01

222

Kuwait nutritional survey: comparison of the nutritional status of Kuwaiti children aged 0-5 years with the NCHS/CDC reference population*  

PubMed Central

A national cross-sectional survey of the heights and weights of Kuwaiti preschool-age children of 0-5 years was conducted on a stratified multistage sample of 2554 subjects from high and low socioeconomic levels. The collected data were used to compare the nutritional status of these children with their American counterparts using the NCHS/CDC reference population. The basic indices for comparison were height for age and weight for height, each considered in terms of centiles and standard deviation (SD) scores and cross-classified using the SD scores. The results indicated that Kuwaiti children in the studied age groups were shorter than American children, 47.7% falling below the 30th centile of the reference population. Conversely, the weights of Kuwaiti children aged 0-5 years were much closer to their American counterparts, 51.8% falling above the 50th centile of the reference population. PMID:3876170

Bayoumi, Ahmed; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.

1985-01-01

223

Using satellite remote sensing and household survey data to assess human health and nutrition response to environmental change.  

PubMed

Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. PMID:25132700

Brown, Molly E; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B; Carroll, Mark

2014-01-01

224

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys  

PubMed Central

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

2011-01-01

225

Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars province, during December 2012 to January 2013. A total of 15408 children, aged 0–6 years old, were studied for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Also, socio-demographic measures were obtained from structured questionnaire. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to relate underlying factors to the odds of under-nutrition indices. Results: The rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 9.53, 9.66, and 8.19%, respectively. Male children were more stunted compared to females (OR= 1.41, CI: 1.26–1.58). Also, stunting was significantly associated with lower family income (OR= 3.21, CI: 1.17–8.85) and lower maternal education (OR= 0.80, CI: 0.64–0.98). Living in urban areas, and poor water supply were identified as significant risk factors of all three types of childhood under-nutrition. Moreover, Khamse and Arab ethnic groups were more vulnerable to under-nutrition. There was a suggestion that non-access to health services were associated with wasting (OR= 1.87, CI: 1.39–2.52) and also large family size was related to underweight (OR= 1.35, CI: 1.10–1.65). Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition in the study population was categorized in low levels. However, planning the public preventive strategies can help to control childhood under-nutrition according to underlying factors of malnutrition in the study population including gender, settlement area, family size, ethnicity, family income, maternal education, health services, and also safe water supply. PMID:25114945

Kavosi, Elham; Hassanzadeh Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Zahra; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar; Moghadami, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

226

Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.  

PubMed

Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

2010-04-01

227

Online survey examining practitioners' perceived preparedness in the early identification of autism.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

James, Lesly W; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A; Schefkind, Sandra

2014-01-01

228

[Examination of motor fitness within the scope of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].  

PubMed

Several studies indicate that physical performance of children and young people is declining. However, actually available data on physical performance and physical activity of children and young people are not representative and hence no countrywide predictions can be made. The examination of motor fitness in association with development and health of children and young people is indispensable for the implementation of appropriate measures of intervention. The module 'Motoric' in the National Health Survey for Children and Adolescents shall remedy the deficiency of information. For the module, 6,000 children and adolescents, age 4-17 years, will be representatively drawn from the total survey sample. Their physical performance and physical activity will be comprehensively assessed. For this purpose, appropriate tests have been developed. In pilot studies, all methods were tested for practicability, objectivity, reliability, and validity. The application of methods was coordinated between the Robert Koch-Institute and the Institute of Sport and Science of Sports, University of Karlsruhe. PMID:12870220

Bös, K; Heel, J; Romahn, N; Tittlbach, S; Woll, A; Worth, A; Hölling, H

2002-12-01

229

Online Survey Examining Practitioners’ Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

2014-01-01

230

Reliability and Validity of Nutrition Knowledge and Diet-Health Awareness Tests Developed from the 1989–1991 Diet and Health Knowledge Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop tests for measuring nutrition knowledge and diet-health awareness using items appearing in the 1989—1991 Diet and Health Knowledge Surveys. The development and evaluation of these tests relied upon estimates of their reliability and their discriminant, convergent, correspondence, and representative validity. The reliability estimates for the 23-item nutrition knowledge test were less than

Stephen G. Sapp; Helen H. Jensen

1997-01-01

231

HOUSEHOLD PERCEPTIONS OF THE NUTRITIONAL LABELING OF MEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on the relationship between diet and health has increased consumer interest in the nutritional content of specific foods. Federal programs, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and The Food Pyramid, have had similar impacts. A 1994 mail survey of 3,080 Louisiana households in eight rural and urban parishes examined consumer awareness of the nutritional labeling of fresh

Mario A. Piedra; Alvin R. Schupp; Donna E. Montgomery

1995-01-01

232

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

233

Survey of patient doses from conventional diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing eight routine common types of X-ray examination in Syria. These types cover chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head and shoulder. This work consisted of measurements for 926 X-ray examinations for patients in 26 governmental hospitals. The mean and third quartile of the dose area product (DAP) to each patient per examination have been measured. The corresponding average effective doses have been computed from the DAP measurement for each examination using NRPP X-Dose software. Comparison of the results was done with those from similar surveys published by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000, 2007). The present measurements will provide a useful baseline to establish, for the first time, national diagnostic reference levels. These results can be used in the future to evaluate the collective dose to the population from medical exposure and the radiation risks from the various radiological procedures. PMID:20332131

Kharita, M H; Khedr, M S; Wannus, K M

2010-07-01

234

Survey on legislation and funding of Home Artificial Nutrition in different european countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Home Artificial Nutrition (HAN) has been an expanding area over the last 30 years. HAN programs have been often developed prior to the regulation by the National Health Systems (NHS) leading to different policies within European countries. The aim of this study was to compare legislation regarding HAN in Europe.Method: The Group elaborated two structured questionnaires (one for Home

A. VAN GOSSUM

2001-01-01

235

The Nutritional Status of Low-Income Preschool Children in the United States: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the nutritional status of low-income preschool children in the United States discusses the topic in historical perspective and details current knowledge of the nutritional status of preschoolers. Discussion first focuses on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II of 1976-80, and then turns to the National Food…

Kotch, Jonathan; Shackelford, Jo

236

Consumer use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

237

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Face-to-Face Learning EatRight Careers Member Benefits Nutrition Trends The Academy has conducted a nationwide survey ... free foods, probiotics and other foods and nutrients? Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 The 2011 survey presents ...

238

Applicability of resistivity surveys for examination of heterogeneity in continuous permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrotomography and resistivity measurements are modern visualisation methods, applicable for non-destructive underground surveys. This method is based on differences in resistivity of frozen and thawed soil, fresh and saline water, ice and mineral phases. In permafrost regions it can be applied to understand heterogeneity in the active layer and to search for ice-rich bodies. These factors are strongly connected with permafrost thaw and related processes. By using a large number of electrodes we can obtain pseudo cross-sections, where top layers of datapoints contain resistivity, measured from neighbor electrodes and bottom layers -- from electrodes with higer distances between each other. Obtained cross-section can be compared with another methods of probing, like acoustic methods and permafrost coring. We conducted resistivity surveys of continuous permafrost in Kolyma River basin in Northeastern Siberia. Measurements were made at several sites, including experimentally burned plots, near permafrost coring sites and at yedoma deposits exposure at Dyvanny Yar cliff. We changed the spacing between electrodes to measure resistivity from different depths. For measurements of active layer depth (~ 0.5-1.5m) we used 0.3-0.5m spacing and compared obtained results with direct probing of thaw layer. We found a relationship between measured and real depth. For deeper surveys (up to 10m depth) we used larger spacing -- 2-3m between electrodes. Comparsion of resistivity cross-sections with permafrost core data and visual observation at Dyvanny Yar show possibility of finding ice wedge positions and agreement between average resistivity of bottom layers and ice content in the pemafrost at a similar depth. Resistivity measurements in continuous permafrost are challenging but our results suggest that the method could be useful for examination of thawing changes.

Lebedev, V.; Loranty, M. M.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spektor, V.

2013-12-01

239

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data.  

PubMed

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-08-01

240

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

241

Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

1999-01-01

242

2000–2001 food label and package survey: an update on prevalence of nutrition labeling and claims on processed, packaged foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food label is an important tool for improving the public’s understanding of the health benefits of following a nutritious diet. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has continued to study food labels with its Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS). Data from the 2000–2001 FLAPS characterize various aspects of

Lori Legault; Mary Bender Brandt; Nancie McCabe; Carole Adler; Anna-Marie Brown; Susan Brecher

2004-01-01

243

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

244

Changes in body mass index by birth cohort in Japanese adults: results from the National Nutrition Survey of Japan 1956–2005  

PubMed Central

Background The National Nutrition Survey, Japan (NNS-J) provides annual anthropometric information for a whole nation over 50 years. Based on this survey, the mean body mass index (BMI) of Japanese men and elderly women has increased in recent decades, but that of young women has decreased. We examined the effect of birth cohort on this phenomenon. Methods We analysed data from the NNS-J for subjects aged 20–69 years. BMI during 1956–2005 and the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) during 1976–2005 were estimated. Results The BMI increased with age in every birth cohort, with similar increments, and did not peak until 60–69 years of age. However, with cross-sectional age, the BMI usually peaked before 60–69 years of age. The differences among cohorts already existed at 20–29 years of age, and slightly increased in men between 20–29 and 30–39 years of age. The BMI in all male age groups increased from the 1891–1900 through 1971–80 cohorts. However, in women, the figure increased until the 1931–40 cohorts, but later decreased. Changes in prevalence were generally consistent with changes in BMI. The recent increase (decrease in young women) in the mean BMI is attributable to birth cohort, indicating that thinner (fatter) and less recent birth cohorts have been replaced by fatter (thinner) ones. Conclusions A cohort effect was quantitatively demonstrated based on a repeated annual survey. In Japan, the differences in BMI among cohorts were already established by young adulthood. PMID:18782894

Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

2009-01-01

245

SURVEY OF EVALUATION TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING RANGELAND GRASS SPECIES NUTRITIONAL VALUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the philosophy of animal grazing and diet selection in rangelands is crucial. There are vast activities regarding animal diet that have gradually been developed since the beginning of rangeland research studies. Survey of the investigation of the animal diets throughout the world can assist in gathering and categorizing the compiled information on this subject. The present study is done

D. Askarizadeh; G. A. Heshmati; M. Pessarakli; M. H. Jouri

2011-01-01

246

Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, corresponding motivation to comply, and control beliefs. The subjects (n = 300) responded to the questionnaire by self-report, and data from 275 students were analyzed using t-test or ?2-test. RESULTS The results showed that 37.8% of subjects were nutrition label users. Three out of 15 behavioral beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. Nutrition label users agreed more strongly on the benefits of using nutrition labels including 'comparing and selecting better foods' (P < 0.001), 'selecting healthy foods' (P < 0.05). The negative belief of 'annoying' was stronger in non-users than in users (P < 0.001). Three out of 7 sources (parents, siblings, best friend) were important in nutrition label use. Twelve out of 15 control beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. These included beliefs regarding constraints of using nutrition labels (e.g., time, spending money for healthy foods) and lack of nutrition knowledge (P < 0.001). Perceived confidence in understanding and applying the specifics of nutrition labels in food selection was also significantly related to nutrition label use (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study found that the beliefs, especially control beliefs, suggested in the TPB were important in explaining nutrition label use. To promote nutrition label use, nutrition education might focus on increasing perceived control over constraints of using nutrition labels, acquiring skills for checking nutrition labels, as well as the benefits of using nutrition labels and receiving support from significant others for nutrition label use. PMID:25671070

Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju

2015-01-01

247

Nutritional surveillance*  

PubMed Central

The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups. Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional “status” indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate. Data come from two main types of source: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be disaggregated to village level, but are of unknown representativeness and often cannot be linked with other variables of interest; sample surveys provide integrated data of more or less known representativeness, but sample sizes usually do not allow disaggregation to, for example, specific villages. A combination of these sources, with a capability for ad hoc surveys (formal or informal) is often the best solution. Finally, much depends on adequate facilities for data analysis, even though simple, comprehensible data outputs are what is required. Intersectoral cooperation is needed to provide realistic options for the decision-making process. PMID:6606498

Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

1983-01-01

248

The problem of accuracy in dietary surveys. Analysis of the over 65 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence and nature of low energy reporting in a dietary survey of British adults over 65 years of age.?DESIGN—Randomly selected cross sectional sample of 2060 British adults over 65 years. Four day weighed food diaries and questionnaires on health, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics.?SETTING—Great Britain.?PARTICIPANTS—539 women and 558 men over 65 years who were free living and completed four day food diaries.?MAIN RESULTS—A high proportion of men and women were classified as low energy reporters (LERs). Reported consumption of full fat dairy products, sugar and sweet foods, and alcoholic drinks differed most between LERs and non-LERs. Among LERs, reported protein and starch intakes were higher, fat, sugar and alcohol intakes were lower. LERs of either sex were more likely to be obese, male LERs were also more likely to belong to the manual social classes.?CONCLUSIONS—The high level of low energy reporting probably resulted from a coalescence of factors such as the weighed diary methodology and a reluctance to report consumption of unhealthy foods. The use of validatory biomarkers such as doubly labelled water needs to be more widespread.???Keywords: diet PMID:10890873

Cook, A.; Pryer, J.; Shetty, P.

2000-01-01

249

Use of Telephone-Administered Survey for Identifying Nutritional Risk Indicators Among Community-Living Older Adults in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Elderly Nutrition Programs, especially in rural areas, to address increasing needs for disparate program services is linked to determining which older people are most likely to be at nutritional risk and what constitutes the potential risk. The purpose of this study is to characterize nutritional risk factors in a probability sample of rural elders (n = 152)

Joseph R. Sharkey; Pamela S. Haines

2002-01-01

250

Income differences in food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relationships between an index of per capita income and the intake of a variety of individual foods as well as groups of food for men and women in different age groups.Design: Cross-sectional national survey of free-living men and women.Subjects: A sample of 5053 males and 5701 females aged 18 y and over who completed the Australian

A Worsley; R Blasche; K Ball; D Crawford

2003-01-01

251

Safety of home parenteral nutrition in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a French national survey.  

PubMed

We carried out a retrospective multicentre study to assess the safety of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in patients with ALS. We reviewed the case records of patients from French ALS centres treated with HPN by central venous catheter (CVC) using an implantable port between January 2005 and October 2009. Seventy-three patients received HPN for a total of 11,908 catheter days. Twenty-seven patients experienced a total of 37 CVC related complications resulting in an incidence rate of 3.11 CVC complications/1000 catheter days, including 1.93 septic complications and 1.09 mechanical complications/1000 catheter days. Metabolic complications were frequent but without serious consequences on mortality. The use of the catheter for intravenous therapies in addition to HPN was identified as a septicaemia's risk factor (relative risk (RR) = 2.54, confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.14, p = 0.04). In conclusion, HPN is an alternative procedure to PEG in advanced ALS patients. The incidence of complications appears to be comparable to data from the literature on HPN in other diseases. A prospective study comparing HPN and radiologic inserted gastrostomy (RIG) would allow comparison of the relative risk-benefit and survival of these procedures. The relation of CVC and RIG placement timing and the complications' occurrence should also be investigated. PMID:21073397

Abdelnour-Mallet, Maya; Verschueren, Annie; Guy, Nathalie; Soriani, Marie-Hélène; Chalbi, Myriam; Gordon, Paul; Salachas, François; Bruneteau, Gaelle; le Forestier, Nadine; Lenglet, Timothée; Desnuelle, Claude; Clavelou, Pierre; Pouget, Jean; Meininger, Vincent; Pradat, Pierre-François

2011-05-01

252

A Nationwide Laboratory Examining Trust and Trustworthiness by Integrating Behavioural Experiments into Representative Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, laboratory experiments suffer from homogeneous subject pools and self-selection biases. The usefulness of survey data is limited by measurement error and by the questionability of their behavioural relevance. Here we present a method integrating interactive experiments and representative surveys thereby overcoming crucial weaknesses of both approaches. One of the major advantages of our approach is that it allows for

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher; Bernhard von Rosenbladt; Gert Georg Wagner

2003-01-01

253

Review of survey and experimental research that examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression perpetration.  

PubMed

This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. PMID:24776459

Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

2014-10-01

254

Nutrition Practices of Older Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition practices of older athletes that may affect competitive performance and reflect nutrition misinformation. Statewide Senior Games participants (n=100) were surveyed on dietary practices, supplement use and sources of nutrition information. The survey instrument was previewed by an exercise physiologist and gerontology RD for content validity and pretested in a seniors exercise

A. K. Black; R. A. Glass

1998-01-01

255

Examining the Cultural Validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children: The Contemporary Fears of Turkish Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the cultural validity of Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM) developed by J. J. Burnham (2005) with Turkish children. The relationships between demographic variables and the level of fear were also tested. Three independent data sets were used. The first data set comprised 676 participants (321 women and 355 men) and…

Serim-Yildiz, Begum; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

2013-01-01

256

Obstetric Care and Method of Delivery in Mexico: Results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. Results 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66–4.84), between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02–3.20) and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84–3.03). Conclusions The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings. PMID:25101781

Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lozano, Rafael

2014-01-01

257

Why have physical activity levels declined among Chinese adults? Findings from the 1991 - 2006 China Health and Nutrition Surveys  

PubMed Central

Between 1991 and 2006, average weekly physical activity among adults in China fell by 32%. This paper discusses why total and occupational physical activity levels have fallen, and models the association between the rapid decline and various dimensions of exogenous community urbanization. We hypothesize that a) physical activity levels are negatively associated with urbanization; b) urbanization domains that affect job functions and opportunities will contribute most to changes in physical activity levels; and c) these urbanization domains will be more strongly associated for men than for women because home activities account for a larger proportion of physical activity for women. To test these hypotheses, we used longitudinal data from individuals aged 18 to 55 in the 1991-2006 China Health and Nutrition Surveys. We find that physical activity declines were strongly associated with greater availability of higher educational institutions, housing infrastructure, sanitation improvements and the economic well-being of the community in which people function. These urbanization factors predict more than four-fifths of the decline in occupational physical activity over the 1991-2006 period for men and nearly two-thirds of the decline for women. They are also associated with 57% of the decline in total physical activity for men and 40% of the decline for women. Intervention strategies to promote physical activity in the workplace, at home, for transit and via exercise should be considered a major health priority in China. PMID:19232811

Ng, Shu Wen; Norton, Edward C; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

258

A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. 2. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris),

George Grant; Linda J. More; Norma H. McKenzie; James C. Stewart; Arpad Pusztai

1983-01-01

259

URINARY CADMIUM AND BETA2-MICROGLOBULIN: CORRELATION WITH NUTRITION AND SMOKING HISTORY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the indivi...

260

Use Of Food Nutrition Labels is Associated with Lower Fat Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 mandated that standardized nutrition information appear on almost all packaged foods manufactured after May 1994. This study describes the demographic and diet-related psychosocial correlates of nutrition label use, and examines the relationship between label use and diet.Design\\/subjects Data are from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1,450 adult residents of Washington State.

MARIAN L NEUHOUSER; ALAN R KRISTAL; RUTH E PATTERSON

1999-01-01

261

A Nutritional Status Survey of Older Adults in Long-Term Care in the Yazd Province of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to assess the nutritional status of older adults because of its role in ensuring health and quality of life and its association with functional status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of an older adult population living in long-term care institutions in the Yazd province of Iran. Fifty elderly subjects were randomly

Fatemeh Kaseb; Maryam Rashidi; Mohammad Hosein Eshraghian

2009-01-01

262

Hemoglobin A1c as a marker for identifying diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been recommended as an optional method for diagnosing diabetes. The impact of HbA1c on the diagnosis of diabetes has not been evaluated in China, a country with the greatest number of people with diabetes in the world. Hence, we aim to examine how well HbA1c performs as compared with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for diagnosing diabetes in Chinese population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7,641 Chinese men and women aged ?18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 in which FPG and standardized HbA1c were measured. HbA1c was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography system. Diabetes is defined as having FPG ?7 mmol/l or HbA1c ?6.5 %. Overall, 5.0 and 5.8 % had undiagnosed diabetes by FPG ?7 mmol/l and HbA1c ?6.5 %, respectively. Overlap between HbA1c- and FPG-based diagnosis of diabetes was limited (n = 214, 34.9 %). Similar trends were noted in both genders, all age groups, urban/rural settings, regions, body mass index (BMI) categories, waist circumference (WC) groups, and blood pressure status. Solely HbA1c-defined individuals exhibited higher levels of BMI, WC, total cholesterol, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein and lower levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. We note limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes. The limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes persisted in each evaluated subgroup. HbA1c criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes identifies individuals with a worse cardiovascular risk profile compared with FPG. PMID:24072380

Sun, Xingxing; Du, Tingting; Huo, Rui; Xu, Lixian

2014-01-01

263

Third degree examination of AGN in the Chandra/SWIRE Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three samples of AGN are independently selected in the Chandra/SWIRE Survey based on their X-ray, radio and infrared properties. The Chandra/SWIRE Survey, part of the Spitzer Wide-Area InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) Survey Legacy Project, covers 0.6 square degrees in the northern Lockman Hole SWIRE field. Medium-depth X-ray data from Chandra, deep infrared data in all seven Spitzer bands, deep optical data from KPNO, and extremely deep VLA 20cm data have been obtained in the field. The three samples contain 1) X-ray sources with X-ray luminosities larger than 1042 cm-2, 2) radio sources with large radio over infrared flux ratios or radio luminosities larger than 1024 W Hz-1, and 3) infrared sources with red infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The SEDs, luminosities and redshifts of each sample are analyzed and compared. We quantify the selection biases of the three methods and estimate the fraction of AGN that are missed in each sample. Missed AGN are low-luminosity AGN or heavily obscured AGN candidates. Their contributions to the total AGN counts as a function of infrared and radio flux, luminosity and redshift are estimated. Support for this work, part of the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Science Program, was provided by NASA through an award issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Financial support from NASA grant G04-5158A is also acknowledged.

Owen, F.; Polletta, M.; Lonsdale, C.; Smith, H. E.; Wilkes, B.; Kilgard, R.; Siana, B.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.

2005-12-01

264

A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.  

PubMed

Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

1983-09-01

265

Depression and the Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous reports have suggested that depression may lead to the development of cardiovascular disease through its association with the metabolic syndrome; however, little is known about the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to establish an association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample. Methods: The Third National

LESLIE S. KINDER; MERCEDES R. CARNETHON; LATHA P. PALANIAPPAN; ABBY C. KING; STEPHEN P. FORTMANN

2004-01-01

266

Actinic Skin Damage and Mortality - the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsSubjects were 8472 white participants aged 25–74 years in the First National Health and

Wei He; Fei Zhu; Xiaoguang Ma; Xinyu Zhao; Min Zheng; Zhao Chen; Steven B. Heymsfield; Shankuan Zhu

2011-01-01

267

SERUM ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN FLORIDA CITRUS WORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY SAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The monitoring of organochloride residues is important because they have a propensity to accumulate in the tissues of man and animals. All chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides can be absorbed through dermal, oral, and respiratory routes. Storage is determined primarily by metabol...

268

Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

269

Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Publications and Information Products Publications and Information Products Data Briefs Early ... Citations for NCHS Publications and Electronic Media Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates ...

270

Serum selenium concentrations and diabetes in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high selenium levels are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of serum selenium concentrations with fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes in the most rec...

271

Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have shown that women have higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites than do men, possibly because of a higher use of personal care products. Few studies have evaluated the association between phthalate metabolites, diabetes, and diabetes-related risk factors among women. Objective: We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women who participated in a cross-sectional study. Methods: We used urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and self-reported diabetes of 2,350 women between 20 and 79 years of age who participated in the NHANES (2001–2008). We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for urinary creatinine, sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and body size. A secondary analysis was conducted for women who did not have diabetes to evaluate the association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment–estimated insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, women with higher levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (?DEHP) had an increased odds of diabetes compared with women with the lowest levels of these phthalates. Women in the highest quartile for MBzP and MiBP had almost twice the odds of diabetes [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.47) and OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.85), respectively] compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nonmonotonic, positive associations were found for MnBP and ?DEHP, whereas MCPP appeared to have a threshold effect. Certain phthalate metabolites were positively associated with FBG and insulin resistance. Discussion: Urinary levels of several phthalates were associated with prevalent diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to further explore these associations to determine whether phthalate exposure can alter glucose metabolism and increase the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:22796563

Stahlhut, Richard; Meeker, John D.; Powell, Sheena-Gail; Hauser, Russ; Huang, Tianyi; Rich-Edwards, Janet

2012-01-01

272

Sugary Soda Consumption and Albuminuria: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEnd-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsDesign was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National

David A. Shoham; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Holly Kramer; Amy Luke; Suma Vupputuri; Abhijit Kshirsagar; Richard S. Cooper; Carmine Zoccali

2008-01-01

273

Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation  

PubMed Central

We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

del Cura, Isabel

2009-01-01

274

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

275

Nutrition inequities in Canada.  

PubMed

In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities. PMID:20383227

Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

2010-04-01

276

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention. PMID:23714275

2013-01-01

277

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

278

Changing the nation's diet: a study of responses to current nutritional messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a survey of 420 adults and in-depth interviews with 75 of these respondents in Leicestershire in 1994. The study examined how respondents made dietary choices in the context of their social, cultural and economic circumstances, and considered the place of nutritional guidlines and healthy eating messages. The survey findings showed that 64 per cent of respondents

Jackie Goode; Alan Beardsworth; Teresa Keil; Emma Sherratt; Cheryl Haslam

1996-01-01

279

French consumers' use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To survey consumers living in Paris, France, to determine the extent to which they use nutrition labels, and to determine the percentage of French consumers who use nutrition labels, how often they use nutrition labels, and how they would like to see current nutrition labels improved. The researchers also wanted to determine the reasons why consumers do not

Ashley Mannell; Patricia Brevard; Jr Rodolfo Nayga; Pierre Combris; Robert Lee; Janet Gloeckner

2006-01-01

280

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

281

The mental health module (BELLA study) within the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): study design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive\\u000a data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0–17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical\\u000a examinations and tests, questionnaires filled

Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer; Bärbel-Maria Kurth

2008-01-01

282

Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

2008-01-01

283

Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

284

Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

Tladi, Lerato Sonia

2013-01-01

285

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

286

SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

287

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

288

[Medication use of adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

The first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1), assesses current medicine use among participating adults aged 18-79 years in the 7 days prior to the medical examination as part of a standardised interview. About three quarters (74.4?%) of all men and women state that they used at least one preparation. Prevalence is highest among 70-79 year olds (men 94.9?%; women 96.3?%). Overall women have a significantly higher prevalence rate (85.4?%) than men (63.8?%). Preparations for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are the most frequently used medicines (men 27.2?%; women 29.5?%). Polypharmacy (the use of 5 or more preparations) increases continuously with age and is observed significantly more often in women than in men in all age groups with the exception of the age group 70-79. Of the 20,084 recorded preparations, 71.8?% are prescribed by a doctor and 27.7?% are self-medicated. While there are no differences in overall medication linked to social status, a social gradient is observed in prescribed preparations and self-medication. The results presented here describe key indicators of medication use representative of the German adult population. Based on the extensive data of DEGS1, further analyses into aspects such as co- and multimedication will be addressed in the future. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703508

Knopf, H; Grams, D

2013-05-01

289

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63\\/72; 87.5±12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female

B. J. Dascombe; M. Karunaratna; J. Cartoon; B. Fergie; C. Goodman

2010-01-01

290

Examining the Environment: The Development of a Survey Instrument to Assess Student Perceptions of the University Outdoor Physical Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument to measure student perceptions of the outdoor physical campus environment. Using campus planning and environments literature and expert consultation, a survey instrument was developed to measure student satisfaction with the outdoor campus environment and the…

Eckert, Erica

2012-01-01

291

Variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Britain. An analysis from the dietary and nutritional survey of British adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Using a national representative sample to examine variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in the UK, with particular reference to consumers with high and low reported intakes.Design: National representative dietary survey using 7-d weighed diet records of men and women aged 16–64 y living in private households in the UK in 1986–1987.Setting: The UK.Subjects: 1087 men and

H Billson; JA Pryer; R Nichols

1999-01-01

292

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Is It to You? What Do You Hear? Archive View presentations and media releases from the Academy's ... opinion survey, Nutrition and You: Trends 2008. View Archive » QUICK LINKS Join Academy Shop KidsEatright FNCE Food & ...

293

Foods & Nutrition Program Dietetics Montana State University  

E-print Network

Foods & Nutrition Program ­ Dietetics Montana State University Exit Survey ­ Spring 2009 Knowledge deficiency/toxicity 1 2 3 4 5 Effect of age/lifecycle on nutrient needs 1 2 3 4 5 Nutritional assessment 1 2 3 4 5 Medical terminology 1 2 3 4 5 Medical nutrition therapy 1 2 3 4 5 Calculate specific diets

Dyer, Bill

294

Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools  

PubMed Central

Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n?=?42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

2013-01-01

295

Estimation of iron requirements for women by numerical analysis of population-based data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of Japan 2003-2007.  

PubMed

Iron requirements were estimated from the results of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of Japan 2003-2007 using the numerical analysis of requirements based on an integral equation. The numerical analysis used population-based data on iron nutriture, the prevalence of inadequate iron status, and the distribution of iron intakes. The cutoff value for inadequate iron status was defined as a serum ferritin concentration <30ng/mL. Iron intakes and menstrual blood losses followed a log-normal distribution and published values were corrected accordingly to calculate usual values. For women aged 18-29 years old, the median of the estimated median iron requirement (corresponding to the estimated average requirement by using the terminology of the dietary reference intakes) was 7.59mg (range, 6.86-8.11). The median of the estimated usual iron intake covering the needs of women with 80mL per cycle of menstrual blood loss was 11.27mg (range, 10.16-12.00), and the median of the usual iron intake covering the needs of 97.7% of women was 13.93mg (range, 12.55-14.81). For women aged 30-49 years old, the corresponding figures were 8.13mg (range, 7.96-8.69), 11.95mg (range, 11.72-12.77), and 14.71mg (range, 14.44-15.72). PMID:25213680

Yokoi, Katsuhiko

2014-10-01

296

Diet and health trends in Taiwan: comparison of two nutrition and health surveys from 1993-1996 and 2005-2008.  

PubMed

The availability of new food choices has increased dramatically in recent times, whilst increasingly sedentary lifestyles have reduced calorie intake requirements. The present study uses 24 hour dietary recall data, and biochemical and anthropometric measurements from the 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to investigate trends in dietary habits, and cardiovascular and metabolic disease markers in Taiwanese persons aged 19 years and above. We found that dietary habits in Taiwan are changing, particularly in regards to intakes of cakes and sweets, and sugary drinks. Energy intakes in young people have increased, and combined with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, this may have led to the increase in obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Large increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and gout have been observed. Fortunately, some positive dietary and behavioral changes have also been observed; including an increased avoidance of products made from animal fats and oils' and a concomitant increase in the use of vegetable oil. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, soy products, fish, whole grains, nuts and seeds have also increased; and intakes of red meat, carbohydrates and sodium containing foods have decreased. These positive dietary changes could explain the lack of large changes in the prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and the decrease in prevalence of hyperuricemia. Intake of dairy products remains low, and continues to be an important dietary issue in Taiwan. PMID:21669593

Pan, Wen-Harn; Wu, Hsing-Juan; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Hsieh, Yao-Te

2011-01-01

297

Nutritional Support  

MedlinePLUS

Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

298

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

299

Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

2011-01-01

300

A repeat cross-sectional study examining the equitable impact of nutritional standards for school lunches in England in 2008 on the diets of 4-7y olds across the socio-economic spectrum.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe 2008 nutritional standards for primary school lunch in England improved nutritional content. The impact on socio-economic inequalities is unknown. We examine the impact of the nutritional standards on children¿s nutrient intake at lunchtime and in total diet by level of deprivation.MethodsWe conducted cross-sectional studies in 12 English primary schools before and after legislation. Dietary intake was recorded for 4-7y olds using a validated, prospective four-day food diary. Socio-economic status was estimated using the Index of Multiple Deprivation; three groups of approximately equal sizes were created. Linear, mixed-effect models explored the effect of year, lunch type (school or home-packed lunch), level of deprivation and the interaction(s) between these factors on children¿s diets.Results368 and 624 children participated in 2003¿4 and 2008¿9 respectively. At lunchtime, between 2003¿4 and 2008¿9, the increase in non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) intake was larger in the least compared to the most deprived group (difference in mean change 0.8 mg; 95% CI 0.4, 1.3). There were similar differences in mean changes for iron (0.3 mg; 0.2, 0.4) and zinc (0.3 mg; 0.1, 0.5). In total diet, differential effects were observed for NSP, iron and zinc; we found no evidence these changes were associated with lunch type. Lunch type was associated with changes in per cent energy from non-milk-extrinsic sugars (NMES) and vitamin C. Per cent energy from NMES was lower and vitamin C intake higher in school lunches in 2008¿9 compared with 2003¿4. The corresponding differences in home-packed lunches were not as marked and there were subtle but statistically significant effects of the level of deprivation.ConclusionsBy 2008¿9, NMES at lunchtime and in total diet was lower for children consuming a school lunch; this change was equitable across the deprivation groups. Vitamin C intake increased more for children in the most deprived group, narrowing the socio-economic inequality. A range of significant differential effects of the nutritional standards were observed and important socio-economic inequalities in dietary intake remain. Additional interventions to promote equitable nutrition in children are needed to support legislative measures and maximise their impact. PMID:25342153

Spence, Suzanne; Matthews, John; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

2014-10-24

301

Nutrition and Genomics Workshop  

Cancer.gov

This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.

302

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

303

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1991-01-01

304

Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

2010-01-01

305

Tobacco, Violence and Nutrition Health Behaviors Among Adolescents in Rural Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract English: This study examined tobacco, violence, and nutrition health behaviors in adolescents living in rural Ukraine using a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 478 adolescents ages 13-18 attending schools in Veliky Berezny, Ukraine participated. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analyses were used to find associations between ,the independent variables gender and age, and the dependent variables tobacco,

Susan C. Hill; Linda Stonecipher; Michael D. Barnes; Ray M. Merrill

306

Use of Nutritional Information in Canada: National Trends between 2004 and 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine longitudinal trends in use of nutrition information among Canadians. Design: Population-based telephone and Internet surveys. Setting and Participants: Representative samples of Canadian adults recruited with random-digit dialing sampling in 2004 (n = 2,405) and 2006 (n = 2,014) and an online commercial panel in 2008 (n =…

Goodman, Samantha; Hammond, David; Pillo-Blocka, Francy; Glanville, Theresa; Jenkins, Richard

2011-01-01

307

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

308

Nutrition support in surgical oncology.  

PubMed

This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805

Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

2009-01-01

309

Examining the Services Received by Young Children with Autism and Their Families: A Survey of Parent Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 25 families of children (ages 3-9) with autism and pervasive developmental disabilities found that families interacted with a host of different agencies and professionals to receive services. Many families reported difficulty accessing needed services and minimal involvement in planning or implementing these interventions. (CR)

Kohler, Frank W.

1999-01-01

310

Examining the Literacy Histories of Doctoral Students in an Educational Studies Program through Surveys and Interviews: A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explain the relationship between literacy experiences over time and the literacy identities of the doctoral students in a teacher education and higher education program. The quantitative phase, surveying 36 participants, revealed a positive correlation between participant's…

Adams-Budde, Melissa; Howard, Christy; Jolliff, Grant; Myers, Joy

2014-01-01

311

Examining Trends in International Study: A Survey of Faculty-Led Field Courses within American Departments of Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of an online survey administered to chairs of American departments of geography to ascertain current trends and perceived value of international faculty-led field courses within their departments. The majority of reporting chairs indicated increased field course offerings over the past decade most often resulting…

Mullens, Jo Beth; Bristow, Robert S.; Cuper, Prudence

2012-01-01

312

An Examination of the Reliability, Data Screening Procedures, and Extreme Response Patterns for the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores psychometric characteristics of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS), one of the most widely used instruments to assess the prevalence of violent and other high-risk behaviors in secondary school settings. Response patterns were analyzed for a subset of 414 youths who indicated that they had carried a weapon to…

Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Bates, Michael P.; Smith, Douglas C.

2004-01-01

313

The Medical School Learning Environment Survey: An Examination of Its Factor Structure and Relationship to Student Performance and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was used with a sample of 311 undergraduate medical students in British Columbia, Canada, to assess the seven scales of Medical Breadth of Interest, Personal Breadth of Interest, Emotional Climate, Flexibility, Meaningful Learning Experience, Organization, Nurturance and Student-Student…

Rusticus, Shayna; Worthington, Anne; Wilson, Derek; Joughin, Karen

2014-01-01

314

Examining the Infrared Variable Star Population Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using the SAGE-SMC Survey  

E-print Network

We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program "Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud" (SAGE-SMC) and the "Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud" (S$^{3}$MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to three years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer's IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 $\\mu$m bands, and the MIPS 24 $\\mu$m band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs ("variability index") is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of $\\sim$2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in th...

Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Sewilo, Marta; Vijh, Uma; Meixner, Margaret; Marengo, Massimo; Terrazas, Maverick

2015-01-01

315

Iodine Nutrition and the Prevalence of Thyroid Disease after Salt Iodization: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Shanghai, a Coastal Area in China  

PubMed Central

Background Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of children aged 8–10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. Objective To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted with general participants aged 5–69 years (n?=?7,904) plus pregnant and lactating women (n?=?380 each) selected by stratified multistage sampling. The iodine concentrations in their salt, drinking water and urine were measured. Daily iodine intake was estimated using the total diet study approach. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations and thyroid-related antibodies were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results The median iodine concentration in salt was 29.5 mg/kg, and 12.8 µg/L in drinking water. Iodized salt, used by 95.3% of participants, contributed 63.5% of total dietary iodine. Estimated daily iodine intake was 225.96 µg. The median UIC of general participants was 146.7 µg/L; UIC <100 µg/L (iodine insufficiency) was seen in 28.6%; UIC >300 µg/L (iodine excess) in 10.1%. Pregnant women had a median UIC of 135.9 µg/L, with UIC <150 µg/L in 55.4%. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were found in 27.44% and 9.17%, respectively. Conclusions According to published criteria, the current dietary iodine intake in Shanghai was generally sufficient and safe, but insufficient in pregnant women. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were the commonest thyroid diseases identified. PMID:22911705

Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan; Guo, Changyi; Song, Jun; Huang, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Yu, Huiting; Guo, Yanfei; Lu, Xi; Ruan, Ye

2012-01-01

316

Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11?835 male and 12?561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004?kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

317

Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

318

Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2005-01-01

319

Nutritional risk and 5-year mortality of older community-dwelling Canadian men: the Manitoba Follow-Up Study.  

PubMed

This study examines nutritional risk and 5-year mortality rates of community-dwelling older Canadian men participating in the Manitoba Follow-Up Study. The surviving cohort (n = 690; mean age = 86.8 years) was mailed a self-administered Nutrition Survey consisting of SCREEN II, a validated nutrition risk screening tool and health-related questions. Five hundred fifty-three completed surveys (80% completion rate) were returned, with 522 (94%) containing complete responses necessary to score nutritional risk, comprising the participants for this analysis. Forty-four percent of the 522 respondents were scored as high risk, 24% at moderate risk, and 32% at low risk. Over five years from 2007 to 2012, 212 (41%) of the men died, with 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year survival rates of 92%, 86%, 77%, and 66%, respectively. Men in the lowest 40th percentile of the nutritional risk distribution accounted for half of all deaths. Adjusted for other characteristics, Cox proportional hazard models demonstrated that with each unit decline on the nutritional risk scale there was a 4% greater risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 0.96 [95% CI 0.94,0.98]). Early identification of older men at nutritional risk and timely nutrition interventions are essential in delaying the progression of morbidity and mortality. PMID:24224939

Broeska, Valerie E; Lengyel, Christina O; Tate, Robert B

2013-01-01

320

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

321

Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

322

[Characteristics of actual nutrition and health of children in regions of the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

In the article the problems of actual nutrition and state of Russian children health are considered. The carried out examinations of the vitaminous status have shown presence of a deficit of vitamins E, B1, B6, PP, and also calcium, phosphorus, iron lactate, zinc in daily ration of children. The inadequate organization of C-vitaminization of boiled food in children establishments, low supplying of learning schools by a hot food, insufficient use of products from suer milk, fish, juices, meat products, butter, vegetables, fruit, eggs in a nutrition of children is marked. In same of regions of Russia the inadequate nutrition organization of early age children is marked. The positive experience of areas (St.-Petersburg, Ul'yanovsk, Rostov, Smolensk, Kirov, Kurgan, Samara region, Republic Buryatiya) on organization of children and juveniles nutrition, development of the regional programs on a children's food industry evolution, on providing of early age children by food stuffs, on improvement of a schoolboys nutrition, on improvement a nutrition of children in children's preschool establishments is analyzed. The positive experience of nutrition organization of children on an example of the Ryazan and Arkhangel'sk regions surveyed. The actual information about a vitaminization, quality and safety of children's nutrition, ready dishes in the organized collectives on data of 1999 are given. PMID:11452370

Beliaev, E N; Chiburaev, V I; Ivanov, A A; Platonova, A G; Markelova, S V

2000-01-01

323

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

324

Estimates of Elderly at Nutritional Risk from the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist: The 1994 Northeast Florida Nutrition Screening Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among the nutritional risks, the risk levels, and the ages of independently living elderly. The Checklist of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) was administered to a purposive sample of 1004 Northeast Florida elderly to estimate an age-profile at risk for malnutrition. Checklist nutritional scores (cumulative of ten risks) were grouped into risk levels of low (scores

Lynn Marie Brokiewicz

1995-01-01

325

Examining the Infrared Variable Star Population Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using the SAGE-SMC Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S3MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 ?m band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ?2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Seale, J.; Sewi?o, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Meixner, M.; Marengo, M.; Terrazas, M.

2015-02-01

326

Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n?=?119), including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs), quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs), enrolled nurses (ENs)/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs) and assistants in nursing (AINs) was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT) capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents after hospital discharge. Conclusions This survey identified a high volume of information exchange activities, as well as inefficient procedures, such as the transfer of information from paper to computer systems and the reliance upon faxes for communication with external providers. These findings contribute to evidence for the need for interoperable IT systems to allow more efficient and reliable information exchange between facilities and external providers. PMID:22856585

2012-01-01

327

State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

328

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

329

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

330

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

331

Status of nutrition education in medical schools2,3  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous entreaties have been made over the past 2 decades to improve the nutrition knowledge and skills of medical students and physicians. However, most graduating medical students continue to rate their nutrition preparation as inadequate. Objective: The objective was to determine the amount and type of nutrition instruction at US medical schools, especially including the instruction that occurs outside designated nutrition courses. Design: A 12-item survey asked nutrition educators to characterize nutrition instruction at their medical schools (required, optional, or not offered) and to quantify nutrition contact hours occurring both inside and outside designated nutrition courses. During 2004, we surveyed all 126 US medical schools accredited at that time. Results: A total of 106 surveys were returned for a response rate of 84%. Ninety-nine of the 106 schools responding required some form of nutrition education; however, only 32 schools (30%) required a separate nutrition course. On average, students received 23.9 contact hours of nutrition instruction during medical school (range: 2–70 h). Only 40 schools required the minimum 25 h recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Most instructors (88%) expressed the need for additional nutrition instruction at their institutions. Conclusion: With the move to a more integrated curriculum and problem-based learning at many medical schools, a substantial portion of the total nutrition instruction is occurring outside courses specifically dedicated to nutrition. The amount of nutrition education in medical schools remains inadequate. PMID:16600952

Adams, Kelly M; Lindell, Karen C; Kohlmeier, Martin; Zeisel, Steven H

2008-01-01

332

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout

Jornsten, Rebecka

333

A survey of international legal instruments to examine their effectiveness in improving global health and in realizing health rights.  

PubMed

Many global health issues, almost by definition, do not recognize state borders and therefore require bi-lateral, or more often multi-lateral international solutions. These latter solutions are articulated in international instruments (declarations, conventions, treaties, constitutions of international bodies, etc). However, the gap between formal adoption of such instruments by signatory states and substantive implementation of the articulated solutions can be very wide. This paper surveys a selection of international legal instruments, including those where the sought after positive outcomes have been achieved, and those that have been ineffective, with little or no real progress being made. The paper looks for commonalities, both in the nature of the problems and the forms of the international legal instruments, to seek answers as to why some instruments ultimately succeeded where others failed. It also provides some guidance to law/ treaty makers to help ensure that they frame future instruments in such a way as to maximize the probability that those instruments will have a substantive positive impact on global health and health rights. PMID:23581659

Wilson, Arthur; Daar, Abdallah S

2013-01-01

334

Reliability, technical error of measurements and validity of instruments for nutritional status assessment of adults in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction : The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia 2006 includes a nutritional status assessment of children. This study aimed to assess the inter- and intra- examiner reliability, the technical error of measurement and the validity of instruments for measuring weight , height and waist circumference. Methods: A convenience sample of 130 adults working in a selected office setting

Jalan Pahang

335

THE NUTRITIONAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCT CONSUMPTION ON DIETARY INTAKES OF YOUNG ADULTS (1995-1996): THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on the dietary intakes of adults. Dietary intakes of adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey (1995-1996) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Dietary intake data was collected on 1266 adults (61% females, 39% males; 74% whites, 26% blacks...

336

Nutrition Action Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

337

Nutrition: What Your Body Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-12-23

338

Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and ...

339

Prediabetes is not independently associated with microalbuminuria in Korean general population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 (KNHANES V-2,3).  

PubMed

We investigated the association between microalbuminuria and prediabetes in Korean population using data from the KNHANES 2011-2012. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly increased in prediabetes group. However, the odds ratio became insignificant after adjustment for blood pressure, and the prevalence of microalbuminuria was not increased in prediabetic subjects without hypertension. PMID:25271114

Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Hong-Kyu

2014-11-01

340

Urinary Levels of Seven Phthalate Metabolites in the U.S. Population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in > 75% of the samples, suggesting widespread exposure in the United States to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate or diisobutylphthalate, benzylbutyl phtha- late, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, respectively. We infrequently detected monoisononyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, and mono-n-octyl phthalate, suggesting that human exposures to di-isononyl phthalate, dioctylphthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate, respectively, are lower than those listed above, or the

Manori J. Silva; Dana B. Barr; John A. Reidy; Nicole A. Malek; Carolyn C. Hodge; Samuel P. Caudill; John W. Brock; Larry L. Needham; Antonia M. Calafat

2003-01-01

341

Depressive Symptoms are Associated with Poor Adherence to Some Lifestyle but not Medication Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

E-print Network

), control/lose weight (N=2177), eat fewer high fat/cholesterol foods (N=2924), and increase physical in PHQ-9 total score was associated with a 14% lower likelihood of adherence to the control/lose weight to the control/lose weight recommendation were 75% and 85% and the increase physical activity recommendation were

Zhou, Yaoqi

342

Association between dietary fat intake and bone mineral density in Korean adults: data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2008?2009).  

PubMed

We determined the relation between dietary fat intake and bone mineral density, and our study showed that low- as well as high-fat diet was associated with the risk of osteoporosis. Our study provides significant evidence of the specific dietary components that may be important modifiable factors for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:25491765

Kwon, Y-M; Kim, G W; Yim, H W; Paek, Y J; Lee, K-S

2014-12-10

343

Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy and Nephropathy Screening in Korea: The Third and Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III and IV)  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study was done to identify and determine the socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea. Participants included 2,660 adults, aged 40 or older, with diabetes. Of the 2,660 adults, 998 (37%) and 1,226 (46.1%) had received a diabetic retinopathy and a nephropathy screening within one year, respectively. Regarding retinopathy, subjects older than 65, living in urban areas, with high educational levels, and with self-reported "unhealthy" status were likely to receive annual screening. Subjects living in urban areas, with higher educational levels, with self-reported "fair" or "unhealthy" status, and with 1 to 2 co-morbidities were likely to receive annual nephropathy screening. The Korea Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) continued to rise until 2007 when it started to decline over the subsequent years, following the same curve as the diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening rates during that time. Together with the financial matter, lack of patient education proved to be a hindrance to diabetes-related screening. The relatively low screening rates in Korea compared to the Western countries are likely to be due to the difference in the health system, economic situations and national demographics. PMID:23772143

Rim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Byun, Il Hwan; Kim, Han Sang; Lee, Sang Yeul

2013-01-01

344

Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is strongly linked to obesity-associated risks. However, currently proposed WC risk thresholds are not based on associations with obesity-related risk factors but rather with body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objective: The objective was to determine the relations of WC to obesity-associated risk factors in a representative sample of US whites and to derive comparable risk

ShanKuan Zhu; ZiMian Wang; Stanley Heshka; Moonseong Heo; Myles S Faith; Steven B Heymsfield

345

Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

2007-01-01

346

Somatic Symptoms, but Not Nonsomatic Symptoms, of Depression are Associated with Insulin Resistance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010  

E-print Network

, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, kidney disease, or pregnancy. Depressive symptoms were measured usingSomatic Symptoms, but Not Nonsomatic Symptoms, of Depression are Associated with Insulin Resistance Indianapolis While there is a well-established link between depression and type 2 diabetes, depressive symptoms

Zhou, Yaoqi

347

Ethnic and age-related fat free mass loss in older Americans: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although age-related loss of fat free mass (FFM) is well known, there is paucity of data on national estimates, and on the differential influence of ethnicity on the decline in FFM with increasing age. We determined whether age-related loss in FFM and fat free mass index (FFMI) vary by gender and or ethnicity, using representative data from the Third

Thomas O Obisesan; Muktar H Aliyu; Vernon Bond; Richard G Adams; Abimbola Akomolafe; Charles N Rotimi

2005-01-01

348

Association of Glucocorticoid Use and Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 2001–2006  

PubMed Central

Context: In many disorders requiring steroid therapy, there is substantial decrease in bone mineral density. The association between steroid use and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency has not been confirmed in large population-based studies, and currently there are no specific vitamin D recommendations for steroid users. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of serum 25(OH)D deficiency [defined as 25(OH)D <10 ng/ml] with oral steroid use. Design: Cross-sectional analysis was performed using NHANES 2001–2006. Setting: We analyzed a nationally representative sample of U.S. children and adults. Participants: The study sample consisted of children, adolescents, and adults from NHANES 2001–2006 (n = 22,650), representative of 286 million U.S. residents, with serum 25(OH)D levels and data on other potential confounders. Main Outcome Measure: We measured serum 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/ml. Results: A total of 181 individuals (0.9% of the population) used steroids within the past 30 d. Overall, 5% of the population had 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/ml. Among steroid users, 11% had 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/ml, compared to 5% among steroid nonusers (P = 0.009). The odds of having 25(OH)D deficiency were 2-fold higher in those who reported steroid use compared to those without steroid use [odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25, 4.45]. This association remained after multivariable adjustment (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.01, 4.85) and in a multivariable model using NHANES III data (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.48). Conclusion: Steroid use is independently associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in this nationally representative cohort limited by cross-sectional data. It suggests the need for screening and repletion in patients on chronic steroids. PMID:21956424

Kumar, Juhi; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kaskel, Frederick J.; Melamed, Michal L.

2011-01-01

349

Examination of cross contamination risks between hospitals by external medical staff via cross-sectional intercept survey of hand hygiene  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR) in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical. The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours. Material and methods: An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides (S. aureus and MRSA) to evaluate 311 healthcare professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians. Results: IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively). 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses) carried a microbiological burden ?104 CFU (colony forming units). Neither S. aureus (?104 CFU) in IR (40.9%) did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346) and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878) nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908). We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization. Conclusion: Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients. PMID:25152856

Schiffers, Hank; Zaatreh, Sarah; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2014-01-01

350

46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. 189.40-3 Section 189.40-3...internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except as provided for in...and internal structural examinations at intervals not to exceed five years....

2010-10-01

351

Nutritional Science  

Cancer.gov

This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.

352

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

353

Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... such as Fosamax®), calcitonin, and fluoride. What is nutritional support? Because IBD, especially Crohn's disease, may improve with nutritional support, it may be necessary to provide nutrition by ...

354

Religion and United States physicians' opinions and self-predicted practices concerning artificial nutrition and hydration.  

PubMed

This study surveyed 1,156 practicing US physicians to examine the relationship between physicians' religious characteristics and their approaches to artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH). Forty percent of physicians believed that unless a patient is imminently dying, the patient should always receive nutrition and fluids; 75 % believed that it is ethically permissible for doctors to withdraw ANH. The least religious physicians were less likely to oppose withholding or withdrawing ANH. Compared to non-evangelical Protestant physicians, Jews and Muslims were significantly more likely to oppose withholding ANH, and Muslims were significantly more likely to oppose withdrawing ANH. PMID:23754580

Wolenberg, Kelly M; Yoon, John D; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A

2013-12-01

355

Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire as used in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) for the elderly.  

PubMed

A 28-item simplified food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) combined with 9 open questions about basic commodities was designed for the Elderly Nutrient and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) to collect participants' usual intake of the previous month. We have examined the validity this SFFQ as assessed by multiple 24-hour dietary recall (n=81) and biomarkers (n=1473). All questionnaires were completed by face-to-face interview and fasting blood taken. Thirty seven males and 44 females were randomly selected from NAHSIT participants. Of these, 31 and 50 subjects completed 2 or 3 24-hour dietary recalls within one month, respectively. Mean daily intake frequencies for each food group were calculated from the SFFQ and 24-hr recalls, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between frequencies of food intake from the FFQ and dietary recalls ranged from 0.132 to 0.678 for men; 0.052 to 0.759 for women. For food weight, the trends were similar to frequency findings. For biomarkers, the most correlated were dairy intake frequency judged by vitamin B-2 and calcium intakes and by erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGRAC) for B-2 functionality, where the correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.533, 0.518 and -0.205 for men; 0.494, 0.475 and -0.174 for women; fish and fruit followed in overall validity. The SFFQ measured the food patterns of elderly NAHSIT elders with validity high for dairy and good for fish, and fruit intakes in both genders. PMID:21393121

Huang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2011-01-01

356

Nutritional Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

357

Nutritional carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Human beings are often being exposed to carcinogenic factors during their life, some of which are the nutritional factors. From the mechanistic view, nutritional factors are classified into genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Genotoxic agent begins their action at the DNA level, causing DNA damage through several mechanisms, e.g. gene point mutations, deletions and insertions, recombinations, rearrangements and amplifications, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Most genotoxic agents are micro components of nutrition, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) or heterocyclic amines (HCAs), aflatoxin, and N-nitrosamine. Non-genotoxic agents are less defined in their modes of action, but they are presumed to indirectly affect the cell through tumor promoters. These agents are generally macro components, e.g. high fat. Moreover, epigenetic factors, including changes in the DNA methylation pattern, and peroxidation process resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS), are also known to cause cancer. On the other hand, it is also well recognized that diet and nutrition contain components that can reduce the risk of cancer, in some cases by decreasing the effects of food mutagens, or through carcinogen detoxification, or protection of DNA from electrophilic carcinogen. Thus nutritionally related cancer ultimately develops from an imbalance of carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis process. PMID:20305331

Sutandyo, Noorwati

2010-01-01

358

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications for Public Relations Professionals FriedmanSchoolofNutritionScienceandPolicy #12;Students entering

Tufts University

359

Do consumers perceive benefits from the implementation of a EU mandatory nutritional labelling program?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines consumers’ knowledge about nutritional labels (i.e., nutritional panel), use of nutritional labels, and perceived benefits from a mandatory nutritional labeling program. Using data from a pilot study conducted in a Spanish city and a three-equation multivariate probit model, our results suggest that individuals who suffer some health problems related to food intake are more knowledgeable about nutritional

Azucena Gracia; Maria Loureiro; Rodolfo Nayga Jr.

2007-01-01

360

Nutrition marketing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

361

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

362

Nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

363

Snow depth of the Weddell and Bellingshausen sea ice covers from IceBridge surveys in 2010 and 2011: An examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

examine the snow radar data from the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas acquired by eight IceBridge (OIB) flightlines in October of 2010 and 2011. In snow depth retrieval, the sidelobes from the stronger scattering snow-ice (s-i) interfaces could be misidentified as returns from the weaker air-snow (a-s) interfaces. In this paper, we first introduce a retrieval procedure that accounts for the structure of the radar system impulse response followed by a survey of the snow depths in the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas. Limitations and potential biases in our approach are discussed. Differences between snow depth estimates from a repeat survey of one Weddell Sea track separated by 12 days, without accounting for variability due to ice motion, is -0.7 ± 13.6 cm. Average snow depth is thicker in coastal northwestern Weddell and thins toward Cape Norvegia, a decrease of >30 cm. In the Bellingshausen, the thickest snow is found nearshore in both Octobers and is thickest next to the Abbot Ice Shelf. Snow depth is linearly related to freeboard when freeboards are low but diverge as the freeboard increases especially in the thicker/rougher ice of the western Weddell. We find correlations of 0.71-0.84 between snow depth and surface roughness suggesting preferential accumulation over deformed ice. Retrievals also seem to be related to radar backscatter through surface roughness. Snow depths reported here, generally higher than those from in situ records, suggest dissimilarities in sample populations. Implications of these differences on Antarctic sea ice thickness are discussed.

Kwok, R.; Maksym, T.

2014-07-01

364

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

365

Meal planning and nutritional supplements use among elite bodybuilders in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between exercise and nutrition is important for bodybuilders. The intake of food during post-exercise recovery is necessary for hypertrophy to occur. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the meal planning and use of such supplements among elite bodybuilders in Taiwan.MethodThirty-four (26 male and 8 female) bodybuilders completed a questionnaire which conducted to examine the

Margaret Jip Kuo

2010-01-01

366

Association of Cancer Prevention-Related Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes to Cancer Prevention Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate

LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND

1997-01-01

367

The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs  

SciTech Connect

Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities.

Iyengar, V.

1988-01-01

368

Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.  

PubMed

Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

2012-01-01

369

Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

Burnham, Joy J.

2005-01-01

370

Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population. PMID:24350206

Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

2013-01-01

371

The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

2015-01-01

372

Health, nutrition and prosperity: a microeconomic perspective.  

PubMed Central

A positive correlation between health and economic prosperity has been widely documented, but the extent to which this reflects a causal effect of health on economic outcomes is very controversial. Two classes of evidence are examined. First, carefully designed random assignment studies in the laboratory and field provide compelling evidence that nutritional deficiency - particularly iron deficiency - reduces work capacity and, in some cases, work output. Confidence in these results is bolstered by a good understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Some random assignment studies indicate an improved yield from health services in the labour market. Second, observational studies suggest that general markers of nutritional status, such as height and body mass index (BMI), are significant predictors of economic success although their interpretation is confounded by the fact that they reflect influences from early childhood and family background. Energy intake and possibly the quality of the diet have also been found to be predictive of economic success in observational studies. However, the identification of causal pathways in these studies is difficult and involves statistical assumptions about unobserved heterogeneity that are difficult to test. Illustrations using survey data demonstrate the practical importance of this concern. Furthermore, failure to take into account the dynamic interplay between changes in health and economic status has led to limited progress being reported in the literature. A broadening of random assignment studies to measure the effects of an intervention on economic prosperity, investment in population-based longitudinal socioeconomic surveys, and application of emerging technologies for a better measure of health in these surveys will yield very high returns in improving our understanding of how health influences economic prosperity. PMID:11953788

Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

373

Pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

Greco, Deborah S

2014-03-01

374

Review of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) Clinical Guidelines for Nutrition Support in Cancer Patients: nutrition screening and assessment.  

PubMed

It is clear that cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may or may not be indicated in these patients depending on individual patient characteristics. This review article, the first in a series of articles to examine the A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients Cancer Guidelines, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in cancer patients. This first article will provide background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients as well as discuss the role of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in the care of cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the Clinical Guidelines, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequent published studies. Future articles will explore the guidelines related to nutrition support in oncology patients receiving anticancer therapies. PMID:18390787

Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

2008-01-01

375

Nutrition for adventure racing.  

PubMed

Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

Ranchordas, Mayur K

2012-11-01

376

[Physical and psychological violence perpetration and violent victimisation in the German adult population: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence (partnership, family). Overall, women reported a greater sense of wrongdoing following violence perpetration than men; as to the perpetration of violence towards a partner, however, there was no difference between the sexes in this regard. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703495

Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H

2013-05-01

377

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640

Teich, N; Mössner, J

2010-10-01

378

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

379

Trends in overweight and obesity among adults in Canada (1970–1992): evidence from national surveys using measured height and weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine secular trends in obesity and overweight among Canadian adults between 1970 and 1992. The impact of education level and smoking on weight trends is explored.Data: Adults aged 20–69 participating in three national health surveys which obtained measured height and weight: the Nutrition Canada Survey conducted between 1970 and 1972 (analysis sample n=5963); the Canada Health Survey of

GM Torrance; BA Reeder

2002-01-01

380

Nutritional influences on breeding dynamics in elk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition in summer and early autumn may influence pregnancy rates and recruitment in ungulate herds in temperate regions, yet this influence on the reproductive endocrinology of wild ungulates is poorly understood. We examined the effects of 3 levels of summer-autumn nutrition on timing of breeding, pregnancy rates, and concentration of fecal progestagens (P4) in 30 captive female elk (Cervus elaphus

Rachel C. Cook; Dennis L. Murray; John G. Cook; Peter Zager; Steven L. Monfort

2001-01-01

381

Nutrition Information Sources Used by Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sources from which adolescents receive general nutrition information and from which they are most likely to seek specific information were examined. Data were collected from 163 14- to 18-year-old subjects; over 90 percent reported having learned about nutrition in a school course. Other frequently cited sources were television, parents, labels on…

Thomsen, Patrice A.; And Others

1988-01-01

382

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue.  

PubMed

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental "nutritive tissue" in carnivorous plants of Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the "nutritive tissue" and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key role in the nutrition of the female gametophyte. To date, however, the structure of this tissue has received only scant attention. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized its anatomy and histochemistry in more detail and addressed the speculations of a number of earlier researchers. Nutritive tissue during the period of flower opening in three Utricularia species, each belonging to different sections and subgenera (Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria and Utricularia), was examined by light and, in particular, electron microscopy. In all of the investigated species, nutritive tissue cells differ from placental parenchyma cells in having no huge vacuole, no large amyloplasts with starch grains, and no protein inclusions in the nucleus. The funicular nutritive tissue in U. dichotoma consists of active cells with a secretory character, while U. sandersonii has a small placental nutritive tissue consisting of colenchymatous cells accumulating lipids. The most complex nutritive tissue occurs in aquatic U. intermedia, which occupies a derived position in the genus phylogeny. In this latter species, the cells of this tissue resemble meristematic cells in having a relatively large nucleus, thin cell walls, and reduced vacuoles, but the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in some cells is similar to that in secretory cells. The cytoplasm is rich in microtubules, some of which are in close contact with the ER cisternae. We found very thick cell walls between nutritive tissue cells and parenchyma cells, but plasmodesmata between these types of cells are rare. Similarities in both the position and structure of nutritive tissue in Polypompholyx and section Pleiochasia support their classification together in one subgenus, based on results from a molecular study. The position and structure of the nutritive tissue in Utricularia spp. are related to the position of various species in the genus phylogeny. PMID:18802663

P?achno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr

2008-12-01

383

Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.  

PubMed

The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies. PMID:21968089

Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

2012-02-01

384

Evaluating community-based nutrition programs: assessing the reliability of a survey of grocery store product displays. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

A pilot test of a survey of grocery store product displays was conducted to measure the amount of health-education information provided and the proportion of the display devoted to "healthier" products. Inter-rater reliability ranged between 0.73 and 0.78 for the healthiness indices and between 0.30 and 0.67 for the health education measures.

385

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

386

Nutrition.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...

387

Nutrition assessment of the critically ill adult.  

PubMed

Illness and injury are physiologic stressors that alter the body's metabolic and energy demands. Approximately 30 to 55% of hospitalized patients have evidence of malnutrition, which makes nutrition screening and assessment an integral part of the evaluation of the critically ill adult. Nutritional assessment relies on a complete history and physical examination, appropriate laboratory measurements, and diagnostic testing as warranted. Although a single laboratory result may be helpful for nutritional screening, there is no single parameter that is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of malnutrition. Instead, nutritional assessment must be ongoing and be derived from a variety of sources in order to identify nutritional trends over time. Early identification and nutritional intervention can lessen morbidity and mortality risks; however, underlying acute and/or chronic disease processes often need to be identified and corrected before the body can reverse abnormal nutrient metabolism. A comprehensive nutritional assessment, incorporated with clinical status, will provide the basis for a nutritional support plan and evaluation strategies. In order to help the advanced practice nurse determine the appropriate nutritional regimen, this article discusses the importance of the patient history, physical examination, body composition measurement techniques, and laboratory data assessment. PMID:15586160

Sabol, Valerie K

2004-01-01

388

The Role of Classroom Teachers in Nutrition and Physical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition education and physical education in schools is increasingly being explored as a way to prevent childhood overweight and to promote healthy eating and physical activity habits behaviors. Classroom teachers are often responsible for providing this education. The current study examined the roles and perspectives of elementary school teachers regarding student nutrition, nutrition education, and physical education. Data is from

Michael Prelip; Jennifer T. Erausquin; Wendelin Slusser; Stephanie Vecchiarelli

2006-01-01

389

Obstacles to Nutrition Labeling in Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling.Design Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling.Subjects\\/setting Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants &. Institutions magazine's list of

BARBARA A. ALMANZA; DOUGLAS NELSON; STELLA CHAI

1997-01-01

390

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

391

Nutritional Considerations After Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy for Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  This article reviews various methods of assessing and managing post-gastrectomy or esophagectomy patients from a nutritional\\u000a standpoint, by examining recent research focusing on assessment models, components of enteral feeding, timing of feeding,\\u000a safety of enteral nutrition (EN) vs total parenteral nutrition (TPN), appetite stimulants, alternative treatments, and long-term\\u000a care. Pre-, peri-, and post-operative nutrition represent a major prognostic indicator

Amelia Baker; Leigh-Anne Wooten; Michele Malloy

2011-01-01

392

Nutrition and Schools Knowledge Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examined 117 research articles using a policy framework generated in previous research. Findings include: students are experiencing both food insecurity and an "epidemic of obesity"; policymakers remain focused on achievement; provinces address nutrition in isolation; poverty is a significant contributor; restriction of food is not an…

Laitsch, Daniel A.

2009-01-01

393

Cancer: impact of nutrition intervention outcome—nutrition issues for patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We examined nutritional issues, assessment, and intervention strategies for patients with cancer.METHODS: Reviews of practice guidelines and published reports were used to identify nutritional issues and strategies that can benefit patients with cancer.RESULTS: Assessment tools such as the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment are useful in terms of identifying patients with nutrition issues and guiding intervention. However, quality of life

Sandra Capra; Maree Ferguson; Kristen Ried

2001-01-01

394

Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy

1992-01-01

395

Use of fake identification to purchase alcohol amongst 15-16 year olds: a cross-sectional survey examining alcohol access, consumption and harm  

PubMed Central

Background Despite legislation and enforcement activities to prevent underage access to alcohol, underage individuals continue to be able to access alcohol and to do so at levels which put them at significant risk of alcohol-related harm. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) across North West England was used to examine alcohol consumption, methods of access and related harms experienced (such as regretted sex). Associations between these were analysed using chi square and logistic regression techniques. Results Over a quarter (28.3%) of 15-16 year old participants who drank reported having bought their own alcohol. One seventh (14.9%) of these owned at least one form of fake identification for which by far the most common purchase method was online. Logistic regression analyses showed that those who owned fake identification were significantly more likely to be male (AOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.7-2.5; P < 0.001) and to receive a higher personal weekly income (comparing those who received > £30 with those who received ? £10: AOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.9-4.9; P < 0.001). After taking into account differences in demographic characteristics and personal weekly income, ownership of fake identification was significantly associated with binge drinking (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.8-4.3; P < 0.001), frequent drinking (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.5-3.7; P < 0.001) and public drinking (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.5-4.1; P < 0.001) compared with those who did not own fake identification. Further, those who reported owning fake identification were significantly more likely to report experiencing a variety of alcohol-related harms such as regretted sex after drinking (chi square, all P < 0.001). Conclusions Young people (aged 15-16 years) who have access to fake identification are at a particularly high risk of reporting hazardous alcohol consumption patterns and related harm. Owning fake identification should be considered a risk factor for involvement in risky drinking behaviours. Information on these hazards should be made available to schools and professionals in health, social and judicial services, along with advice on how to best to work with those involved. PMID:20569480

2010-01-01

396

Level of Nutrition Knowledge and Its Association with Weight Loss Behaviors Among Low-Income Reproductive-Age Women.  

PubMed

To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

2014-11-14

397

Effects of organizational attributes on adoption of technology for supply chain management in large school nutrition programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

School operators are looking for ways to improve efficiency by reducing costs. One approach is to examine costs along the supply chain using technology to reduce identified costs. The purpose of this study was to identify key attributes that affect a school nutrition program's willingness to adopt technology for supply chain management (SCM).\\u000aA survey design was used to gather

Julie Ann Boettger

2009-01-01

398

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

399

The Chandra Lockman Area North Survey: Examining the LFs and X-ray and Optical Properties of Obscured versus Unobscured AGNs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is one in a series focusing on results from three of the most spectroscopically complete Chandra hard X-ray surveys; the Chandra Deep Field North, the Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS), and the Chandra Lockman Area North Survey (CLANS; also known as the Chandra/SWIRE survey). Above 1e-14 ergs/cm2/s (0.5-2 keV), 80-90% of the sources in these fields have redshifts; below, 60% have redshifts. In this poster we present the X-ray catalog for the wide-area, moderately deep CLANS survey. The nine ACIS-I fields cover a solid angle of 0.65 square degrees and reach fluxes of 1e-16 ergs/cm2/s (0.5-2 keV) and 2e-15 ergs/cm2/s (2-8 keV). We find a total of 761 X-ray point sources. This survey, along with CLASXS, bridges the gap between the ultradeep pencil-beam surveys, such as the Chandra Deep Fields, and shallower, large-area surveys, allowing a better probe of the X-ray sources that contribute most of the 2-10 keV cosmic X-ray background. Furthermore, we present the optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the CLANS X-ray sources. We also include updated photometric and spectroscopic data for CLASXS and the CDFN. Because these fields are so highly spectroscopically complete, we are able to compare and contrast the X-ray and optical spectral properties of the obscured versus unobscured AGN in our sample. While the majority of the sources show good agreement between their X-ray and optical classification, some sources that appear unobscured under X-ray classification are optically narrow; and vice-versa. This has important ramifications on the creation of luminosity functions. With this data set, we are able to compare hard X-ray luminosity functions for the X-ray obscured and unobscured sources and the optically spectroscopically identified broad-line and narrow-line AGN. A National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship has provided the funding for this project.

Trouille, Laura; Barger, A.; Cowie, L.; Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R.

2007-12-01

400

The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior.

401

Family Quality of Life among Families with a Member Who Has an Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Examination of Key Domains and Dimensions of the Revised FQOL Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQOLS-2006) was developed as the result of increased interest in family quality of life (FQOL) among families with a member who has an intellectual disability (ID). The instrument includes nine life domains and six dimensions reflecting the main areas and characteristics of FQOL. The aim of the…

Werner, S.; Edwards, M.; Baum, N.; Brown, I.; Brown, R. I.; Isaacs, B. J.

2009-01-01

402

Radiation Exposure of the Patient during X-Ray Examination with the ProScan Chest X-Ray Survey Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

XRay radiation dose characteristics were measured in the chamber of the ProScan?2000 chest Xray survey unit, in transparent plastic, and in a Torrance model Pelican Products (USA) human body phantom made of tissueequivalent rubber. Measuring conditions were sim? ulated using the Monte Carlo GEANT program. Results of measurements were compared with model data. A method for assessment of the dose

A. N. Gurzhiev; S. N. Gurzhiev; V. M. Korablev; A. V. Kostritskii; A. G. Alekseev; V. A. Pikalov

2008-01-01

403

Breakfast Bonanza: Promoting National Nutrition Month Through Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eating breakfast improves school performance and dietary intake parameters, surveys indicate that up to 40% of children skip breakfast regularly. Encouraging breakfast, and the selection of healthful choices, is an important strategy for improving the nutritional quality of American diets (for both children and adults) and for enhancing school performance. The Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program developed a

D. Hayes; T. Egan; B. Mason; K. Bark

1998-01-01

404

Favorable Impact of Nutrition Education on California WIC Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the impact of coordinated statewide nutrition education on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) family behavior regarding fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. Design: Survey of different cross-sectional samples of WIC families before and after education. Setting:…

Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Whaley, Shannon E.; Spector, Phil; Gomez, Judy; Crawford, Patricia B.

2010-01-01

405

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ?5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (?0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (?250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (?1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. Conclusions These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health. PMID:24736206

2014-01-01

406

Parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional insufficiency, leading to early growth deficits has long-lasting effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early enteral feeding is commonly limited by immaturity of gastrointestinal motor function in preterm neonates. To ensure that a stressed premature infant receives an adequate but not excessive amount of glucose, the amount of carbohydrate delivered in the form of dextrose is commonly initiated at the endogenous hepatic glucose production and utilization rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg/min; and 8 to 10 mg/kg/min in ELBW infants. The early provision of protein is critical to attain positive nitrogen balance and accretion as premature babies lose approximately 1% of their protein stores daily. Aminoacid can be used at concentrations of 3-3.5 g/kg/day and lipid at 3.5-4 g/kg/day as long as the fat intake remains less than 60% of nonprotein calories. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus need to be provided in PN solution as per their daily needs. Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major complication of PN. All efforts should be made to avoid it. PMID:18536894

Chawla, Deepak; Thukral, Anu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

2008-04-01

407

Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040

2013-01-01

408

Status of Nutrition Labeling, Health Claims, and Nutrient Content Claims for Processed Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Drug Administration (PDA) conducts studies of food labels as part of its ongoing monitoring of the nutritional status of the US population. In 1994 PDA nutrition labeling rules were implemented and in 1997 the Food Label and Package Survey characterized various aspects of the labeling of processed, packaged foods, including nutrition labeling, health claims, and nutrient content

SUSAN J BRECHER; MARY M BENDER; VIRGINIA L WILKENING; NANCIE M McCABE; ELLEN M ANDERSON

2000-01-01

409

Re-examining High Abundance Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mass-Metallicity Outliers: High N\\/O, Evolved Wolf-Rayet Galaxies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of four dwarf galaxies representative of a larger sample observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and identified by Peeples et al. as low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity relation. Peeples showed that these four objects (with metallicity estimates of 8.5 <= 12 + log(O\\/H) <= 8.8) have oxygen abundance offsets of

Danielle A. Berg; Evan D. Skillman; Andrew R. Marble

2011-01-01

410

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

411

The Interrelationship of Nutritional Risk Factors, Indicators of Nutritional Risk, and Severity of Disability Among Home-Delivered Meal Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examines the direct and indirect rela- tionships between individual components of nutritional risk and increased severity of disability among a large and diverse sample of homebound older adults. Design and Methods: Using routinely collected nutrition and function data, structural equation modeling of recursive and non- recursive models examined the interrelationships of nutri- tional risk factors, indicators of

Joseph R. Sharkey

412

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychological Services Social Services Outreach Sponsorship Provider List Support Groups Other organizations: Painted Turtle ICF Make-A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, due to hemolytic ...

413

Nutrition education by a registered dietitian improves dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of a NCAA female volleyball team.  

PubMed

Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

Valliant, Melinda W; Emplaincourt, Heather Pittman; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

2012-06-01

414

Examining the prevalence, role and impact of evidence regarding Antisocial Personality, sociopathy and psychopathy in capital cases: a survey of defense team members.  

PubMed

Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence-although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases. PMID:22374708

Edens, John F; Cox, Jennifer

2012-01-01

415

Nutrition And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result

Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley

416

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

417

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

418

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

419

Nutritional Assessment in Pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient’s response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should

Maria R. MASCARENHAS; Babette Zemel; Virginia A. Stallings

1998-01-01

420

A National Survey to Explore the Willingness of Japanese Standardized Patients to Participate in Teaching Physical Examination Skills to Undergraduate Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Standardized patients (SPs) are an increasingly prevalent resource in medical education and evaluation. There is a variety of clinical skills training programs including courses designed to teach and assess communication skills as well as physical examination (PE) skills. In Japan, SPs have contributed enormously to help medical students improve their communication skills. However, there are few SPs who participate

Keiko Abe; Tomio Suzuki; Kazuhiki Fujisaki; Nobutaro Ban

2009-01-01