These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

Cancer.gov

We provide funds to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to support modules in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that are critical to our risk factor monitoring mission.

2

THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES III)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94, was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 33,994 persons 2 months and over. The survey was designed to obtain nationally representative information on the health and nutritio...

3

The Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines Public Health Service preliminary findings in a study designed to establish health and nutrition baseline data for future comparison and for government food policies. Data collected include caloric and nutrient intake from recollection, nutrient content of blood and urine, examination for incipient malnutrition, and bone and body…

Sonnier, Isadore I.

1976-01-01

4

NHANES III Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (on Magnetic Tape).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994, contains data for 33,994 persons ages 2 months and older who participated in the survey. The data and corresponding documentation for the survey interview and examination ...

1997-01-01

5

HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

6

Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey  

PubMed Central

Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI???85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI???95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

2012-01-01

7

Total Homocysteine and Estrogen Status Indicators in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that estrogen status modulates total homocysteine concentration, a risk factor for vascular occlusion, was examined in a representative sample of the US population, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (phase 2), 1991-1994. The geometric mean serum total homocysteine concentration was compared among population subgroups differing on inferred estrogen status, after adjusting for potential confounding by age,

Martha Savaria Morris; Paul F. Jacques; Jacob Selhub; Irwin H. Rosenberg

8

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

9

Is Obesity Associated with Major Depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to examine the relation between obesity and depression. Past-month depression was defined using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, and was measured with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)2) of 30 or

Chiadi U. Onyike; Rosa M. Crum; Hochang B. Lee; Constantine G. Lyketsos; William W. Eaton

10

Creatinine levels among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatinine levels among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.BackgroundAlthough Latinos constitute the largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States, little is known about the prevalence of renal disease among different Latino subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) to compare serum creatinine measurements

Rudolph A. Rodriguez; German T. Hernandez; Ann M. O'Hare; David V. Glidden

2004-01-01

11

National health and nutrition examination survey: analytic guidelines, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

Background-Analytic guide lines were first created in 1996 to assist data users in analyzing data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),conducted from 1988 to 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES became a continuous annual survey in 1999, with data released to the public in 2-year intervals. In 2002, 2004, and 2006, guidelines were created and posted on the NHANES website to assist analysts in understanding the key issues related to analyzing data from 1999 onward. This report builds on these previous guidelines and provides the first comprehensive summary of analytic guidelines for the 1999-2010 NHANES data. Objectives-This report provides general guidelines for researchers in analyzing 1999-2010 NHANES publicly released data. Information is presented on key issues related to NHANES data, including sample design, demographic variables, and combining survey cycles. Guidance is also provided on data analysis, including the use of appropriate survey weights, calculating variance estimations, determining the reliability of estimates, age adjustment, and computing population counts. PMID:25090154

Johnson, Clifford L; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Dohrmann, Sylvia M; Curtin, Lester R

2013-09-01

12

Prevalence of Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction and Its Risk Factors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population. Methods The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n?=?10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]?=?1.01–2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR?=?2.18, CI?=?1.33–3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR?=?3.10, CI?=?1.25–7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR?=?1.78, CI?=?1.26–2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR?=?14.55, CI?=?10.06–21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required. PMID:23671628

Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

2013-01-01

13

Healthy Diets, Healthy Hearing: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Objective A significant relationship between dietary nutrient intake and susceptibility to acquired hearing loss is emerging. Variability in the outcomes across studies is likely related to differences in the specific metrics used to quantify nutrient intake and hearing status. Most studies have used single nutrient analysis. Although this analysis is valuable, interactions between nutrients are increasingly recognized and could modify modeling of single nutrient effects. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between diet and hearing using a metric of overall dietary quality. Design This cross-sectional analysis was based on Healthy Eating Index data and audiological thresholds. Study sample Data for adults between the ages of 20 to 69 years of age were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Results Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, diabetes, and noise exposure, we found a significant negative relationship (Wald F = 6.54, df = 4, 29; p ? 0.05) between dietary quality and thresholds at higher frequencies, where higher dietary quality was associated with lower hearing thresholds. There was no statistically significant relationship between dietary quality and threshold sensitivity at lower frequencies. Conclusions The current findings support an association between healthier eating and lower high frequency thresholds in adults. PMID:23594420

Spankovich, C.; Le Prell, C.G.

2014-01-01

14

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

15

Extermination strategies reported in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004: prevalence and predictors.  

PubMed

It is likely that household extermination is a major source of pesticide exposure for urban residents. Little is known about the predictors of residential pest control strategies in urban areas, and greater knowledge of these may help identify who is at risk for higher pesticide exposure. Study data is from the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a cross-sectional, population-based study using a three-stage sampling scheme. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of pesticide use overall, and of application strategy: (1) consumer-applied pesticides only, (2) use of a professional exterminator only, or (3) use of both. Consumer-applied extermination was more prevalent than professional or both professional and consumer (39.9% versus 27.8% and 15.9%, respectively, and non-exclusively). In multivariate models among those who used any extermination, consumer application was associated with age 60 years+, being black or Asian, and being widowed, divorced, or single. Lower income households were more likely to use both strategies, and less likely to use professional extermination only. Urban residents may benefit from targeted education on how and when to self-apply pesticides, and on best-practice pest control to avoid unnecessary pesticide exposure. Higher prevalence of consumer-applied and conjoint consumer and professionally applied extermination in low-income households may reflect both economic determinants of first recourse and higher neighborhood infestation levels. PMID:23093104

Ralph, Nancy L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

2013-07-01

16

Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

2005-04-01

17

Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. Objective To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005–2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES). The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. Results Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67). The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82). Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32) compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. Conclusions Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma. PMID:25393836

Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Myung Hun; Friedman, David; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-01-01

18

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

19

Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ? 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ? 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Paivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

2014-01-01

20

Shiftwork and Prostate-Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Results from prior studies have been mixed but generally support an association between circadian disruption and prostate cancer. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between shiftwork and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study. Methods We combined three NHANES surveys (2005–2010) to obtain current work schedule among employed men aged 40 to 65 years with no prior history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer). Men who reported working regular night shifts or rotating shifts were considered shiftworkers. We obtained the total and percentage free PSA test results for these men and dichotomized total PSA into less than 4.0ng/mL or 4.0ng/mL or greater and total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater combined with percentage free PSA less than or equal to 25%. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we compared PSA level among current shiftworkers and nonshiftworkers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found a statistically significant, age-adjusted association between current shiftwork and elevated PSA at the 4.0ng/mL or greater level (odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 5.70; P = .03). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio was 2.62 (95% CI = 1.16 to 5.95; P = .02). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for those with total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater and free PSA less than or equal to 25% was 3.13 (95% CI = 1.38 to 7.09; P = .01). Conclusions We observed a strong positive association with shiftwork and elevated PSA level. Our data support the notion that sleep or circadian disruption is associated with elevated PSA, indicating that shiftworking men likely have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. PMID:23943864

2013-01-01

21

76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES anticipates that the DNA Bank will be open for proposals approximately...

2011-11-23

22

Evidence-Based Prediction of Statin Use with Lipid-Panel Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study compared actual use of individual statin drugs to expected use based on their efficacy and safety profiles. Methods: Five panels covering the years 1999 to 2008 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided interview, demographic, and laboratory data for 8769 (365,503,838 weighted) people aged 20 years or older who were not taking a statin medication. An

Elizabeth Gorevski; Boyang Bian; Christina M. L. Kelton; Jill E. Martin Boone; Jeff J. Guo

23

Somatic Symptoms, but Not Nonsomatic Symptoms, of Depression are Associated with Insulin Resistance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010  

E-print Network

: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 Elizabeth Vrany1 , Jessica Berntson1, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, kidney disease, or pregnancy. Depressive symptoms were measured using

Zhou, Yaoqi

24

Statin drugs, serum cholesterol, and prostate-specific antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We evaluated the associations of statins and serum cholesterol with PSA to understand whether the inverse associations of\\u000a statins and low cholesterol with aggressive prostate cancer are explained by detection bias.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed data from 2,574 men aged ?40 years without prostate cancer in The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey\\u000a 2001–2004. We estimated multivariable-adjusted geometric mean PSA by statin use

Alison M. Mondul; Elizabeth Selvin; Angelo M. De Marzo; Stephen J. Freedland; Elizabeth A. Platz

2010-01-01

25

Etiopathogenic differences in coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999 to 2004 were pooled for this study. Compared with coronary artery disease (CAD), a greater proportion of individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) were female, black, and active smokers. Patients with PAD had significantly higher serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein than those with CAD alone. The risk of CAD increased with serum cotinine levels >0.02 ng/mL. However, the risk of PAD increased only with serum cotinine levels >138 ng/mL. Despite this association, there was no significant association of secondhand smoke exposure with CAD or PAD. In conclusion, patients with CAD and PAD differed with respect to several demographic and biochemical factors. The relationship between PAD and cotinine demonstrated a threshold phenomenon (serum cotinine levels >138 ng/mL). PMID:24202662

Agarwal, Shikhar; Naderi, Sahar

2014-11-01

26

Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts. PMID:25121351

Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

2014-01-01

27

Prevalence of Eye Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey and examinations of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea (n = 14,606), conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Field survey teams included an ophthalmologist, nurses, and interviewers, traveled with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and ophthalmologic examinations. Results The prevalence of visual impairment, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in participants over 5 years of age was 0.4 ± 0.1%, 53.7 ± 0.6%, 10.7 ± 0.4%, and 58.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence of strabismus and blepharoptosis in participants over 3 years of age was 1.5 ± 0.1% and 11.0 ± 0.8%, respectively. In participants over 40 years of age, the prevalence of cataract, pterygium, early and late age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma was 40.2 ± 1.3%, 8.9 ± 0.5%, 5.1 ± 0.3%, 0.5 ± 0.1%, 13.4 ± 1.5%, and 2.1 ± 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study conducted in South Korea for assessment of the prevalence of eye diseases by both the Korean Ophthalmologic Society and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study will provide preliminary information for use in further investigation, prevention, and management of eye diseases in Korea. PMID:22131780

Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Mun, Gui-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Park, Hye-Jin; Pyo, Eun-Young; Yang, Ji-Eun; Kim, Young-Taek

2011-01-01

28

Prevalence of HIV in the US household population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988 to 2002.  

PubMed

To examine trends in HIV prevalence in the US household population, serum or urine samples from 2 National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys (NHANES) (1988-1994 and 1999-2002), were tested for HIV antibody. In the 1999 to 2002 survey, data on risk behaviors, CD4 T lymphocytes, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) were also available. In the 1988 to 1994 survey, there were 59 positive individuals of 11,203 tested. In NHANES 1999 to 2002, there were 32 positive individuals of 5926 tested. The prevalence of HIV infection among those aged 18 to 39 years in NHANES 1988 to 1994 was 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.68) as compared with 0.37% (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.80) in 1999 to 2002. Prevalence did not change significantly between surveys in any race and/or ethnic or gender group among 18- to 39-year-old participants. HIV prevalence was 3.58% (95% CI: 1.88 to 6.71) among non-Hispanic blacks in the 40- to 49-year-old age group in 1999 to 2002, but the age range available in NHANES 1988 to 1994 was 18 to 59 years and does not allow direct comparison of prevalence. Cocaine use and the presence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibody were the only significant risk factors for HIV infection for non-Hispanic blacks. Fifty-eight percent of infected individuals not reporting ART had CD4 T-lymphocyte counts < 200 cells/mm3 compared with 18.2% on therapy and 12.5% of participants newly informed of their HIV status. PMID:16652040

McQuillan, Geraldine M; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Kottiri, Benny J; Kamimoto, Laurie A; Lam, Lee; Cowart, M Faye; Hubbard, Marjorie; Spira, Thomas J

2006-04-15

29

INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

30

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

31

Iron Status and Reproduction in US Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18–49 were taken from the 1999–2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health. PMID:25375360

Miller, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

32

Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.10-0.57) were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups. PMID:22974404

2012-01-01

33

Arthritis and mortality in the epidemiological follow-up to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I.  

PubMed Central

Subsets were analyzed of respondents from the Epidemiological Follow-up to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) who (1) answered a general arthritis question reflecting whether a doctor told the respondent that she or he had arthritis, (2) answered seven pain, swelling, and stiffness questions, and (3) had radiographs of knees and hips assessed for osteoarthritis at the time of the initial survey during the early 1970s. Data for the follow-up were collected between 1982 and 1984 and included 1,491 fatalities in the largest subsample analyzed here. The dependent variable was months of survival after the initial interview. No distinction was drawn between rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis. The NHANES I contained only limited information on rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis. Additional covariates included age, age squared, education, race, marital status, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass. After adjusting for age, no statistically significant associations emerged between answers to the general arthritis questions or any of the seven pain questions on the one hand, and mortality on the other. Similar statistically insignificant results were found when the association between radiographic diagnoses of osteoarthritis in the hips and months of survival was considered after adjusting for age. These statistically insignificant results persisted in repeated testing, which alternately included and excluded a number of covariates, and in separate subsamples of women, men, and persons older and younger than age 50. Some evidence was found, however, for a negative, statistically significant association between radiographic knee diagnoses of osteoarthritis and survival, especially among women, even after adjusting for covariates. These mixed results (1) do not discredit findings elsewhere suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis is associated with early death, since it is likely that the great majority of respondents answering in the affirmative to the general arthritis or seven pain questions in the NHANES I had osteoarthritis, and (2) suggest that future surveys should make greater attempts to distinguish between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. PMID:8069278

Leigh, J. P.; Fries, J. F.

1994-01-01

34

Serum Vitamin A and Subsequent Developmentof Prostate Cancer in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologie Follow-up Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between serum vitamin A measurements made at baseline examination (1971-1975) and subsequent development of prostate cancer was examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologie Follow-up Study (1981-1984). The analytic cohort con sisted of 2440 men 50 years of age or older who were followed for a median of 10 years. A total of 84

Marsha E. Reichman; Richard B. Hayes; Regina G. Ziegler; Arthur Schatzkin; Philip R. Taylor; Lisa L. Kahle; Joseph F. Fraumeni

35

The factor structure of the CES-D in the Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey: The influences of ethnicity, gender and language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Hispanic HANES). The Hispanic HANES provides a unique opportunity to examine the patterning of depressive symptoms among the three major Hispanic groups in the U.S. and to compare the factor structures that emerge from the analysis

Peter J. Guarnaccia; Ronald Angel; Jacqueline Lowe Worobey

1989-01-01

36

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34?ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

37

Disability Trends Among Older Americans: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated trends in disability among older Americans from 1988 through 2004 to test the hypothesis that more recent cohorts show increased burdens of disability. Methods. We used data from 2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988–1994 and 1999–2004) to assess time trends in basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities, mobility, and functional limitations for adults aged 60 years and older. We assessed whether changes could be explained by sociodemographic, body weight, or behavioral factors. Results. With the exception of functional limitations, significant increases in each type of disability were seen over time among respondents aged 60 to 69 years, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, health status, relative weight, and health behaviors. Significantly greater increases occurred among non-Whites and persons who were obese or overweight (2 of the fastest-growing subgroups within this population). We detected no significant trends among respondents aged 70 to 79 years; in the oldest group (aged ? 80 years), time trends suggested lower prevalence of functional limitations among more recent cohorts. Conclusions. Our results have significant and sobering implications: older Americans face increased disability, and society faces increased costs to meet the health care needs of these disabled Americans. PMID:19910350

Merkin, Sharon S.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.

2010-01-01

38

Cross-sectional association between polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cognitive limitation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Our limited understanding of how polyflouoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) may impact human health suggests the potential for a protective impact on brain health. This study was designed to explore the association between PFCs and cognitive ability in older adults. Methods We assessed the association between four PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and self-reported limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion using data from participants aged 60–85 from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We also considered whether diabetic status or diabetic medication use modifies this association in light of in vitro evidence that PFCs may act on the same receptors as some diabetic medications. Results In multivariable adjusted models, point estimates suggest a protective association between PFCs and self-reported cognitive limitation (OR (95% CI) for a doubling in PFOS, 0.90 (0.78, 1.03); PFOA, 0.92 (0.78, 1.09); PFNA, 0.91 (0.79, 1.04); PFHxS, 0.93 (0.82, 1.06)). The protective association was concentrated in diabetics, with strong, significant protective associations in non-medicated diabetics. Conclusions This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be a protective association between exposure to PFCs and cognition in older adults, particularly diabetics. PMID:23095808

Power, Melinda C.; Webster, Thomas F.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2013-01-01

39

Illicit Drug Use and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: An Analysis of 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the association between illicit drug use and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (CDRF) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods The 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data from 20- to 45-year-old adults (N=8,738) was utilized to analyze the relationship between illicit drug use (ever used, repeated use, and current use) and CDRF (hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, elevated C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and cigarette use) via chi square and logistic regression analyses. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty to income ratio (PIR), and alcohol use were included as confounders in the models. Results Individuals who reported drug use at least once in lifetime (DU) were more likely to have CDRF than non-DU (NDU) (OR=1.3, p=0.004). Females with DU, illicit drug use at least once in lifetime (IDU), and with repeated illicit drug use (RDU) were about 1.5 times more likely than their non-DU counterparts to have CDRF (p<0.0001, p=0.02, p=0.02, respectively). Conclusion Results from this study suggest that healthcare professionals should be aware that patients with a history of DU may be at heightened risk for cardiometabolic disease. Females in particular have a heightened cluster of CDRF across drug-use categories. PMID:24165430

Vidot, Denise C.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Prado, Guillermo; Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Messiah, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

40

Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005-2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003-2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005-2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home--but not bottled water or canned tuna--was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

Lakind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

2011-01-01

41

Menopause and Blood Mercury Levels: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the association between menopause and blood mercury concentrations in South Korean women. Women aged ?20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were included in this study. Primary and secondary analyses included women aged ?20 years (n?=?1,642) and 45-55 years (i.e., perimenopausal; n?=?325), respectively. For all analyses, the mercury levels were log-transformed. The linear regression model for mercury levels was adjusted for age, body mass index, household income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, smoking history, alcohol intake, physical activity, number of pregnancies, serum ferritin levels, and fish consumption. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed blood mercury levels were significantly lower in women who were menopausal [?-coefficient -0.1488; 95 % confidence interval -0.2586, -0.0389; P?=?0.01) than in those who were premenopausal. A similar relationship was identified in perimenopausal women (?-coefficient -0.1753; 95 % confidence interval -0.3357, -0.015; P?=?0.03). The blood mercury concentration was lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a significant positive correlation between blood mercury concentrations and both the frequency of alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels. PMID:25382663

Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Tai June; Lee, Myung-Hwa; Park, Won I

2014-12-01

42

Activity Change in Response to Bad Air Quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Air pollution contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular health. Susceptible individuals may be advised to mitigate effects of air pollution through actions such as reducing outdoor physical activity on days with high pollution. Our analysis identifies the extent to which susceptible individuals changed activities due to bad air quality. This cross-sectional study included 10,898 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010. Participants reported if they did something differently when air quality was bad. Susceptible categories included respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and older age (?65 years). Analyses accounted for complex survey design; logistic regression models controlled for gender, race, education, smoking, and body mass index. 1305 individuals reported doing something differently (12.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.9, 13.1). This percentage was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6, 16.8), 25.1% (95% CI: 21.7, 28.6), and 15.5% (95% CI: 12.2, 18.9) among older adults, those with a respiratory condition, and those with a cardiovascular condition, respectively. In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35); respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69); respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96); or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32). Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health. PMID:23226304

Wells, Ellen M.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Jackson, Leila W.

2012-01-01

43

Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective Lipid-associated genetic variants discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not account for the majority of heritability estimated for these traits. Epidemiological studies have long indicated that certain environmental factors are capable of shaping lipid distributions. However, environmental modifiers of known genotype-phenotype associations are just recently emerging in the literature. Research Methods & Procedures We genotyped GWAS-identified variants in samples collected for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of Americans representing non-Hispanic whites (n=2,435), non-Hispanic blacks (n=1,407), and Mexican Americans (n=1,734). Along with lipid levels, NHANES contains an abundance of environmental variables, including serum vitamin A and E levels, both of which are antioxidants that may play a role in lipid metabolism. Gene-environment interactions were modeled between either vitamin A or ln(vitamin E) and 23 GWAS-identified lipid-associated variants for HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG) levels. Results After adjusting for age, sex, and marginal effects, three SNPxvitamin A and six SNPxvitamin E interactions were identified at a significance threshold of p<2.2×10?3. The most significant interaction was APOB rs693xvitamin E (p=8.9×10?7) for LDL-C levels among Mexican Americans; this same interaction was significant in non-Hispanic whites (p=2.67×10?4) but not non-Hispanic Blacks (p=0.11). The nine significant interaction models individually explained 0.35–1.28% of the variation in one of the lipid traits. Conclusions Our results suggest that the vitamins A and E impact GWAS-identified associations for lipid traits; however, these significant interactions account for only a fraction of the overall variability observed for HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels in the general population. PMID:22688886

Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Jin, Hailing; Gillani, Nila; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli; Crawford, Dana C.

2012-01-01

44

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight. PMID:24340161

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

45

Correlation between metabolic syndrome and knee osteoarthritis: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to investigate the correlations of knee osteoarthritis (OA) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS parameters in Korean subjects. Methods This study included data from 270 subjects with knee OA and 1964 control subjects with a mean age of 54.56 (SD 11.53) years taken from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine possible associations for knee OA with MetS and MetS parameters. Results MetS was shown to be associated with an increased risk of knee OA in female subjects in unadjusted analysis (OR 1.798, 95% CI 1.392, 2.322), but this significance disappeared when adjusted for confounding factors (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.805, 1.550). No significant association between MetS and knee OA was found in male subjects. Among parameters of MetS, only high waist circumference (WC) in female subjects was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of knee OA, even after adjusting for confounding factors, while no other significant associations were found in both male and female subjects. Conclusion We found that WC was associated with knee OA in female subjects, but neither MetS nor any parameters thereof were shown to be associated with knee OA in the Korean subjects of this study. Although we found no relationship between a pre-inflammatory state of MetS and knee OA, we believe further investigation of this relationship in various aspects is warranted, as MetS may also be a risk factor for complications in knee OA related procedures. PMID:23800128

2013-01-01

46

Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

2006-01-01

47

Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

2014-01-01

48

Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the socio-demographic and health-related risk factors associated with cataract subtypes in Korea. Methods A total of 11,591 participants (aged ?40 years) were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2010. The Korean Ophthalmologic Society conducted detailed ophthalmologic examinations on these participants based on the Lens Opacity Classification System III. Risk factors for developing any type of cataract, and its subtypes (nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular and mixed), were identified from univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of cataracts was 40.1% (95% CI, 37.8???42.3%) in participants over 40 years old. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) were independent risk factors for development of any cataract. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure cortical cataracts. Older age, lower education, metabolic syndrome, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure nuclear cataracts. Older age and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure posterior subcapsular cataracts. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, and DM were independent risk factors for development of mixed cataracts. Conclusion Although socioeconomic disparities are related to cataract development, this study identified several “modifiable” risk factors that may help to lower the incidence of cataracts and associated vision loss. Improved control of blood pressure, blood, glucose, and cholesterol may help to reduce the incidence of cataracts in the general Korean population. PMID:24410920

2014-01-01

49

Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Methods Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American). Results Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358), PON1 (rs854560), ITGB3 (rs5918), and NOS3 (rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. Conclusions We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing body of literature identifying key determinants of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and could provide insight into the biological mechanisms underlying serum lipid and cholesterol concentrations. PMID:20406466

2010-01-01

50

Other than daytime working is associated with lower bone mineral density: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009.  

PubMed

Occupation affects bone mineral density (BMD); however, only few studies have been published. This study evaluated the effect of working time during a day on BMD. The cross-sectional study involved 18- to 50-year-old people who reported their working time and were measured for BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009. The time period of work was divided into "daytime" and "other than daytime." The other-than-daytime group included evening time, nighttime, regular shift time, and irregular shift time. Among 3,005 subjects, 2,378 were daytime workers and 627 were other-than-daytime workers. The mean BMD of the total femur and lumbar spine were significantly lower in other-than-daytime workers compared to daytime workers (femur 0.948 vs. 0.966 g/cm˛, respectively, p = 0.001; lumbar spine 0.976 vs. 0.988 g/cm˛, respectively, p = 0.023). The other-than-daytime group had lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than the daytime group (16.3 vs. 17.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The proportion of osteopenia (T score < -1.0) was higher in the other-than-daytime than the daytime group (34.3 vs. 29.1 %, p = 0.014). After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, daily intake of calcium, and vitamin D level, the relative risks of osteopenia of regular-shift and irregular-shift workers were significantly higher (1.65, 95 % CI 1.05-2.60; 1.78, 95 % CI 1.09-2.89) than those of daytime workers. These data suggest that other-than-daytime working, especially regular and irregular shift working, is associated with decreased BMD and increased risk for osteopenia in Korean adults. PMID:23963634

Kim, Bu Kyung; Choi, Yong Jun; Chung, Yoon-Sok

2013-12-01

51

Association between Blood Lead and Walking Speed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002)  

PubMed Central

Background: Walking speed is a simple and reliable measure of motor function that is negatively associated with adverse health events in older people, including falls, disability, hospital admissions, and mortality. Lead has adverse affects on human health, particularly on the vascular and neurological systems. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that lead is associated with slower walking speed. Methods: We used U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional data from 1999–2002. The time to walk 20 ft (walking speed) was measured among 1,795 men and 1,798 women ? 50 years of age. The association between walking speed and quintiles of blood lead concentration was estimated separately in men and women using linear regression models adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, alcohol use, smoking status, height, and waist circumference. Results: Mean blood lead concentrations and walking speeds were 2.17 ?g/dL and 3.31 ft/sec in women, and 3.18 ?g/dL and 3.47 ft/sec in men, respectively. Among women, walking speed decreased with increasing quintiles of blood lead, resulting in an estimated mean value that was 0.11 ft/sec slower (95% CI: –0.19, –0.04; p-trend = 0.005) for women with blood lead concentrations in the highest versus lowest quintile. In contrast, lead was not associated with walking speed in men. Conclusion: Blood lead concentration was associated with decreased walking speed in women, but not in men. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that lead exposure, even at low levels, is detrimental to public health. PMID:23603014

Elbaz, Alexis; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2013-01-01

52

HEALTH BEHAVIORS AND RACIAL DISPARITY IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

PubMed Central

Minorities have a higher prevalence of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which contributes to racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality in the US. Many modifiable health behaviors have been associated with improved blood pressure control, but it is unclear how racial/ethnic differences in these behaviors are related to the observed disparities in blood pressure control. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 21,489 US adults aged >20 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001–2006. Secondary analyses were conducted among those with a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension. Blood pressure control was defined as systolic values <140 mmHg and diastolic values <90 mmHg (or <130 mmHg and <80 mmHg among diabetics, respectively). In primary analyses, Non-Hispanic Blacks had 90% higher odds of poorly controlled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). In secondary analyses among hypertensive subjects, non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican-Americans had 40% higher odds of uncontrolled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). For both analyses, the racial/ethnic differences in blood pressure control persisted even after further adjustment for modifiable health behaviors, which included medication adherence in secondary analyses (p <0.001 for both analyses). Although population-level adoption of healthy behaviors may contribute to reduction of the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in general, these findings suggest that racial/ethnic differences in some health behaviors do not explain the disparities in hypertension prevalence and control. PMID:21300667

Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

2011-01-01

53

Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis in stroke survivors: an analysis of National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose An inverse association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and stroke was emphasized in recent studies. Our objective was to determine the rate of Vitamin D deficiency and risk of associated osteoporosis among stroke survivors in a nationally representative population. Methods Participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2006 were included. Stroke survivors were then divided into two groups depending on serum 25(OH)D levels: <30 ng/dl as Vitamin D deficiency and ?30 ng/dl as normal. Comparisons of demographics and risk factors between two groups were performed using SAS software. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between Vitamin D deficiency and osteopororis in stroke survivors after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results There were 415 (4.0%) stroke survivors among 10,255 participants in NHANES. The mean age (±SD) of stroke survivors was 67.6 (±17.3) years and 211 (50.8%) were men. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly different in patients with stroke (20.3 versus 21.8 ng/ml, p = 0.65) although the rate of osteoporosis was significantly higher among stroke survivors (17.9% versus 6.9%, p < 0.0001). Out of 415 stroke patients, Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 71.0% of patients. The rates of osteoporosis were similar between patients with or without Vitamin D deficiency. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis are highly prevalent among stroke survivors; however, there does not appear to be a relationship between the two entities. PMID:24920985

Uluduz, Derya; Adil, Malik M.; Rahim, Basit; Gilani, Waqas I.; Rahman, Haseeb Abdul; Gilani, Sarwat I.; Qureshi, Adnan I.

2014-01-01

54

The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 1988 to 2010.  

PubMed

Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults. PMID:25185135

Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

2014-11-01

55

Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range?=?20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max?32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P?=?0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P?=?0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P?=?1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss?=?0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile?=?0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moise

2014-01-01

56

Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).  

PubMed

Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. PMID:22171961

Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

2013-07-01

57

Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination  

E-print Network

population has major impli- cations for health care needs, public policy, and research priorities. NCHS and health sciences research, which help develop sound public health policy, direct and design health#12;Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program

Serfling, Robert

58

Age-Related Association of Refractive Error with Intraocular Pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. Methods A total of 7,277 adults (?19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19–39 years), middle- (40–59 years), and old- (?60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. Results The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0±0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9±0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1±0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8±0.2 mmHg (P for trend?=?0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P<0.05). In the young- and middle-age groups, higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all P<0.05). In the old-age group, the association between IOP and refractive error was not significant (P?=?0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta?=??0.08 and ?0.12; P?=?0.002 and <0.001 for young- and middle-age group, respectively), but not in the old-age group (beta?=?0.03; P?=?0.728), after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, region of habitation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Myopic refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age. PMID:25369147

Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

2014-01-01

59

Creatinine-Based Glomerular Filtration Rates and Microalbuminuria for Detecting Metabolic Abnormalities in US Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Guidelines suggest searching for metabolic complications of chronic kidney disease when glomerular filtration rates (GFR) or urinary albumin tests are abnormal. This study aimed to quantify diagnostic test characteristics of these measures for detecting metabolic abnormalities. Methods: Subjects were participants aged ?20 years (n = 7,778) in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Low GFR was

Robert N. Foley; Changchun Wang; Areef Ishani; Hassan N. Ibrahim; Allan J. Collins

2008-01-01

60

Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) Genetic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE) have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to

Audrey Y Chu; Rulan S Parekh; Brad C Astor; Josef Coresh; Yvette Berthier-Schaad; Michael W Smith; Alan R Shuldiner; Wen Hong L Kao

2009-01-01

61

The Association of Transient Ischemic Attack Symptoms With Memory Impairment Among Elderly Participants of the Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Stroke is a well-known risk factor for vascular dementia. However, the association of transient ischemic attacks with cognitive impairment is less well-established.Methods: Records from Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were abstracted for demographic and medical information for participants with an age !60 years who reported being free of stroke. Five self-reported symptoms (weakness, numbness, loss

Paul Y. Takahashi; Liselotte N. Dyrbye; Kris G. Thomas; Onelis Quirindongo Cedeno; Frederick North; Robert J. Stroebel; Ramona S. DeJesus; Paul V. Targonski

2009-01-01

62

KDOQI Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Diabetes Care Guidelines and Current Care Patterns in the United States CKD Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines aim to slow chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and reduce morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess current CKD population health and adherence to recommendations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 participants aged ?20 years (n = 14,213). Methods: We assessed hypertension and dyslipidemia management and

Jon J. Snyder; Allan J. Collins

2009-01-01

63

Estimation of curcumin intake in Korea based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Turmeric and its active component curcumin have received considerable attention due to their many recognized biological activities. Turmeric has been commonly used in food preparation and herbal remedies in South Asia, leading to a high consumption rate of curcumin in this region. However, the amount of curcumin in the Korean diet has not yet been estimated, where turmeric is not a common ingredient. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study utilized the combined data sets obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2008 to 2012 in order to estimate the curcumin intake in the Korean diet. The mean intake of curcumin was estimated from the amount of curcumin-containing foods (curry powder and ready-made curry) consumed using reported curcumin content in commercial turmeric and curry powders. RESULTS Only 0.06% of Koreans responded that they consumed foods containing curcumin in a given day, and 40% of them were younger than 20 years of age. Curcumin-containing foods were largely prepared at home (72.9%) and a significant proportion (20.4%, nearly twice that of all other foods) was consumed as school and workplace meals. The estimated mean turmeric intake was about 0.47 g/day corresponding to 2.7-14.8 mg curcumin, while the average curry powder consumption was about 16.4 g, which gave rise to curcumin intake in the range of 8.2-95.0 mg among individuals who consumed curcumin. The difference in estimated curcumin intake by using the curcumin content in curry powder and turmeric may reflect that curry powder manufactured in Korea might contain higher amounts of other ingredients such as flour, and an estimation based on the curcumin content in the turmeric might be more acceptable. CONCLUSIONS Thus, the amount of curcumin that can be obtained from the Korean diet in a day is 2.7-14.8 mg, corresponding to nearly one fourth of the daily curcumin intake in South Asia, although curcumin is rarely consumed in Korea.

2014-01-01

64

The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioeconomic status as an independent variable, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios reflecting the likelihood of injury according to socioeconomic status while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In 797 subjects who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 290 persons (36.4%) had a work-related injury. As their income, home value, and educational status increased, their injury experiences decreased. Among occupational groups, the craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers showed the highest rate (10.6%) of injury experience, and the lowest rate (5.7%) was found in the unemployed group. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the experience of injury was significantly related to several socioeconomic factors: high income (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86), high home value (OR?=?0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96), low education status (OR?=?1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and specific occupations such as craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling work (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI: 1.60-2.47), skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery work (OR?=?1.43; 95% CI: 1.02-2.01), and simple labor (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82). Conclusions The injury experience rate differed depending on the socioeconomic status. A negative correlation was found between the injury experience rate and income, low home value, and education level. Moreover, a higher rate of injury experience was found in occupation groups and physical worker groups in comparison to the unemployed group and white-collar worker groups. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for injury management in Korea. PMID:24472308

2014-01-01

65

Hepatitis B Vaccination Prevalence and its Predictors Among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccination prevalence and its predictors were estimated among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American,\\u000a and Multiracial (A-PI-NA-M) adults. Using 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, estimates of HBV vaccination\\u000a among A-PI-NA-M adults (N = 233) were compared with all other racial\\/ethnic groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate predictors\\u000a of vaccination. Among A-PI-NA-M adults 42% (95%CI

John W. AyersHee-Soon; Hee-Soon Juon; Sunmin Lee; Eunmi Park

2010-01-01

66

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:19742163

Richter, Patricia A.; Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H.

2009-01-01

67

Relationship between blood cadmium, lead, and serum thyroid measures in US adults - the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Experimental studies have shown that both cadmium (Cd) and lead have potent endocrine disrupting activity. However, studies on whether these heavy metals disrupt thyroid system in humans, especially in general populations with low levels of exposure, are sparse. The study analyzed 6,231 participants aged 20 and older with measurements from 2007-2010 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to investigate whether whole blood Cd and lead level are associated with serum thyroid hormones measures. Our study suggests that thyroid function may be disrupted by both Cd and lead exposures in the general population and the specific roles of Cd and lead exposure on thyroid axis may differ by sex. However, the mechanisms by which these heavy metals may disrupt thyroid system function in general population needs to be further investigated. PMID:23782348

Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

2014-04-01

68

The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

2013-01-01

69

Infection with Helicobacter pylori, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and systemic inflammation: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the association of variables of the metabolic syndrome and infection with Helicobacter pylori, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in large, representative samples of total populations. The null hypothesis was no association of prevalent infection with H. pylori with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), systemic inflammation, and variables associated with the metabolic syndrome in American men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: Among men aged 40-74 years, the survey measured history of CHD, glycated hemoglobin percent, and concentrations of fasting serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Prevalence of infection with H. pylori increased with age. H. pylori infection was not correlated with serum CRP, prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus, glycated hemoglobin percent, or other risk factors other than age. In diabetic men but not in all men, seropositivity was significantly associated with CHD prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: No consistent associations of H. pylon infection with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in American men aged 40-74 years. In diabetic men, H. pylori infection was associated with CHD prevalence. PMID:15586651

Gillum, Richard F.

2004-01-01

70

Low economic status is associated with suboptimal intakes of nutritious foods by adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death among older Americans. Many of the chronic health conditions that result in the loss of independence, disability, and reduced quality of life in older adults are preventable through healthful lifestyle including proper nutrition. Household income is a major economic factor that impacts food choices and nutritional status of individuals. The study examines

Shanthy Bowman

2007-01-01

71

Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-12-01

72

Racial Differences in Serum Selenium Concentration: Analysis of US Population Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower intake of the essential trace element selenium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and other cancers. In the United States, many racial disparities in cancer incidence, such as the 61% higher incidence of prostate cancer among Blacks relative to Whites, remain unexplained. Using data from a large, nationally representative survey, the authors explored Black\\/White differences in serum

Tara M. Vogt; Regina G. Ziegler; Blossom H. Patterson; Barry I. Graubard

73

Sex-Steroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic QT-Interval Duration: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. QT interval was measured using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. In men from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, the multivariate adjusted differences in average QT-interval duration comparing the highest quartiles with the lowest quartiles of total testosterone and free testosterone were ?8.5 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): ?15.5, ?1.4) and ?8.0 ms (95% CI: ?13.2, ?2.8), respectively. The corresponding differences were ?1.8 ms (95% CI: ?3.8, ?0.2), and ?4.7 ms (95% CI: ?6.7, ?2.6), respectively, in men from MESA and ?0.6 ms (95% CI: ?3.0, 1.8) and 0.8 ms (95% CI: ?1.6, 3.3), respectively, in postmenopausal women from MESA. Estradiol levels were not associated with QT-interval duration in men, but there was a marginally significant positive association in postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that testosterone levels may explain differences in QT-interval duration between men and women and could be a contributor to population variability in QT-interval duration among men. PMID:21768401

Zhang, Yiyi; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

2011-01-01

74

Has Income-related Inequity in Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Been Improved? Evidence From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2005 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the extent of income-related inequity in health care utilization and expenditures to compare the extent in 2005 and 2010 in Korea. Methods We employed the concentration indices and the horizontal inequity index proposed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer based on one- and two-part models. This study was conducted using data from the 2005 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined health care utilization and expenditures for different types of health care providers, including health centers, physician clinics, hospitals, general hospitals, dental care, and licensed traditional medical practitioners. Results The results show the equitable distribution of overall health care utilization with pro-poor tendencies and modest pro-rich inequity in the amount of medical expenditures in 2010. For the decomposition analysis, non-need variables such as income, education, private insurance, and occupational status have contributed considerably to pro-rich inequality in health care over the period between 2005 and 2010. Conclusions We found that health care utilization in Korea in 2010 was fairly equitable, but the poor still have some barriers to accessing primary care and continuing to receive medical care. PMID:24137526

Kim, Eunkyoung; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

75

Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the national health and nutrition examination surveys.  

PubMed

Objectives. We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations between the consumption of SSBs, diet soda, and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. The study population included 5309 US adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (b?=?-0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.020, -0.001; P?=?.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (b?=?0.016; 95% CI?=?-0.000, 0.033; P?=?.05). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or noncarbonated SSBs and telomere length. Conclusions. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W; Laraia, Barbara A; Needham, Belinda L; Rehkopf, David H; Adler, Nancy E; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S

2014-12-01

76

Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

2014-01-01

77

Assessment of chronic mercury exposure within the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess chronic mercury exposure within the US population. Time trends were analyzed for blood\\u000a inorganic mercury (I-Hg) levels in 6,174 women, ages 18–49, in the NHANES, 1999–2006 data sets. Multivariate logistic regression\\u000a distinguished a significant, direct correlation within the US population between I-Hg detection and years since the start\\u000a of the survey (OR = 1.49,

Dan R. Laks

2009-01-01

78

Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (?19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ? 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. PMID:24304610

Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

2013-12-01

79

Social isolation and physical inactivity in older US adults: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. It has been shown that both physical inactivity and social isolation increase with age, and that these factors are detrimental to physical and mental well-being. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between physical inactivity and social isolation in older US adults. Using data

Sharon B. Reed; Carlos J. Crespo; William Harvey; Ross E. Andersen

2011-01-01

80

Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in the United States Population The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: The goal for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in the United States is a TB disease incidence of less than 1 per million U.S. population by 2010, which requires that the latent TB infection (LTBI) prevalence be less than 1% and decreasing. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of LTBI in the U.S. population. Methods and Measurements: Interviews and medical examinations, including

Diane E. Bennett; Jeanne M. Courval; Ida Onorato; Tracy Agerton; Judy D. Gibson; Lauren Lambert; Geraldine M. McQuillan; Brenda Lewis; Thomas R. Navin; Kenneth G. Castro

81

The associations between blood lipids and the Food Guide Pyramid: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Dietary recommendations are based on nutrients, foods, and food groups, but the relationship between the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups and serum lipids has not been studied.Methods. NHANES III data were obtained for US adults who met the following criteria: aged 20–59 years, reliable participant, and typical 24-h recall. We examined whether serum lipids (serum total cholesterol (STC),

Desiree L Tande; Larry Hotchkiss; Nancy Cotugna

2004-01-01

82

Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population. Methods Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status. Results The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males. Conclusions This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24015265

Kim, Ho; Lee, Su Mi; Oh, Yun Jung; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

2013-01-01

83

CVD Risk among Men Participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-10: Differences by Sexual Minority Status  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research indicates sexual minority women are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to Heterosexual women; however, few studies of CVD risk exist for sexual minority men (SMM). This study aimed to determine whether disparities in CVD risk exist for SMM and if CVD risk is consistent across subgroups of SMM. Methods This study utilized publicly available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 2001 to 2010. CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham General CVD Risk Score and operationalized as the ratio of a participant’s vascular and chronological age. Differences in this ratio were examined between Heterosexual and SMM as a whole, and within subgroups of SMM. Results SMM had vascular systems that were on average 4.0% (95% CI = ?7.5%, ?0.4%) younger than their Heterosexual counterparts; however, adjustment for education and history of hard drug use rendered this difference statistically insignificant. Analysis of SMM subgroups revealed increased CVD risk for Bisexual men and decreased CVD risk for both Gay and Homosexually-experienced Heterosexual men when compared to Heterosexual men. Differences in CVD risk persisted for only Bisexual and Homosexually-experienced Heterosexual men after adjustment for education and history of hard drug use. Conclusion Subgroups of SMM are at increased risk for CVD compared to Heterosexual men, and this increased risk cannot be completely attributed to differences in demographic characteristics or negative health behaviors. PMID:23766523

Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Flick, Louise H.; Burroughs, Thomas E.; Bowen, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

84

Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

2014-01-01

85

The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.  

PubMed

The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture. PMID:24456354

Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

2014-01-01

86

Linking C-Reactive Protein to Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation, measured by interleukin-6, predicts incident disability among elderly people. However, little is known about the relation of C-reactive protein (CRP) to disability. Method Participants (>60 years old, N = 1680) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), lower extremity mobility (LEM), and general physical activities (GPA) was obtained by self-report. Peak muscle power was the product of isokinetic peak leg torque and peak force velocity. Functional limitations were evaluated via habitual walking speed, which was obtained from a 20-foot timed walk. CRP levels were quantified by using latex-enhanced nephelometry. Results Elevated CRP levels were associated with disability in IADL, LSA, LEM, and GPA, independent of basic demographics, chronic medical diseases, health behaviors, as well as nutritional markers. The corresponding odds ratios of disability for each standard-deviation increase in natural-log-transformed CRP were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.35), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.00–1.39), 1.17 (95% CI, 1.03–1.33), and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05–1.31), respectively. The relationship diminished after additional adjustment of leg power and/or walking speed, meaning that impairment in leg power and limitations in gait speed likely mediate the association between CRP and disability. CRP had an inverse relationship to leg power and walking speed. Likewise, additional adjustment for leg power substantially diminished the association between CRP and walking speed, suggesting a mediating effect of power between CRP and gait speed. Conclusions Independent of chronic diseases, elevated CRP is associated with multiple domains of disability through mediation of muscle power, habitual gait speed, or both. Future research is needed to understand CRP as a risk factor for disability in older populations. PMID:16611705

Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Bean, Jonathan F.; Yen, Chung-Jen; Leveille, Suzanne G.

2008-01-01

87

Association of the Estimated 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion with Albuminuria in Adult Koreans: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations. Objective This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria. Design This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2), in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine. Results On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001). Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71–2.21], p?=?0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Conclusions These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population. PMID:25313865

Han, Sang Youb; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

88

Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

89

Noise-induced hearing threshold shift among US adults and implications for noise-induced hearing loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors of the noise-induced hearing threshold shift (NITS) in the US adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20-69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS and their association with several socio-demographic and hearing-related factors were evaluated. The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS was 9.4, 3.4 and 12.8%, respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes, and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males, and smokers. This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the US adult population and its associated risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes. PMID:22389092

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-02-01

90

Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift among U.S. Adults and Implications for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for Noise-Induced Hearing Threshold Shift (NITS) in the U.S. adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Methods This study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20 to 69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS and their association with several sociodemographic and hearing related factors were evaluated. Results The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral and total NITS was 9.4%, 3.4% and 12.8% respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males and smokers. Conclusion This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the U.S. adult population and within the various risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes. PMID:22389092

Mahboubi, Hossein; Zardouz, Shawn; Oliaei, Sepehr; Pan, Deyu; Bazargan, Mohsen; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-01-01

91

The Status of Dietary Supplements Intake in Korean Preschool Children: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of dietary supplements (DS) has increased in most nations. We investigated the amount of DS intake in the Korean population by analyzing a national survey, to support the preparation of a national institutional strategy regarding DS intake and marketing. Methods The data of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a year between 2010 and 2012) were investigated, analyzing the rate of DS intake, and the characteristics of the intake group and non-intake group in Korean preschool children. Results The intake rate of DS was 49.0-54.2% (1,313,874-1,491,240) and 19.6-30.3% (250,603-421,922) in children from 1 to 6 years old and in those less than 1 year, respectively, from 2010 to 2012. The highest intake rate was observed in the age group of five. The mean age was significantly higher in the DS intake group than in the non-intake group. Intake of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins were also higher in the DS intake group. The level of family income was significantly associated with the intake rate (p<0.001). In children less than 1 year, probiotics accounted for the highest intake of DS. Conclusion Korean preschool children have high consumption of DS. Therefore, problems may arise from the waste of money purchasing unnecessary DS, and from the overuse of DS in preschoolers who do not require DS intake. We hope these results can be used to produce an appropriate national institutional strategy regarding DS intake and marketing. PMID:25349834

Kang, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

92

Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES) conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI) ?95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ?25 was used to diagnose as obesity. Results The weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462) in male and 8.5% (33/387) in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001). In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001). White blood cell (WBC) count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (?=21.196, P=0.016). Conclusion Serum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents. PMID:24904868

Jeon, Yeon Jin; Jung, In Ah; Kim, Shin Hee; Jeong, Seung Hee; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Park, So Hyun; Jung, Min Ho

2013-01-01

93

Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

2014-11-01

94

Variation in LPA Is Associated with Lp(a) Levels in Three Populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The distribution of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a). Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a) levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans). At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a) levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a) levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p?=?1.18×10?30). Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a) levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a) levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a) levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a) between-population variance. PMID:21305047

Dumitrescu, Logan; Glenn, Kimberly; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Shephard, Cynthia; Wong, Michelle; Rieder, Mark J.; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Crawford, Dana C.

2011-01-01

95

Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR) at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population. Methods Data from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and ?-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-?, respectvely). Results The mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015). The mean body mass index (BMI) of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001). The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012). Conclusion Korean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men. PMID:24627831

2014-01-01

96

Urinary Concentrations of Metabolites of Pyrethroid Insecticides in the General U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States. Objectives Our objective was to assess human exposure via biomonitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in a representative sample of the general U.S. population ? 6 years of age. Methods By using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, we measured five urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in 5,046 samples collected as a part of the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Univariate, multivariate, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed using SUDAAN and SAS software, incorporating the appropriate sample weights into the analyses. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, race/ethnicity, creatinine, fasting status, and urine collection time as covariates. Results We detected 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), a metabolite common to many pyrethroid insecticides, in more than 70% of the samples. The least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentration (corrected for covariates) of 3PBA and the frequency of detection increased from 1999–2000 (0.292 ng/mL) to 2001–2002 (0.318 ng/mL) but not significantly. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher LSGM 3PBA concentrations than did non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 survey period and in the combined 4-year survey periods but not in the 1999–2000 survey period. Children had significantly higher LSGM concentrations of 3PBA than did adolescents in both NHANES periods and than adults in NHANES 1999–2000. Cis- and trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were highly correlated with each other and with 3PBA, suggesting that urinary 3PBA was derived primarily from exposure to permethrin, cypermethrin, or their degradates. Conclusions Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in the U.S. population is widespread, and the presence of its metabolites in the urine of U.S. residents indicates that children may have higher exposures than adolescents and adults. PMID:20129874

Barr, Dana Boyd; Olsson, Anders O.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Udunka, Simeon; Baker, Samuel E.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

2010-01-01

97

Lead and Cadmium Levels and Balance and Vestibular Dysfunction among Adult Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies have been conducted to identify risk factors for balance and vestibular dysfunction in general populations, but previous studies have reported evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on balance control in high-risk groups. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between blood lead and cadmium levels and balance and vestibular dysfunction in a general population study. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 5,574 adults ? 40 years of age. Balance dysfunction was evaluated by the Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces, which examines the ability to stand unassisted using four test conditions to evaluate vestibular system, vision, and proprioception inputs that contribute to balance. Blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Associations were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Associations with time to loss of balance were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for balance dysfunction in association with the highest quintile (3.3–48 µg/dL) versus the lowest quintile (< 1.2 µg/dL) of lead was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.89]. The corresponding OR for cadmium (0.9–7.4 µg/L vs. < 0.2 µg/L) was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60). The adjusted hazard ratio for time to failure for the most physiologically challenging balance test among subjects with the highest vs. lowest quintiles of blood lead was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.48). Cadmium levels were not associated with time to failure. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that blood lead and cadmium levels may be associated with balance and vestibular dysfunction in a general sample of U.S. adults. PMID:22214670

Lee, Kyung-Jong; Park, Jae-Beom

2012-01-01

98

Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

2012-01-01

99

The Relationship between Body Fat Percent and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1), 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships of total and regional body fat percent with bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adolescents were examined using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1), 2010. Methods Body fat percent at whole body (WBFP), trunk (TBFP), and extremities (both upper and lower extremities fat mass/body weight, EBFP), ratio of trunk fat mass to extremities fat mass (TEFR), and BMD at whole body, total femur, and lumbar spine were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in a population-based sample of 433 boys and 362 girls, aged 12 to 18 years. The analyses were conducted using linear regression analysis with complex sampling design. Results After adjusting for confounders such as age, height, weight, serum 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration, energy intake, calcium intake, physical activity, and menarche status for girls, WBFP, TBFP, and EBFP were inversely associated with whole and regional BMD in both sexes (P < 0.05). TEFR was positively associated with whole and regional BMD in boys after adjusting for confounders, while it was negatively associated in girls (P < 0.05). However, the associations were non-significant when bone mass-free lean mass was adjusted instead of bodyweight except for a positive association between TEFR and BMD in boys. Conclusion In Korean adolescents, total and regional body fat percent is not independently associated with BMD after adjusting for bone mass-free lean mass but higher fat in trunk as compared to extremities may be protective for BMD in boys.

Jeon, Hee-Cheol; Park, Tae-Jin; Kang, Dae-Won; Park, Da-Jung

2014-01-01

100

Total IgE and Asthma Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

Background The inability to measure IgE-based sensitivity to all allergens has limited our understanding of what portion of asthma is related to IgE. Total IgE can potentially overcome this limitation. Objective Determine the association between total IgE and asthma Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 examined a representative sample of the U.S. population 6 years of age and older. Results The median total IgE was 40.8 kU/L (IQR 15.5 – 114). Total IgE levels varied with age, sex, race/ethnicity, serum cotinine, body size, and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8%. The prevalence of atopy was 42.5% as defined by 15 specific IgEs. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma with a 10-fold increase in total IgE was 2.18 (95% CI: 1.66–2.87). Total IgE predicted asthma only among atopics OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.62–3.60) not non-atopics OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.72–1.71) (interaction p=0.005). Among atopics, the association between total IgE and asthma became stronger as the number of positive specific IgE tests increased. Asthma was present at even the lowest levels of total IgE, regardless of atopic status. Approximately 92% of atopics were identified by six specific IgEs, but to increase the identification to over 99% required 11 specific IgEs. Conclusion Total IgE is associated with asthma only among persons who are positive to at least one allergen-specific IgEs. Asthma independent of IgE is not uncommon in the US populations. The complete identification of atopics in a population requires a large panel of allergen-specific IgEs. PMID:19647861

Gergen, Peter J.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Calatroni, Agustin; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2009-01-01

101

Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 2005–2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 2005–2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.44–2.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.41–1.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.83–5.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

Salo, Paivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2011-01-01

102

Rural-Urban Differences in Objective and Subjective Measures of Physical Activity: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower levels of physical activity among rural relative to urban residents have been suggested as an important contributor to rural–urban health disparity; however, empirical evidence is sparse. Methods We examined rural–urban differences in 4 objective physical activity measures (2 intensity thresholds by 2 bout lengths) and 4 subjective measures (total, leisure, household, and transportation) in a nationally representative sample of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. The sample comprised 5,056 adults aged 20 to 75 years. Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were matched with NHANES subjects to identify urban status and 2 types of rural status. Rural–urban and within–rural differences in physical activity were estimated without and with controls for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Rural residents were less active than urban residents in high-intensity long bout (2,020 counts per minute threshold and 10 miniutes or longer bout length) accelerometer-measured physical activity (42.5 ± 6.2 min/wk vs 55.9 ± 2.8 min/wk) but the difference disappeared with a lower-intensity threshold (760 counts per minute). Rural residents reported more total physical activity than urban residents (438.3 ± 35.3min/wk vs 371.2 ± 12.5 min/wk), with differences primarily attributable to household physical activity. Within rural areas, micropolitan residents were less active than residents in smaller rural areas. Controlling for other variables reduced the size of the differences. Conclusion The direction and significance of rural–urban difference in physical activity varied by the method of physical activity measurement, likely related to rural residents spending more time in low-intensity household physical activity but less time in high-intensity physical activity. Micropolitan residents were substantially less active than residents in smaller rural areas, indicating that physical activity did not vary unidirectionally with degree of urbanization. PMID:25144676

Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

2014-01-01

103

Additive effect of heavy metals on metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.  

PubMed

There have been increasing concerns regarding health problems due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We investigated association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in the Korean population. Participants included 1,961 males and 1,989 females 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). We examined the relationship of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels with MS and the additive effect of three heavy metals on MS after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. Blood concentration of lead showed a significant but modest association with prevalence of MS (P = 0.04). Other heavy metals did not show such a relationship with MS. When the participants were classified according to the sum of category numbers of the three heavy metals, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 1.355, 1.638, and 1.556 (P < 0.01). Among components of MS, significant relationship of the sum of heavy metals with hypertension and elevated triglyceride was demonstrated. Blood concentration of lead was positively associated with the prevalence of MS. Of particular interest, cumulative effect of a mixture of lead, mercury, and cadmium on prevalence of MS was stronger than the sum of effect of each heavy metal. Accumulative effect of exposure to heavy metals could be more additive or synergistic than individual exposure in the general population. PMID:24065312

Moon, Seong-Su

2014-06-01

104

Associations of Serum Ferritin and Transferrin % Saturation With All-cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Even though experimental studies have suggested that iron can be involved in generating oxidative stress, epidemiologic studies on the association of markers of body iron stores with cardiovascular disease or cancer remain controversial. This study was performed to examine the association of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (%TS) with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Methods The study subjects were men aged 50 years or older and postmenopausal women of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994. Participants were followed-up for mortality through December 31, 2006. Results Serum ferritin was not associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality for either men or postmenopausal women. However, all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality were inversely associated with %TS in men. Compared with men in the lowest quintile, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality were 0.85, 0.86, 0.76, and 0.74 (p for trend < 0.01), 0.82, 0.73, 0.75, and 0.63 (p for trend < 0.01), and 0.86, 0.81, 0.72, and 0.76 (p for trend < 0.01), respectively. For postmenopausal women, inverse associations were also observed for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but cancer mortality showed the significantly lower mortality only in the 2nd quintile of %TS compared with that of the 1st quintile. Conclusions Unlike speculation on the role of iron from experimental studies, %TS was inversely associated with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality in men and postmenopausal women. On the other hand, serum ferritin was not associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality. PMID:22712047

Kim, Ki-Su; Son, Hye-Gyeong; Hong, Nam-Soo

2012-01-01

105

Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathies: A population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites. This may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the premalignant lesion that precedes MM. Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in blacks, Hispanics, and whites using a large cohort representative of the United States (U.S.) population. Methods Of 13,278 adults age ?50 years enrolled in National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999–2004, stored serum samples to test for monoclonal proteins were available on 12,482 persons (2,331 non-Hispanic blacks considered “black”, 2,475 Hispanics, 7,051 non-Hispanic whites considered “white”, and 625 “others”). Agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum free light-chain assay, and typing of the M-protein was performed on sera from all subjects. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence rates were computed from logistic regression analysis. Risk factors were studied using available survey information available from NHANES. Main outcomes and measures were prevalence of MGUS by age, gender, race, ethnicity, and risk factors from available survey information. Findings MGUS was identified in 365 participants, for an overall prevalence of 2.4%. Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (p<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (p=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%). MGUS in blacks had characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The prevalence of MGUS (adjusted for age, education, sex, race, smoking) was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North and Midwest versus South and West regions of the U.S., respectively (p=0.052). Interpretation MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. We also find a strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the U.S., which has etiologic implications. PMID:24441287

Landgren, Ola; Graubard, Barry I.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Ahmadizadeh, Ida; Clark, Raynell; Kumar, Shaji K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Greenberg, Alexandra J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Melton, L. Joseph; Caporaso, Neil; Korde, Neha; Roschewski, Mark; Costello, Rene; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

2014-01-01

106

Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ?60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).  

PubMed

Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ?60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution. PMID:23993123

Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

2013-11-15

107

Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988-94)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. PMID:12151605

Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

2002-01-01

108

A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang

2012-01-01

109

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

110

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

111

Relations between QRS|T Angle, Cardiac Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

PubMed Central

On the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), an abnormally wide QRS|T angle reflects changes in regional action potential duration profiles and in direction of repolarization sequence which is thought to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We investigated the relationship between abnormal QRS|T angle and mortality in a nationally representative sample of individuals without clinically evident heart disease. We studied 7,052 participants ? 40 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with 12-lead ECGs. Individuals with self-report or ECG evidence of a prior myocardial infarction, QRS duration ?120 msec, or history of heart failure were excluded. Borderline and abnormal spatial QRS|T angle were defined according to sex-specific 75th and 95th percentiles of frequency distributions. All-cause (n=1093 women, n=1191 men) and cardiovascular mortality (n=462 women, n=455 men) over 14 years was assessed through linkage with the National Death Index. In multivariable analyses, abnormal spatial QRS|T angle was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for cardiovascular mortality in women (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.05-3.14) and men (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.32-3.68). An abnormal QRS|T angle was also associated with increased multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in women (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.95-1.78) and men (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.29-2.7). Borderline QRS|T angle was not associated with increased risk for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, abnormal QRS|T angle, as measured on a 12-lead ECG, was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this population-based sample without known heart disease. PMID:22221946

Whang, William; Shimbo, Daichi; Levitan, Emily B.; Newman, Jonathan D.; Rautaharju, Pentti M.; Davidson, Karina W.; Muntner, Paul

2012-01-01

112

Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the u.s. Population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Abstract Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20?ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults. PMID:25055347

Lee, Sang Gil; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Vance, Terrence; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

2014-10-01

113

Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults compared to dietary guidelines: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) state that if alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation, which is defined as up to two drinks in a single day for men and one drink for women. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the percentages of adults who, on a given day, drank more than these limits and the percentages who drank too heavily; that is, more than four drinks for men and more than three for women. Dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, were analyzed. Using a computer-assisted protocol, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2,740 men and 2,941 women, age 21 years and older. Results were weighted to be nationally representative. Estimated mean daily intake was 1.2 drinks for men and 0.4 for women (1 drink=14 g of ethanol). On a given day, 36% of men and 21% of women consumed alcohol. Whereas 82% of men and 89% of women did not exceed the DGA's limits, 8% of men had more than four drinks, and 3% of women had more than three, amounts defined as heavy. The percentages who drank more than the DGA's limits varied by age group and were highest among men age 31 to 50 years and women age 51 to 70 years. Excessive drinking is an important health problem and is not limited to college-age individuals. Registered dietitians and other health professionals should be aware of excessive drinking by the adult US population. Consumer education resources are available. PMID:23415501

Guenther, Patricia M; Ding, Eric L; Rimm, Eric B

2013-04-01

114

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999–2000  

PubMed Central

Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003–2004 sample of the general U.S. population ? 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003–2004 participants. Results We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999–2000 (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the general U.S. population in 2003–2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003–2004 were lower than in 1999–2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds. PMID:18007991

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2007-01-01

115

Effect of pregnancy on the levels of selected perfluoroalkyl compounds for females aged 17-39 years: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008.  

PubMed

The presence of perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFC) in maternal serum may pose a risk to the developing fetus. A large-scale study to evaluate the extent of exposure to PFC in pregnant and nonpregnant females in the United States has not been conducted. The impact of pregnancy on the concentration levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed by analyzing data (n?=?1079) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003-2008 for females aged 17-39 yr. While pregnant females possessed lower serum concentrations of all 4 PFC than nonpregnant females, only the differences for PFOS were significant (9.6 vs. 11.8 ng/ml). Those mothers who breast-fed at least one child displayed significantly lower levels of PFOA (2.6 vs. 3.1 ng/ml) than those with non-breast-fed infants. The concentration levels of PFNA and PFOA decreased with increase in number of live births. While levels of PFHxS and PFOS markedly fell over the period 2003-2008, the levels of PFNA rose over the same time period. There was nonlinear elevation in levels of PFHxS and PFOS with age. Smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. There was a significant, positive association between total cholesterol and PFOS as well as for serum albumin with PFHxS and PFOS. Elevated levels of PFNA and PFOA were associated with a rise in serum protein. Further studies are needed to adequately explain why smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. PMID:23611181

Jain, Ram B

2013-01-01

116

Association between Coffee Consumption and Renal Impairment in Korean Women with and without Diabetes: Analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that coffee consumption has an influence on kidney function. This study investigated the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and renal impairment in Korean women, in consideration of diabetic status. Methods This study involved 2,673 women aged 35 to 84 years who had participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted in 2008. Habitual coffee consumption was classified into three categories: less than 1 cup per day, 1 cup per day, and 2 or more cups per day. Renal function impairment was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The prevalence of diabetes and renal function impairment was higher in women who drank < 1 cup of coffee per day. Compared with drinking < 1 cup of coffee per day, the odds ratio (OR) for renal function impairment was significantly lower (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.95; P = 0.03) in those who habitually drank ? 2 cups per day after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. When data were stratified according to the presence of diabetes, coffee consumption ? 2 cups of coffee per day showed an inverse association with renal function impairment in only diabetic women (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88; P = 0.04), compared with consumption < 1 cup of coffee per day. Conclusion In a representative sample of Korean women, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of renal impairment especially in middle and elderly-aged diabetic women. PMID:23904956

Kim, Bo Ha; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye Mi; Sung, Ji Sun

2013-01-01

117

The Relationship between Total Bilirubin Levels and Total Mortality in Older Adults: The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective Due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bilirubin has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. A recent study demonstrated an L-shaped association of pre-treatment total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a statin-treated cohort. We therefore investigated the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a nationally representative sample of older adults from the general population. Methods A total of 4,303 participants aged ?60 years from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 with mortality data followed up through December 31, 2006 were included in this analysis, with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years. Results Participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl had the highest mortality rate (19.8%). Compared with participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl and in a multivariable regression model, a lower total bilirubin level of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratios, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.72; P?=?0.012), while higher levels (?0.8 mg/dl) also tended to be associated with higher risk of total mortality, but this did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratios, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–1.56; P?=?0.072). Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality was the highest among those with a level between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/dl. Further studies are needed to investigate whether higher total bilirubin levels could be associated with a higher mortality risk, compared to a level of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl. PMID:24728477

Ong, Kwok-Leung; Allison, Matthew A.; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.; Wu, Ben J.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne

2014-01-01

118

Thyroid Hormones in Relation to Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium Exposure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background: Heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd), are known toxicants, but their associations with the thyroid axis have not been well quantified at U.S. background levels. Objectives: We investigated the relationships between thyroid hormones (total and free thyroxine [TT4 and FT4], total and free triiodothyronine [TT3 and FT3], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) and levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd in blood and Cd in urine. Methods: We separately analyzed a sample of 1,109 adolescents (12–19 years of age) and a sample of 4,409 adults from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2008. We estimated associations after adjusting for age, sex, race, urinary iodine, body mass index, and serum cotinine. Results: The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood Pb (BPb), total Hg, and Cd were 0.81 µg/dL, 0.47 µg/L, and 0.21 µg/L in adolescents and 1.43 µg/dL, 0.96 µg/L, and 0.38 µg/L in adults, respectively. The GMs of urinary Cd were 0.07 and 0.25 µg/g creatinine in adolescents and adults, respectively. No consistent pattern of metal and thyroid hormone associations was observed in adolescents. In adults, blood Hg was inversely related to TT4, TT3, and FT3 and urinary Cd was positively associated with TT4, TT3, FT3, and Tg, but there were no associations with Pb. Associations were relatively weak at an individual level, with about 1–4% change in thyroid hormones per interquartile range increase in Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests an inverse association between Hg exposure and thyroid hormones, and a positive association between Cd exposure and thyroid hormones in adults. PMID:23164649

Kim, Stephani S.; Chung, Ethan; Dietrich, Kim N.

2012-01-01

119

Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio

2014-01-01

120

Independent associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations with blood pressure among Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Although lower vitamin D and higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations have been associated with hypertension, their independent contribution to blood pressure (BP) is unclear. The independent associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and PTH levels with BP were therefore investigated. This is a population-based cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which includes a total of 4,513 participants (2,019 men and 2,494 women) aged ? 50 years. 25(OH)D and PTH were measured by radioimmunoassays, and BP was determined with a sphygmomanometer. Hypertensive subjects had significantly lower 25(OH)D (p = 0.023) and significantly higher PTH (p < 0.001) concentrations than normotensives. In subjects not taking antihypertensive medications, 25(OH)D showed reverse correlations with systolic and diastolic BP, both in men (p = 0.038-0.061 and p = 0.011-0.038, respectively) and in women (p = 0.006-0.018 and p = 0.001-0.011, respectively), while serum PTH concentrations showed positive correlations with systolic and diastolic BP in men (p = 0.001-0.014 and p < 0.001, respectively) and women (p < 0.001-0.008 and p = 0.001-0.040, respectively). When 25(OH)D and PTH were included in the same model, both remained independently associated with BP in men and women. In conclusion, both lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH may be independent factors for the development of hypertension. PMID:24114552

Kim, Hyeonmok; Chung, Yun Ey; Jung, Soo Chul; Im, Hyunjung; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Do Young; Jeong, Eunheui; Kim, Beom; Park, Sung Ki

2013-12-01

121

Hyperphosphatemia is associated with anemia in adults without chronic kidney disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperphosphatemia, serum phosphorus ? 4.4 mg/dL, is associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown a weak association between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations. While much less common in the general population, hypophosphatemia (< 2.5 mg/dL) may be associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. Methods Using three cycles from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2005–2010), this study evaluated independent risk factors for hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia. Results Risk factors for hyperphosphatemia included higher adjusted calcium (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.45), increasing cholesterol (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.001-1.005), female gender (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.39-1.87) and low hemoglobin (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.98). Advanced age was protective (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.977-0.987). Models that included fasting serum glucose found lower body mass index (BMI) to be protective (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99) and adjusting for serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone removed the association with low hemoglobin and BMI. Risk factors for hypophosphatemia included the following protective factors: higher albumin (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.93), higher BUN (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86, 0.95), corrected calcium (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63) and female gender (OR 0.47, 95% 0.24-0.94). In men, higher fasting glucose levels increased risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.0004-1.01). Conclusion This study is the first to show an association between low hemoglobin levels and increased risk for hyperphosphatemia among individuals without chronic kidney disease. We did not find any association between diabetes mellitus, increasing BMI or fasting glucose levels and hypophosphatemia. PMID:23965134

2013-01-01

122

Menthol Cigarettes, Race/Ethnicity and Biomarkers of Tobacco Use in US Adults: The 1999- 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, cigarette flavorings are banned, with the exception of menthol. The cooling effects of menthol could facilitate the absorption of tobacco toxicants. We examined levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure among US smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Methods We studied 4,603 White, African-American, and Mexican-American current smokers ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2010 and had data on cigarette type and serum cotinine, blood cadmium, and blood lead concentrations. Urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) (NNAL) was studied in 1,607 participants with available measures. Results A total of 3,210 (74.3%) participants smoked non-menthol cigarettes compared to 1,393 (25.7%) participants who smoked menthol cigarettes. The geometric mean concentrations comparing smokers of non-menthol to menthol cigarettes were 163.1 vs. 175.9 ng/mL for serum cotinine; 0.95 vs. 1.02 ?g/L for blood cadmium; 1.87 vs. 1.75 ?g/dL for blood lead; and 0.27 vs. 0.23 ng/mL for urine NNAL. After multivariable adjustment, the ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing smokers of menthol to non-menthol cigarettes were 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) for cotinine, 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) for cadmium, 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) for lead, and 0.81 (0.65, 1.01) for NNAL. Conclusions In a representative sample of US adult smokers, current menthol cigarette use was associated with increased concentration of blood cadmium, an established carcinogen and highly toxic metal, but not with other biomarkers. Impact These findings provide information regarding possible differences in exposure to toxic constituents among menthol cigarette smokers compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers. PMID:23250935

Jones, Miranda R; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

2012-01-01

123

Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91-2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37-8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40-5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24959985

Wu, Erin W; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-08-01

124

Differences in Energy, Nutrient, and Food Intakes in a US Sample of Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and\\/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n

Lori Beth Dixon; Jan Sundquist; Marilyn Winkleby

125

Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between tele- vision watching, energy intake, physical activity, and obe- sity status in US boys and girls, aged 8 to 16 years. Methods: We used a nationally representative cross- sectional survey with an in-person interview and a medi- cal examination, which included measurements of height and weight, daily hours of television watching, weekly par- ticipation

Carlos J. Crespo; Ellen Smit; Richard P. Troiano; Susan J. Bartlett; Caroline A. Macera; Ross E. Andersen

126

Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted. PMID:23899931

Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

2014-03-01

127

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.

2013-01-01

128

Cocaine use and the likelihood of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous case series have implicated cocaine use as a cause of both myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke on the basis of the temporal relationship between drug use and event onset. The relatively high prevalence of cocaine use in the US population, especially in younger individuals, mandates a more extensive investigation of this relationship. Methods: We determined the relationship between cocaine use and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of 9013 US adults aged 18 to 45 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study using Cox proportional hazards analyses. We categorized the participants as nonusers if they responded to the lifetime cocaine use question as never used, as infrequent users if they responded as using <10 times, and as frequent or regular users if they reported using 10–99 times or >100 times, respectively. Potential confounding factors in the association between cocaine use and death (cardiovascular and all cause) included age, sex, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, educational attainment, body mass index, and insurance status. To estimate the impact of cocaine use on MI or stroke, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) percent for cocaine use with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We also estimated the years of life lost and total annual financial cost due to premature deaths in persons who reported regular use of cocaine. Results: A total of 60 cardiovascular deaths and 384 all causes deaths were reported during a mean follow-up period of 14.7 ± 2.6 years. After adjusting for differences in potential confounders, persons who reported regular lifetime cocaine use had a significantly higher likelihood of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–3.0 for ?100 times in lifetime) but not cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1–4.7 for ?100 times in lifetime). The PAR of regular cocaine use for all cause mortality among was 1.79%. The years of life lost due to regular cocaine use was 10.3 years for an adult aged 31 years. The overall yearly cost incurred due to premature deaths related to regular cocaine use was $1.1 billion. Conclusion: Regular cocaine use was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality but this effect was not mediated through cardiovascular events. Behavior modification by public awareness and education may reduce the mortality and financial burden associated with cocaine use. PMID:24920992

Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

2014-01-01

129

The direction of the difference between Canadian and American erythrocyte folate concentrations is dependent on the assay method employed: a comparison of the Canadian Health Measures Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Fortification of select grain products with folic acid and periconceptional supplementation recommendations in Canada and the USA have improved folate status, and have been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a comparison of erythrocyte folate concentrations from the 2007-9 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the 2007-8 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Erythrocyte folate concentration was assessed in participants aged 6-79 years (CHMS, n 5248; NHANES, n 7070). To account for different folate assays employed - Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) and microbiological assay (NHANES) - a conversion equation was generated (n 152 adults) to adjust the CHMS data. t Tests were used to examine country differences. Median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations (method-adjusted) were lower than those of Americans (988 and 1100 nmol/l, respectively), but unadjusted median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations were higher (1250 nmol/l). The upper 95 % CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate distribution overlapped that of the American erythrocyte folate concentrations, while the lower 95 % CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate data was below the American distribution. In summary, the fact that erythrocyte folate concentrations were either higher or lower in Canadians compared with Americans, depending on whether an adjustment was made to account for assay differences, suggests that caution must be exercised in evaluating erythrocyte folate data from different countries because analytical methods are not readily comparable. Furthermore, we cannot unequivocally conclude that there are true differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the Canadian and American populations in the post-fortification era. PMID:25296277

Colapinto, Cynthia K; Tremblay, Mark S; Aufreiter, Susanne; Bushnik, Tracey; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

2014-12-01

130

Association of acculturation factors with dietary intakes of folate among older Mexican Americans in the post-fortification era: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that acculturation factors are associated with dietary patterns of older Mexican Americans (MAs), but the association of these factors with post-fortification folate intake is unknown. We estimated usual folate intakes for U.S. MAs aged ?60 years (N = 712) by acculturation factors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. Mean total folic acid and total folate, but not natural folate intakes, were lower for MAs with lower acculturation factors, and 16% of MAs had total folate intakes less than the estimated average requirement (EAR) of 320 µg/day. Most older U.S. MAs did not meet requirements from natural food folate intake alone, regardless of acculturation status, but their intakes were adequate when fortified foods and supplement sources were taken into account. Logistic regression models including age, sex, education, poverty, and acculturation factors indicated that low income, not acculturation, was significantly associated with intake below the EAR. Thus our findings indicate that the association of low acculturation with folate intake below the EAR is not independent of poverty. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics for the following free supplemental resource: a table of the distribution of usual folate intake among Mexican Americans aged ?60 years by sex, age, education level, poverty income ratio, and acculturation factors, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.]. PMID:23286640

Hamner, Heather C; Cogswell, Mary E; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-01

131

Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)  

PubMed Central

There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 ± 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 ± 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri

2013-01-01

132

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

133

BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94  

EPA Science Inventory

Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure. Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls. Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

134

Association of urinary phytoestrogen concentrations with serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Some clinical trials have shown that high phytoestrogen intake may decrease serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and phytoestrogens may also lower prostate cancer risk. It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between the serum PSA level and urine phytoestrogen concentration in generally healthy US men. 824 men, 40+ year old without prostate cancer, who participated in the 2001-2004 NHANES surveys, were included in the analysis. The association of total PSA, free PSA, and PSA ratio [free PSA/total PSA * 100] with concentrations of isoflavones and lignans (standardized for urinary creatinine concentration) was examined using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. The linear regression analyses showed no clear association between creatinine-standardized urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and serum total or free PSA levels or PSA ratio. However, the odds of having a PSA ratio < 15% rose from quartile 1 to quartile 4 of isoflavone excretion (odds ratio = 2.82, 95 % confidence interval 1.28-6.22 for top versus bottom quartile), but there were no associations with having a PSA ratio < 25%. In generally healthy US men, 40+ years old without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, urinary isoflavone and lignan concentrations were not associated with serum PSA level. PMID:23909724

Walser-Domjan, Esther; Richard, Aline; Eichholzer, Monika; Platz, Elizabeth A; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

2014-01-01

135

Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Yoon-Kyoung

2014-02-01

136

Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009)  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook

2014-01-01

137

Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors  

PubMed Central

Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population. Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type. Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 2003–2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income. Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1–12.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8–1.0 ?g/L) throughout 2003–2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (6–11 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003. Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003–2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds. Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351–355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816 PMID:24451842

Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M.

2014-01-01

138

Distributions and Trends of Serum Lipid Levels among United States Children and Adolescents Ages 4–19 Years: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses into adulthood. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, in childhood may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Lipid distributions among children and adolescents were examined using the most recent nationally representative data.Methods.Data from 7,499 examinees in NHANES III (1988–1994) were used

Tamy B. Hickman; Ronette R. Briefel; Margaret D. Carroll; Basil M. Rifkind; James I. Cleeman; Kurt R. Maurer; Clifford L. Johnson

1998-01-01

139

Association between the Ratio of Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Adults: The 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ratio of triglycerides (TG, mg\\/dl) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, mg\\/dl) is a reliable indicator of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TG\\/HDL-C and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,503 subjects (?19 years of age) who

Hee-Taik Kang; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Eun Lee; John A. Linton; Jong-Koo Kim; Hye-Ree Lee

2011-01-01

140

Association of kidney function with serum lipoprotein(a) level: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1991-1994)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels have been observed in patients on dialysis therapy. However, few studies explored the relationship between kidney function and Lp(a) levels in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Methods: We examined the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with Lp(a) level in 7,675 participants in the second phase of the Third National Health

Csaba P. Kovesdy; Brad C. Astor; Joseph C. Longenecker; Josef Coresh

2002-01-01

141

Birthplace, Language Use, and Body Size among Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Introduction. Mexican immigrant status has been associated with decreased obesity, but this pattern may be changing. We draw from 2001–2006 NHANES data on Mexican Americans to examine whether body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference vary by country of birth and among the U.S.-born by language. Results. Among women, U.S.-born Spanish speakers had the highest mean BMI, followed by immigrant

Claire Brindis; Dorothy Thornton; Sylvia Guendelman; Alicia Fernandez

2011-01-01

142

Birthplace, Language Use, and Body Size among Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Mexican immigrant status has been associated with decreased obesity, but this pattern may be changing. We draw from 2001–2006 NHANES data on Mexican Americans to examine whether body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference vary by country of birth and among the U.S.-born by language. Results. Among women, U.S.-born Spanish speakers had the highest mean BMI, followed by immigrant

Claire Brindis; Dorothy Thornton; Sylvia Guendelman; Alicia Fernandez

2011-01-01

143

Sexual Orientation-Related Differences in Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among US Adults Aged 20 to 59 Years: 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated sexual orientation–related differences in tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods. The 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys assessed 11?744 individuals aged 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, tobacco use, and SHS exposure (cotinine levels ??0.05 ng/mL in a nonsmoker). We used multivariate methods to compare tobacco use prevalence and SHS exposure among gay or lesbian (n?=?180), bisexual (n?=?273), homosexually experienced (n?=?388), and exclusively heterosexual (n?=?10?903) individuals, with adjustment for demographic confounding. Results. Lesbian and bisexual women evidenced higher rates of tobacco use than heterosexual women. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was more prevalent among lesbian and homosexually experienced women than among heterosexual women. Nonsmoking lesbians reported greater workplace exposure and bisexual women greater household exposure than heterosexual women did. Identical comparisons among men were not significant except for lower workplace exposure among nonsmoking gay men than among heterosexual men. Conclusions. Nonsmoking sexual-minority women are more likely to be exposed to SHS than nonsmoking heterosexual women. Public health efforts to reduce SHS exposure in this vulnerable population are needed. PMID:23948019

Bandiera, Frank C.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

144

The effects of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate on free thyroxine for potentially sensitive subpopulations of the 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

Among women with urinary iodine concentration <100??g/l in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), urinary perchlorate was associated with significant changes in thyroid stimulating hormone and total thyroxine (T4). Although perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate all potentially act to inhibit iodide uptake, free T4 was not found to be associated with exposure to these chemicals in the same data. Fetuses of pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency are thought to be a sensitive subpopulation for perchlorate exposure, but the potential associations between free T4 and exposure to these chemicals among pregnant mothers in NHANES 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 have not been specifically evaluated to date. This study investigates the potential associations between urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate and serum free T4 in individuals with low urinary iodine levels and pregnant women. Multivariate regression models of free T4 were conducted and included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, and covariates known to have an impact on the thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hours of fasting). Meta-analyses were also conducted on non-pregnant and on pregnant women from the two survey cycles. Urinary nitrate was associated with serum free T4 in non-pregnant women of NHANES 2001-2002 who had urinary iodine ?100??g/l. In the meta-analysis, urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were significant predictors of serum free T4 in non-pregnant women. No association was found in men and pregnant women. TPO antibodies were significant predictors of free T4 among non-pregnant women only when the models included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Risk assessment for perchlorate exposure should consider co-exposure to nitrate and thiocyanate. PMID:24149973

Suh, Mina; Abraham, Liz; Hixon, J Gregory; Proctor, Deborah M

2014-11-01

145

The association between a low urine pH and the components of metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: Findings based on the 2010 Korea National health and nutrition examination survey  

PubMed Central

Background: Low urine pH is related to obesity and insulin resistance, which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to identify the relation between a low urine pH and MS after controlled for other covariates including demographic and lifestyle factors in adult Korean population. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey and 1960 men and 2702 women were included in this study. Study subjects were divided into the group with urine pH <5.5 and the group with urine pH ?5.5 refer to literature. We then evaluated the association between low urine pH and MS. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, regular exercise, and blood urea nitrogen level, the odds ratio (OR) for the presence of MS in the group with urine pH <5.5 was 1.350 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.158-1.573) using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria or 1.304 (95% CI: 1.082-1.572) using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Among MS components, elevated fasting glucose (OR: 1.231, 95% CI: 1.058-1.433, P = 0.007) and elevated triglyceride (TG) (OR: 1.389, 95% CI: 1.189-1.623, P < 0.001) showed a significantly high OR. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that low urine pH is associated with MS in the Korean population. Among MS components, elevated fasting glucose and elevated TG showed a significantly high OR. PMID:25364357

Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Nam, Kyung Jee; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Yi, Yu Hyone; Tak, Young Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Soo Bong; Lee, Ka Young

2014-01-01

146

Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population—nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a surprising paucity of studies that have systematically examined the correlates of water intake in the US population. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of con- tributors of water intake with dietary characteristics, meal consump- tion, and body weight in the US population. Design: We used 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and

Ashima K Kant; Barry I Graubard; Elizabeth A Atchison

147

Caloric and Selected Nutrient Values for Persons 1-74 Years of Age: First Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 1971-1974. Vital and Health Statistics, Data from the National Health Survey, Series ll, Number 209.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data on dietary intake obtained to assess the nutritional status of the United States population, aged 1-74 years. Age, sex, race, and income level differences in dietary intake are among the variables considered. Data are analyzed for certain groups at high risk of malnutrition (e.g., the poor, preschool children, women of…

Abraham, Sidney; And Others

148

Exercise and Nutrition Survey of Nevada Air National Guard Members.  

E-print Network

??One hundred seventy-three Nevada Air National Guard members voluntarily participated in this exercise science and nutrition survey-based study. The survey consisted of ten closed-ended questions;… (more)

Demattei, Matthew Antonio

2012-01-01

149

An investigation of the association between omega 3 FA and bone mineral density among older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey years 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Summary The relation of omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) with bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed among adults >60 years; NHANES data (2005–2008). The association of dietary n-3 FA with measures of hip BMD was equivocal, but n-3 FA supplement use was significantly associated with higher spine BMD—a finding that deserves further study. Introduction Associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone mineral density are not well understood. Purpose To evaluate the cross-sectional relation between dietary omega 3 fatty acid intake (specifically docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and octadecatetraenoic) and BMD at the hip and spine among older adults. Methods Omega 3 FA intake (g/day) was assessed from two 24-h recalls using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, in 2005–2008); and omega 3 FA supplement use (yes/no) via questionnaire. Multivariable regression models were developed to explain variance in femoral neck, total femur, and lumbar spine BMD among 2,125 men and women over 60 years. Results Mean age was 70 years. In adjusted models, dietary omega 3 FA were marginally associated with greater femoral neck BMD (p =0.0505), but not with total femur BMD (p =0.95) or lumbar spine BMD (p =0.74). Omega 3 supplement use was significantly positively associated with lumbar spine BMD (p =0.005) but not with femoral neck or total femur BMD. Conclusions Dietary intakes of omega 3 FA were marginally associated with femoral neck BMD; however, omega 3 supplement use was significantly associated with higher lumbar spine BMD in older adults. These results emphasize the need for assessment of total omega 3 intakes (diet and supplements) to provide a greater range of intake and a more accurate picture of the relation between omega 3 FA and BMD. PMID:24121998

Kerstetter, J. E.; Kenny, A. M.; Insogna, K. L.; Walsh, S. J.

2014-01-01

150

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15-44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-01-01

151

Prevalence, Risk Factors, Quality of Life, and Health-Care Seeking Behaviors of Female Urinary Incontinence: Results From the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2007-2009)  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is a lack of information on female urinary incontinence (UI) in South Korea. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare-seeking behaviors of women with UI. Methods We included 9,873 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. The condition of UI was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Do you have UI?" Additionally, health care seeking behavior for UI was defined as answering "yes" to "Have you ever been treated for UI?' The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean age of our sample was 49.7 years. The overall prevalence of UI was 7.9%. The prevalence of UI significantly increased with age. The rate of healthcare-seeking behavior for UI also significantly increased with age. However, the rate of healthcare seeking for UI was significantly lower when compared to the prevalence of UI. In our multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, and marriage were significantly and independently associated with UI. As the severity of all the subscales of EQ-5D increased, the unadjusted odds ratio for UI also increased. After adjusting for potential confounders, the subscales of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from the EQ-5D were significantly associated with UI. Conclusions UI is a common disease and is significantly associated with QoL. Our results suggest the need for developing preventive measures and treatment policies for UI. PMID:24729925

Kwon, Choon Sig

2014-01-01

152

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Vending: Development, Dissemination, and Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and

Carol Voss; Susan Klein; Karen Glanz; Margaret Clawson

2012-01-01

153

Personal and Parental Weight Misperception and Self-Reported Attempted Weight Loss in US Children and Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of our study was to describe perceptions of child weight status among US children, adolescents, and their parents and to examine the extent to which accurate personal and parental perception of weight status is associated with self-reported attempted weight loss. Methods Our study sample comprised 2,613 participants aged 8 to 15 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the 2 most recent consecutive cycles (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Categories of weight perception were developed by comparing measured to perceived weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight misperception and self-reported attempted weight loss. Results Among children and adolescents, 27.3% underestimated and 2.8% overestimated their weight status. Among parents, 25.2% underestimated and 1.1% overestimated their child’s weight status. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss was 9.5 times as high (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–23.6) among healthy-weight children and adolescents who overestimated their weight status as among those who perceived their weight status accurately; the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4–6.4) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6) times as high among overweight and obese children and adolescents, respectively, who accurately perceived their weight status than among those who underestimated their weight status. Parental misperception of weight was not significantly associated with self-reported attempted weight loss among children and adolescents who were overweight or obese. Conclusion Efforts to prevent childhood obesity should incorporate education for both children and parents regarding the proper identification and interpretation of actual weight status. Interventions for appropriate weight loss can target children directly because one of the major driving forces to lose weight comes from the child’s perception of his or her weight status. PMID:25078569

Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Barton, Bruce A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Goldberg, Robert J.

2014-01-01

154

Examination timetabling in British Universities: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a questionnaire on examination timetabling sent to the registrars of ninety five British Universities. The survey asked questions in three specific categories. Firstly, universities were asked about the nature of their examination timetabling problem: how many people, rooms, periods are involved and what difficulties are associated with the problem? Secondly, we asked about how

Edmund Burke; Dave Elliman; Peter Ford; Rupert Weare

155

Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

156

Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Sarcopenia in Korean Females Aged 60 Years and Older Using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Context It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. Objective We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. Design and Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008–9) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years) and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years) aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Measurements Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Results Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL). The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1st tertile 6.3%, 2nd tertile 8.0%, 3rd tertile 12.0%; p?=?0.008). Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval?=?1.26–3.23) for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI?=?1.02–2.97) in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. Conclusions Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in women but not in men from a representative sample of elderly Koreans. PMID:24587226

Kim, Tae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hwan

2014-01-01

157

Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

2013-01-01

158

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?

2013-01-01

159

Examiner's Manual. School Climate Survey: Student Satisfaction Survey, Teacher Satisfaction Survey, Parent Satisfaction Survey: Form A. Sampler Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for examiners administering the School Climate Survey (SCS), the Teacher Satisfaction Survey (TSS), the Student Satisfaction Survey (SSS), and the Parent Satisfaction Survey (PSS) of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) are provided. These four surveys are the initial result of research/development efforts by…

Halderson, Cynthia; And Others

160

Nutritional practices at a glance: spinal muscular atrophy type I nutrition survey findings.  

PubMed

Proactive nutritional management for children with spinal muscular atrophy type I can provide insight into improved spinal muscular atrophy care. This observational study consisted of a nutritional and medical history survey of children with spinal muscular atrophy type I collected in 2009-2011. Forty-four caregiver survey responses were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Average age of spinal muscular atrophy type I subjects was 5 years (5 mo-16 y). The subject cohort was composed of 22 males, 21 females, and 1 unreported. Nutrition support via feeding tube was utilized by 43 of 44 subjects. A majority of respondents reported using elemental or semi-elemental formula for subjects' essential caloric intake (34 of 44). Formula intolerance issues were reported by many caregivers (27 of 44). Half of caregivers implemented dietary changes on their own or with guidance from other families; 15 caregivers consulted a registered dietitian. Survey responses and comments indicate need for evidence-based nutritional guidelines for spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:24097849

Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Godshall, Barbara J; Seffrood, Erin; Marcus, Mary; LaSalle, Bernard A; Wong, Brenda; Schroth, Mary K; Swoboda, Kathryn J

2014-11-01

161

Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.  

PubMed

Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses. PMID:22764138

Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

2012-07-01

162

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

163

Worry as a predictor of nutrition behaviors: results from a nationally representative survey.  

PubMed

Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey (n = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of nutrition behaviors. Greater worry was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption (B = 0.19, p < .01), but also more meals eaten when watching television (B = 0.34, p < .01) and fewer with family (B = -0.13, p = .02). Importantly, and counterintuitively, greater worry appeared to reverse the conventional relationship between self-efficacy and dietary restriction; those who were self-efficacious and worried were less likely to restrict unhealthy foods. Similarly, worry attenuated the relationship between perceived benefits and special effort to buy produce. A complex relationship between worry and nutrition emerged, with potentially important clinical implications. PMID:22505569

Ferrer, Rebecca A; Bergman, Hannah E; Klein, William M P

2013-02-01

164

Examining the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Marketed to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are both public health and food industry initiatives aimed at increasing breakfast consumption among children, particularly the consumption of ready-to-eat cereals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were identifiable differences in nutritional quality between cereals that are primarily marketed to children and cereals that are not marketed to children. Of the 161 cereals identified between

Marlene B. Schwartz; Lenny R. Vartanian; Christopher M. Wharton; Kelly D. Brownell

2008-01-01

165

Examining the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Marketed to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are both public health and food industry initiatives aimed at increasing breakfast consumption among chil- dren, particularly the consumption of ready-to-eat cere- als. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were identifiable differences in nutritional quality between cereals that are primarily marketed to children and cereals that are not marketed to children. Of the 161 cereals

MARLENE B. SCHWARTZ; LENNY R. VARTANIAN; CHRISTOPHER M. WHARTON; KELLY D. BROWNELL

166

An Examination of Correlates and Effects Associated with a Concise Measure of Consumers' Nutrition Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumers in two studies (n=374 and 500) were surveyed regarding their nutrition knowledge and the information on food labels. Validity of the survey instrument was supported by comparing results from professional nutritionists and dietitian students. Knowledge level was an important factor in consumer comprehension of and attitudes toward label…

Suter, Tracy A.; Burton, Scot

1996-01-01

167

Examining the use of nutrition labelling with photoelicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study using photoelicitation interviews to investigate the relationship between the habitualised and unconscious aspects of consumers' food choices, the front-of-pack nutrition labelling schemes on food products and the healthiness of their diets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To this end, photographs of ten German middle-class families at different stages

Joerg Koenigstorfer; Andrea Groeppel-Klein

2010-01-01

168

The non-linear risk of mortality by income level in a healthy population: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality follow-up cohort, 1988–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An examination of where in the income distribution income is most strongly associated with risk of mortality will provide guidance for identifying the most critical pathways underlying the connections between income and mortality, and may help to inform public health interventions to reduce socioeconomic disparities. Prior studies have suggested stronger associations at the lower end of the income distribution,

David H Rehkopf; Lisa F Berkman; Brent Coull; Nancy Krieger

2008-01-01

169

The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.  

PubMed

The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

2014-01-01

170

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating, or nutrition, environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. This article reports on the development and evaluation of measures of nutrition environments in retail food stores. Methods: The Nutrition Environment Measures Study developed observational measures of the nutrition environment within retail food stores (NEMS-S)

Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Brian E. Saelens; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

171

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

172

Nutrition Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Statistical Analysis Report. Fast Response Survey System (FRSS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings from the "Nutrition Education in Public Schools, K-12" survey that was designed to provide data on the status of nutrition education in U.S. public schools. Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 school principals of a nationally representative sample of U.S. elementary, middle, and high schools. The survey requested…

Celebuski, Carin; Farris, Elizabeth

173

Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): A dietary survey.  

PubMed

The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. Zoo Biol. 33:419-425, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25130685

Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

2014-09-01

174

Survey of Texas physicians' nutrional [i.e., nutritional] knowledge  

E-print Network

in nutrition; 25O/o do not offer nutrition elective courses; less than half offer a course in clinical nutrition; and nearly half fail to provide post- graduate training in nutrition for practitioners (10). Patients are interest in nutrition and they expect... their physicians to advise them on appropriate diets, and to be able to answer their questions concerning nutrition and dietary intake (10). Physicians need to know how and when to refer patients to a dietitian or nutritionist. and to support the counseling...

Chitwood, Connie Kay

2012-06-07

175

Implementation of nutritional guidelines in a university hospital monitored by repeated point prevalence surveys  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Malnutrition is present in 20–50% of hospitalized patients, and nutritional care is a challenge. The aim was to evaluate whether the implementation of a nutritional strategy would influence nutritional care performance in a university hospital. Subjects/Methods: This was a prospective quality improvement program implementing guidelines for nutritional care, with the aim of improving nutritional practice. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 was used. Point prevalence surveys over 2 years to determine whether nutritional practice had improved. Results: In total, 3604 (70%) of 5183 eligible patients were screened and 1230 (34%) were at nutritional risk. Only 53% of the at-risk patients got nutritional treatment and 5% were seen by a dietician. The proportion of patients screened increased from the first to the eighth point prevalence survey (P=0.012), but not the proportion of patients treated (P=0.66). The four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 identified 92% of the patients not at nutritional risk. Conclusions: Implementation of nutritional guidelines improved the screening performance, but did not increase the proportion of patients who received nutritional treatment. Point prevalence surveys were useful to evaluate nutritional practice in this university hospital. In order to improve practice, we suggest using only the four initial screening questions in NRS 2002 to identify patients not at risk, better education in nutritional care for physicians and nurses, and more dieticians employed. Audit of implementation of guidelines, performed by health authorities, and specific reimbursement for managing nutrition may also improve practice. PMID:21863042

Tangvik, R J; Guttormsen, A B; Tell, G S; Ranhoff, A H

2012-01-01

176

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Department of Health and carried out by Social and Community Planning Research and MRC Dunn Nutrition Unit, the dental hospitals of the Universities of Newcastle and Birmingham and the Department of Epidemiology of the University of London, this research forms part of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Set up

G. Smithers; S. Finch; W. Doyle; C. Lowe; C. J. Bates; A. Prentice; P. C. Clarke

1998-01-01

177

Assessment of Nutrition Education Among Pediatric Gastroenterologists: A Survey of NASPGHAN Members  

PubMed Central

Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective. However, pediatric gastroenterology fellows feel that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of nutrition training among pediatric gastroenterologists, identify areas of need for additional education, and determine the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in obesity management. Methods A survey was sent to members and fellows of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to assess general nutrition education as well as obesity management and educational needs. Results A total of 272 responses were received, for an overall response rate of 15.2% (272/1,784). Most responders reported having average or above-average knowledge base in all nutritional topics. There was strong interest in additional resources and a continuing medical education (CME) module on several nutrition topics including: nutritional requirements in specific gastrointestinal (GI) disease, failure to thrive/growth failure, and parenteral nutrition support, with the format of CME dependent on the topic. There was also a strong interest in additional CME on the management of pediatric obesity (67%), as most responders felt that the management of obesity in children requires subspecialty care. However, the perceived role of the pediatric gastroenterologist was one of support to treat the gastrointestinal and hepatic co-morbidities of obesity rather than serve as the main provider of comprehensive obesity care. Conclusion Pediatric gastroenterologists identified gaps in their nutrition knowledge base that may be attributed to the current nutrition education training during fellowship. Multiple topics were identified for additional nutrition education, including obesity management. The nutrition management challenges of today necessitate improved baseline nutrition knowledge and this focus on nutrition should begin at the fellowship level. PMID:22699840

Lin, Henry C; Kahana, Doron; Vos, Miriam B; Black, Dennis; Port, Zack; Shulman, Robert; Scheimann, Ann; Mascarenhas, Maria R.

2012-01-01

178

An examination of dietary intakes and nutritional status of chronic healthy spinal cord injured individuals.  

PubMed

To examine the nutritional composition of the dietary intake of chronic healthy spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals, 33 subjects affiliated with 3 SCI rehabilitation centers logged their food consumption for 7 days. Prior to record keeping, subjects were trained by a registered dietitian on the accurate recording of their standard food choices and portion size, and were provided with scales to weigh food accurately. Dietary macro and micronutrients were analyzed with a computer software package, with nutritional analysis compared to the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Analysis showed caloric intake to be 75% of that recommended for able bodies persons, with a high reliance on fat for calories. Fat intake accounted for 37.9% of calories, well above the recommended level of 30%, but typical of the American diet. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat was approximately one half the recommended level, with carbohydrate calories averaging 16.5% below optimal RDA. Protein consumption was within normal range, but average dietary fiber was only 25% of recommended levels. Micronutrient analysis showed deficiencies in both water and fat-soluble vitamins, with suboptimal intake of multiple minerals. Given the apparent reliance on a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, this research shows that nutritional intervention and education of SCI persons are needed, and that a registered dietitian should be included in the SCI health care team. PMID:1287542

Levine, A M; Nash, M S; Green, B A; Shea, J D; Aronica, M J

1992-12-01

179

Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

Owen, George M.; And Others

180

Nutritional survey of the US Navy SEAL trainees14  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of267 male US Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) train- ees was assessed to determine dietary patterns. Diet records, blood samples, 24-h urine collec- tions, and physical characteristics were analyzed. Energy intake was 3886 ± 73 kcal\\/d (SEM) with 15.7 ± 0.2, 42.9 ± 0.6, and 41 .2 ± 0.5% ofthe energy derived from protein, carbohydrate (CHO),

Anita Singh; Barbara A Day; Patricia A Deuster

181

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Library Home > Understanding Breast Cancer > Beyond the Basics > Quality-of-Life Issues > Nutrition Terms Used On This Page Understanding ... Basics Beyond the Basics Symptoms and Side Effects Quality-of-Life Issues Fitness and Exercise Nutrition Financial Concerns Planning ...

182

Trends in Childhood Obesity in Japan over the Last 25 Years from the National Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the 25-year changes in BMI (measured in kilograms per meters squared) and the prevalence of obesity in Japanese children with special reference to urban-rural differences.Research Methods and Procedures: We used the data sets from the cross-sectional annual nationwide surveys (National Nutrition Survey, Japan) conducted from 1976 to 2000 and comprising 29,052 boys and 27,552 girls between 6

Yumi Matsushita; Nobuo Yoshiike; Fumi Kaneda; Katsushi Yoshita; Hidemi Takimoto

2004-01-01

183

Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: Practical implications of findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most

Shawn H. Dolan; Melinda Houston; Scott B. Martin

2011-01-01

184

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

185

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

186

Nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

Durnin, J V

1976-07-01

187

The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.  

PubMed

Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the nutritional care of obese burn patients. This indicates the need for further research to determine consistent best practices. PMID:21785364

Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

2011-01-01

188

Anatomy of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Promoting Nutrition and Exercise in Hispanics: A Critical Examination of Existing Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these

Nelda Mier; Marcia G. Ory; Alvaro A. Medina

2010-01-01

189

Nutrition survey of Finnish rural children. IV. Serum cholesterol values in relation to dietary variables?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veikko N#{228}ntO,7 M.D., Antti Ahlstr#{246}m,8 D.Sc., and Nub Hallman,9 M.D. ABSTRACT In connection with a survey of child nutrition in Finland a study was carried out on the serum cholesterol concentration in childhood and its relationship to dietary and other variables. The material consisted of 1496 children ages 5, 9, and 13 years from 14 local districts in Finland. Total

Leena R; Maija Wilska; Riitta-Liisa Kantero

190

A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

2014-01-01

191

Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: practical implications of findings.  

PubMed

Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most participants engaged in strength training, consumed food and/or fluids during and after training, set training and competition goals, and applied mental preparation strategies during training and the hour before racing. Water was the most commonly consumed fluid; positive self-talk was the most used mental strategy. Participants were more likely to consult with a triathlon coach than a nutrition or sport psychology professional. Athletes with more years of experience in triathlon and those competing in longer distances were more likely to consult a triathlon coach. Female triathletes were more likely than male triathletes to train with others, use mental preparation strategies, and report feeling anxious before competitions. More male triathletes reported using nutritional supplements during training than their female counterparts. These findings add to the limited research base on triathletes' training habits, and hopefully will help guide practitioners who work with this group. The results provide guidance for collaborative efforts among training, nutrition, and mental health professionals to best support triathletes. PMID:21623532

Dolan, Shawn H; Houston, Melinda; Martin, Scott B

2011-07-01

192

The Norelco Sport Fanatics Survey: examining behaviors of sport fans.  

PubMed

The Norelco Sport Fanatics Survey administered by Impulse Research to over 1,400 avid sport fans online assessed their support of and involvement with their teams, emotional responses prior to and subsequent to team performance, and the effect of their fandom on their family and social relations. Analysis yielded results which replicated past research and indicated that sport fandom was extremely important to the respondents, intensified affective reactions, and was perceived as a highly social activity with very few negative consequences for interpersonal relations. PMID:12841467

Wann, Daniel L; Friedman, Kim; McHale, Meredith; Jaffe, Andrew

2003-06-01

193

Sample Design and Estimation Procedures for a National Health Examination Survey of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents considerations for sample design and estimation procedures for the Health Examination Survey, one of the major survey programs employed by the National Center for Health Statistics. The survey collects data which provide national estimates and distributions of various health characteristics related to the growth and…

Bryant, E. Earl; And Others

194

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Elementary Middle High Percentage of Schools in Which Teachers Taught * Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Topics as Part of Required Instruction, by School Level Topic Elementary Middle High Dietary Guidelines for Americans NA 67.0 73.7 Food guidance using MyPyramid 76.9 76.1 77.7 ...

195

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

196

Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin with Nutritional Status, Inflammation and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin constitutes most part of the outer portion of the cell wall in the gram negative bacteria. Sub-clinical endotoxemia could contribute to increased inflammation and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Endotoxin level and clinical effect are determined by its soluble receptor sCD14 and high density lipoprotein. We examine the hypothesis that endotoxin level correlates with mortality. Methods In this cohort study, endotoxin levels were measured in 306 long-term hemodialysis patients who were then followed for up to 42 months. Soluble CD14 and cytokines levels were also measured. Results The mean (±SD) endotoxin level was 2.31±3.10 EU/ml (min: 0.26 EU/ml, max: 22.94 EU/ml, inter-quartile range: 1.33EU/ml, median: 1.27EU/ml). Endotoxin correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.11, p<0.04). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high body mass index (BMI) and low HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher endotoxinemia (endotoxin below or above of median). In multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for case-mix and nutritional/inflammatory confounders, endotoxin levels in the 3rd quartile vs. 1st quartile was associated with a trend towards increased hazard ratio (HR) for death (HR 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–3.6, p=0.08). Conclusions In this hemodialysis cohort, we found associations between endotoxinemia and CRP, body composition and HDL. A moderately high endotoxin levels tended to correlate with increased mortality than the highest circulating endotoxin level. Additional studies are required to asses the effect of endotoxemia on mortality in dialysis population. PMID:21880509

Feroze, Usama; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sterling, Kevin A; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Noori, Nazanin; Benner, Debbie; Shah, Vhalab; Dwivedi, Rama; Becker, Kenneth; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Raj, Dominic S

2011-01-01

197

Formative research to examine collaboration between special supplemental nutrition program for woman, infants, and children and head start programs.  

PubMed

Both the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Head Start/Early Head Start (HS/EHS) Programs serve low-income women and children at high risk for health disparities, yet they do not have a formal state-level partnership in Connecticut. Both programs serve children up to age five, yet children's participation in the WIC Program declines sharply after 2 years of age, limiting the potential benefits of cross-program participation. The goal of this study is to examine current and prospective collaboration efforts among the WIC and HS/EHS Programs in Connecticut and identify barriers to collaboration. An online survey was administered to staff from both programs. Six focus groups were held in January, 2012 with staff and participants from both programs. Results showed areas of existing collaboration between local WIC and HS/EHS Programs, yet also identified many areas where relationships could be strengthened or established. Common themes that were identified included a need for more knowledge among staff about the other program, collaboration involving sharing of client information, and improving referral procedures. Staff from both programs strongly expressed interest in a cross-program collaboration (73 % of HS staff and 86 % of WIC staff). This research serves as a framework for how a state-level collaboration could be established in Connecticut, to enable these two programs to work together more efficiently and effectively for the benefit of mothers and children. Results can provide other State WIC Programs with a blueprint for collaborating with HS/EHS. PMID:23417212

Martin, Katie S; Wolff, Michele; Lonczak, Marilyn; Chambers, Marjorie; Cooke, Caroline; Whitney, Grace

2014-01-01

198

Prospective survey of parenteral nutrition in Switzerland: a three-year nation-wide survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The goals of this national survey were to determine the current PN practices and admixture formulations used in Switzerland. Methods: During three years, an annual questionnaire was sent to all heads of Swiss hospital pharmacies. Results: 92% of Swiss hospitals with a full-time pharmacist participated. Different PN systems were commonly used for adult patients: 2 commercial formulas

C. PICHARD; S. MÜHLEBACH; N. MAISONNEUVE; C. SIERRO

2001-01-01

199

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

200

Anatomy of Culturally Sensitive Interventions Promoting Nutrition and Exercise in Hispanics: A Critical Examination of Existing Literature  

PubMed Central

Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these interventions were constructed. The review of 18 interventions meeting study criteria suggests that most tailored programs promoting nutrition and exercise in Hispanics are theory driven and are informed by formative research. Also, the findings indicate that salient culturally sensitive intervention components are (a) bilingual and bicultural facilitators and materials, (b) family-based activities, (c) literacy-appropriate materials, and (d) social support. A clear understanding of Hispanic cultural values is also required. Further empirical examination is warranted to determine the factors mediating or predicting the efficacy of culturally sensitive health programs for Hispanics. PMID:19193933

Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Medina, Alvaro A.

2013-01-01

201

Examining the Medical Blogosphere: An Online Survey of Medical Bloggers  

PubMed Central

Background Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. Objectives To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers’ Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. Methods We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants’ ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants’ characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. Results A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated with journalism, the participants most frequently reported including links to original source of material and spending extra time verifying facts, while rarely seeking permission to post copyrighted material. Bloggers who have published a scientific paper were more likely to quote other people or media than those who have never published such a paper (U= 506.5, n1= 41, n2= 35, P= .016). Those blogging under their real name more often included links to original sources than those writing under a pseudonym (U= 446.5, n1= 58, n2= 19, P= .01). Major motivations for blogging were sharing practical knowledge or skills with others, influencing the way others think, and expressing oneself creatively. Conclusions Medical bloggers are highly educated and devoted blog writers, faithful to their sources and readers. Sharing practical knowledge and skills, as well as influencing the way other people think, were major motivations for blogging among our medical bloggers. Medical blogs are frequently picked up by mainstream media; thus, blogs are an important vehicle to influence medical and health policy. PMID:18812312

Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

2008-01-01

202

Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)123  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action. Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight. Design: Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective open-cohort, ongoing nationwide health and nutrition survey, consisting of 10,095 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 y at entry from 1991 to 2006. Diet, including MSG and other condiments, was assessed with a weighed food inventory in combination with three 24-h recalls. Incident overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ? 25 or ?23 based on World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate change in BMI, and Cox regression models with gamma shared frailty were used to determine the incidence of overweight. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.5 y. The cumulative mean (±SD) MSG intake of 2.2 ± 1.6 g/d was positively associated with BMI after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects at different levels (individual, household, and community). The adjusted hazard ratio of overweight was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.75; P for trend < 0.01) for participants in the highest quintile of MSG intake compared with those in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other major lifestyle factors. Conclusions: MSG consumption was positively, longitudinally associated with overweight development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:21471280

Du, Shufa; Xun, Pengcheng; Sharma, Sangita; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry

2011-01-01

203

German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave  

PubMed Central

Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79?years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79?years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79?years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health. PMID:22938722

2012-01-01

204

Husband's preference for a son and women's nutrition: examining the role of actual and desired family composition on women's anaemia and body mass index in India.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between the husband's preference for a son, sex composition of children and risk of anaemia and underweight among married Indian women. Information was collected regarding 29,517 couples having at least one child in the nationally representative 2005-06 National Family Health Survey of India. The exposures were husband's preference for a son and sex composition of children: sons only, daughters only and mixed. Outcome included maternal underweight and moderate/severe anaemia. Husband's preference for a son was not found to be associated with his wife's risk of anaemia or underweight. Sex composition of the children was modestly associated with increased odds of anaemia among women from households with daughters only as compared with those with sons only [AOR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.04, 1.35]. The findings from this population-based study of socio-cultural norms around preference for a son and married Indian women's nutritional status do not support the hypothesis that husband's preference for sons influences the nutritional status of their wives. However, having daughters only is associated with maternal anaemia for reasons that remain to be established. PMID:22150711

Sabarwal, Shagun; Subramanian, S V; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G

2012-01-01

205

A Survey of the Nutritional Status of School Children : Relation Between Nutrient Intake and Socio-Economic Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…

Cook, Judith; And Others

1973-01-01

206

Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on

Christos Pitsavos; George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

207

Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ? 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

2011-01-01

208

Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers surveyed; (b) examine relationships between elementary school teacher attitudes about school nutrition environments and perceived influence on the

Beverly Lawler Girard

2010-01-01

209

[Fruit and vegetable intake in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

Until now, the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society on fruit and vegetable intake have not been reached by the majority of the population. In the first wave of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1), which was conducted from 2008 to 2011, food consumption was determined with a validated food frequency questionnaire in a representative random sample of the 18-79-year-old residential population in Germany (n=7116). The number of portions of fruit and vegetables consumed on average every day and the number of persons meeting the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables per day were calculated. On average, women consume 3.1 and men 2.4 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. 15 % of women and 7 % of men reach the recommended quantity of five portions per day. Fruit intake increases in both men and women up to the age of 60- 69 years. 39 % of women and 25 % of men consume at least three portions of fruit and vegetables every day. The proportion of men and women who consume at least three portions every day tends to increase with rising social status. Although the intake of fruit has increased slightly compared to previous surveys, the percentage of persons who consume five portions of fruit and vegetables per day is still very low. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703498

Mensink, G B M; Truthmann, J; Rabenberg, M; Heidemann, C; Haftenberger, M; Schienkiewitz, A; Richter, A

2013-05-01

210

Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

1999-09-07

211

Marketing nutrition in restaurants: a survey of current practices and attitudes.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine attitudes toward nutrition, nutrition marketing practices, the relationship between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices, and nutrition training practices in restaurants. A written questionnaire was mailed to 200 research and development (R & D) directors in restaurant companies included in Restaurants & Institutions' list of top 400 foodservice organizations ranked by sales. Seventy (35%) responded. Most R & D directors did not think they were responsible for improving the health of their consumers. A positive relationship existed between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices (P = .013). Forty-four reported that they marketed nutrition and planned to add nutritious menu items in the future. Forty-six reported that nutritious meal options represented 0 to 10% of total sales. Nutrition information was provided to consumers by 27 restaurant companies but such information often had to be requested. The American Heart Association was a popular source of nutrition and menu-planning information. Twelve companies employed a registered dietitian, and 14 used registered dietitians as consultants. Nutrition-related training for restaurant employees was limited. These findings indicate that dietitians have opportunities to market their skills in developing nutritious menu items and providing staff training. Also, dietitians should encourage consumers (especially those with special dietary needs) to let restaurant managers know their menu and nutrition information needs. PMID:2016493

Sneed, J; Burkhalter, J P

1991-04-01

212

Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential…

Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

2013-01-01

213

Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children?survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children?nutritional status of indigenous peoples. PMID:23552397

2013-01-01

214

Nutrition and eating in female college athletes: a survey of coaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention/intervention services for athletes at their school, experience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches (51% response rate) involved in six sports (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, basketball, softball, track, and volleyball) at all levels of collegiate competition (NCAA Divisions I, II, III, and NAIA) completed a 40-item survey. Gender was found to be related to differential responding on only one of the 40 items, while sport and level of competition were related to responses on multiple items. Gymnastics coaches and NCAA Division I coaches differed significantly from coaches of other sports and divisions in that they reported more monitoring/management behaviors, had more experience with athletes exhibiting eating disturbances, and had more resources available for preventing and treating athletes with eating disorders. Gymnastics coaches also differed from other coaches on a number of items related to their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. Many coaches have encountered disturbed eating among their athletes, and some of their coaching attitudes and behaviors may inadvertently increase the risk for such disturbances. Implications for clinical and sport psychologists providing prevention or intervention services to intercollegiate athletes are discussed. PMID:16801252

Heffner, Jaimee L; Ogles, Benjamin M; Gold, Ellsa; Marsden, Kimberlyann; Johnson, Michael

2003-01-01

215

A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. METHODS: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407)

Mariane M. Fahlman; Joseph A. Dake; Nate McCaughtry; Jeffrey Martin

2008-01-01

216

A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

217

77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES will announce when it will reopen its repository for use of DNA specimens...

2012-06-11

218

75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements for the Inclusion of Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities...white, non-Hispanic black, or Mexican American. For NHANES 1999-2002, and...white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American or Other Hispanics....

2010-06-07

219

Selenium status and associated factors in a British National Diet and Nutrition Survey: young people aged 4–18 y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of selenium status to provide normative reference values, and investigation of associated socio-demographic factors, in a national sample of British young people aged 4–18 y.Setting: National Diet and Nutrition Survey—a nationwide cross-sectional sample of young people aged 4–18 y living in mainland Britain in 1997.Methods: Selenium status was measured, mainly in fasting blood samples, by plasma selenium concentration

CJ Bates; CW Thane; A Prentice; HT Delves; J Gregory

2002-01-01

220

X-ray examinations during pregnancy: National natality surveys, 1963 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

Given the increased awareness during the 1960s and 1970s of the danger of fetal exposure to ionizing radiation, many observers predicted a decline in fetal dose from medical diagnostic procedures that utilize ionizing radiation. Ultrasound became increasingly available during the 1970s, and was widely believed to have reduced fetal dose. We utilized data from the 1963 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS) to obtain information about exposure to ionizing radiation among mothers who had live births. Based on these surveys, the rate of medical x-ray examinations during pregnancy per 100 mothers fell 43.2 percent. A decrease in chest x-ray examinations. The reductions were greater for older mothers and those who were not White. While the number of births fell from 4 071 000 in 1963 to 3 612 000 in 1980, the number of pelvimetry examinations actually increased by 45 000.

Kaczmarek, R.G.; Moore, R.M. Jr.; Keppel, K.G.; Placek, P.J. (Office of Science and Technology, Rockville, MD (USA))

1989-01-01

221

Nutrition education in Missouri schools.  

PubMed

This survey examined the status of nutrition education in Missouri schools, profiled teacher preparation in nutrition, and identified teacher preferences for additional nutrition education resources. Questionnaires were mailed to a systematic sample of 1,664 teachers representing different grade levels K-12 and subject areas including biological science, health, home economics, and physical education. Responses from 793 teachers indicated most integrated nutrition into other subjects such as health and science. Almost all taught the concept of food groups. Teachers expressed a need for materials on a range of concepts and preferred the videotape format. About one-third of elementary teachers reported completing a college-level nutrition course: 70% of secondary teachers had completed such a course. Results indicate the need for materials to integrate nutrition into various subjects and encourage teaching on concepts beyond the food groups. PMID:7707716

Gates, G; McDonald, M; Dalton, M

1994-12-01

222

A follow-up survey of family physicians' interest in and knowledge of nutrition.  

PubMed

Forty-two practicing family physicians completed a questionnaire about 33 nutrition topic areas. They were among 71 physicians who, over an eight-year period (1980-1988), completed an identical questionnaire upon entry to their first postgraduate year in the family practice residency program at Brown University/Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island. Specific topic areas were grouped into five scales. Perceived knowledge of these topics significantly increased (p less than .0001) in all areas except nutritional biochemistry. There was significantly less (p less than .0001) interest in learning more about nutrition. One major exception was that the physicians wanted to learn more about nutrition counseling. Another exception was that nutrition in the life cycle remained an area about which they wanted to learn more. The physicians rated nutritional skills as less relevant on the second questionnaire than on the first. The authors conclude that more emphasis on nutrition counseling skills and nutrition in the life cycle may be appropriate in medical education. PMID:2102105

Jack, B W; Lasswell, A B; McQuade, W; Culpepper, L

1990-11-01

223

Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 1967–72. Food consumption

Jan Dich; Ritva Järvinen; Paul Knekt

1996-01-01

224

The Complex Emergency Database: A Global Repository of Small-Scale Surveys on Nutrition, Health and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2014-01-01

225

Provision of Nutrition Counseling, Referrals to Registered Dietitians, and Sources of Nutrition Information Among Practicing Chiropractors in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate US chiropractors’ provision of nutrition counseling and referrals to registered dietitians and sources of nutrition information. Chiropractors’ perceptions of the minimum educational requirement for registered dietitians and nutrition training received in chiropractic school were also examined.Design A descriptive study was conducted by use of a nationwide, mailed survey.Subjects\\/setting Surveys were sent to 1,590 practicing chiropractors in the

BRENT H WALKER; MILDRED K MATTFELDT-BEMAN; TERRY J TOMAZIC; MARJORIE A SAWICKI

2000-01-01

226

Nutritional State of Children in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): Based on the DPRK Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012.  

PubMed

A nationwide nutrition survey began when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) requested assistance from international relief organizations in 1997 due to flooding in 1995-1996, followed by the worsening food shortage peak in 1997. According to reported data for the 15 years since the active intervention and assistance from international societies, the malnutrition and mortality rates of children in the DPRK have improved. However, the prevalence of the stunting reported in the latest 2012 report is 27.9%, which is still a moderate-severe level, and worrisome in terms of international standards. In particular, the prevalence in Ryangangdo, which is regarded as the worst region in the DPRK, is 39.6%, which is a very high level of stunting. To alleviate such regional deviation will be a major task for future assistance. In addition, one cannot emphasize too highly the importance of early nutritional assistance for pregnant women and infants, considering that the recovery from stunted growth is low after two years of age, and the aftereffects would continue for the rest of their lives. PMID:25349828

Kim, Jeong Eun

2014-09-01

227

Nutritional State of Children in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): Based on the DPRK Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012  

PubMed Central

A nationwide nutrition survey began when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) requested assistance from international relief organizations in 1997 due to flooding in 1995-1996, followed by the worsening food shortage peak in 1997. According to reported data for the 15 years since the active intervention and assistance from international societies, the malnutrition and mortality rates of children in the DPRK have improved. However, the prevalence of the stunting reported in the latest 2012 report is 27.9%, which is still a moderate-severe level, and worrisome in terms of international standards. In particular, the prevalence in Ryangangdo, which is regarded as the worst region in the DPRK, is 39.6%, which is a very high level of stunting. To alleviate such regional deviation will be a major task for future assistance. In addition, one cannot emphasize too highly the importance of early nutritional assistance for pregnant women and infants, considering that the recovery from stunted growth is low after two years of age, and the aftereffects would continue for the rest of their lives. PMID:25349828

2014-01-01

228

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys  

PubMed Central

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

2011-01-01

229

Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars province, during December 2012 to January 2013. A total of 15408 children, aged 0–6 years old, were studied for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Also, socio-demographic measures were obtained from structured questionnaire. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to relate underlying factors to the odds of under-nutrition indices. Results: The rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 9.53, 9.66, and 8.19%, respectively. Male children were more stunted compared to females (OR= 1.41, CI: 1.26–1.58). Also, stunting was significantly associated with lower family income (OR= 3.21, CI: 1.17–8.85) and lower maternal education (OR= 0.80, CI: 0.64–0.98). Living in urban areas, and poor water supply were identified as significant risk factors of all three types of childhood under-nutrition. Moreover, Khamse and Arab ethnic groups were more vulnerable to under-nutrition. There was a suggestion that non-access to health services were associated with wasting (OR= 1.87, CI: 1.39–2.52) and also large family size was related to underweight (OR= 1.35, CI: 1.10–1.65). Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition in the study population was categorized in low levels. However, planning the public preventive strategies can help to control childhood under-nutrition according to underlying factors of malnutrition in the study population including gender, settlement area, family size, ethnicity, family income, maternal education, health services, and also safe water supply. PMID:25114945

Kavosi, Elham; Hassanzadeh Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Zahra; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar; Moghadami, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

230

Online Survey Examining Practitioners’ Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

2014-01-01

231

Online survey examining practitioners' perceived preparedness in the early identification of autism.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

James, Lesly W; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A; Schefkind, Sandra

2014-01-01

232

The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Childhood Maternal Education Level, Job Status Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is known to affect cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, the relationship between childhood SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education and occupational status and adult-onset MetS in the Korean population. Methods We examined the association between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education level and occupational status during an individual's childhood, and MetS in Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. The components of MetS, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure, were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results Significant differences in the association between maternal education level, occupational status, and MetS were found between males and females. In females, the adjusted MetS OR for the highest maternal education quartile relative to the lowest quartile was 0.46 (0.21-0.99). Similarly, in females, the adjusted OR for individuals whose mothers worked when they were children relative to those whose mothers did not work was 1.23 (1.04-1.44). In males, no significant associations between maternal education, maternal occupational status, and MetS were found. Conclusion We found independent, positive associations between maternal education and occupational status and MetS in Korean females. These findings suggest that public health education targeting MetS prevention should be considered, especially among children with less opportunity for maternal support. PMID:25120892

Choi, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chun, Eun-Hye

2014-01-01

233

The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results  

PubMed Central

Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical-epidemiological parameters evaluated for indigenous women point to the accentuated occurrence of nutrition transition in all regions of Brazil. Many outcomes also reflected a pattern whereby indigenous women’s and children’s health indicators were worse than those documented for the national Brazilian population, with important regional variations. Observed disparities in health indicators underscore that basic healthcare and sanitation services are not yet as widely available in Brazil’s indigenous communities as they are in the rest of the country. PMID:23331985

2013-01-01

234

Use of enteral nutritional supplementation: a survey of level II and III neonatal units in England.  

PubMed

Enteral nutritional supplementation is widely used in preterm babies on Neonatal Units (NNUs). There is little published evidence on appraising their long-term efficacy. We evaluated the current practice of enteral nutritional supplementation in 96 level II and III NNUs in England. 96%, 98%, 98% and 56% units use breast milk fortification (BMF), iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplementation respectively. Iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplements are routinely commenced in babies < 35 weeks gestation by 73%, 68% and 39% NNUs respectively. Seventy eight percent NNUs only use BMF for babies that are not gaining weight. Continuing variable practice of enteral nutritional supplementation and current use of anecdotal evidence and best guess recommendations highlights the need for a unified approach and collaborative multinational research to produce standardised guidelines. PMID:24034203

Ahmed, Mansoor; Brent, Julie; Ginn, Emma

2013-09-01

235

A Nutritional Survey of Children in Head Start Centers in Central United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a questionnaire in evaluating the nutritional status of Head Start children in rural, small city, and urban areas in central United States. The questionnaire, which was primarily concerned with the food preferences of the children, was filled out by the mother of each of the 154…

Cross, Marie Z.

236

Factors associated with low drinking water intake among adolescents: the Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, 2007.  

PubMed

There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (<3 glasses water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it <1 time/day, and drinking it 1 to 2 times/day (vs drinking it ?3 times/day; ORs 1.83, 1.91, and 1.32, respectively), drinking no milk and drinking <2 glasses of milk/day (vs drinking ?2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking <1 soda/day (vs drinking none; OR 1.40), drinking fruit-flavored drinks/sports drinks <1 time/day and drinking it ?1 time/day (vs drinking none; ORs 1.49 and 1.41, respectively), eating at a fast-food restaurant ?3 days/week (vs none; OR 1.38, respectively), not participating on team sports or participating on 1 to 2 team sports in previous 12 months (vs participating on ?3 teams; ORs 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), and consuming snack/soda while watching television/movies "sometimes" and "most/every time" (vs never; ORs 1.65 and 2.20, respectively). The strongest factor associated with low water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption. PMID:21802569

Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; O'Toole, Terrence; Huang, Youjie

2011-08-01

237

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

238

Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009), household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. Results In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476) respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863) had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p?

2012-01-01

239

Examination and Survey of User Satisfaction with Internet-based Learning Compared to Traditional Classroom-based Learning.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Melinda Kushniroff. AN EXAMINATION AND SURVEY OF USER SATISFACTION WITH INTERNET-BASED LEARNING COMPARED TO TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM-BASED LEARNING. (Under the direction of Dr. Clarence Holland)… (more)

Kushniroff, Melinda Carol

2008-01-01

240

A pan EU survey of consumer attitudes to food, nutrition and health: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate attitudes to food, nutrition and health among nationally-representative samples of adults from each member state of the European Union. Overall, 14?331 subjects completed the face-to-face interviewer-assisted questionnaire. A majority of EU subjects believe they do not need to alter their diets, as they perceive them to be already healthly enough. Price may

Raimo Lappalainen; John Kearney; Michael Gibney

1998-01-01

241

The problem of accuracy in dietary surveys. Analysis of the over 65 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo investigate the prevalence and nature of low energy reporting in a dietary survey of British adults over 65 years of age.DESIGNRandomly selected cross sectional sample of 2060 British adults over 65 years. Four day weighed food diaries and questionnaires on health, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics.SETTINGGreat Britain.PARTICIPANTS539 women and 558 men over 65 years who were free living and

Adrian Cook; Jane Pryer; Prakash Shetty

2000-01-01

242

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data.  

PubMed

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-08-01

243

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

244

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-01-01

245

Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that

Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

2002-01-01

246

Doctors and the provision of advice on nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes some key findings from surveys conducted by the National Dairy Council to establish attitudes towards nutrition and the provision of dietary advice among GPs and the general public. Examines the confidence of GPs in explaining terms and concepts relating to nutrition. Reveals uncertainty among both health professionals and the public. Looks at factors which affect people’s ability to change

Judy Buttriss

1996-01-01

247

Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

1999-01-01

248

Estimation of the use of dietary supplements in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey: People Aged 65 Years and Over. An observed paradox and a recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the evidence derived from blood biochemical status indices with the evidence from a questionnaire and from a 4-day weighed dietary record of micronutrient supplement use in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of People Aged 65 Years and Over; to resolve some apparent incompatibility between nutrient intake and status estimates, and to recommend an approach

CJ Bates; A Prentice; JC van der Pols; C Walmsley; KD Pentieva; S Finch; G Smithers; PC Clarke

1998-01-01

249

The Nutritional Status of Low-Income Preschool Children in the United States: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the nutritional status of low-income preschool children in the United States discusses the topic in historical perspective and details current knowledge of the nutritional status of preschoolers. Discussion first focuses on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II of 1976-80, and then turns to the National Food…

Kotch, Jonathan; Shackelford, Jo

250

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009  

PubMed Central

This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20?yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20)?mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C. PMID:24800083

Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

2014-01-01

251

2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan: the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 19-64 year old adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese adults. Results indicated that adults' knowledge on 'relationship between diet and disease' and 'comparison of foods in terms of specific nutrients' is acceptable. However, they lack knowledge on 'daily serving requirements' and 'weight and weight loss'. Although they recognize the importance of nutrition, nutrition was not the major concern of food selection. Significant differences were found among gender and age groups. Females of most age groups are better than males in many aspects of nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior except emotional and external eating behavior. Young (age 19-30) and prime (age 31-44) adults have better knowledge than that of middle adults (age 45-64), while prime adults hold a more positive attitude than young adults. As for nutrition behavior, prime and middle adults are better than young adults. Nutrition knowledge and attitude of adults in urban areas is generally better than those in suburban and remote areas. However, adults in urban areas perform 'emotional and external cued eating' more frequently than those in suburban and remote areas. There are significantly positive correlations among nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior; and attitude has stronger correlation (r=0.42) with behavior than knowledge does (r=0.27). Therefore, to achieve desirable eating behaviors, the adult nutrition education program should include knowledge of what constitutes a balanced diet and what constitutes being overweight. Proper strategies to enhance the behavioral motivation of healthy food selection must also not be neglected. PMID:21669600

Lin, Wei; Hang, Chi-Ming; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hung, Ming-Hui

2011-01-01

252

Current coding practices and patterns of code use of registered dietitian nutritionists: the academy of nutrition and dietetics 2013 coding survey.  

PubMed

Coding, coverage, and reimbursement for nutrition services are vital to the dietetics profession, particularly to registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) who provide clinical care. The objective of this study was to assess RDN understanding and use of the medical nutrition therapy (MNT) procedure codes in the delivery of nutrition services. Its design was an Internet survey of all RDNs listed in the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy)/Commission on Dietetics Registration database as of September 2013 who resided in the United States and were not retired. Prior coding and coverage surveys provided a basis for survey development. Parameters assessed included knowledge and use of existing MNT and/or alternative procedure codes, barriers to code use, payer reimbursement patterns, complexity of the patient population served, time spent in the delivery of initial and subsequent care, and practice demographics and management. Results show that a majority of respondents were employed by another and provided outpatient MNT services on a part-time basis. MNT codes were used for the provision of individual services, with minimal use of the MNT codes for group services and subsequent care. The typical patient carries two or more diagnoses. The majority of RDNs uses internal billing departments and support staff in their practices. The payer mix is predominantly Medicare and private/commercial insurance. Managers and manager/providers were more likely than providers to carry malpractice insurance. Results point to the need for further education regarding the full spectrum of Current Procedural Terminology codes available for RDN use and the business side of ambulatory MNT practice, including the need to carry malpractice insurance. This survey is part of continuing Academy efforts to understand the complex web of relationships among clinical practice, coverage, MNT code use, and reimbursement so as to further support nutrition services codes revision and/or expansion. PMID:25257366

Parrott, J Scott; White, Jane V; Schofield, Marsha; Hand, Rosa K; Gregoire, Mary B; Ayoob, Keith T; Pavlinac, Jessie; Lewis, Jaime Lynn; Smith, Karen

2014-10-01

253

Are diets high in non-milk extrinsic sugars conducive to obesity? An analysis from the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults.  

PubMed

Restriction of dietary sugars is often advocated for weight control, alongside a reduced fat and energy intake. This project examined data from the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al, 1990) to evaluate the associations between non-milk extrinsic (NME) sugars (as a percentage of food energy) and body mass index (BMI), energy intake and percentage energy from fat. The influence of dieting and potential under reporting on these relationships was also explored. BMI was inversely associated with percentage energy from NME sugars. The relationship was weak, but did not appear to be a mere artifact of dieting and/or under reporting. The well-recognized reciprocal relationship between sugars energy and fat energy was also seen with saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but not with trans fatty acids. As a result of the sugar : fat see saw effect, only 2% of men and women met the current dietary targets for both fat and NME sugars, suggesting that these may be incompatible on a practical level. These analyses suggest that high (NME) sugar diets appear to be weakly related to leanness rather than obesity, although the relationship is weaker than the inverse association between sugars and fat. It is hypothesized that overweight and diet-restrained individuals often choose to restrict NME sugars: a strategy which can result in a higher (proportional) fat diet and weight gain. Emphasis on reducing NME sugars intakes may be counterproductive to attempts to reduce proportional fat intake and body weight. PMID:17539875

Gibson, S A

2007-06-01

254

Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration.  

PubMed

This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. PMID:24776459

Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

2014-10-01

255

The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior. Analyses were based on the 2003 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,322 students in grades six through eight in 73 Florida public middle schools. Analyses included ?2 tests and logistic regression. The outcome measure was buying a snack or beverage from vending machines 2 or more days during the previous 5 days instead of buying lunch. The survey response rate was 72%. Eighteen percent of respondents reported purchasing a snack or beverage from a vending machine 2 or more days during the previous 5 school days instead of buying school lunch. Although healthier options were available, the most commonly purchased vending machine items were chips, pretzels/crackers, candy bars, soda, and sport drinks. More students chose snacks or beverages instead of lunch in schools where beverage vending machines were also available than did students in schools where beverage vending machines were unavailable: 19% and 7%, respectively (P?0.05). The strongest risk factor for buying snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunch was availability of beverage vending machines in schools (adjusted odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.7). Other statistically significant risk factors were smoking, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, Hispanic ethnicity, and older age. Although healthier choices were available, the most common choices were the less-healthy foods. Schools should consider developing policies to reduce the availability of less-healthy choices in vending machines and to reduce access to beverage vending machines. PMID:20869493

Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Huang, Youjie; Sherry, Bettylou; Bensyl, Diana M

2010-10-01

256

From Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a sequential exploratory mixed methods study, 9 months of ethnographically guided observations and interviews were used to develop a survey examining graduate engineering student retention. Findings from the ethnographic fieldwork yielded several themes, including international diversity, research group organization and climate,…

Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

2013-01-01

257

Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses  

PubMed Central

During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea (=Typhlotriton) spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano. Furthermore, E. spelaea capture numbers increased significantly during the time that grey bats (Myotis grisescens) deposited fresh guano. We investigated the hypothesis that this behaviour was not incidental to the capture of invertebrate prey, but a diet switch to an energy-rich detritus in an oligotrophic environment. Stable isotope assays determined that guano may be assimilated into salamander muscle tissue, and nutritional analyses revealed that guano is a comparable food source to potential invertebrate prey items. This is the first report of coprophagy in a salamander and in any amphibian for reasons other than intestinal inoculation. Because many temperate subterranean environments are often energy poor and this limitation is thought to select for increased diet breadth, we predict that coprophagy may be common in subterranean vertebrates where it is not currently recognized. PMID:16615210

Fenolio, Dante B; Graening, G.O; Collier, Bret A; Stout, Jim F

2005-01-01

258

Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.  

PubMed

The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. PMID:25070696

Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

2014-09-01

259

Nutritional Status of Children below Five Years in Malaysia: Anthropometric Analyses from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS, 2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia. Over 21,000 children aged 0-17.9 years were measured for body weight and stature according to the protocol of the World Health Organization. This article describes the nutritional status of children aged 0-59.9 months. Mean z score for weight-

Khor GL; Noor Safiza MN; Jamalludin AB; Alan Wong N F; Suzana S; Ahmad FY

260

Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

2011-01-01

261

Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland. PMID:24598015

Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

2014-05-01

262

Relationship between methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, vitamin B12 intake and status and socio-economic indices, in a subset of participants in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of functional vitamin B12 status in a subset of the respondents in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over.Setting: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: a British nationwide cross-sectional sample of people aged 65 y and over, living either in the community or in institutions such as nursing homes, during one calendar

C J Bates; J Schneede; G Mishra; A Prentice; M A Mansoor

2003-01-01

263

HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners.  

PubMed

HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process. PMID:25029636

Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S

2014-12-01

264

A national survey in England of the routine examination of the newborn baby  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to identify current practices for the initial routine examination of healthy newborn babies, and determine the extent to which midwives are carrying out this examination.Design and participants: postal questionnaires were sent to consultant paediatricians and midwifery managers in all maternity units in England. Questionnaires were also sent to the 12 universities in England which run the N96 post-registration course

Julie Hayes; Shreya Dave; Catherine Rogers; Emmanuel Quist-Therson; Joy Townsend

2003-01-01

265

Alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Light and mod- erate alcohol consumption have been associated with reduced car- diovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome. Design: The study sample comprised 7962 Korean adults (3597 men, 4365

Yeong Sook Yoon; Sang Woo Oh; Hyun Wook Baik; Hye Soon Park; Wha Young Kim

266

Sugary Soda Consumption and Albuminuria: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEnd-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsDesign was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National

David A. Shoham; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Holly Kramer; Amy Luke; Suma Vupputuri; Abhijit Kshirsagar; Richard S. Cooper; Carmine Zoccali

2008-01-01

267

Carbohydrate intake and biomarkers of glycemic control among US adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recommendations for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes include consuming carbohydrates, predominantly from whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and low-fat milk. However, the quantity and type of carbohydrates consumed may contribute to disorders of glycemic control. Objective: We evaluated the association between carbohydrate intakes and biomarkers of glycemic control in a nationally repre- sentative sample of healthy US adults who

Eun Ju Yang; Jean M Kerver; Yi Kyung Park; Jean Kayitsinga; David B Allison; Won O Song

268

Short Sleep Duration as a Risk Factor for Hypertension Analyses of the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depriving healthy subjects of sleep has been shown to acutely increase blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity. Prolonged short sleep durations could lead to hypertension through extended exposure to raised 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, and increased salt retention. Such forces could lead to structural adaptations and the entrainment of the cardiovascular system

James E. Gangwisch; Steven B. Heymsfield; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Ruud M. Buijs; Felix Kreier; Thomas G. Pickering; Andrew G. Rundle; Gary K. Zammit; Dolores Malaspina

2010-01-01

269

Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depriving healthy subjects of sleep has been shown to acutely increase blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity. Prolonged short sleep durations could lead to hypertension through extended exposure to raised 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, and increased salt retention. Such forces could lead to structural adaptations and the entrainment of the cardiovascular system

J. E. Gangwisch; S. B. Heymsfield; B. Boden-Albala; R. M. Buijs; F. Kreier; T. G. Pickering; A. G. Rundle; G. K. Zamit; D. Malaspina

2006-01-01

270

Depression and the Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous reports have suggested that depression may lead to the development of cardiovascular disease through its association with the metabolic syndrome; however, little is known about the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to establish an association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample. Methods: The Third National

LESLIE S. KINDER; MERCEDES R. CARNETHON; LATHA P. PALANIAPPAN; ABBY C. KING; STEPHEN P. FORTMANN

2004-01-01

271

Actinic Skin Damage and Mortality - the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsSubjects were 8472 white participants aged 25–74 years in the First National Health and

Wei He; Fei Zhu; Xiaoguang Ma; Xinyu Zhao; Min Zheng; Zhao Chen; Steven B. Heymsfield; Shankuan Zhu

2011-01-01

272

Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI) cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively) (p < 0.05). There were significant increases in the prevalence of low-BMI-for-age among the total (29% increase) and male (39%) adolescent populations when the proposal of the International Obesity Task Force was compared to current WHO BMI-for-age cut-offs (p < 0.05). It is shown that a simple change in cut-off values used to define the anthropometric nutritional status can significantly modify the nutritional profile of an adolescent population. PMID:19649426

Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de

2009-08-01

273

Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

2014-01-01

274

Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear\\u000a association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity\\u000a and type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To evaluate whether there is an independent association between food insecurity and diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative,

Hilary K. Seligman; Andrew B. Bindman; Eric Vittinghoff; Alka M. Kanaya; Margot B. Kushel

2007-01-01

275

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention. PMID:23714275

2013-01-01

276

[Introduction of the information processing system of medical examinations of yusho patients and some results obtained by the 1986 survey].  

PubMed

Information processing system for newly established, unified medical examinations of yusho patients which started in September 1985 was presented. Some comparative analysis was also shown on the "important findings" in yusho patients residing in Fukuoka or Nagasaki prefecture. In the 1986 survey, Fukuoka male patients showed higher percentages of pigmentation in toe nail, gingiva and palpebral conjunctiva than Nagasaki (p less than 0.01), whereas Nagasaki male patients showed higher percentages of pigmentation in buccal and lip mucosa. Average concentration of PCB in blood was higher in Nagasaki male patients (6.79 ppb) than in Fukuoka patients (4.39 ppb), the difference being significant at 1% level. PMID:2501202

Kataoka, K; Okubo, A; Shinohara, S; Hirota, Y; Hirohata, T

1989-05-01

277

Exclusive breastfeeding and nutritional status in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : The purposes of the study were to assess exclusive breastfeeding practice and examine the factors effect on nutritional\\u000a status of children from 0 to 24 months age.Method : Data from a national survey entitled “Surveillance on Breastfeeding and Weaning Situation and Child and Maternal Health\\u000a in Bangladesh were used to investigate the exclusive breastfeeding practice and to examine

M. S. Giashuddin; M. Kabir; A. Rahman; M. A. Hannan

2003-01-01

278

Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys12345  

PubMed Central

Background: The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice. Objective: We applied VDSP protocols to existing ELISA-derived serum 25(OH)D data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) as a case-study survey and evaluated their effectiveness by comparison of the protocol-projected estimates with those from a reanalysis of survey serums by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–tandem MS). Design: The VDSP reference system and protocols were applied to ELISA-based serum 25(OH)D data from the representative NANS sample (n = 1118). A reanalysis of 99 stored serums by using standardized LC–tandem MS and resulting regression equations yielded predicted standardized serum 25(OH)D values, which were then compared with LC–tandem MS reanalyzed values for all serums. Results: Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30, <40, and <50 nmol/L were 6.5%, 21.9%, and 40.0%, respectively, via original ELISA measurements and 11.4%, 25.3%, and 43.7%, respectively, when VDSP protocols were applied. Differences in estimates at <30- and <40-nmol/L thresholds, but not at the <50-nmol/L threshold, were significant (P < 0.05). A reanalysis of all serums by using LC–tandem MS confirmed prevalence estimates as 11.2%, 27.2%, and 45.0%, respectively. Prevalences of serum 25(OH)D concentrations >125 nmol/L were 1.2%, 0.3%, and 0.6% by means of ELISA, VDSP protocols, and LC–tandem MS, respectively. Conclusion: VDSP protocols hold a major potential for national nutrition and health surveys in terms of the standardization of serum 25(OH)D data. PMID:23615829

Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T

2013-01-01

279

Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?  

PubMed

Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician's concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition. PMID:22025921

Ryoo, Eell

2011-07-01

280

Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?  

PubMed Central

Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician's concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition. PMID:22025921

2011-01-01

281

Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009  

PubMed Central

We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009. PMID:24757561

Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2014-01-01

282

Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives Guided by the UNICEF framework for childcare, this study examined the association of childcare practices (CCP) with infant and young children's growth (height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), and investigated whether care practices are more important to growth in some sociodemographic subgroups of children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Urban and rural Ghana. Participants The study sample comprised 1187 dyads of mothers aged 15–49?years and their youngest child (aged 6–36?months). Results The results showed that CCP was a significant predictor of HAZ, after controlling for covariates/confounders at child, maternal and household levels. Children with higher CCP scores had higher HAZ. A 1-unit increase in the CCP score was associated with a 0.17-unit increase in HAZ. Child's and mother's age, number of children under 5?years, place of residence, maternal weight and wealth index were also significantly associated with HAZ. Statistical interaction analyses revealed no subgroup differences in the CCP/HAZ relationship. Conclusions This study found a significant, positive association between CCP and child growth, after accounting for other important determinants of child growth at maternal and household levels. This calls for research into the effects on growth of various CCP components, with longitudinal cohort study designs that can disentangle causal relationships. PMID:25366675

Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna; Matanda, Dennis J; Urke, Helga B

2014-01-01

283

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

284

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

285

The National Adolescent Student Health Survey: Survey Replication Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS), initiated in 1985, is conducted to examine the health-related knowledge, practices, and attitudes of the nation's youth in the following health areas: AIDS; Nutrition; Consumer Health; Sexually Transmitted Disease; Drug and Alcohol Use; Suicide; Injury Prevention; and Violence. Findings…

American School Health Association, Kent, OH.

286

Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition

Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

2011-01-01

287

Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

288

The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations  

PubMed Central

Background The age-association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be partially because its metabolic risk factors tend to rise with age. Few studies have analyzed age-associations of multiple metabolic risks in the same population, especially in nationally representative samples. We examined worldwide variations in the age associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Methods and Results We used individual records from 83 nationally or sub-nationally representative health examination surveys in 52 countries to fit a linear model to risk factor data between ages 30-64 years for SBP and FPG, and between 30-54 years for TC. We report the cross-country variation of the slope and intercept of this relationship. We also assessed non-linear associations in older ages. Between 30 and 64 years of age, SBP increased by 1.7-11.6 mmHg per ten years of age and FPG increased by 0.8-20.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different countries and in the two sexes. Between 30 and 54 years of age, TC increased by 0.2-22.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different surveys and in the two sexes. For all risk factors and in most countries, risk factor levels rose more steeply among women than among men, especially for TC. On average, there was a flattening of age-SBP relationship in older ages; TC and FPG age associations reversed in older ages, leading to lower levels in older ages than in middle ages. Conclusions The rise with age of major metabolic CVD risk factors varies substantially across populations, especially for FPG and TC. TC rises more steeply in high-income countries and FPG in the Oceania countries, the Middle East, and the US. The SBP age association had no specific income or geographical pattern. PMID:22492580

Pelizzari, Pamela M; Lin, John K; Cowan, Melanie J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Khang, Young-Ho; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M; Lim, Stephen S; Ezzati, Majid

2014-01-01

289

Nutritional Vulnerability of Older Persons Living in Urban Areas of Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa: A Cross Sectional Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of malnutrition and (2) investigate factors affecting nutritional status of older persons living in urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin. The prevalence of underweight was 16.5%, with men (24.1%) being significantly more likely to be underweight (P < 0.05) than women (12.3%). Overall, 61.2% had normal body mass indices, 13.2% were

Maureen J. Cheserek; Judith N. Waudo; Prisca J. Tuitoek; John M. Msuya; Joyce K. Kikafunda

2012-01-01

290

Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

291

Gastrointestinal symptoms and food/nutrition concerns after the great East Japan earthquake in March 2011: survey of evacuees in a temporary shelter.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern Japan. A resulting tsunami struck the Japan Pacific coast, causing >20,000 deaths, injuries and missing persons. Survivors' post-tsunami health and nutritional status were surveyed one month after the disaster in a school shelter in Ishinomaki City. Hyogo College of Medicine's disaster relief team observations and survivors' questionnaires were used to assess the disaster's effects on survivors' lifestyles and gastrointestinal symptoms while residing in temporary shelters. Of 236 disaster evacuees 9-88 years of age (mean age 52 years), 23% lost weight and 28% reported decreased food intake one month after the earthquake. Up to 25% of the participants presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation (10%), appetite loss (6.4%), vomiting (6.4%), and nausea (2.1%). Although the victims preferred more vegetables (44%) or fruit (33%), most food aid received, such as rice balls or bread, was carbohydrate-based, possibly because of easy provision and abundance in emergency food pantries. The authors asked the volunteers and the Japan Self-Defense Forces to provide a more balanced diet, including vegetables and fruit. Consumption of imbalanced diets may have caused more gastrointestinal symptoms for the survivors. Because of the victims' hesitation to request more balanced diets, and because of poorly controlled existing chronic disease and mental stress, professional public health providers should assure emergency food nutrition after disasters. PMID:24905001

Inoue, Tomoko; Nakao, Atsunori; Kuboyama, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Atsunori; Masutani, Motomaru; Ueda, Takahiro; Kotani, Joji

2014-06-01

292

Nutrition and Health in Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of nutrition in Canadian society, focussing particularly on those aspects which influence individual choices and preferences. The material is organized as follows: Section II examines the setting of nutrition in Canada in t...

I. M. Ducharme, M. Adam, J. A. Bachynsky, M. Ballantyne, P. G. Banister

1979-01-01

293

Nutritional Status of Papua New Guinea's Population and Its Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a nationally representative household survey in 1996 are used to describe the nutritional status of the rural and urban popu lations. The indicators examined are the per capita availabilities of calories and protein, the energy density of the diet, the standardised height of young children and the body-mass index of adults. Multivariate analysis shows that nutrient availability rises

John Gibson

294

Iron deficiency in older people: Interactions between food and nutrient intakes with biochemical measures of iron; further analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantitatively investigate relationships between food consumption, nutrient intake and biochemical markers of iron status in a population of older people.Design: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative population of men and women aged 65 y and over.Setting: Mainland Great BritainSubjects: 1268 participants (651 men and 617 women) who provided both dietary intake and blood

W Doyle; H Crawley; H Robert; CJ Bates; Wendy Doyle

1999-01-01

295

In a population study, can parathyroid hormone aid the definition of adequate vitamin D status? A study of people aged 65 years and over from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over in 1994-5 provided nationally representative estimates of food and nutrient intakes and biochemical status indices. In a further analysis study, parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were measured in plasma samples from 773 subjects and were analyzed with the existing data on vitamin D intake, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D

C. J. Bates; G. D. Carter; G. D. Mishra; D. O'Shea; J. Jones; A. Prentice

2003-01-01

296

Nutrition Education to Prevent Obesity in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15.3% of children ages 6-11 are obese; an 8% increase since 1980. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys have provided nationally representative data on health statistics since the 1960’s. Comparing these surveys, the growing rates of childhood obesity are undeniable, as are the increasing rates of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and multiple other conditions associated

Marilyn Susanne Lee

2004-01-01

297

Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

2008-01-01

298

Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

Pencharz, P. B.

1982-01-01

299

Examining Characteristics and Associated Distress Related to Internet Harassment: Findings From the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.We sought to identify the characteristics of youth who are targets of Internet harassment and characteristics related to reporting distress as a result of the incident. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS.The Second Youth Internet Safety Survey is a national telephone survey of a random sample of 1500 Internet users between the ages of 10 and 17 years conducted between March and June

Michele L. Ybarra; Kimberly J. Mitchell; Janis Wolak; David Finkelhor

2010-01-01

300

Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact. As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. Methods A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). Results The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4?±?6.3 vs. 43.4?±?8.9; p?

2013-01-01

301

SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

302

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

303

Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) availability with the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Our work builds on previous research by developing a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without, using serum…

Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.

2006-01-01

304

Correlates of plasma homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine in respondents in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4-18 years, and a comparison with the survey of people aged 65 years and over.  

PubMed

Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine were measured in a representative sample of 922 young people aged 4-18 years, participating in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey in mainland Britain in 1997. Both tHcy and cysteine increased markedly with age; cysteinyl-glycine less so. Neither tHcy nor cysteine differed between genders; cysteinyl-glycine was higher in males. tHcy concentrations were lowest in the winter; cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine varied only slightly with season. In respondents aged >15 years, tHcy was higher in smokers, but in respondents aged 7-11 years, tHcy was higher in those whose mothers smoked. tHcy was inversely correlated with serum folate, serum vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 status, but neither cysteine nor cysteinyl-glycine shared these relationships. The relationships between tHcy and B-vitamin status indices ran parallel with those of the 65 years and over survey, but at much lower tHcy concentrations for any given B-vitamin concentration. Age-adjusted tHcy was not correlated with anthropometric indices, blood pressure, haematology, plasma creatinine, urea or cholesterol, but was directly correlated with fasting triacylglycerol. We conclude that disease-risk indices, like tHcy and perhaps cysteine, if established during early life, may be modulated by diet and lifestyle, thereby providing an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:11895315

Bates, C J; Mansoor, M A; Gregory, Jan; Pentiev, Kristina; Prentice, Ann

2002-01-01

305

Examining the folate status of Canadians: An analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to assess and guide folate policies.  

PubMed

Canada fortifies certain products with folic acid and has periconceptional supplementation guidelines [Formula: see text] policies designed to improve folate status and reduce the incidence of poor birth outcomes. Though optimal folate concentrations have been linked to health benefits, concerns have been raised regarding potential associations with adverse health outcomes. Direct biochemical assessment of the folate status of Canadians based on a nationally representative sample has not been done in more than 40 years. The overall purpose of this research was to investigate the folate status of the Canadian population. All analyses used the nationally representative 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Red blood cell (RBC) folate was measured by Immulite 2000 immunoassay. Key findings indicate that folate deficiency (<305 nmol/L) was virtually nonexistent in the Canadian population (6-79 years old). Still, one-fifth of women of childbearing age (WCBA; 15-45 years old) had suboptimal concentrations for the prevention of neural tube defects (<906 nmol/L). Folic acid supplement intake was a primary determinant of WCBA, achieving a RBC folate concentration of ?906 nmol/L. A distinct shift towards elevated RBC folate concentrations emerged. Three hypothetical cut-offs (1450 nmol/L, 1800 nmol/L and 2150 nmol/L) were examined to create a dialogue since a universal definition of high RBC folate concentration does not exist. Females, participants aged 60-79 years, and those who were overweight or obese had the greatest prevalence of having high RBC folate at each cut-off. We conducted the first national-level comparison of RBC folate concentrations between the United States and Canada. Two different folate assay methods [Formula: see text] microbiologic assay (NHANES) and Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) [Formula: see text] necessitated the application of a conversion equation. Median Canadian RBC folate concentrations (adjusted to microbiologic assay) were lower than those of Americans but unadjusted Canadian median RBC folate values were higher. Canadian WCBA were less likely than American WCBA to have RBC folate ?906 nmol/L, though Canadian WCBA with unadjusted RBC folate values were more likely to achieve this cut-off. These results indicate a need for strategies targeting WCBA to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations. The strength and necessity of supplements for the general population should be re-assessed. Further, harmonization of folate measurement procedures in future surveillance efforts would support comparisons and inform policy directions. PMID:24552387

Colapinto, Cynthia K

2014-03-01

306

Intellectual Development of Children as Measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, United States. Data from the Health Examination Survey, Series 11, Number 107.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents national estimates of the intellectual development levels of noninstitutionalized children 6-11 years of age in the United States. These estimates were determined by scores on the Vocabulary and Block Design subtest of the WISC obtained in the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65. Findings are shown by age, sex, and grade in…

Roberts, Jean

307

Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

2011-01-01

308

Variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Britain. An analysis from the dietary and nutritional survey of British adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Using a national representative sample to examine variation in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in the UK, with particular reference to consumers with high and low reported intakes.Design: National representative dietary survey using 7-d weighed diet records of men and women aged 16–64 y living in private households in the UK in 1986–1987.Setting: The UK.Subjects: 1087 men and

H Billson; JA Pryer; R Nichols

1999-01-01

309

Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools  

PubMed Central

Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n?=?42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

2013-01-01

310

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63\\/72; 87.5±12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female

B. J. Dascombe; M. Karunaratna; J. Cartoon; B. Fergie; C. Goodman

2010-01-01

311

Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Improves Participants' Food Security in Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to use convincing research methodology to demonstrate the benefits of nutrition assistance programs targeted to vulnerable older adults. We examined the impact of Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) participation on food security in participants and waitlisted people in Georgia using two waves of self-administered mail surveys conducted 4 months apart (n = 717, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5, 70.9% female,

Jung Sun Lee; Mary Ann Johnson; Arvine Brown

2011-01-01

312

Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

313

The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines  

PubMed Central

Background Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007. However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. Methods All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p?survey, but in 4 cases the questionnaire was not fully completed (with single items missing). More than half of the study participants (n?=?34/59; 58%) have experienced (at least sometimes or rarely) candidates that they deemed incompetent and perhaps even dangerous to the patients’ health who nevertheless passed the oral exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included “strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations”, “reliability”, “validity”, “competence in grading”, “critical grading”, and “departmental improvements” concerning oral examinations. Conclusions In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical problems and a criteria-based critical grading system for oral examinations. Since the impact of the training was particularly high for colleagues from the operative disciplines, the training program should be offered especially in surgical departments. PMID:23822855

2013-01-01

314

Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

Saperstein, Aliya

2006-01-01

315

The National Survey of Student Engagement as a Predictor of Undergraduate GPA: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) collected across seven years were used to predict final, cumulative grade point averages (GPA). Cross-product regression was used to explore the predictive abilities of the NSSE benchmark scores for freshmen (n = 2578) and seniors (n = 2293) collected in cross-sectional cohorts.…

Fuller, M. B.; Wilson, M. A.; Tobin, R. M.

2011-01-01

316

Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01

317

Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?  

PubMed

The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. PMID:22728950

Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

2012-10-01

318

Foods & Nutrition Program Dietetics Montana State University  

E-print Network

3 4 5 Medical terminology 1 2 3 4 5 Medical nutrition therapy 1 2 3 4 5 Calculate specific diets Community nutrition programs 1 2 3 4 5 Social/cultural/ethnic issues of food/diet 1 2 3 4 5 Role of foodFoods & Nutrition Program ­ Dietetics Montana State University Exit Survey ­ Spring 2009 Knowledge

Dyer, Bill

319

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

320

[The first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1): participant recruitment, fieldwork, and quality management].  

PubMed

The purpose of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is to repeatedly obtain representative nationwide health data for adults aged 18-79 years living in Germany. The first wave (DEGS1) was carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) from November 2008 to December 2011. The study has a mixed design, which permits both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. It was carried out on an up-to-date sample from the population registration office and on participants from the 1998 German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES98), who were invited to take part again. All newly selected individuals, and those GNHIES98 participants living in the same locations as in 1998, were asked to undergo an interview and examination. GNHIES98 participants who had moved to a different location were asked to take part in a survey based on self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews. This article describes the practicalities of recruiting participants, planning and carrying out fieldwork, managing data, and taking measures to ensure the quality of the process and data. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703477

Gößwald, A; Lange, M; Dölle, R; Hölling, H

2013-05-01

321

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

322

Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11?835 male and 12?561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004?kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

323

Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n?=?119), including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs), quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs), enrolled nurses (ENs)/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs) and assistants in nursing (AINs) was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT) capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents after hospital discharge. Conclusions This survey identified a high volume of information exchange activities, as well as inefficient procedures, such as the transfer of information from paper to computer systems and the reliance upon faxes for communication with external providers. These findings contribute to evidence for the need for interoperable IT systems to allow more efficient and reliable information exchange between facilities and external providers. PMID:22856585

2012-01-01

324

Malnutrition in emergencies: the framing of nutrition concerns in the humanitarian appeals process, 1992 to 2009.  

PubMed

This paper examines how nutrition has been used to raise humanitarian relief resources through the United Nations appeals process, from 1992 to early 2009. Recent calls for "nutrition safety nets" as a response to the world food price crisis reflect a growing recognition of nutrition as a key element in crisis management, not simply as a metric of how bad things have become. The evolution in thinking about the role of nutrition in emergency programming is reflected in changes in how nutrition has been conceptualized and presented in the consolidated appeals process. Based on a desk review, supported by key informant interviews, the paper highlights important changes that include an increasing distinction that separates nutrition from food, water, and health; the importance of synergies across sectors; increased emphasis on "essential packages" of inputs and services versus stand-alone activities; the importance of technical rigor in food and nutrition assessment and surveys; the need for technical competency and capacity in the design and management of nutrition interventions; and the importance of planning for long-term change even in delivering a short-term response. There has also been growing emphasis on specificity in objectives--a trend linked to demand for more accountability across the humanitarian system. Enhanced emergency preparedness will require further capacity building and improved systems for surveillance and data management. Without more systematic, targeted attention to pre-crisis malnutrition, the resources needed to tackle nutrition problems during emergencies will continue to grow. PMID:20496628

Webb, Patrick

2009-12-01

325

Nutrition Education for Social Change: Critical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paucity of research making use of theories that examine the social world as the source of nutritional problems suggests a need to examine alternate theories for nutrition education. This viewpoint builds an argument for the potential contributions of critical social science to nutrition education research and practice. A review of the assumptions of critical social science follows a critique

Kim D. Travers

1997-01-01

326

"Examining the Healthy Immigrant Effect in Mid-To Later Life: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have established that a healthy immigrant effect operates in Canada--immigrants are generally healthier than Canadian-born persons--but that this effect tends to diminish over time, as the health of immigrants converges to the Canadian norm. Although this effect has been examined by place of birth, language, marital status,…

Gee, Ellen Margaret Thomas; Kobayashi, Karen M.; Prus, Steven G.

2004-01-01

327

Diet, nutritional status, and cancer risk in american blacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 35% (10–70%) of all cancers may be associated with nutritional causes (1). However, while natural or added substances in foods may be carcinogenic, nutritional deficiencies or excesses may promote carcinogenesis. We compared data from blacks and whites using dietary and nutritional status surveys in the United States to determine whether the poorer dietary patterns and nutritional status of American

Margaret Kirkcaldy Hargreaves; Claudia Baquet; Amiri Gamshadzahi

1989-01-01

328

Racial Difference in Lung Function in African-American and White Children: Effect of Anthropometric, Socioeconomic, Nutritional, and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American children have lower lung volumes than White children. However, the contributions of anthropometric, socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental factors to this difference are unknown. From participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors selected 1,462 healthy nonsmoking children (623 White and 839 African-American) aged 8-17 years. The African- American children were taller and heavier but

Raida I. Harik-Khan; Denis C. Muller; Robert A. Wise

329

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

330

Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

2007-01-01

331

SNACK PEANUTS PURCHASE PATTERN: EFFECTS OF NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of a meal planner's nutritional awareness, exercise habits, and household socioeconomic characteristics on market participation and frequency of purchase of snack peanuts. Data are from a household survey of 2880 U.S. households collected by Gallup in 1997. Statistical tests showed that a double-hurdle or Cragg model best represented consumers' participation and purchase level decisions in

Arbindra Rimal; Stanley M. Fletcher

2002-01-01

332

Patient Expectations and Satisfaction With Home Health Nutritional Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the nutritional care provided by home health nurses using patient satisfaction as an outcome measure of quality of care. Instrumentation for the study included a self-reported patient satisfaction survey and a medical record audit. The mean age of the sample (n=153) was 74.5. The mean number of diagnoses was 2.77, and the mean number of prescribed dietary

Marcia Cauley Costello

1995-01-01

333

Household Snack-Food Purchases: Does Nutrition Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purchase patterns for two types of snack foods--pretzels and popcorn, and potato, corn, and tortilla chips--were analyzed using the data from a national survey. The study examined the effect of socio-economic and lifestyle factors including nutritional awareness and exercise habits of household respondents on snack-food purchase. A geometric-hurdle count-data model that distinguished between market-participation and purchase-frequency decisions revealed that the

Arbindra P. Rimal; Stanley M. Fletcher

2003-01-01

334

Survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.  

PubMed

We are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch). An essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by using different methods for parasite detection. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these infections; and (3) for the first time, determine the sensitivity and specificity of histology for detecting parasites compared with examining wet preparations for muscle and gill infections. We examined 576 fry, parr, and smolt coho salmon in total by histology. The muscle and gills of 219 of these fish also were examined by wet preparation. Fish were collected from 10 different locations in 2006-2007. We identified 21 different species of parasites in these fish. Some parasites, such as Nanophyetus salmincola and Myxobolus insidiosus, were common across all fish life stages from most basins. Other parasites, such as Apophallus sp., were more common in underyearling fish than smolts and had a more restricted geographic distribution. Additional parasites commonly observed were as follows: Sanguinicola sp., Trichodina truttae , Epistylis sp., Capriniana piscium, and unidentified metacercariae in gills; Myxobolus sp. in brain; Myxidium salvelini and Chloromyxum majori in kidney; Pseudocapillaria salvelini and adult digenean spp. in the intestine. Only a few parasites, such as the unidentified gill metacercariae, elicted overt pathologic changes. Histology had generally poor sensitivity for detecting parasites; however, it had relatively good specificity. We recommend using both methods for studies or monitoring programs requiring a comprehensive assessment of parasite identification, enumeration, and parasite-related pathology. PMID:21668345

Ferguson, Jayde A; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Peterson, Tracy S; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Kent, Michael L

2011-12-01

335

Examining Participant Engagement in an Information Technology-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Men: The Manup Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Males experience a shorter life expectancy and higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their female counterparts. To improve health outcomes among males, interventions specifically developed for males that target their health behaviors are needed. Information technology (IT)-based interventions may be a promising intervention approach in this population group, however, little is known about how to maximize engagement and retention in Web-based programs. Objective The current study sought to explore attributes hypothesized to influence user engagement among a subsample of participants from the ManUp study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an interactive Web-based intervention for promoting physical activity and nutrition among middle-aged males. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted and audiotaped with 20 of the ManUp participants. Interview questions were based on a conceptual model of engagement and centered on why participants took part in the study, what they liked and did not like about the intervention they received, and how they think the intervention could be improved. Interview recordings were transcribed and coded into themes. Results There were five themes that were identified in the study. These themes were: (1) users’ motives, (2) users’ desired outcomes, (3) users’ positive experiences, (4) users’ negative emotions, and (5) attributes desired by user. Conclusions There is little research in the field that has explored user experiences in human-computer interactions and how such experiences may relate to engagement, especially among males. Although not conclusive, the current study provides some insight into what personal attributes of middle-aged males (such as their key motives and goals for participating) and attributes of the intervention materials (such as usability, control, and interactivity) may impact on user engagement in this group. These findings will be helpful for informing the design and implementation of future health behavior interventions for males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000081910; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000081910 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6M4lBlvCA). PMID:24389361

Vandelanotte, Corneel; Dixon, Marcus W; Rosenkranz, Richard; Caperchione, Cristina; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Kolt, Gregory S; Maeder, Anthony; Ding, Hang; Taylor, Pennie; Duncan, Mitch J

2014-01-01

336

Examination of cross contamination risks between hospitals by external medical staff via cross-sectional intercept survey of hand hygiene  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR) in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical. The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours. Material and methods: An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides (S. aureus and MRSA) to evaluate 311 healthcare professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians. Results: IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively). 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses) carried a microbiological burden ?104 CFU (colony forming units). Neither S. aureus (?104 CFU) in IR (40.9%) did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346) and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878) nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908). We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization. Conclusion: Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients. PMID:25152856

Schiffers, Hank; Zaatreh, Sarah; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2014-01-01

337

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

338

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age,\\u000a sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated\\u000a the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data of 7,801 adults aged 19

Bo-Eun Lee; Eun-Hee Ha

2011-01-01

339

Lone Mothers Are at Higher Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Compared with Partnered Mothers. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lone mothers are a disadvantaged population, with research in several countries indicating that they experience low levels of physical and mental health. While research has demonstrated a socioeconomic gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD), little research has explored lifestyle and clinical risk for CVD and prevalence of CVD events in lone mothers.The purpose of this study is (1) to compare select

L. E. Young; S. L. Cunningham; D. S. M. Buist

2005-01-01

340

Race\\/ethnicity, social class and their relation to physical inactivity during leisure time: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physical inactivity is more prevalent among racial and ethnic minorities than among Caucasians. It is not known if differences in participation in leisure time physical activity are due to differences in social class. Thus, this paper provides estimates of the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time and its relationship to race\\/ethnicity and social class.Methods: This was a national

Carlos J Crespo; Ellen Smit; Ross E Andersen; Olivia Carter-Pokras; Barbara E Ainsworth

2000-01-01

341

Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

2007-01-01

342

Depressive Symptoms are Associated with Poor Adherence to Some Lifestyle but not Medication Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

E-print Network

and lifestyle recommendations: take antihypertensive medication (N=3313), take lipid-lowering medication (N=2266 with the likelihood of adherence to antihypertensive medication (OR, 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-1.05, p=0.21), lipid- lowering

Zhou, Yaoqi

343

Relationship between Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines recommend that all people with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml\\/min\\/1.73 m2 undergo evaluation for anaemia and metabolic bone disease. We aim to report the prevalence of metabolic complications in adults with low GFR. Methods: Analysis of 15,802 non-institutionalised adult participants in the Third National Health

Catherine M. Clase; Bryce A. Kiberd; Amit X. Garg

2007-01-01

344

Characteristics of metabolic syndrome based on clustering pattern among Korean adolescents: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.  

PubMed

To define the factors that influence the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics in adolescents, this study assessed the clustering pattern for MetS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Components of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia, were analyzed in 1,514 Korean adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. The validities of one-factor models underlying a unifying etiology and a four-factor model based on more than one physiologic process for MetS across sex and age groups were assessed using the CFA method. The one-factor model, which incorporated waist circumference (WC), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) values, had the best goodness-of-fit indices among the models (comparative fit index 0.99, root mean square error of approximation 0.04), with stability over sex and age groups. MetS was mainly defined by WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, and HDL values, with factor loadings of 0.78, 0.47, 0.44, and -0.37, respectively. WC contributed the most to MetS, with the highest factor loading value across sex and age groups. In conclusion, a single underlying factor representing the common pathway linking abdominal obesity, SBP, HOMA-IR, and HDL may explain MetS in Korean adolescents with stability across sex and age groups. PMID:23090659

Ko, Min Jung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang

2013-02-01

345

Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is strongly linked to obesity-associated risks. However, currently proposed WC risk thresholds are not based on associations with obesity-related risk factors but rather with body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objective: The objective was to determine the relations of WC to obesity-associated risk factors in a representative sample of US whites and to derive comparable risk

ShanKuan Zhu; ZiMian Wang; Stanley Heshka; Moonseong Heo; Myles S Faith; Steven B Heymsfield

346

Food Security, Maternal Stressors, and Overweight Among Low-Income US Children: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. A high proportion of children in the United States are overweight, suffer from food insecurity, and live in households facing maternal stressors. The objective of this article was to identify the associations of food insecurity and maternal stressors with childhood overweight among low-income children. We hypothesized that maternal stressors may exacerbate the relationship between food insecurity and child obesity.

Craig Gundersen; Brenda J. Lohman; Steven Garasky; Susan Stewart; Joey Eisenmann

347

Ethnic and age-related fat free mass loss in older Americans: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although age-related loss of fat free mass (FFM) is well known, there is paucity of data on national estimates, and on the differential influence of ethnicity on the decline in FFM with increasing age. We determined whether age-related loss in FFM and fat free mass index (FFMI) vary by gender and or ethnicity, using representative data from the Third

Thomas O Obisesan; Muktar H Aliyu; Vernon Bond; Richard G Adams; Abimbola Akomolafe; Charles N Rotimi

2005-01-01

348

Breastfeeding in the United States: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2006. NCHS Data Brief, No. 5, April 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human milk is the ideal food for most infants. Breastfeeding benefits infants and their mothers. Breastfed infants receive antibodies from breast milk, which protect against infection in the early postpartum period, and breastfeeding is less expensive tha...

C. Y. Wang, J. Kennedy-Stephenson, M. M. McDowell

2008-01-01

349

Predictors of Hemoglobin A1c in a National Sample of Nondiabetic Children The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is related to glucose metabolism in diabetic and nondiabetic persons. Analysis of factors related to HbA1c may help researchers to better identify children with an increased likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, the authors investigated predictors of HbA1c percentage among 1,700 Mexican-American, 1,787 African-American, and 1,441 non-Hispanic White young people aged 4- 17.0

Kamal Eldeirawi; Rebecca B. Lipton

350

The Health of Immigrants to New York City From Mainland China: Evidence From the New York Health Examination and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the newest New Yorkers of Chinese heritage, the largest and fastest growing immigrant group in the city. This article compares measures of the health of immigrants to New York from Mainland China to the health of other New Yorkers of Asian heritage along with all other New Yorkers. We did so using the 1,999 subjects

Peter Muennig; Yue Wang; Aleksandra Jakubowski

2012-01-01

351

[Prevalence and temporal trend of known diabetes mellitus: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

The first wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1, 2008-2011) allows for up-to-date, representative prevalence estimates of known diabetes amongst the 18- to 79-year-old resident population of Germany. Temporal trends can be shown by comparing the survey findings with those of the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). The definition of known diabetes was based on self-reports in physician-administered interviews that asked respondents if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor or were on anti-diabetic medication. Overall, diabetes had been diagnosed in 7.2?% of the adults (7.4?% of the women; 7.0?% of the men). The prevalence increased substantially with advancing age and was higher in persons of low than of high socioeconomic status. Prevalence varied depending on the type of health insurance held and was highest amongst those insured with AOK health insurance funds. In comparison with GNHIES98, there was a 38?% increase in prevalence, of which approximately one third is to be attributed to demographic ageing. In the context of other nationwide studies, the results indicate a figure of at least 4.6 million 18- to 79-year-olds having been diagnosed with diabetes at some point. Planned analyses of undiagnosed diabetes will contribute to the interpretation of the observed increase in the prevalence of known diabetes. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703485

Heidemann, C; Du, Y; Schubert, I; Rathmann, W; Scheidt-Nave, C

2013-05-01

352

Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

353

Status of nutrition surveillance activities in 24 State and metropolitan health departments.  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to examine nutrition surveillance activities and their usefulness in managing programs of nutrition intervention. Questionnaires were returned by 24 of 26 directors of nutrition units in State or metropolitan health departments participating in 1981 in the coordinated nutrition surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control, which monitors high risk pediatric patients and pregnant women. The mean years of experience in surveillance activities among the agencies was 4. Only 25 percent of the responding departments reported a self-sufficient computerized surveillance system. Personnel most involved in the coordinating, analyzing, and interpreting of the data were nutritionists who spent an average of 17 hours per month. Major uses of surveillance data reported for purposes of the nutrition programs were to (a) identify collection sites with problems such as errors in measuring heights and weights and hematocrits warranting checks for quality control, (b) define the extent of nutrition-related disorders in the target populations, (c) provide objective local data to assist in decision-making and program planning, (d) enhance followup of specific clients, and (e) provide feedback to clinic staffs about the quality and relative impact of their services. The survey results yielded evidence that nutrition surveillance activities have important consequences for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs of nutritional intervention. PMID:6611821

Scheer, J C; Sims, L S

1983-01-01

354

Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. Results The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ? 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ? 0.001). Conclusions US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given day. Efforts to boost the healthfulness of the US diet should focus on promoting the preparation of healthy foods at home while incorporating limits on time available for cooking. PMID:23577692

2013-01-01

355

State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

356

Status of nutrition education in medical schools2,3  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous entreaties have been made over the past 2 decades to improve the nutrition knowledge and skills of medical students and physicians. However, most graduating medical students continue to rate their nutrition preparation as inadequate. Objective: The objective was to determine the amount and type of nutrition instruction at US medical schools, especially including the instruction that occurs outside designated nutrition courses. Design: A 12-item survey asked nutrition educators to characterize nutrition instruction at their medical schools (required, optional, or not offered) and to quantify nutrition contact hours occurring both inside and outside designated nutrition courses. During 2004, we surveyed all 126 US medical schools accredited at that time. Results: A total of 106 surveys were returned for a response rate of 84%. Ninety-nine of the 106 schools responding required some form of nutrition education; however, only 32 schools (30%) required a separate nutrition course. On average, students received 23.9 contact hours of nutrition instruction during medical school (range: 2–70 h). Only 40 schools required the minimum 25 h recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Most instructors (88%) expressed the need for additional nutrition instruction at their institutions. Conclusion: With the move to a more integrated curriculum and problem-based learning at many medical schools, a substantial portion of the total nutrition instruction is occurring outside courses specifically dedicated to nutrition. The amount of nutrition education in medical schools remains inadequate. PMID:16600952

Adams, Kelly M; Lindell, Karen C; Kohlmeier, Martin; Zeisel, Steven H

2008-01-01

357

Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. Methods Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles. Results Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. Conclusions The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children’s food consumption and eating behaviour. PMID:23078656

2012-01-01

358

Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate general practitioners’ (GPs’) assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region. Subjects Children attending the five-year PCHE in general practice, regardless of their weight status. Main outcome measures Paediatric standard definitions for childhood overweight based on BMI were used as the gold standard for categorizing weight-for-stature. Identification of overweight was analysed with regard to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the GPs’ assessment of weight-for-stature. Results A total of 165 GPs conducted 1138 PCHEs. GPs assessed that 171 children had a weight-for-stature above normal. Use of the Danish Standards (DS), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0–77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6–93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs’ use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development. Conclusion At the five-year PCHE almost one-third of overweight children were assessed to be normal weight by GPs. Use of BMI and presence of notes on abnormal weight in medical records were positively associated with a higher identification. Hence, utilization of medical record data and BMI charts may refine GPs’ assessment of childhood overweight. PMID:22934817

Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten; S?ndergaard, Jens

2012-01-01

359

Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 %) residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p < 0.02). Time pressure was reported as the number one factor contributing to stress (44% of males and 57% of females). A considerable proportion of residents would change their specialty program (14%) and even more would not pursue medicine (22%) if given the opportunity to relive their career. Up to 55% of residents reported experiencing intimidation and harassment. Intimidation and harassment was strongly related to gender (12% of males and 38% of females). Many residents (17%) rated their mental health as fair or poor. This was more than double the amount reported in the Canadian Community Health Survey from the province (8%) or the country (7%). Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%), program directors (60%) and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49%) as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39%) and financial counselor (38%). Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training. PMID:15972100

Cohen, Jordan S; Patten, Scott

2005-01-01

360

Nutrition of the elderly.  

PubMed Central

The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

1991-01-01

361

Television and Nutrition in Juvenile Detention Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We sought to improve the ability of incarcerated juveniles to critically evaluate media food messages through an educational program that focused on nutrition. Methods: Surveys were administered to two groups of inmates of both sexes (seven to 16 years). The program consisted of forty-one 50 minute sessions (three times per week for 15 weeks) focusing on media and nutrition.

Ed Wallace

2005-01-01

362

[Children and adolescents in Germany with a migration background. Methodical aspects in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].  

PubMed

A migration-specific approach was used in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and thus it was possible for the first time to include children with a migration background in a nationwide health survey in Germany in a number corresponding to their percentage of the population. This article presents the migration-specific approach used in KiGGS as well as a definition of the term "migrant" and its operationalisation. In addition, we analyse the representativity of the migrant subsample and present data on its composition. Altogether 2,590 children and adolescents with a migration background (both parents) took part in the study; in the weighted sample they account for 17.1% of all children and adolescents. Another 8.3% of the children and adolescents have one parent with a migration background. The two largest groups among the migrant children are Germans from Russia (29.9%) and children and adolescents of Turkish origin (28.2%). There are differences between migrants and non-migrants related to socio-economic status and place of living (rural/urban and East/West). Analyses of the representativity of the migrant sample show that children and adolescents with a lower level of education are under-represented, whereas there were no differences with regard to sex, the fathers' occupation or the mothers' smoking status. Non-respondents rate their children's health better than respondents. Since the successful integration of children and adolescents with a migration background into the KiGGS study brings with it a sufficiently large number of cases and since KiGGS covers a wide range of health-related topics, comprehensive migration-specific analyses can be performed. Thus, KiGGS will contribute to filling some of the current gaps in our knowledge of migrant children's health. PMID:17514443

Schenk, L; Ellert, U; Neuhauser, H

2007-01-01

363

Utilizing Nutrition Education Modules in the Wic Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To explore alternative methods for teaching nutrition education to the WIC population.Nutrition Education is one of the benefits of participating in the WIC Program. Developing innovative and fun education methods continues to be a challenge. A survey was conducted by the Delaware WIC Program in 1992 to obtain input on Nutrition Education topics of most interest to WIC

E. Fearnow; A. Rucinski; C. H. Weiss

1996-01-01

364

Medical Issues: Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

365

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

366

Religion and United States physicians' opinions and self-predicted practices concerning artificial nutrition and hydration.  

PubMed

This study surveyed 1,156 practicing US physicians to examine the relationship between physicians' religious characteristics and their approaches to artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH). Forty percent of physicians believed that unless a patient is imminently dying, the patient should always receive nutrition and fluids; 75 % believed that it is ethically permissible for doctors to withdraw ANH. The least religious physicians were less likely to oppose withholding or withdrawing ANH. Compared to non-evangelical Protestant physicians, Jews and Muslims were significantly more likely to oppose withholding ANH, and Muslims were significantly more likely to oppose withdrawing ANH. PMID:23754580

Wolenberg, Kelly M; Yoon, John D; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A

2013-12-01

367

Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.  

PubMed

The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. PMID:25038193

Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

2014-09-01

368

[Social inequities regarding annoyance to noise and road traffic intensity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

To study the associations of annoyance to noise and exposure to residential traffic with sociodemographic, socioeconomic and regional characteristics as well as housing conditions, a population-based sample of 7,988 adults 18-79 years of age was studied in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Annoyance to noise and exposure to residential traffic were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. A total of 6.3?% of the participants reported a high to very high exposure to residential traffic noise, 3.7?% to neighbourhood noise and 2.1?% to aircraft noise. An excessive exposure to residential traffic was reported by 21.3?% of the participants. A high annoyance to traffic and neighborhood noise was associated with a lower equivalised disposable income and poor housing conditions. Additionally annoyance to neighborhood noise was associated with low socioeconomic and occupational status. A high annoyance to aircraft noise was only associated with a low equivalised disposable income and living in apartment blocks. Exposure to residential traffic was associated with all investigated indicators. At present in Germany environmental exposures are social unequally distributed and may lead to negative health consequences in social disadvantaged groups. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703504

Laussmann, D; Haftenberger, M; Lampert, T; Scheidt-Nave, C

2013-05-01

369

Computer Game Use and Television Viewing Increased Risk for Overweight among Low Activity Girls: Fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Studies of the relationship between sedentary behaviors and overweight among children and adolescents show mixed results. The fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey data collected between 2008 and 2009 were used to explore this association in 5,999 children aged 6 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight defined by the age- and gender-specific body mass index cut-points of the International Obesity Task Force was 16%. Using multiple logistic regression, computer game use for more than 1 hour a day was found to be associated with an increased risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.93). The effect of computer game use and TV viewing on the risk for overweight was significantly pronounced among girls who spent ?3 days/week in 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (AOR = 1.99 and 1.72, resp.). On the contrary, these sedentary behaviors did not exert significant risk for overweight among boys. The moderating effect on risk of overweight by physical inactivity and media use should be taken into consideration in designing the interventions for overweight control in children and adolescents. Tracking societal changes is essential for identification of potential areas for targeted interventions. PMID:24995018

Nontarak, Jiraluck; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

2014-01-01

370

Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

2010-01-01

371

Television advertising exposure and children’s nutritional awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional implications of children’s advertising has bean an issue of interest for nearly two decades. This study examines\\u000a the relationship between the amount of a child’s exposure to television commercials and a child’s nutritional awareness. Nutritional\\u000a awareness is measured by tests for nutritional knowledge and level of understanding of nutritional phraseology. The results\\u000a indicate that exposure to television advertising

Alan R. Wiman; Larry M. Newman

1989-01-01

372

Noontime Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary report by the Department of Agriculture shows that school lunches are still fattier and saltier than they should be. Cites examples of how some nutrition-conscious school dietitians are improving school lunches. Lists statistics about the National School Lunch Program. (MLF)

Bushweller, Kevin

1993-01-01

373

Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

2012-01-01

374

Nutritional Quality Assessment of Elementary School Lunches of South Korea and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional quality of school meals is important to provide a balanced nutritional meal for children in many countries. However, few attempts have been made to examine and compare the nutritional quality of school meals between countries. This article analyzes the nutritional quality of school lunches in elementary schools in South Korea and the United States and compares the nutritional quality

Min-Sun Jeon; Young Hoon Kim; Hak-Seon Kim

2012-01-01

375

Nutrition Education, Computer, and Internet Practices of Missouri Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was administered to a random sample of 441 Missouri educators to determine the status of nutrition education in Missouri schools, as well as computer and Internet use by Missouri teachers. The educators included elementary and secondary school teachers and other school staff who reported teaching nutrition education. The survey obtained information about the educators’ demographics, computer and Internet

S. F. Lutz; S. Y. Cox; A. Cohen

1998-01-01

376

Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.  

PubMed

The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies. PMID:21968089

Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

2012-02-01

377

[Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].  

PubMed

The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:17514448

Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

2007-01-01

378

Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.  

PubMed

Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

2012-01-01

379

The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs  

SciTech Connect

Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities.

Iyengar, V.

1988-01-01

380

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

381

Enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Enteral nutrition (EN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients beyond the oesophagus via feeding tubes, and the oral intake of dietary foods for special medical purposes. It should be provided in patients with at least a partially functioning gut, whose energy and nutrient needs cannot be met by a regular food intake. Further indications are when the liquid diet is used as a treatment of the disease, and when a feeding time in the disabled child is excessively prolonged. Advantages of enteral intake over parenteral nutrition are well recognized, however there are clinical settings such as intensive care units where nutritional needs can often be met only by their combination despite the functioning gut. For the majority of paediatric patients on EN, age-adapted standard polymeric formula enriched with fibres is an appropriate choice. There is also a wide array of different disease-adapted enteral formulations that may be beneficial in certain clinical conditions, however for most of them, results of controlled studies are either missing or do not support the claims. For the delivery of EN, both the stomach and intermittent feeding mode are more physiological; continuous mode is reserved for patients with severely diseased gut, postpyloric feeding is indicated in patients with the high risk of tracheal aspiration, and feeding over gastrostomy is preferable if the anticipated duration of EN is exceeding 4-6 weeks. Although EN is a well-established and effective feeding method, it may be poorly tolerated and associated with numerous complications. To minimize the risks, development of procedural protocols with regular quality controls and audits, and monitoring by a dedicated nutrition support team are recommended. PMID:24029791

Kola?ek, Sanja

2013-01-01

382

Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

383

Tailoring Nutrition Education Intervention Programs to Meet Needs and Interests of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for determining appropriate content of older adult nutrition education intervention programs and strategies for effectively delivering nutrition messages to older learners are presented. Educators can determine the nutrition education needs and interests of their older learners by using results of food intake surveys and assessment screening tools, written surveys, interviews and group discussions. Findings of recent reports using these

Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley

2003-01-01

384

Women’s compliance with nutrition and lifestyle recommendations before pregnancy: general population cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the extent to which women planning a pregnancy comply with recommendations for nutrition and lifestyle.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Southampton, United Kingdom.Participants 12 445 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 recruited to the Southampton Women’s Survey through general practices, 238 of whom became pregnant within three months of being interviewed.Main outcome measures Folic acid supplement intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet,

Hazel M Inskip; Sarah R Crozier; Keith M Godfrey; Sharon E Borland; Cyrus Cooper; Siân M Robinson

2009-01-01

385

Selective gender differences in childhood nutrition and immunization in rural India: The role of siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of the sex composition of surviving older siblings on gender differences in childhood nutrition\\u000a and immunization, using data from the National Family Health Survey, India (1992–1993). Logit and ordered logit models were\\u000a used for severe stunting and immunization, respectively. The results show selective neglect of children with certain sex and\\u000a birth-order combinations that operate differentially

Rohini P. Pande

2003-01-01

386

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

387

Diet and vitamin nutrition of the high esophageal cancer risk population in Linxian, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the nutritional status of the population of Linxian (in Henan, China) known to be at high risk for esophageal cancer (EC), we analyzed blood samples and conducted 3?day dietary surveys on 3 groups of normal adults, age 40–50, from Henan province. Two groups were from Linxian, where the EC mortality rate is about 138\\/100,000 (Group C,

Chung S. Yang; Jian Miao; Wenxian Yang; Mei Huang; Tianyuan Wang; Hongji Xue; Shuheng You; Jianbang Lu; Jinming Wu

1982-01-01

388

Health, nutrition and prosperity: a microeconomic perspective.  

PubMed Central

A positive correlation between health and economic prosperity has been widely documented, but the extent to which this reflects a causal effect of health on economic outcomes is very controversial. Two classes of evidence are examined. First, carefully designed random assignment studies in the laboratory and field provide compelling evidence that nutritional deficiency - particularly iron deficiency - reduces work capacity and, in some cases, work output. Confidence in these results is bolstered by a good understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Some random assignment studies indicate an improved yield from health services in the labour market. Second, observational studies suggest that general markers of nutritional status, such as height and body mass index (BMI), are significant predictors of economic success although their interpretation is confounded by the fact that they reflect influences from early childhood and family background. Energy intake and possibly the quality of the diet have also been found to be predictive of economic success in observational studies. However, the identification of causal pathways in these studies is difficult and involves statistical assumptions about unobserved heterogeneity that are difficult to test. Illustrations using survey data demonstrate the practical importance of this concern. Furthermore, failure to take into account the dynamic interplay between changes in health and economic status has led to limited progress being reported in the literature. A broadening of random assignment studies to measure the effects of an intervention on economic prosperity, investment in population-based longitudinal socioeconomic surveys, and application of emerging technologies for a better measure of health in these surveys will yield very high returns in improving our understanding of how health influences economic prosperity. PMID:11953788

Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

389

Pediatric Nutrition Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and\\/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials.

MARION TAYLOR BAER; ANNE BRADFORD HARRIS

1997-01-01

390

Attacking the Obesity Epidemic: The Potential Health Benefits of Providing Nutrition Information in Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to address how the provision of nutrition information on menus influences purchase intentions and reported preferences. Methods. For both the survey and experiment, data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. Results. Survey results showed that levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat in less-healthful restaurant items were significantly underestimated by consumers. Actual fat and saturated fat levels were twice consumers’ estimates and calories approached 2 times more than what consumers expected. In the subsequent experiment, for items for which levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat substantially exceeded consumers’ expectations, the provision of nutrition information had a significant influence on product attitude, purchase intention, and choice. Conclusions. Most consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium found in many menu items. Provision of nutrition information on restaurant menus could potentially have a positive impact on public health by reducing the consumption of less-healthful foods. PMID:16873758

Burton, Scot; Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Kees, Jeremy; Huggins, Kyle

2006-01-01

391

In-Depth Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Korean American Elderly  

PubMed Central

While studies of immigrants have generally indicated significant dietary changes upon immigration that mirror a Western diet, previous data are limited to the dietary patterns and intakes of younger and middle-aged adults. Using a relatively large sample of Korean American elderly (KAE) immigrants, this paper offers an in-depth assessment of the nutritional status of KAE, one of the most rapidly increasing minority populations in the United States. A total of 202 KAE in a metropolitan city on the East coast participated in a comprehensive nutritional survey using 24-hour dietary recall. Despite their spending about 16 years in the U.S., the KAE consumed more than two regular meals in a day which qualified under a Korean food pattern. When compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, the average consumption of nutrients reported was generally lower than Americans, with the exception of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and sodium intakes. Inadequate intakes of calcium, dietary fiber, and folate were notable when examined in comparison to the Dietary Reference Intakes. The findings can help healthcare providers and researchers to design appropriate nutritional education programs to facilitate the adoption of healthier dietary practices in this immigrant population. In particular, future interventions should consider ways to lower sodium intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among KAE, while encouraging them to maintain their healthy dietary pattern. PMID:19818265

Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Jongeun; Kim, Miyong T.; Han, Hae-Ra

2009-01-01

392

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

393

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue.  

PubMed

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental "nutritive tissue" in carnivorous plants of Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the "nutritive tissue" and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key role in the nutrition of the female gametophyte. To date, however, the structure of this tissue has received only scant attention. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized its anatomy and histochemistry in more detail and addressed the speculations of a number of earlier researchers. Nutritive tissue during the period of flower opening in three Utricularia species, each belonging to different sections and subgenera (Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria and Utricularia), was examined by light and, in particular, electron microscopy. In all of the investigated species, nutritive tissue cells differ from placental parenchyma cells in having no huge vacuole, no large amyloplasts with starch grains, and no protein inclusions in the nucleus. The funicular nutritive tissue in U. dichotoma consists of active cells with a secretory character, while U. sandersonii has a small placental nutritive tissue consisting of colenchymatous cells accumulating lipids. The most complex nutritive tissue occurs in aquatic U. intermedia, which occupies a derived position in the genus phylogeny. In this latter species, the cells of this tissue resemble meristematic cells in having a relatively large nucleus, thin cell walls, and reduced vacuoles, but the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in some cells is similar to that in secretory cells. The cytoplasm is rich in microtubules, some of which are in close contact with the ER cisternae. We found very thick cell walls between nutritive tissue cells and parenchyma cells, but plasmodesmata between these types of cells are rare. Similarities in both the position and structure of nutritive tissue in Polypompholyx and section Pleiochasia support their classification together in one subgenus, based on results from a molecular study. The position and structure of the nutritive tissue in Utricularia spp. are related to the position of various species in the genus phylogeny. PMID:18802663

P?achno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr

2008-12-01

394

Understandings of Prenatal Nutrition Among Argentine Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal nutrition is an important determinant of birth outcome and infant health. In this study, we sought to identify the current knowledge of prenatal nutrition among women in Tucumán, Argentina, to examine the extent to which knowledge was implemented and to identify opportunities for improvement in prenatal care and education. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 women about their eating

Camber M. Hess; Erin Maughan

2012-01-01

395

Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

Lineback, David R.

1984-01-01

396

THE COMPARISON OF THREE WOMEN'S NUTRITION HABITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is planned, progressed and resulted in order to examine the nutrition status, nutrition habits of the female generations (daughter, mother and grandmother) and find out the solution proposals according to research results. The female students (girls), who are studying at Cebeci Anatolian Vocational high school in Mamak\\/Ankara, and their mothers and grandmothers constitute the sampling of this research.

Emine KILIÇ

397

Beefing up with the Chans: Evidence for the effects of relative income and income inequality on health from the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of research has examined the hypothesis that the well-being of individuals is shaped not just by the absolute level of resources available to them but also the level of resources available to them relative to others in their cohort or community. Several causal pathways have been hypothesized to explain associations between relative social position and health. For

Zhuo Chen; David Meltzer

2008-01-01

398

Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children.

Luis F Gomez; Diana C Parra; Felipe Lobelo; Belen Samper; José Moreno; Enrique Jacoby; Diego I Lucumi; Sandra Matsudo; Catalina Borda

2007-01-01

399

Design and development of a meal system for the elderly. [public health - nutrition/diet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food preference surveys (taste tests) were performed for 95 food items (which were selected from an original list of 150 items), and 21 menus were developed from the survey results. Each menu contains an entree, two side dishes, dessert, and a beverage. Food manufacturing specifications for freeze dried foods, frozen foods, and beverages are examined, and product labeling and packaging requirements are discussed. The nutritional value of the various foods is listed in tabular form, and sample product labels are shown. Cost estimates per serving are also included.

1975-01-01

400

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are p