Sample records for nutritional examination survey

  1. HISPANIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HHANES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) was a nationwide probability sample of approximately 16,000 persons, 6 months-74 years of age. Hispanics were included in past health and nutrition examinations, but neither in sufficient numbers to produce estimates o...

  2. THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94, was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 33,994 persons 2 months and over. The survey was designed to obtain nationally representative information on the health and nutritio...

  3. SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

  4. NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES I)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 32,000 persons 1-74 years of age. The NHANES I sample was selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition ...

  5. Nutrition assessment in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation. PMID:17467380

  6. Characteristics of Survey Participants with and without a Telephone: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl S Ford

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the potential coverage bias in telephone surveys. Data were analyzed from the first phase of the third National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey conducted from 1988 to 1991. In that survey, 10,120 persons 17 years and older were interviewed and 9034 were examined. About 2.7% of respondents reported not having a telephone. Differences in demographic and

  7. HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

  8. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  9. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

  10. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea. PMID:25758212

  11. Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea. PMID:25758212

  12. Helicobacter pylori and Overweight Status in the United States: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilseung Cho; Martin J. Blaser; Fritz Franc; Jomol P. Mathew; Xiang Y. Ye; Judith D. Goldberg; Edmund J. Bini

    Obesity is an important public health problem in the United States. Because of its potential effects on gastric leptin homeostasis, Helicobacter pylori may play a role in regulating body weight. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the association between H. pylori colonization and overweight status. Nonpregnant participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994)

  13. Nature of Dietary Reporting by Adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 -1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashima K. Kant

    Objective: Low reporting of food intake is an acknowledged problem in dietary assessments; however, differences in food intake relative to reporting status are poorly understood. This study examined the relation of a measure of dietary reporting status with the nature of food intake reported by adults in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods: Subjects were 6948 women

  14. Serum calcium and incident and fatal prostate cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Halcyon G.; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between serum calcium levels and the risk for prostate cancer using a prospective cohort, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Eighty five incident cases of prostate cancer and twenty five prostate cancer deaths occurred over 46,188 person-years of follow-up. Serum calcium was determined an average of 9.9 years prior to the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Comparing men in the top to men in the bottom tertile of serum calcium, the multivariable adjusted relative hazard for fatal prostate cancers was 2.68 (95% Confidence Interval 1.02-6.99; Ptrend = 0.04). For incident prostate cancer, the relative risk for the same comparison was 1.31 (95% C.I. 0.77-2.20; Ptrend=0.34). These results support the hypothesis that high serum calcium or a factor strongly associated with it, e.g., high serum parathyroid hormone, increases risk for fatal prostate cancer. Our finding of a > 2.5- fold increased risk for men in the highest tertile of serum calcium is comparable in magnitude to the risk associated with family history and could add significantly to our ability to identify men at increased risk for fatal prostate cancer. PMID:18768497

  15. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use in the United States Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina S. Balluz; Stephanie M. Kieszak; Rossanne M. Philen; Joseph Mulinare

    2000-01-01

    Context: The use of supplements remains a wide- spread behavior among people motivated by general health concerns. We analyzed data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to pro- vide new and current information on supplement use in the United States. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplement use in the US population,

  16. Reference Values of Body Composition Indices: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Won; Yoo, Ha Yeong; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Hyeoijin; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Kyo Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose An increase in the prevalence of obesity has been observed in children and adolescents. As remarkable changes in body composition occur with growth during the adolescent period, it is important that changes in body composition be monitored. The purpose of this study was to propose reference percentile values for body composition indices including body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents in Korea. Materials and Methods This study was performed using data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body composition data were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The percentile curves of body composition indices were constructed by the LMS method. Results A total of 2123 children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years were included in this study. We obtained the percentile curves for BMI and body composition indices. Conclusion The reference values for body composition from this study could help with assessing body composition in Korean adolescents. PMID:25510752

  17. Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Myung Hun; Friedman, David; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. Objective To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005–2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES). The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. Results Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67). The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82). Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32) compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. Conclusions Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma. PMID:25393836

  18. Thyroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic Parameters: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Cheng, Alan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5th, 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. Conclusions Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes. PMID:23593140

  19. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  20. Shiftwork and Prostate-Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Results from prior studies have been mixed but generally support an association between circadian disruption and prostate cancer. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between shiftwork and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study. Methods We combined three NHANES surveys (2005–2010) to obtain current work schedule among employed men aged 40 to 65 years with no prior history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer). Men who reported working regular night shifts or rotating shifts were considered shiftworkers. We obtained the total and percentage free PSA test results for these men and dichotomized total PSA into less than 4.0ng/mL or 4.0ng/mL or greater and total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater combined with percentage free PSA less than or equal to 25%. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we compared PSA level among current shiftworkers and nonshiftworkers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found a statistically significant, age-adjusted association between current shiftwork and elevated PSA at the 4.0ng/mL or greater level (odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 5.70; P = .03). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio was 2.62 (95% CI = 1.16 to 5.95; P = .02). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for those with total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater and free PSA less than or equal to 25% was 3.13 (95% CI = 1.38 to 7.09; P = .01). Conclusions We observed a strong positive association with shiftwork and elevated PSA level. Our data support the notion that sleep or circadian disruption is associated with elevated PSA, indicating that shiftworking men likely have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. PMID:23943864

  1. CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

  2. Impact of dining out on nutritional intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors: data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Kim, Hak-Seon; No, Jae-Kyung

    2015-02-01

    The frequency of dining out has rapidly increased; however, the independent associations between dining out, metabolic syndrome risk factors and nutritional status have not been well characterised. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between dining out, nutritional intakes and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Korean adults, using data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Frequency of dining out was significantly associated with intake of nutrients such as energy, water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Na, vitamin A and carotene. Especially, the result revealed that Korean adults had insufficient Ca intake compared with the Korean reference intake (700 mg). As the frequency of dining out increased, so did energy intake. In addition, individuals who dined out seven or more times per week experienced a 64% higher likelihood of blood pressure abnormalities, an 88% higher likelihood of waist circumference abnormalities, and a 32% higher likelihood of low HDL-cholesterol levels than those who dined out less than once per week. BMI was not associated with the frequency of dining out. Our findings suggest that strategies to modify dining-out behaviour could reduce metabolic syndrome risk factors via improved nutrition. PMID:25662005

  3. Dietary Fructose Consumption Among US Children and Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kimmons, Joel E.; Gillespie, Cathleen; Welsh, Jean; Blanck, Heidi Michels

    2008-01-01

    Context High fructose intake has been associated with increased de novo lipogenesis in the liver as well as increased plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and obesity. Fructose occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables; however, it is added to many processed foods as table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup. Dietary data from a nationally representative sample in 1977–1978 estimated that mean consumption of fructose was 37 g/day (8% of total intake). Little is known about more recent fructose consumption patterns. Objective We determined the amount and sources of dietary fructose among US adults and children. Design We examined fructose consumption patterns by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index for 21,483 children and adults. We used a single 24-hour dietary recall administered in the third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure Weighted estimates of fructose intake were tested for significant differences (P < .05) between groups. Results The mean consumption of fructose was estimated to be 54.7g/day (range, 38.4–72.8) and accounted for 10.2% of total caloric intake. Consumption was highest among adolescents (12–18 years) at 72.8 g/day (12.1% of total calories). One fourth of adolescents consumed at least 15% of calories from fructose. The largest source of fructose was sugar-sweetened beverages (30%) followed by grains (22%) and fruit or fruit juice (19%). Conclusions Over 10% of Americans' daily calories were from fructose. These results, when compared with a previous nationally representative study, suggest that fructose consumption has increased. Further research is needed to understand the impact of increased intake of fructose on human health. PMID:18769702

  4. The associations between smoking and occupational categories: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Junhyoung

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of smoke-free policies for workplaces and their impacts have been far from satisfactory. We investigated smoking prevalence in various occupations using data (n = 9283) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2008 to 2010. Young adults who were working in the occupation categories of "service and sales," "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forest workers," and "crafts and machine operation" for men and "service and sales" for women showed 1.8 to 7.1 and 3.7 times higher (P < .05) smoking prevalence compared with the reference (managers and professionals), respectively, and the highest prevalence among the 7 occupational categories that were studied. Drinking and stress level were positively associated with being current smokers. We provide quantitative evidence supporting clinicians and policy makers wishing to establish smoking-cessation programs in workplaces for young adults in South Korea, and evidence supporting the improvement of prevention by the concomitant reduction of risk factors. PMID:23139337

  5. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...

  6. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  7. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  8. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  9. Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

  10. Dietary responses to a hypertension diagnosis: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Slade, Alexander N; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Dietary modification has been shown to substantially reduce blood pressure among people with hypertension. This article uses data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cross-sections of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the extent to which a hypertension diagnosis can influence individuals' dietary choices. Several models were estimated to clarify the association of a hypertension diagnosis with dietary factors related to hypertension management. A comparison group of individuals at risk for developing hypertension was used. Results suggest that individuals who received a recent diagnosis of hypertension are more likely to have lower intakes of some dietary factors important in blood pressure management, including sodium. The results also highlight a discrepancy between added salt use and dietary sodium intake. While more recent hypertensive patients tended to consume lower levels of dietary sodium, patients diagnosed longer ago tended to use less added salt. Given that those diagnosed were more likely to have lower blood pressure profiles and improved diets, especially close to the time of diagnosis, the results of this study underscore the need for a prompt and accurate diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:24512360

  11. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Soo; Han, Kyung-do; Park, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic laryngitis (CL) has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2008–2012. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL. Results Among the population ? 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79–3.95%). CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049) and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001) from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457), age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001), sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179), and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054). Conclusion Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL. PMID:26177353

  12. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriasis: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Love, Thorvardur Jon; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Karlson, Elizabeth Wood; Gelfand, Joel M.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis, and to examine the association between these 2 conditions in the general US population. Design Cross-sectional health survey of a nationally-representative random sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian US population. Setting The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Participants The study included 6549 participants aged 20 to 59 years. Main outcome measures Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition and odds ratios for associations after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and C-reactive protein levels. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 40% among psoriasis cases and 23% among controls. According to 2008 census data the projected number of patients with psoriasis aged 20 to 59 years with the metabolic syndrome was 2.7 million. The univariate and multivariate odds ratios for patients with psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome were 2.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 4.03) and 1.96 (1.01 to 3.77), respectively. The most common feature of the metabolic syndrome among patients with psoriasis was abdominal obesity, followed by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is high among individuals with psoriasis. Given the serious complications associated with the metabolic syndrome, this frequent comorbidity should be recognized and taken into account in the long-term treatment of individuals with psoriasis. PMID:21173301

  13. Iron Status and Reproduction in US Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18–49 were taken from the 1999–2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health. PMID:25375360

  14. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ji-Sun; Jung, Su-Kyung; Han, Kyung-Do; Kim, Sang-Duck; Park, Yong-Moon; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population. Methods We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women) aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF), according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis. Results The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05). As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women); the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders); the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ?0.001 for both genders). Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.32-3.47); and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97) and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease. Conclusions The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population. PMID:26162079

  15. High Urinary Tungsten Concentration Is Associated with Stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Galloway, Tamara S.; Abo-Zaid, Ghada; Melzer, David; Depledge, Michael H.; Osborne, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an exponential increase in tungsten demand, potentially increasing human exposure to the metal. Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the association between tungsten and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke using six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of 8614 adults (18–74 years) with 193 reported stroke diagnoses and 428 reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals (18–50 years). Results Elevated tungsten concentrations were strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of stroke, independent of typical risk factors (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.17, 2.34). The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.53). Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the human health effects of tungsten to date. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress. PMID:24244278

  16. Leisure-time physical activity dose?response effects on obesity among US adults: results from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Chul Seo; Kaigang Li

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIt is not well established whether total volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has dose?response effects on obesity.MethodsThe dose?response relationship was examined using 12 227 non-institutionalised individuals, aged 20?64 years, drawn from the 8 years (1999–2006) of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population.ResultsThe age-adjusted prevalence of women's obesity was

  17. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (? 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

  18. Normal Range Albuminuria and Metabolic Syndrome in South Korea: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Han, Jee-Hye; Han, Kyung-Do; Han, Byung-Duck; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well-known that there is a close relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and microalbuminuria. However, some recent studies have found that even normal range albuminuria was associated with MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between MetS and normal range albuminuria and to calculate the cutoff value for albuminuria that correlates with MetS in the representative fraction of Korean population. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 9,650 subjects aged ?19 years. We measured metabolic parameters: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). The optimal ACR cutoff points for MetS were examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the prevalence of MetS and its components according to the ACR levels. Results The first cutoff value of ACR were 4.8 mg/g for subjects with ?3 components of MetS. There was a graded association between ACR and prevalence of MetS and its components. If ACR was <4 mg/g, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MetS or its components. From the ACR level of 4–5 mg/g, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and medications for diabetes mellitus and hypertension (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals = 1.416; 1.041–1.926). Conclusions Albuminuria within the normal range (around 5 mg/g) was associated with prevalence of MetS in the Korean population. PMID:25978637

  19. A Sustained Decline in Postmenopausal Hormone Use: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Short-term declines in postmenopausal hormone use were observed following the Women’s Health Initiative trial results in 2002. While concerns about the trial’s generalizability have been expressed, long-term trends in hormone use in a nationally representative sample have not been reported. We sought to evaluate national trends in the prevalence of hormone use, and assess variation by type of formulation and patient characteristics. Methods We examined postmenopausal hormone use during 1999–2010 using cross-sectional data on 10,107 women aged 40 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In 1999–2000, the prevalence of oral postmenopausal hormone use was 22.4% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.8) overall, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.2, 19.3) for estrogen only, and 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.8) for estrogen plus progestin. A sharp decline in use of all formulations occurred in 2003–2004, when the overall prevalence dropped to 11.9% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.2). This decline was initially limited to non-Hispanic whites; use among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics did not decline substantially until 2005–2006. Hormone use continued to decline through 2009–2010 across all patient demographic groups, with the current prevalence now at 4.7% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.1) overall, 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1, 3.7) for estrogen only, and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) for estrogen plus progestin. Patient characteristics currently associated with hormone use include history of hysterectomy, non-Hispanic white race or ethnicity, and income. Conclusions Postmenopausal hormone use in the United States has declined in a sustained fashion to very low levels across a wide variety of patient subgroups. PMID:22914469

  20. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (?: -0.07, P<0.01), but there was no relationship among men (?: 0.08, P>0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (?: -0.26, P<0.05), but there was no association between MD and telomere length among those not using antidepressants (?: -0.00, P>0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention. PMID:25178165

  1. Correlation between metabolic syndrome and knee osteoarthritis: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the correlations of knee osteoarthritis (OA) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS parameters in Korean subjects. Methods This study included data from 270 subjects with knee OA and 1964 control subjects with a mean age of 54.56 (SD 11.53) years taken from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine possible associations for knee OA with MetS and MetS parameters. Results MetS was shown to be associated with an increased risk of knee OA in female subjects in unadjusted analysis (OR 1.798, 95% CI 1.392, 2.322), but this significance disappeared when adjusted for confounding factors (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.805, 1.550). No significant association between MetS and knee OA was found in male subjects. Among parameters of MetS, only high waist circumference (WC) in female subjects was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of knee OA, even after adjusting for confounding factors, while no other significant associations were found in both male and female subjects. Conclusion We found that WC was associated with knee OA in female subjects, but neither MetS nor any parameters thereof were shown to be associated with knee OA in the Korean subjects of this study. Although we found no relationship between a pre-inflammatory state of MetS and knee OA, we believe further investigation of this relationship in various aspects is warranted, as MetS may also be a risk factor for complications in knee OA related procedures. PMID:23800128

  2. The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Keigan M; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2013-03-28

    The present cross-sectional study sought to determine the potential relationships between the intake of dairy foods (total dairy products, milk and cheese) and cognitive function through information garnered in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-94 and 1999-2002). Cognitive measures of vasomotor speed, coding speed and immediate memory recall were assessed from a simple reaction time task (SRTT), symbol-digit substitution test (SDST) and serial digit learning task, respectively, in adults 20-59 years of age. A summation of the percentile rank scores on each of the three tests provided a measure of overall cognitive function. In adults 60 years of age and above, a story recall test and a digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) were utilised to determine cognitive function in an elderly population. The results indicated that cognitive scores for the SRTT were not different between consumers and non-consumers of dairy foods. However, there were associations observed between 20- and 59-year-old consumers of total dairy foods and a higher SDST percentile score (53.2 (SE 1.3) to 49.4 (SE 2.0)) and a calculated global cognitive percentile score (53.3 (SE 1.1) to 50.2 (SE 1.4)) compared with non-consumers. A similar significant association was observed with cheese consumers. In adults over 60 years of age, an association between total dairy product consumption and higher DSST percentile scores (51.5 (SE 1.9) to 46.2 (se 3.0)) was also observed. These findings highlight the need for additional research on how dairy products may affect cognition and by what mechanisms, through its nutrients or other components. PMID:23168329

  3. Renal Function, Bisphenol A, and Alkylphenols: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    You, Li; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fan, Hong; Chen, Jing; Dong, Jie; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) was used as a biomarker in most previous studies, but no study has investigated whether urinary excretion of these environmental phenols differed by renal function. Objective We estimated the association between renal function and urinary excretion of BPA and APs. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. Renal function was measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and by the newly developed Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Regression models were used to calculate geometric means of urinary BPA and APs excretion by eGFR category (? 90, 60–90, < 60 mL/min/m2) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results When we used the MDRD Study equation, participants without known renal disease (n = 2,573), 58.2% (n = 1,499) had mildly decreased renal function or undiagnosed chronic kidney disease. The adjusted geometric means for urinary BPA excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared primarily in females (p for trend = 0.03). Urinary triclosan excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend < 0.01) for both males and females, and the association primarily appeared in participants < 65 years of age. The association between BPA and eGFR was nonsignificant when we used the CKD-EPI equation. Conclusions Urinary excretion of triclosan, and possibly BPA, decreased with decreasing renal function. The associations might differ by age or sex. Further studies are necessary to replicate our results and understand the mechanism. PMID:21147601

  4. Structural Trends in the Aging Femoral Neck and Proximal Shaft: Analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS J. BECK; ANNE C. LOOKER; CHRISTOPHER B. RUFF; HARRI SIEVANEN; HEINZ W. WAHNER

    2000-01-01

    Hip scans of U.S. adults aged 20 -99 years acquired in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. The program analyzes narrow (3 mm wide) regions at specific locations across the proximal femur to measure bone mineral density (BMD) as well as cross-sectional areas (CSAs),

  5. Age-Related Association of Refractive Error with Intraocular Pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. Methods A total of 7,277 adults (?19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19–39 years), middle- (40–59 years), and old- (?60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. Results The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0±0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9±0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1±0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8±0.2 mmHg (P for trend?=?0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P<0.05). In the young- and middle-age groups, higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all P<0.05). In the old-age group, the association between IOP and refractive error was not significant (P?=?0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta?=??0.08 and ?0.12; P?=?0.002 and <0.001 for young- and middle-age group, respectively), but not in the old-age group (beta?=?0.03; P?=?0.728), after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, region of habitation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Myopic refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age. PMID:25369147

  6. Sugary Soda Consumption and Albuminuria: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Kramer, Holly; Luke, Amy; Vupputuri, Suma; Kshirsagar, Abhijit; Cooper, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n?=?12,601); after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n?=?3,243), the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males) and >25 mg/g (females). Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty). Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. Results Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74). Associations were modified by gender (p?=?0.008) and overweight-obesity (p?=?0.014). Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53); the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m2, OR?=?2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25). Adjustment for potential mediators and use of alternative definitions of albuminuria and soda consumption did not appreciably change results. Diet sodas were not associated with albuminuria. Conclusions Findings suggest that sugary soda consumption may be associated with kidney damage, although moderate consumption of 1 or fewer sodas does not appear to be harmful. Additional studies are needed to assess whether HFCS itself, overall excess intake of sugar, or unmeasured lifestyle and confounding factors are responsible. PMID:18927611

  7. Estimation of curcumin intake in Korea based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Turmeric and its active component curcumin have received considerable attention due to their many recognized biological activities. Turmeric has been commonly used in food preparation and herbal remedies in South Asia, leading to a high consumption rate of curcumin in this region. However, the amount of curcumin in the Korean diet has not yet been estimated, where turmeric is not a common ingredient. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study utilized the combined data sets obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2008 to 2012 in order to estimate the curcumin intake in the Korean diet. The mean intake of curcumin was estimated from the amount of curcumin-containing foods (curry powder and ready-made curry) consumed using reported curcumin content in commercial turmeric and curry powders. RESULTS Only 0.06% of Koreans responded that they consumed foods containing curcumin in a given day, and 40% of them were younger than 20 years of age. Curcumin-containing foods were largely prepared at home (72.9%) and a significant proportion (20.4%, nearly twice that of all other foods) was consumed as school and workplace meals. The estimated mean turmeric intake was about 0.47 g/day corresponding to 2.7-14.8 mg curcumin, while the average curry powder consumption was about 16.4 g, which gave rise to curcumin intake in the range of 8.2-95.0 mg among individuals who consumed curcumin. The difference in estimated curcumin intake by using the curcumin content in curry powder and turmeric may reflect that curry powder manufactured in Korea might contain higher amounts of other ingredients such as flour, and an estimation based on the curcumin content in the turmeric might be more acceptable. CONCLUSIONS Thus, the amount of curcumin that can be obtained from the Korean diet in a day is 2.7-14.8 mg, corresponding to nearly one fourth of the daily curcumin intake in South Asia, although curcumin is rarely consumed in Korea. PMID:25324941

  8. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among children 1 to 5 years of age in the United States from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Amin, Minal M; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Carroll, Margaret D; Dollard, Sheila C

    2015-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence among U.S. children 1 to 5 years old was assessed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012. The overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) of IgG was 20.7% (14.4 to 28.2%), that of IgM was 1.1% (0.4 to 2.4%), and that of low IgG avidity was 3.6% (1.7 to 6.6%), corresponding to a 17.3% (10.1 to 26.7%) prevalence of recent infection among IgG-positive children. PMID:25520150

  9. Ethical considerations in the design and execution of the National and Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES).

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, D K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some ethical considerations that have arisen during the design and implementation of the health examination surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three major areas of concern are discussed: sharing information from the study, banking and using banked tissue samples, and obligations for future testing of subjects. Specific concerns of sharing information include: when to inform, whom to inform, maintaining confidentiality, and how to inform individuals. Specific concerns of determining when sera will be banked and using banked samples include: depletion of samples for quality control, obtaining informed consent for unanticipated uses, access by others, and requests for batches of samples. Finally, specific concerns regarding future testing of subjects include: retesting for verification, retesting for interpretation, testing for different risk factors, and follow-up. Although existing surveys can provide experience or even suggest guidelines, the uniqueness of any new survey will generate unique ethical problems, requiring the careful formulation of unique solutions. PMID:7635116

  10. Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. However, few studies have attempted to examine the vitamin D status of wage workers and the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the association between occupational conditions and vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers. Methods Wage workers aged 20–65 years from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012; n?=?5409) were included in our analysis. We measured the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identified the correlations with the working conditions of these subjects. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in male and female subjects was 69.5% and 83.1%, respectively. Among the male subjects, a significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions was observed among shift workers, office workers, and permanent workers. No significant correlation with any type of working conditions was observed among female subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers was very high and was found to correlate significantly with working conditions, likely because of insufficient exposure to sunlight associated with certain types of work. Wage workers require more frequent outdoor activity and nutrition management to maintain sufficient vitamin D level. PMID:25852939

  11. Innovations in national nutrition surveys.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate. PMID:23336562

  12. Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia A; Bishop, Ellen E; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H

    2009-07-01

    We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers' had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:19742163

  13. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Patricia A.; Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:19742163

  14. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using ?(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. PMID:24953790

  15. The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

  16. The Associations between Serum Zinc Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-A; Song, Sang-Wook; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Ha-Na

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing rapidly worldwide. The functions of zinc may have a potential association with metabolic syndrome, but such associations have not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors among South Korean adults ?20 years of age. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2010. A total of 1,926 participants were analyzed in this study. Serum zinc levels in men were negatively associated with elevated fasting glucose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.93) and positively associated with elevated triglycerides (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.13). A difference in serum zinc levels was detected in women, depending on the number of metabolic syndrome components (p?=?0.002). Furthermore, serum zinc levels showed a decreasing trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components in women with metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that serum zinc levels might be associated with metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors. Further gender-specific studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dietary or supplemental zinc intake on metabolic syndrome. PMID:25153887

  17. Stature and pubertal stage assessment in American boys: the 1988–1994 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1 1 The full text of this article is available via JAH Online at http:\\/\\/www.elsevier.com\\/locate\\/jahonline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam M Karpati; Carol H Rubin; Stephanie M Kieszak; Michele Marcus; Richard P Troiano

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To describe current stature and pubertal development in North American boys, and to compare these measures with measures observed approximately 30 years ago.Methods: We analyzed data (i.e., height, weight, and Tanner Stage) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted between 1988–1994, and compared it to the National Health Examination Survey, Cycles II and III

  18. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

  19. Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

  20. Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (?19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ? 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. PMID:24304610

  1. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  2. Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho; Lee, Su Mi; Oh, Yun Jung; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population. Methods Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status. Results The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males. Conclusions This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24015265

  3. Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in the United States: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Purcell, Robert H.; McQuillan, Geraldine M.; Engle, Ronald E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent and causes disease worldwide, but its epidemiological profile is only partially understood. Methods We used an enzyme immunoassay to measure anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies in 18,695 serum samples collected in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated estimates of HEV seroprevalence and examined associations with putative risk factors. Results The seroprevalence of HEV in the civilian noninstitutionalized United States (US) population during the period from 1988 through 1994 was 21.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.0%–22.9%). Among US-born individuals, males, non-Hispanic whites, and individuals residing in the Midwest and/or in metropolitan areas had the highest seroprevalence estimates. Having a pet in the home (odds ratio [OR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.01–1.40]) and consuming liver or other organ meats more than once per month (OR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.01–1.88]) were significantly associated with increased odds of HEV seropositivity. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in the US population, although hepatitis E is rarely reported. Having pets and consuming organ meats may play a role in HEV transmission in the United States, but other mechanisms of transmission may also exist. HEV may be considered a possible etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in US patients reporting no travel history. PMID:19473098

  4. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-07-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries. PMID:25996372

  5. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Suicidal Behavior: Findings From the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hong-Chul; Hong, Seri; Jang, Sung-In; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between suicidal behavior and patterns of alcohol consumption in Korean adults. Methods: This study was based on data provided by the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011. A total of 42 347 subjects were included in the study, of whom 19 292 were male and 23 055 were female. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and suicidal behavior. Results: Among the study subjects, 1426 males (11.3%) and 3599 females (21.2%) had experienced suicidal ideation, and 106 males (0.8%) and 190 females (1.1%) had attempted suicide during the previous 12 months. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were found to be associated with suicidal ideation in males and associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in females. Alcoholic blackouts were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in males, and were also associated with suicidal ideation in females. Conclusions: In this study, we found that certain patterns of alcohol consumption were associated with suicidal behaviors. In particular, only alcoholic blackouts and categorized AUDIT scores were found to be associated with suicidal behavior in males. We therefore suggest that further research is needed to examine this relationship prospectively and in other settings. PMID:26081651

  6. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  7. The association between gout and nephrolithiasis: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly Mattix Kramer; Gary Curhan

    2002-01-01

    Background: Gout, an inflammatory arthritis, reportedly afflicts more than 2 million men and women in the United States. Previous reports have suggested an association between gout and kidney stone disease; however, these studies did not adjust for such important potential confounders as obesity and the presence of hypertension. To our knowledge, no published study has examined the independent association between

  8. Association of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus with Health-Related Quality of Life: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Han, Kyung-do; Park, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss and tinnitus are global public health concerns. There have been some studies suggesting a relationship between hearing loss and tinnitus and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of the entire country population investigating this possible association. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hearing loss and tinnitus and HRQoL in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2010–2012. Methods Cross-sectional data of 11,266 adults who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups as follows: normal hearing without tinnitus, normal hearing with tinnitus, hearing loss without tinnitus, and hearing loss with tinnitus. Results Among the population that was ?19 years of age, the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss was 9.69% and that of tinnitus in the prior 12 months was 32.76%. The hearing loss with tinnitus group had the highest percentage of subjects who responded “some or extreme problems” in all five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) of HRQoL. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, house income, education level, diabetes, hypertension, and stress level, the HRQoL odds ratios (OR) were 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.02) for mobility, 1.59 (95% CI, 1.07–2.37) for usual activity, and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.25–2.70) for anxiety/depression in the hearing loss with tinnitus group, compared with the normal hearing without tinnitus group. The ORs for the normal hearing with tinnitus group compared with the hearing loss without tinnitus group was increased in all five dimensions of HRQoL after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Hearing loss with tinnitus has a considerable impact on HRQoL in the Korean population. In our study, the hearing loss without tinnitus group showed better a HRQoL than the normal hearing with tinnitus group. PMID:26121026

  9. Relationship between Food-frequency and Glycated Hemoglobin in Korean Diabetics: Using Data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Lack; Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate the association between food intake frequencies and long-term blood glucose control using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Korean diabetes. Methods This study used data collected from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients with diabetes were defined as people who responded "yes" to the question "Are you currently suffering from diabetes?" or in whom serum fasting glucose was 126 mg/dL or more. Using the food frequency questionnaire and HbA1c in surveys, we examined the association between the annual food-frequencies of each food group and long-term blood glucose control. Results After adjustment for other covariates, HbA1c decreased significantly as the frequency of the intake of fish increased in each population (P = 0.001 for all, P = 0.043 for men, P = 0.001 for women). The intake of mackerel played an especially important role in the control of diabetes. Among women, HbA1c decreased as the frequency of intake of legumes increased (P = 0.029) and increased as the frequency of intake of staple carbohydrates increased (P = 0.015). On the other hand, any intake of other food groups showed no significant relationship with HbA1c. Conclusion Frequent intake of fish in all populations and legumes in woman were associated with good glycemic control in diabetics. Frequent intake of carbohydrates was associated with elevated HbA1c in women. PMID:23115702

  10. Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2015-02-28

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that have been shown to prevent cancer in some studies. Whether phyto-oestrogen intake affects obesity status in a population is still unclear. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the association of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with obesity and metabolic parameters in children and adults. Data from 1294 children (age 6-19 years) and from 3661 adults (age ? 20 years) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10 were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of BMI, waist circumference, serum metabolites (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting glucose and fasting insulin) and the metabolic syndrome with urinary phyto-oestrogen levels. When stratified by age and sex, we found a stronger association (OR 0·30, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·54; P< 0·001) between urinary enterolactone levels and obesity in adult males (age 20-60 years) than in children (age 12-19 years) or the elderly (age >60 years) in the same survey. However, no associations with urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein were found in the overall population. We also found that the elevation of enterolactone levels was inversely associated with TAG levels, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels and the metabolic syndrome in males aged 20-60 years, but positively associated with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone is inversely associated with obesity in adult males. PMID:25634494

  11. The impact of parental history on children’s risk of asthma: a study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rengyi; DeMauro, Sara B; Feng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the separate effects of maternal and paternal history on the onset of asthma in children and evaluate the relationship between age of asthma onset in parents and risk of asthma in their children. Methods We used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We developed new continuous standardized scores for survey data to quantify parental history that incorporated both the occurrence of asthma and the age at onset, and associated these scores with asthma risk in the children. The association analysis was adjusted for sex and obesity status. Results Children with maternal history have elevated asthma risk (hazard ratio of 3.71, 95% CI: 1.19–11.60) than those without, and those whose mothers had earlier age of onset have increased risk of asthma compared to those whose mothers had later age of onset. On the contrary, paternal history had a relatively smaller effect that may be only detectable in larger samples (hazard ratio of 2.17, 95% CI: 0.69–6.79). Conclusion Maternal asthma history was strongly associated with the onset of asthma in the second generation, and children whose mother had an earlier age of onset had an increased risk of 3.71. For an approximately 10-year decrease in mother’s age at onset of asthma, the risk of asthma for the offspring increased by 1.37-fold. Using our new risk scores led to smaller standard errors and thus more precise estimates than using a binary indicator.

  12. Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Needham, Belinda L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-01-15

    Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 µg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 µg/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 µg/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with -5.54% (95% CI: -8.70, -2.37) and -4.50% (95% CI: -8.79, -0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks. PMID:25504027

  13. Relationship between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and cataracts in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Nam, G E; Han, K; Ha, S G; Han, B-D; Kim, D H; Kim, Y-H; Cho, K H; Park, Y G; Ko, B-J

    2015-07-01

    PurposeCataracts are the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness, and therefore early identification and modification of the risk factors for cataracts are meaningful. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors, and age-related cataracts in South Korea.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on data collected in the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15?866 subjects, aged ?40 years, were included. SES was defined using household income and education level. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other associated factors were assessed by health interviews and examinations. Cataracts were diagnosed via slit-lamp examination using the Lens Opacities Classification System III.ResultsThe prevalence of any cataract was 38.9% in men and 42.3% in women (P<0.001). In women, the risk of cataracts increased with decreases in household income (P-value for trend=0.016 and 0.041 in any, and cortical cataract, respectively) and education level (P-value for trend=0.009, 0.027, and 0.016 in any, nuclear, and cortical cataract, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Current smoking was correlated with nuclear cataracts in men (OR 1.21; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.46 in age-adjusted analysis) and cataract surgery in women (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.00, 5.04 in multivariate-adjusted analysis).ConclusionsSocioeconomic disparities in cataract prevalence were observed in women; current smoking increased the risk of nuclear cataracts in men and surgery in women. Public health interventions focusing on gender differences are warranted to prevent and treat cataracts. PMID:25976646

  14. Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Catherine Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican) (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706), non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602), and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957). Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879) and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637) are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important. PMID:25485292

  15. The association between major depressive disorder and obesity in US adolescents: results from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Alison K.; Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.; Cleary, Sean D.

    2014-01-01

    The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity was assessed in 4,150 US adolescents aged 12–19 years from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight and height were measured by health professionals and MDD was based on a structured diagnostic interview. The prevalence of MDD in the past year among US adolescents was 3.2% and 16.8% of US adolescents were obese. After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity and poverty, MDD was not significantly associated with obesity among adolescents overall (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9–2.9), but an increased odds of obesity was observed among males (adjOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1–7.1) and non-Hispanic blacks (adjOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1–8.3) with MDD. Future research on strategies that might reduce the risk of obesity in males and non-Hispanic black adolescents with MDD may be warranted. PMID:21479835

  16. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P?=?0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  17. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers. Part 3: evaluation and comparison with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Marano, Kristin M; Kathman, Steven J; Jones, Bobbette A; Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE), including hematologic biomarkers, serum lipid-related biomarkers, other serum BoBE, and one physiological biomarker, were evaluated in adult cigarette smokers (SMK), smokeless tobacco consumers (STC), and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Data from adult males and females in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a single site, cross-sectional study of healthy US males were analyzed and compared. Within normal clinical reference ranges, statistically significant differences were observed consistently for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, hemoglobin, white blood cells, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in comparisons between SMK and NTC; for CRP, white blood cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes in comparisons between SMK and STC; and for folate in comparisons with STC and NTC. Results provide evidence for differences in CVD BoBE associated with the use of different tobacco products, and provide evidence of a risk continuum among tobacco products and support for the concept of tobacco harm reduction. PMID:25787702

  18. Prevalence of asbestos-related pleural changes on x-ray in the United States: Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) data

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; Ragan, N.B.; Anderson, H.A.

    1986-09-01

    Pleural thickening on x-ray is a specific marker for exposure to asbestos, which in turn carries an excess risk for lung disease and cancer. In World War II, a large cohort of asbestos workers was employed in shipyards in the United States. About 30 years have elapsed between their exposure and the 1974 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), done on a probability sample of US residents. A defined subgroup of subjects between ages 18 and 75 years (n = 6758) had chest x-rays. All films read by HANES as showing pleural changes (n = 289), and a 3 to 1, age-, sex-, race-matched control series were re-read by three readers using the International Labor Organization criteria for diagnosis of pleural pneumoconiosis. Using 2/3 readings as positive, 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had pleural changes on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with pleural changes in the mid-1970s. If about 12% of asbestos workers develop pleural changes, there would have been about 10 million workers or persons with substantial asbestos exposure to produce those with pleural changes. This estimate is in line with those made by other investigators, but was arrived at by a different and more direct method. This cohort will make a substantial contribution to cancer morbidity into the next century.

  19. Prevalence of occupational pleural thickening: a look at chest x-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladenn, B.C.; Ragan, B.; Anderson, H.A.

    1987-11-01

    The prevalence of occupational pleural thickening in the United States in the mid-1970s was estimated; since asbestos often reduces pleural thickening, this estimate in turn was used to estimate the presence of asbestos exposure. Chest x-rays obtained by the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were reread by three readers using the International Labour Office criteria for diagnosis of pleural thickening consistent with dust exposure. All 289 x-rays showing any pleural abnormalities plus a 3-to-1 age-, sex-, and race-matched control series were reread. Using two of three readings as positive, and extrapolating to the US population from this defined sample, the authors showed that 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had occupational pleural thickening on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with occupational pleural thickening and approximately 8 million people with asbestos exposure in the mid-1970s. This cohort might make a substantial contribution to cancer mortality into the next century.

  20. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Workers by Occupational Group: Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased rapidly in South Korea over the past 10 years. However, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in workers grouped according to the specific type of work is not well understood in Korea. In this study, we assessed the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and evaluated the risk of the metabolic syndrome among occupational groups. Methods From the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010), 3,303 employed participants were included in this study. The unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome were estimated and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the presence of the metabolic syndrome as a dependent variable, and adjusting for age, education level, household income, drinking behavior, smoking status, physical activity, work hours, and work scheduling pattern. Results Among male workers, non-manual workers had the greatest age-adjusted prevalence (26.4%, 95% CI: 22.3-30.5%) among the occupational groups. In a logistic regression analysis, male manual workers had a significantly lower odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome relative to non-manual workers (0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrated differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and identified the greatest risk for the metabolic syndrome in male non-manual workers. PMID:24472422

  1. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Hoy, Mary K; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-02-01

    Efforts to sharpen the focus of sodium reduction strategies include identification of major food group contributors of sodium intake. Although sandwiches are a staple of the American diet, previous examinations of their contribution to sodium intake captured only a small subset of sandwiches. One day of dietary intake data from 5,762 adults aged 20 years and older in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Sandwiches were defined in a manner that more accurately reflected their frequency of consumption. Two-sided t tests were used to compare percentages of men and women reporting sandwiches; contributions of sandwiches to energy and sodium intakes (amounts in kilocalories and milligrams, respectively, and percent of daily totals) by sex; and total energy, total sodium, and sodium density (mg/1,000 kcal) by sandwich reporting status (reporter/nonreporter). On any given day, 49% of American adults ate sandwiches. A significantly higher percentage of men than women reported sandwiches (54% vs 44%, respectively; P<0.001), and sandwiches accounted for higher percentages of men's total energy and sodium intakes. Compared with individuals who did not report a sandwich on the intake day, sandwich reporters had significantly higher energy and sodium intakes; however, sodium density of the diet did not vary by sandwich reporting status. Although much national attention is appropriately focused on reducing sodium in the food supply, consumer choices still play a vital role. Due to sandwiches' frequent consumption and considerable contributions to sodium intake, substituting lower-sodium for higher-sodium ingredients in sandwiches could significantly influence sodium intakes. PMID:25300226

  2. Food Security and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Results Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P < .001). No significant associations between food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.31). Conclusion Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24309090

  3. Combined Effects of Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Iodine on Thyroid Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-8

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference = 0.40 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14-0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference = 1.07 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55-1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. PMID:23473920

  4. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  5. Risk of Mortality Associated With QT and JT Intervals at Different Levels of QRS Duration (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Waqas T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Shah, Amit J; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2015-07-01

    QT prolongation in the setting of QRS >120 ms is believed to be triggered by prolonged depolarization rather than repolarization. Hence, JT interval is suggested as an alternative to QT interval when QRS duration is prolonged. It is unclear, however, if JT and QT intervals portend similar risk of mortality for different durations of QRS. We examined the association between QT and JT, separately, with all-cause mortality across different levels of QRS duration in 8,025 participants (60 ± 13 years, 41% white and 54% women) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. At baseline (1986 to 1994), 486 participants (6%) had QRS duration ?120 ms. During a follow-up of up to 18 years, 3,045 deaths (38%) occurred. There were significant nonlinear relations of QT and JT intervals with mortality (p <0.001). Hence, QT and JT were categorized as prolonged (>95th percentile), shortened (<5th percentile), and normal (reference group). In multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models, prolonged JT (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 12.11) was associated with increased risk of mortality more than prolonged QT (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17) in participants with QRS ?120 ms (interaction p = 0.02). In participants with QRS duration <120 ms, prolonged QT and JT were equally predictive of all-cause mortality (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.54, and HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.55, respectively). Similar patterns were observed with shortened QT and JT intervals. In conclusion, although both QT and JT intervals are predictive of mortality, JT is more predictive in the setting of QRS duration >120 ms supporting the use of JT interval in patients with prolonged QRS. PMID:25929581

  6. The association of physical activity and colorectal and breast cancer: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic importance of physical activity during and after cancer treatment has been supported. To examine the patterns of physical activity according to the stages of breast and colorectal cancer survivor-ship in Korean, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2011 were used. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate weekly time spent in vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity, and walking, and to calculate MET-minute/week. Depending on the survivorship, the subjects were categorized into “never diagnosed with cancer” (group 1), “0–4 yr since cancer diagnosis” (group 2), and “5 or more years since cancer diagnosis” (group 3), separately for colorectal and breast cancer. The associations between physical activity and the cancer survivorship were studied. Following results were obtained: (1) Breast cancer (n=10,167, mean age=48.55±16.27): The mean physical activity levels expressed in MET-minutes/week were 2,064.83, 1748.82, and 1998.36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even though cancer survivors tended to be less active compared to people without cancer, there were no statistically significant difference among the three groups. (2) Colorectal cancer (n=17,270, mean age=48.62): MET-minutes/week was 2064.30, 1084.83, and 709.04 36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The differences were significant between group 1 and 2 (F=5.87, P=0.016) and group 1 and 3 (F=28.99, P<0.001). Despite potential therapeutic benefits of physical activity, colorectal cancer survivors were less active than people without cancer in Korea. PMID:26171382

  7. Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

  8. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  9. Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Ganji; Cristiana Milone; Mildred M Cody; Frances McCarty; Yong T Wang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D receptors have been mapped throughout the brain suggesting a role for vitamin D in psychosomatic disorders. Results from previous epidemiological studies on relation between vitamin D status and depression are equivocal. Also, limited information is available relating vitamin D status with depression in young adult US population. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination

  10. Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults, 1998–2009: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Taik; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Hye-Ree; Park, Byoung-Jin; Linton, John A.; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity is increasing worldwide and becoming a major public health problem, some countries report a trend toward stabilization. We investigated prevalence trends in overweight/obesity and obesity among Korean adults during a 12-year period. Methods This study was based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998), II (2001), III (2005), and IV (2007–2009). The ?2 and ANOVA tests were used to compare the prevalence and mean values for age and BMI, respectively. P-values for trends were determined by linear and logistic regression analyses, with KNHANES phase as the continuous variable. Results The prevalences of overweight/obesity in KNHANES I through IV were 50.8%, 57.4%, 62.5%, and 62.6%, respectively, among men (P for trend = 0.002, ? = 0.021) and 47.3%, 51.9%, 50.0%, and 48.9% among women (P for trend = 0.017, ? = ?0.015). The respective prevalences of obesity were 26.0%, 32.4%, 35.1%, and 36.3% among men (P for trend = 0.006, ? = 0.018) and 26.5%, 29.3%, 28.0%, and 27.6% among women (P for trend = 0.143, ? = ?0.008). During the same period, the respective prevalences of grade 2 obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2) were 1.7%, 2.8%, 3.6%, and 3.8% among men (P for trend = 0.075, ? = 0.005) and 3.0%, 3.5%, 3.4%, and 4.0% among women (P for trend = 0.398, ? = 0.003). Conclusions The prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity showed an upward trend among men during the 12-year period, whereas the prevalence of overweight/obesity slightly decreased among women from 2001. PMID:24531001

  11. Impact of Smoking and Thiocyanate on Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Associations in the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Howd, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Findings from a recent large study suggest that perchlorate at commonly occurring exposure concentrations may decrease thyroid hormone levels in some women. Decreases in thyroid hormone seen with perchlorate exposure could be even greater in people with concomitant exposure to agents such as thiocyanate that may affect the thyroid by mechanisms similar to those of perchlorate. Objectives and methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the impact of smoking and thiocyanate on the relationship between urinary per-chlorate and serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Results In women with urinary iodine levels < 100 ?g/L, the association between the logarithm of perchlorate and decreased T4 was greater in smokers [regression coefficient (?) = ?1.66, p = 0.0005] than in nonsmokers (? = ?0.54, p = 0.04). In subjects with high, medium, and low cotinine levels, these regression coefficients were ?1.47 (p = 0.0002), ?0.57 (p = 0.03), and ?0.16 (p = 0.59). For high, medium, and low thiocyanate tertiles they were ?1.67 (p = 0.0009), ?0.68 (p = 0.09), and ?0.49 (p = 0.11). Clear interactions between perchlorate and smoking were not seen with TSH or with T4 in women with urinary iodine levels ? 100 ?g/L or in men. Conclusions These results suggest that thiocyanate in tobacco smoke and perchlorate interact in affecting thyroid function, and this effect can take place at commonly occurring perchlorate exposures. Agents other than tobacco smoke might cause similar interactions, and further research on these agents could help identify people who are particularly susceptible to perchlorate. PMID:17805424

  12. Poor Lung Function Has Inverse Relationship with Microalbuminuria, an Early Surrogate Marker of Kidney Damage and Atherosclerosis: The 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological evidences of relationship between poor lung function and atherosclerosis, the relationship between poor lung function and microalbuminuria (MAU), an early surrogate marker of both kidney damage and atherosclerosis, is not well understood. Hence, we plan to investigate the relationship between poor lung function and MAU using multivariate models to adjust for other atherogenic risk factors. Methods We used data from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Poor lung function is determined by spirometric measurement, primarily through estimation of the forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Declines in the percent predicted FVC (<80%) and in the FEV1/FVC ratio (<0.7) are defined as restrictive and obstructive patterns, respectively. Urine albumin to urine creatinine levels ratio (UACR) were measured in spot urine samples. MAU was defined as UACR >30 mg/g. Results Inverse relationship was observed between lung function and UACR. In an age-adjusted regression model, the regression coefficient (B) of 10% lower FVC was 11.09 in men (P?=?0.002), which remained significant after adjustment for SBP, FBG, triglyceride level, BMI, smoking history, and heavy alcohol consumption (B?=?7.52, P?=?0.043). When the restrictive pattern was compared to the normal pattern, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95%CI) for MAU were 1.90 (1.32–2.72) in men, after adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, triglyceride level, obesity, smoking history, physical activity, and heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions Our study, the first investigation in Asia, demonstrated that the restrictive pattern is related to MAU in men. Furthermore, there was linear relationship between lower FVC and UACR. Thus, our current study suggests that poor lung function, particularly the restrictive pattern, is related to kidney damage as well as atherosclerosis. PMID:24718679

  13. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09–1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11–1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks’ experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6–8 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. PMID:26080022

  14. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Ahmed A; Rohrer, James E

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that alcohol use may have a protective effect on obesity. This study explores association between obesity and alcohol consumption in the non-smoking U.S. adult population. Methods We analyzed data on a total of 8,236 respondents who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body mass index (weight-kg/height-m2) was derived from measured height and weight data and categorized into: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Alcohol consumption was measured using following measures: history of drinking, binge drinking, quantity of drinks/day, frequency of drinking, and average volume of drinks/week. Results Mean body mass index in this sample of non-smokers was 26.4 (95% CI: 26.1, 26.7). Approximately 46% of respondents were classified as current drinkers. Current drinkers had lower odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.97) as compared to non-drinkers. The odds of overweight and obesity were significantly greater among binge drinkers and those consuming four or more drinks/day. However, those who reported drinking one or two drinks per day had 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.62) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) times the odds of obesity, respectively. Similarly, the odds of obesity were significantly lower among those who reported drinking frequently and consuming less than five drinks per week. The association between overweight and other alcohol measures was less pronounced. Conclusion The results suggest further exploring the possible role of moderate alcohol drinking in controlling body weight in adults. PMID:16329757

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988–94)

    PubMed Central

    Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. PMID:12151605

  16. Concentrations of the Sunscreen Agent Benzophenone-3 in Residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Ye, Xiaoyun; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The capability of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) to absorb and dissipate ultraviolet radiation facilitates its use as a sunscreen agent. BP-3 has other uses in many consumer products (e.g., as fragrance and flavor enhancer, photoinitiator, ultraviolet curing agent, polymerization inhibitor). Objectives Our goal was to assess exposure to BP-3 in a representative sample of the U.S. general population ? 6 years of age. Methods Using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,517 urine samples collected as part of the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results We detected BP-3 in 96.8% of the samples. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentrations were 22.9 ?g/L (22.2 ?g/g creatinine) and 1,040 ?g/L (1,070 ?g/g creatinine), respectively. Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations were significantly higher (p ? 0.04) for females than for males, regardless of age. LSGM concentrations were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than for non-Hispanic blacks (p ? 0.01), regardless of age. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.9–6.5], and non-Hispanic whites were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (adjusted OR = 6.8; 95% CI, 2.9–16.2) to have concentrations above the 95th percentile. Conclusions Exposure to BP-3 was prevalent in the general U.S. population during 2003–2004. Differences by sex and race/ethnicity probably reflect differences in use of personal care products containing BP-3. PMID:18629311

  17. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  18. Association between Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis in the U.S. Population: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Horne, David J; Campo, Monica; Ortiz, Justin R.; Oren, Eyal; Arentz, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is based on studies in special populations and/or from high prevalence settings. We sought to evaluate the association between LTBI and smoking in a low prevalence TB setting using population-based data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods In 1999–2000, NHANES assessed LTBI (defined as a tuberculin skin test measurement ?10 mm) in participants, and those ?20 years of age were queried regarding their tobacco use and serum cotinine was measured. We evaluated the association of LTBI with self-reported smoking history and smoking intensity in multivariable logistic regression models that adjusted for known confounders (gender, age, birthplace, race/ethnicity, poverty, education, history of BCG vaccination, and history of household exposure to tuberculosis disease). Results Estimated LTBI prevalence was 5.3% among those ?20 years of age. The LTBI prevalence among never smokers, current smokers, and former smokers was 4.1%, 6.6%, and 6.2%, respectively. In a multivariable model, current smoking was associated with LTBI (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9). The association between smoking and LTBI was strongest for Mexican-American and black individuals. In multivariate analysis stratified by race/ethnicity, cigarette packs per day among Mexican-American smokers and cotinine levels among black smokers, were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions In the large, representative, population-based NHANES sample, smoking was independently associated with significantly increased risks of LTBI. In certain populations, a greater risk of LTBI corresponded with increased smoking exposure. PMID:23145066

  19. Association between Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, You-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have identified that physical activity (PA) has positive influences on quality of life. However, there has been little domestic research about the relation of PA to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the general population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PA on HRQoL in Korean adults aged 40 years or over. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data acquired from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Final study subjects were 10,392 adults aged 40 years or over. According to the severity and frequency of PA, the subjects were divided into three PA groups as follows: high-activity, mid-activity, and low-activity group. We compared the HRQoL estimated by the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D), the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), and EQ-5D index between three PA groups. Results The odds ratios for mid-activity group and high activity group compared with low activity group were significantly decreased in the dimension of mobility of EQ-5D (mid-activity group, 0.81 [0.69-0.94]; high activity group, 0.81 [0.67-0.99]). EQ-VAS was decreased as PA level was lowered from high activity group and mid-activity to low activity group. EQ-5D index was the highest in mid-activity group and the lowest in low activity group. Conclusion PA above mid-activity group showed better HRQoL compared than low activity group. PMID:24921034

  20. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (?20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations. PMID:22095826

  1. Age at type 2 diabetes onset and glycaemic control: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that age younger than 65 years at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. For adults with self-reported diabetes, we dichotomised age at diabetes diagnosis as younger (<65 years) vs older (?65 years). The primary outcome of interest was HbA1c >9.0% (75 mmol/mol). Secondary outcomes were HbA1c >8.0% (64 mmol/mol) and >7.0% (53 mmol/mol). We used multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Among 1,438 adults with diabetes, a higher proportion of those <65 years at diagnosis compared with those ?65 at diagnosis had an HbA1c >9.0% (14.4% vs 2.5%, p<0.001). After adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, insurance, usual source of care, hyperglycaemia medication, duration of diabetes, family history, BMI and waist circumference, age <65 years at diagnosis remained significantly associated with greater odds of HbA1c > 9.0% (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.54, 6.72), HbA1c > 8.0% (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.43, 5.16) and HbA1c >7.0% (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18, 3.11). The younger group reported fewer comorbidities, but were less likely to report good health (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83). Conclusions/interpretation Younger age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is significantly associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Because patients who are younger at diagnosis have fewer competing comorbidities and complications, safe, aggressive, individualised treatment could benefit this higher-risk group. PMID:23995472

  2. Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

  3. Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time. PMID:25802688

  4. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003–2004 sample of the general U.S. population ? 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003–2004 participants. Results We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999–2000 (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the general U.S. population in 2003–2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003–2004 were lower than in 1999–2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds. PMID:18007991

  5. Prevalence of Spirometrically-defined Restrictive Ventilatory Defect in Korea: The Fourth-2, 3, and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Ki Uk; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Sheen, Sueng Su; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Heung Bum; Lim, Sung Chul; Jung, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Yuna; Chun, Chaemin; Yoo, Kwang Ha

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect and to determine the risk factors in subjects with spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect. We used the population-based, fourth-2, 3 (2008, 2009) and fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to analyze 15,073 subjects, aged ?40 yr who underwent spirometry. Chest radiographs were also analyzed to identify restrictive lung disease. Spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect (FEV1/FVC?70% and FVC<80% of mean predicted value) was detected in 11.3% (n= 1,709) of subjects aged ?40 yr. The prevalence increased to 12.3% on using the lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Approximately 99.4% of subjects were classified as mild restrictive. Among these, 11.3% had inactive tuberculosis (TB) lesion, 2.2% cardiac disease, 2.0% previous operation scar or radiation injury and/or mediastinal disease, and 7.4% other pulmonary disease suggestive of restrictive lung diseases on chest radiograph. Evidence of previous TB history was independently associated with restrictive ventilatory defect (odds ratios [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.18) after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, area for residence and body mass index. The prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect among the nationwide population in Korea was 11.3% with fixed ratio criterion and 12.3% with LLN criterion. Most cases were of the mild restrictive category and previous TB history is the independent risk factor for restrictive ventilatory defect. PMID:26028924

  6. Differences in Energy, Nutrient, and Food Intakes in a US Sample of Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Beth Dixon; Jan Sundquist; Marilyn Winkleby

    As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and\\/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n

  7. Addendum to: Evaluation of PCDD\\/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L F Scott; Kenneth M Unice; Paul Scott; Ly M Nguyen; Laurie C Haws; Mark Harris; Dennis Paustenbach

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we published a paper in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology describing PCDD\\/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data collected for the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Since publication of this paper, several of the 1998 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs), which were used to calculate the summary statistics we presented, have

  8. Non–High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: Distribution and Prevalence of High Serum Levels in Children and Adolescents: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shifan; Yang, Quanhe; Yuan, Keming; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Fang, Jing; Daniels, Stephen R.; Hong, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate age-related changes for serum concentration of non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), describe non-HDL-C distribution, and examine the prevalence of high non-HDL-C levels in children and adolescents by demographic characteristics and weight status. Study design Data from 7058 participants ages 6–19 years in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A high level of non-HDL-C was defined as a non-HDL-C value ?145mg/dL. Results Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing–smoothed curves showed that non-HDL-C levels increased from 101 mg/dL at age 6 to 111 mg/dL at age 10, decreased to 101 mg/dL at age 14, and then increased to 122 mg/dL at age 19 in non-Hispanic white males. Non-HDL-C levels generally were greater in female than male subjects, lower in non-Hispanic black subjects, and similar in male and slightly lower in female Mexican American subjects, compared with non-Hispanic white subjects. The overall mean was 108 (SE 0.5), and the percentiles were 67 (5th), 74 (10th), 87 (25th), 104 (50th), 123 (75th), 145 (90th), and 158 (95th) mg/dL. Mean and percentiles were greater among age groups 9–11 and 17–19 years than others and greater among non-Hispanic white than non-Hispanic black subjects. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C was 11.8% (95% CI 9.9%–14.0%) and 15.0% (95% CI 12.9%–17.3%) for the age groups 9–11 and 17–19, respectively. It varied significantly by race/ethnicity and overweight/obesity status. Conclusion Non-HDL-C levels vary by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight classification status. Evaluation of non-HDL-C in youth should account for its normal physiologic patterns and variations in demographic characteristics and weight classification. PMID:24139441

  9. Stage A Heart Failure Is Not Adequately Recognized in US Adults: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kovell, Lara C.; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Russell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stage A heart failure (HF) is defined as people without HF symptoms or structural heart disease, but with predisposing conditions for HF. This classification is used to identify high risk patients to prevent progression to symptomatic HF. While guidelines exist for managing HF risk factors, achievement of treatment goals in the United States (US) population is unknown. Methods We examined all adults with Stage A HF (?20 years, N =4,470) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2007-2010, a nationally representative sample. Stage A HF was defined by coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease. We evaluated whether nationally accepted guidelines for risk factor control were achieved in Stage A patients, including sodium intake, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP). Pharmacologic interventions and socioeconomic factors associated with guideline compliance were also assessed. Results Over 75 million people, or 1 in 3 US adults, have Stage A HF. The mean age of the Stage A population was 56.9 years and 51.5% were women. Seventy-two percent consume ?2g sodium/day and 49.2% are obese. Of those with CHD, 58.6% were on a statin and 51.8% were on a beta-blocker. In people with diabetes, 43.6% had HbA1c ?7%, with Mexican Americans more likely to have HbA1c ?7% . Of those with hypertension, 30.8% had a systolic BP ?140 or diastolic BP ?90 mm Hg. Having health insurance was associated with controlled blood pressure, both in those with hypertension and diabetes. In CHD patients, income ?$20,000/year and health insurance were inversely associated with LDL ?100mg/dL with prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.58 (P=0.03) and 0.56 (P=0.03), respectively. Conclusions One-third of the US adult population has Stage A HF. Prevention efforts should focus on those with poorly controlled comorbid disease. PMID:26171960

  10. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  11. The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the Korean adults: the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (observational study).

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae W; Jeon, Ju H; Ku, Cheol R; Noh, Jung H; Yoo, Hyung J; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n?=?33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6-21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6-9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19-39 years' old) was 4.4% (3.5-5.5), in middle-age adults (40-64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8-22.5), and in older adults (?65 years' old), it was 69.7% (67.8-71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?mL/min/1.73m² as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73m², and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing impairment. As such, these groups may benefit from hearing loss screening in addition to those groups typically considered to be of elevated risk including geriatrics, those of low socioeconomic status, and those with considerable occupational noise exposure. PMID:25761183

  12. Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos J. Crespo; Ellen Smit; Richard P. Troiano; Susan J. Bartlett; Caroline A. Macera; Ross E. Andersen

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between tele- vision watching, energy intake, physical activity, and obe- sity status in US boys and girls, aged 8 to 16 years. Methods: We used a nationally representative cross- sectional survey with an in-person interview and a medi- cal examination, which included measurements of height and weight, daily hours of television watching, weekly par- ticipation

  13. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

  14. Diabetes and Hearing Impairment in the United States: Audiometric Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The vasculature and neural system of the inner ear may be affected by diabetes. Objective To determine whether hearing impairment is more prevalent among U.S. adults with diabetes than among those without diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. Participants 5140 non-institutionalized adults aged 20–69 years who underwent audiometric testing. Measurements Hearing impairment assessed from the pure tone average of thresholds over low/mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz), and defined for mild or greater severity (pure tone average > 25 decibels hearing level (dB HL)) and moderate or greater severity (pure tone average > 40 dB HL). Results For low/mid frequency hearing impairment of mild or greater severity assessed in the worse ear, age-adjusted prevalence estimates (95% confidence limits) were 21.3% (15.0, 27.5) among 399 adults with diabetes and 9.4% (8.2, 10.5) among 4741 adults without diabetes. For high frequency hearing impairment of mild or greater severity assessed in the worse ear, age-adjusted prevalence estimates were 54.1% (45.9, 62.3) among those with diabetes and 32.0% (30.5, 33.5) among those without. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence limits) of 1.82 (1.27, 2.60) and 2.16 (1.47, 3.18) for the low/mid frequency and high frequency impairments, respectively, indicated that differences in socio-demographic characteristics, noise exposure, ototoxic medication use, and smoking did not account for the association between diabetes and hearing impairment. Limitations Diagnosed diabetes was based on self-report and does not distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Noise exposure assessments were based on participant recall. Conclusion Adults with diabetes have a higher occurrence of hearing impairment than those without diabetes. Screening for this problem would allow for interventions to improve hearing. PMID:18559825

  15. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ?20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  16. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) Genetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y; Parekh, Rulan S; Astor, Brad C; Coresh, Josef; Berthier-Schaad, Yvette; Smith, Michael W; Shuldiner, Alan R; Kao, Wen Hong L

    2009-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE) have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. Methods The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine association with estimated GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and low-GFR cases. Low-GFR cases were defined as GFR <75 ml/min/1.73 m2; additionally, GFR was analyzed continuously. Results In univariate analysis, the e4 allele was negatively associated with low-GFR cases in non-Hispanic whites, odds ratio (OR): 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.97. In whites, there was a significant association between increasing APOE score (indicating greater number of e2 alleles) and higher prevalence of low-GFR cases (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.45). Analysis of continuous GFR in whites found the e4 allele was associated with higher levels of continuous GFR (?-coefficient: 2.57 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: 0.005, 5.14); in non-Hispanic blacks the e2 allele was associated with lower levels of continuous GFR (?-coefficient: -3.73 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: -6.61, -0.84). APOE e2 and e4 alleles were rare and not associated with low-GFR cases or continuous GFR in Mexican Americans. Conclusion In conclusion, the authors observed a weak association between the APOE e4 allele and low-GFR cases and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic whites, and the APOE e2 allele and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic blacks, but found no association with either measure of kidney function in Mexican Americans. Larger studies including multiethnic groups are needed to determine the significance of this association. PMID:19852818

  17. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (?15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was independently associated with higher HbA1c levels in a cigarette exposure-dependent manner in a representative population of Korean non-diabetic adults. In this study, we have observed an association between smoking status and HbA1c levels in non-diabetics drawn from a non-Western population, consistent with previous findings in Western populations. PMID:26011526

  18. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ? 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ? 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (? 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ? 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ? 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (? 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ? 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (? 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  19. The direction of the difference between Canadian and American erythrocyte folate concentrations is dependent on the assay method employed: a comparison of the Canadian Health Measures Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Tremblay, Mark S; Aufreiter, Susanne; Bushnik, Tracey; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-12-14

    Fortification of select grain products with folic acid and periconceptional supplementation recommendations in Canada and the USA have improved folate status, and have been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a comparison of erythrocyte folate concentrations from the 2007-9 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the 2007-8 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Erythrocyte folate concentration was assessed in participants aged 6-79 years (CHMS, n 5248; NHANES, n 7070). To account for different folate assays employed - Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) and microbiological assay (NHANES) - a conversion equation was generated (n 152 adults) to adjust the CHMS data. t Tests were used to examine country differences. Median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations (method-adjusted) were lower than those of Americans (988 and 1100 nmol/l, respectively), but unadjusted median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations were higher (1250 nmol/l). The upper 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate distribution overlapped that of the American erythrocyte folate concentrations, while the lower 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate data was below the American distribution. In summary, the fact that erythrocyte folate concentrations were either higher or lower in Canadians compared with Americans, depending on whether an adjustment was made to account for assay differences, suggests that caution must be exercised in evaluating erythrocyte folate data from different countries because analytical methods are not readily comparable. Furthermore, we cannot unequivocally conclude that there are true differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the Canadian and American populations in the post-fortification era. PMID:25296277

  20. OBESITY AND REPORTS OF NO LEISURE TIME ACTIVITY AMONG OLDER AMERICANS: RESULTS FROM THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a cardiovascular risk factor that has a higher prevalence among overweight adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of not participating in Leisure Time Physical Activity (LPTA) and the relationship to body weight class among older U.S. adults. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey with an in-person interview and medical examination was used. Between

  1. Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

  2. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  3. Obesity and Related Health Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Children in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004 and 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kevin J; Befort, Christie; Nollen, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Objective?To assess rates of overweight/obesity and related health behaviors among rural and urban children using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).?Methods?Data were drawn from the 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 NHANES surveys regarding demographic characteristics, weight status, dietary behaviors and physical activity behaviors.?Results?Significantly more rural children were found to be obese than urban children. Health behavior differences to explain this differential obesity rate were primarily not significant, but multivariate analyses indicate that for rural children meeting physical activity recommendations is protective and engaging in more than 2?hr/day of electronic entertainment promotes obesity.?Conclusions?There are modifiable health behavior differences between rural and urban children which may account for the significantly higher obesity rates among rural children. PMID:21227910

  4. U.S. HEALTH AND NUTRITION: SAS SURVEY PROCEDURES AND NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to evaluate the health and nutrition of the United States. It is composed of cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. A complex, stratified, mult...

  5. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure. Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls. Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  6. Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

  7. Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population. Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type. Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 2003–2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income. Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1–12.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8–1.0 ?g/L) throughout 2003–2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (6–11 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003. Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003–2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds. Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351–355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816 PMID:24451842

  8. ALKYL PHOSPHATE RESIDUE VALUES IN THE URINE OF FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HANES) SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 1981 Florida citrus pesticide usage survey, it was found that substantial quantities of ethion, carbophenothion, malathion, and dioxathion are used on Florida citrus crops. Ethion is used for Snow scale and Rust mites; carbophenothion is used on Rust and Spider mites, Snow s...

  9. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  10. A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17?years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-? diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50?years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-? diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9?kg/m2) and obese (>30?kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

  11. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: Results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to sharpen the focus of sodium reduction strategies include identification of major food group contributors of sodium intake. Although sandwiches are a staple of the American diet, examinations of their contribution to sodium intake have been limited to “single-code” sandwiches. One day of...

  12. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  13. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...

  14. Receipt of renal replacement therapy in the United States: a population-based study of sociodemographic disparities from the second national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil R. Powe; Michelle E. Tarver-Carr; Mark S. Eberhardt; Frederick L. Brancati

    2003-01-01

    Background:Persons with chronic kidney disease who need kidney replacement therapy to sustain life have health insurance. We examined whether young adults, women, blacks, less-educated persons, the poor, and persons residing in less populated areas receive treatment when health insurance is no longer a barrier.

  15. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  16. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  17. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

    2002-10-15

    Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

  18. The effects of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate on free thyroxine for potentially sensitive subpopulations of the 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Abraham, Liz; Hixon, J Gregory; Proctor, Deborah M

    2014-11-01

    Among women with urinary iodine concentration <100??g/l in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), urinary perchlorate was associated with significant changes in thyroid stimulating hormone and total thyroxine (T4). Although perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate all potentially act to inhibit iodide uptake, free T4 was not found to be associated with exposure to these chemicals in the same data. Fetuses of pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency are thought to be a sensitive subpopulation for perchlorate exposure, but the potential associations between free T4 and exposure to these chemicals among pregnant mothers in NHANES 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 have not been specifically evaluated to date. This study investigates the potential associations between urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate and serum free T4 in individuals with low urinary iodine levels and pregnant women. Multivariate regression models of free T4 were conducted and included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, and covariates known to have an impact on the thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hours of fasting). Meta-analyses were also conducted on non-pregnant and on pregnant women from the two survey cycles. Urinary nitrate was associated with serum free T4 in non-pregnant women of NHANES 2001-2002 who had urinary iodine ?100??g/l. In the meta-analysis, urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were significant predictors of serum free T4 in non-pregnant women. No association was found in men and pregnant women. TPO antibodies were significant predictors of free T4 among non-pregnant women only when the models included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Risk assessment for perchlorate exposure should consider co-exposure to nitrate and thiocyanate. PMID:24149973

  19. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Hollowell, Joseph G; Staehling, Norman W; Flanders, W Dana; Hannon, W Harry; Gunter, Elaine W; Spencer, Carole A; Braverman, Lewis E

    2002-02-01

    NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T(4), antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies from a sample of 17,353 people aged > or =12 yr representing the geographic and ethnic distribution of the U.S. population. These data provide a reference for other studies of these analytes in the U.S. For the 16,533 people who did not report thyroid disease, goiter, or taking thyroid medications (disease-free population), we determined mean concentrations of TSH, T(4), TgAb, and TPOAb. A reference population of 13,344 people was selected from the disease-free population by excluding, in addition, those who were pregnant, taking androgens or estrogens, who had thyroid antibodies, or biochemical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. The influence of demographics on TSH, T(4), and antibodies was examined. Hypothyroidism was found in 4.6% of the U.S. population (0.3% clinical and 4.3% subclinical) and hyperthyroidism in 1.3% (0.5% clinical and 0.7% subclinical). (Subclinical hypothyroidism is used in this paper to mean mild hypothyroidism, the term now preferred by the American Thyroid Association for the laboratory findings described.) For the disease-free population, mean serum TSH was 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-1.54) mIU/liter, was higher in females than males, and higher in white non-Hispanics (whites) [1.57 (1.52-1.62) mIU/liter] than black non-Hispanics (blacks) [1.18 (1.14-1.21) mIU/liter] (P < 0.001) or Mexican Americans [1.43 (1.40-1.46) mIU/liter] (P < 0.001). TgAb were positive in 10.4 +/- 0.5% and TPOAb, in 11.3 +/- 0.4%; positive antibodies were more prevalent in women than men, increased with age, and TPOAb were less prevalent in blacks (4.5 +/- 0.3%) than in whites (12.3 +/- 0.5%) (P < 0.001). TPOAb were significantly associated with hypo or hyperthyroidism, but TgAb were not. Using the reference population, geometric mean TSH was 1.40 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter and increased with age, and was significantly lower in blacks (1.18 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) than whites (1.45 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) (P < 0.001) and Mexican Americans (1.37 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) (P < 0.001). Arithmetic mean total T(4) was 112.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/liter in the disease-free population and was consistently higher among Mexican Americans in all populations. In the reference population, mean total T(4) in Mexican Americans was (116.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/liter), significantly higher than whites (110.0 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter) or blacks (109.4 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter) (P < 0.0001). The difference persisted in all age groups. In summary, TSH and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies are greater in females, increase with age, and are greater in whites and Mexican Americans than in blacks. TgAb alone in the absence of TPOAb is not significantly associated with thyroid disease. The lower prevalence of thyroid antibodies and lower TSH concentrations in blacks need more research to relate these findings to clinical status. A large proportion of the U.S. population unknowingly have laboratory evidence of thyroid disease, which supports the usefulness of screening for early detection. PMID:11836274

  20. Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea. Methods We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale. Results In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women. Conclusion Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25922808

  1. Higher Serum Heavy Metal May Be Related with Higher Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration in Koreans: Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2, 2010, 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Han, Sung-Woo; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (?-GT) may be an early and sensitive marker for oxidative stress. This study was performed to evaluate the association between serum heavy metals and ?-GT concentration. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis based on data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (V-1, 2, 2010, 2011) regarding serum heavy metal concentrations (lead, mercury, and cadmium) as well as serum ?-GT. Serum heavy metals were categorized into tertiles, and serum ?-GT concentration was compared using an analysis of covariance test after relevant variable adjustments. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT in each heavy metal tertile using logistic regression. Results The mean serum lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were 2.67, 5.08, and 1.02 µg/dL in men and 1.95, 3.60, and 1.21 µg/dL in women, respectively. Partial correlation showed a significant positive relation between each heavy metal and serum ?-GT concentration. Comparing serum ?-GT concentration by the tertile of each heavy metal, serum ?-GT concentration showed a significant increase as the tertiles of serum mercury and cadmium in men and that of serum mercury in women increased, but not with lead. The OR of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT was significant for cadmium in men (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54 to 6.35) and mercury in women (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.10) in the top tertile of each heavy metal. Conclusion Higher serum heavy metal concentration may be related with higher serum ?-GT concentration. In particular, serum cadmium in men and mercury in women showed significant correlation with serum ?-GT concentration. PMID:24724002

  2. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Quality of Life, and Health-Care Seeking Behaviors of Female Urinary Incontinence: Results From the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2007-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Choon Sig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a lack of information on female urinary incontinence (UI) in South Korea. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare-seeking behaviors of women with UI. Methods We included 9,873 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. The condition of UI was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Do you have UI?" Additionally, health care seeking behavior for UI was defined as answering "yes" to "Have you ever been treated for UI?' The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean age of our sample was 49.7 years. The overall prevalence of UI was 7.9%. The prevalence of UI significantly increased with age. The rate of healthcare-seeking behavior for UI also significantly increased with age. However, the rate of healthcare seeking for UI was significantly lower when compared to the prevalence of UI. In our multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, and marriage were significantly and independently associated with UI. As the severity of all the subscales of EQ-5D increased, the unadjusted odds ratio for UI also increased. After adjusting for potential confounders, the subscales of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from the EQ-5D were significantly associated with UI. Conclusions UI is a common disease and is significantly associated with QoL. Our results suggest the need for developing preventive measures and treatment policies for UI. PMID:24729925

  3. Personal and Parental Weight Misperception and Self-Reported Attempted Weight Loss in US Children and Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Barton, Bruce A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of our study was to describe perceptions of child weight status among US children, adolescents, and their parents and to examine the extent to which accurate personal and parental perception of weight status is associated with self-reported attempted weight loss. Methods Our study sample comprised 2,613 participants aged 8 to 15 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the 2 most recent consecutive cycles (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Categories of weight perception were developed by comparing measured to perceived weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight misperception and self-reported attempted weight loss. Results Among children and adolescents, 27.3% underestimated and 2.8% overestimated their weight status. Among parents, 25.2% underestimated and 1.1% overestimated their child’s weight status. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss was 9.5 times as high (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–23.6) among healthy-weight children and adolescents who overestimated their weight status as among those who perceived their weight status accurately; the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4–6.4) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6) times as high among overweight and obese children and adolescents, respectively, who accurately perceived their weight status than among those who underestimated their weight status. Parental misperception of weight was not significantly associated with self-reported attempted weight loss among children and adolescents who were overweight or obese. Conclusion Efforts to prevent childhood obesity should incorporate education for both children and parents regarding the proper identification and interpretation of actual weight status. Interventions for appropriate weight loss can target children directly because one of the major driving forces to lose weight comes from the child’s perception of his or her weight status. PMID:25078569

  4. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on person’s age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence decreased by approximately 33% when airflow limitation was based on post-bronchodilator as compared to pre-bronchodilator spirometry, regardless of which diagnostic criterion was used. PMID:24107140

  5. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2), 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Soo Young; Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sarcopenia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt) two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Results Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p < 0.001). In addition, a correlation analysis showed that GFR and ASM/Wt had significant correlations in both men and women. Logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, BMI, caloric intake, log(physical activity), vitamin D level, and log(HOMA-IR), showed that the odds ratio for sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3–5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02–3.68) in men but was not statistically significant in women. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD. PMID:26083479

  6. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  7. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n?=?8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n?=?2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p?

  8. SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

  9. 46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. 115.600 Section 115...structural examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) The owner or managing...structural examinations, and underwater surveys required by this section....

  10. ASSOCIATION OF REGION OF RESIDENCE AND IMMIGRANT STATUS WITH HYPERTENSION ,R ENAL FAILURE ,C ARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, AND STROKE ,A MONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARTICIPANTS IN THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LeRoi S. Hicks; David G. Fairchild; E. Francis Cook; John Z. Ayanian

    Objective: To determine whether current re- gion of residence and immigrant status (born in the United States (US) vs abroad), are associated with the prevalence of hypertension (HTN), un- controlled HTN, and HTN-related target-organ damage, among African Americans. Methods: We studied the survey and physical examination data from a nationally represen- tative cohort of 3,369 self-designated Black participants, aged 30-79

  11. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  12. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health Available online 7 March 2013 Keywords: Perchlorate Iodine Thiocyanate Thyroid hormone National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey a b s t r a c t Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all

  13. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to improving the recreational facility food environment, however one year following their release, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY remained low. A mandated policy approach could offer an efficacious, cost-effective means of improving the food environment within recreational facilities. PMID:21631946

  14. Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

  15. Nutritional style of parents and examination of the effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Muslu, Gonca Karaya??z; Beytut, Dilek; Kahraman, Ay?e; Yard?mc?, Figen; Ba?bakkal, Zümrüt

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed to determine the nutritional style in parents who had children aged between 3 and 6 years and the effective factors. Material and Methods: The sample number of this descriptive study was calculated with the sample formula for unknown population and the parents of 300 children aged between 3 and 6 years who attended a nursery school in the province of ?zmir constituted the sample. The sample was reached in two periods. “The Sociodemographic Data Form” and “the Parent Nutritional Style Scale” were used as data collection tools. Written approval was obtained from the scientific ethics committee of the Ege University, Faculty of Nursery (B.30.2.EGE.0.82.00.00/29-288). The heights and weights of the children were measured by the investigators with certain measurement tools. The body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) was calculated for each child. The children whose body mass index standard deviations were between +2 and ?2 standard deviation were considered to have normal weight. The Auxology program was used to obtain these data. The body mass indexes of the parents were calculated according to the height and weight values stated by themselves. In analyses of the data, student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of two groups. Variance analysis and Kruskal-Wallis variance were used for multiple comparisons; Bonferrroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Shefee test were used for advanced analysis. Results: It was found that the variables including the age, education level, number of children, working status of the mothers and the perception of the child’s weight by the mother affected the nutritional style of the parents. The mean “emotional” and “instrumental” nutrition subdimension scores of the mothers who were young, who had an education of primary school and who were housewifes, the mean “encouraging nutrition” subdimension scores of the mothers who had small for gestational age babies and the mean “emotional” nutrition sub-dimension scores of the mothers who perceived their babies’ weights as lower than normal were found to be higher (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the nutritional style in relation with the child’s BMI SDS and the mother’s own BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional styles of parents are affected by some sociodemographic and anthropometric properties, but the relation with the child’s weight should be demonstrated by observational studies.

  16. The association of dietary quality and food group intake patterns with bone health status among Korean postmenopausal women: a study using the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Go, Gyeongah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lim, Youngsook; Jung, Soyeon; Min, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related disease are drawing a lot of attention in Korea as one of the serious health problems. Bone health status may be influenced by the general dietary quality and dietary pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS To determine the relationship between dietary quality and intake patterns and bone health status, the %RNI, NAR, DDS, and food group intake patterns were assessed according to their bone health status for 847 postmenopausal women using the 2010 KNHANES data after eliminating those of likely changing their diet under the advice of doctors or those taking estrogen. RESULTS Bone health became worse as dietary quality deteriorated. All NAR and %RNI values were highly associated with bone health levels and the consumption frequency of Ca sources, DDS and the food group intake patterns also confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that dietary quality and dietary patterns were important for bone health. Nutritional education on eating foods from the five basic food groups has to be emphasized to prevent osteoporosis among older women. PMID:25489406

  17. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  18. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

  19. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  20. Barriers to Providing Nutrition Counseling by Physicians: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Kushner

    1995-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys have shown that there is a disparity between physicians? beliefs about the importance of diet and nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention and the actual delivery of nutrition counseling. The primary objective of this study was to assess the current attitudes, practice behavior, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. Methods.

  1. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

  2. The Positive Effect of Physical Activity on Health and Health-related Quality of Life in Elderly Korean People—Evidence from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proportion of elderly people in the population is growing, and Korea has one of the fastest growing populations among the world’s major regions. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity on the health and quality of life of elderly Korean people. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 2,853 elderly Korean people (1,239 males and 1,614 females) aged more than 65 years was evaluated to determine whether they met guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and how those results were associated with self-rated health (SRH) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of males and females who reported very good SRH significantly decreased with VPA (males: AOR = 0.42, females: AOR = 0.44), MPA (males: AOR = 0.46, females: AOR = 0.48), and LPA (males: AOR = 0.44, females: AOR = 0.32). Subjects who met the guidelines for VPA (males: AOR = 0.40, females: AOR = 0.43), MPA (males: AOR = 0.49, females: AOR = 0.45), and LPA (males: AOR = 0.33, females: AOR = 0.39) and reported no problems with their HRQoL showed significantly decreased AORs compared with subjects who reported HRQoL problems. Conclusion: Elderly Korean people were fairly inactive, but participation in vigorous, moderate, or low PA was positively associated with SRH and HRQoL.

  3. Nutrition Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Statistical Analysis Report. Fast Response Survey System (FRSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebuski, Carin; Farris, Elizabeth

    This report presents the findings from the "Nutrition Education in Public Schools, K-12" survey that was designed to provide data on the status of nutrition education in U.S. public schools. Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 school principals of a nationally representative sample of U.S. elementary, middle, and high schools. The survey requested…

  4. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tu, Su-Hao; Chen, Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 was funded by the Department of Health to provide continued assessment of health and nutrition of the people in Taiwan. This household survey collected data from children aged less than 6 years and adults aged 19 years and above, and adopted a three-stage stratified, clustered sampling scheme similar to that used in the NAHSIT 1993-1996. Four samples were produced. One sample with five geographical strata was selected for inference to the whole of Taiwan, while the other three samples, including Hakka, Penghu and mountainous areas were produced for inference to each cultural stratum. A total of 6,189 household interviews and 3,670 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency and habits, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, as well as blood and urine collection. Response rate for the household interview was 65%. Of these household interviews, 59% participated in the health exam. Only in a few age subgroups were there significant differences in sex, age, education, or ethnicity distribution between respondents and non-respondents. For the health exam, certain significant differences between participants and non-participants were mostly observed in those aged 19-64 years. The results of this survey will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and the public to understand and improve the nutrition and health status of pre-school children and adults in Taiwan. PMID:21669592

  5. Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys--toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets. PMID:25407161

  6. Lessons Learned About Adolescent Nutrition from the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANNE NEUMARK-SZTAINER; MARY STORY; MICHAEL D RESNICK; ROBERT W BLUM

    1998-01-01

    In 1986–1987, more than 30,000 adolescents completed the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey, a comprehensive assessment of adolescent health status, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Although the survey included relatively few items on nutrition-related issues, a wealth of knowledge about adolescent nutrition was gained. Lessons learned from a decade of subsequent analyses of data collected in the survey and implications for

  7. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases. PMID:19250574

  8. Nationwide survey of hospital practices when compounding parenteral nutrition solutions in latex-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Atti, Samia; Martinelli, Barbara; Yourich, Bryan; Wasicek, Kelley; Weber, Robert

    2006-10-01

    We surveyed 100 institutions in 50 states, varying in size from 50 to 1,000 beds. The purpose of this survey was to examine the policies and techniques hospitals used in confirming latex allergy (LA) in patients and preparing parenteral nutrition (PN) for LA patients. Our survey indicated that within the institutions in our study, many inpatient pharmacists do not use any defined method for confirming LA other than what is documented in the patient profile upon admission. Most inpatient pharmacies are not aware of any institutional policy concerning parenteral medications in LA patients, and some do not identify the importance of LA in preparing PN. It is apparent from the results of this survey that uniform guidelines or practice standards for this important issue should be developed. Although the publications on LA are numerous, they mostly deal with the exposure to latex gloves or latex devices. Knowledge of preparing parenteral medications for LA patients in the literature is minimal. It is also clear that awareness and knowledge of pharmacy personnel should be enhanced. Finally, we are hoping that this survey will send a clear message to pharmacy organizations to develop guidelines or pharmacy practice standards for this issue, and for health institutions to develop policies and make them available to their personnel. PMID:16998149

  9. Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002: research design, methods and scope.

    PubMed

    Tu, Su-Hao; Hung, Yung-Tai; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Shaw, Ning-Sing; Lin, Wei; Lin, Yi-Chin; Hu, Su-Wan; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chang, Ya-Hui; Su, Shu-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Chi; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The "Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan's Elementary School Children (2001-2002)" was to investigate the nutritional status, influential dietary and non-dietary factors, health and development, and school performance, as well as the inter-relationships among these factors. The survey adopted a two-staged stratified, clustered probability sampling scheme. Towns and districts in Taiwan with particular ethnic and geographical characteristics were designated into 13 strata including Hakka areas, mountain areas, eastern Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, 3 northern regions, 3 central regions and 3 southern regions. Eight schools were selected from each stratum using the probabilities proportional to sizes method. Twenty-four pupils were randomly selected within each school. The survey included face-to-face interviews and health examinations. Taking seasonal effects into consideration, the face-to-face interviews were evenly allocated into each of the two semesters. A total of 2,419 face-to-face interviews and 2,475 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history, oral health, pubertal development, and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, dental health, and blood and urine collection. SUDAAN was used to adjust sampling design effect. There were no significant differences in sibling rank and parental characteristics between respondents and non-respondents, which indicates that our survey is representative and unbiased. The results of this survey will increase our understanding on the nutrition and health status of schoolchildren and can be used to shape public health policy in Taiwan. PMID:17723991

  10. The 2006–2007 Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS): Nutrition labeling, trans fat labeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Brandt; Julie Moss; Martine Ferguson

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has studied product labels from the US food supply through the Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS). The sampling frame for the latest survey, FLAPS 2006–2007, was the ACNielsen Strategic Planner food sales database. As the newest addition to

  11. Validity and reliability of a nutrition knowledge survey for assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Gower, Jared R; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Wilkinson, Robert D; Slater, Hillarie; Jordan, Kristine C

    2010-03-01

    Limited surveys are available to assess the nutrition knowledge of children. The goals of this study were to test the validity and reliability of a computer nutrition knowledge survey for elementary school students and to evaluate the impact of the "Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids" nutrition intervention via the knowledge survey. During survey development, a sample (n=12) of health educators, elementary school teachers, and registered dietitians assessed the survey. The target population consisted of first- through fourth-grade students from Salt Lake City, UT, metropolitan area schools. Participants were divided into reliability (n=68), intervention (n=74), and control groups (n=59). The reliability group took the survey twice (2 weeks apart); the intervention and control groups also took the survey twice, but at pre- and post-intervention (4 weeks later). Only students from the intervention group participated in four weekly nutrition classes. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients for knowledge scores. Results demonstrated appropriate content validity, as indicated by expert peer ratings. Test-retest reliability correlations were found to be significant for the overall survey (r=0.54; P<0.001) and for all subscales: food groups, healthful foods, and food functions (r=0.51, 0.65, and 0.49, respectively; P<0.001). Nutrition knowledge was assessed upon program completion with paired samples t tests. Students from the intervention group demonstrated improvement in nutrition knowledge (12.2+/-1.9 to 13.5+/-1.6; P<0.001), while scores for the control group remained unchanged. The difference in total scores from pre- to post-intervention between the two groups was significant (P<0.001). These results suggest that the computerized nutrition survey demonstrated content validity and test-retest reliability for first- through fourth-grade elementary school children. Also, the study results imply that the Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids intervention promoted gains in nutrition knowledge. Overall, the computer survey shows promise as an appealing medium for assessing nutrition knowledge in children. PMID:20184997

  12. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevi?, Dragana; Mandi?, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish, lower consumption of meat and meat products, sweetened foods and drinks etc. The final outcome would result in longterm positive impact on dietary habits. PMID:26040077

  13. Insufficient effort responding: Examining an insidious confound in survey data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jason L; Liu, Mengqiao; Bowling, Nathan A

    2015-05-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER; Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012) to surveys has largely been assumed to be a source of random measurement error that attenuates associations between substantive measures. The current article, however, illustrates how and when the presence of IER can produce a systematic bias that inflates observed correlations between substantive measures. Noting that inattentive responses as a whole generally congregate around the midpoint of a Likert scale, we propose that Mattentive, defined as the mean score of attentive respondents on a substantive measure, will be negatively related to IER's confounding effect on substantive measures (i.e., correlations between IER and a given substantive measure will become less positive [or more negative] as Mattentive increases). Results from a personality questionnaire (Study 1) and a simulation (Study 2) consistently support the hypothesized confounding influence of IER. Using an employee sample (Study 3), we demonstrated how IER can confound bivariate relationships between substantive measures. Together, these studies indicate that IER can inflate the strength of observed relationships when scale means depart from the scale midpoints, resulting in an inflated Type I error rate. This challenges the traditional view that IER attenuates observed bivariate correlations. These findings highlight situations where IER may be a methodological nuisance, while underscoring the need for survey administrators and researchers to deter and detect IER in surveys. The current article serves as a wake-up call for researchers and practitioners to more closely examine IER in their data. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25495093

  14. Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000): research design, methodology and content.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Harn; Hung, Yung-Tai; Shaw, Ning-Sing; Lin, Wei; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Chiu, Cheng-Fen; Lin, Meng-Chiao; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Hong, Chi-Min; Huang, Teng-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Tu, Su-hao; Chang, Ya-Hui; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Su, Shu-Chen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) was to assess the diet, nutrition and health of persons aged 65 and above in Taiwan. A multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling scheme was used in the survey. The survey population was stratified into a total of 13 strata. The four strata of "Hakka areas", "Mountain areas", " Eastern areas", and "PengHu islands" were unique in their ethnicity or geographic locations. The remaining areas of Taiwan were stratified into "Northern", "Central", and "Southern" parts with these 3 strata, then each subdivided into a further 3 strata based on population density. The household interview of the survey was arranged such that effect of seasonal variation was taken into account. A total of 1,937 persons completed the interview and 2,432 persons completed the health exam. The following data were collected: (1) Interview data : household information, basic demographics, 24 hour dietary recall, food frequency and habit, knowledge, attitudes and practice, medical history, 36-item Short Form for generic health status, and physical activity. (2) Health exam data: blood sample for measurement of nutritional biochemical indicators and complete clinical chemistry profile, urine sample for urinary electrolytes, anthropometric measurements, ECG, blood pressure, body temperature, pulmonary function, and an osteoporosis assessment. Data from the survey were analyzed using SUDAAN to adjust for the design effect and to obtain unbiased estimates of the mean, standard error and confidence intervals. Survey respondents were slightly younger compared to non-respondents; however, after weighting and adjustment with SUDAAN, the education levels and ethnicity of respondents and non-respondents were similar indicating lack of bias. We anticipate that the results of this survey will be of benefit in understanding the nutritional status of the elderly, the relationship between nutrition and health, and factors influencing elderly persons' nutritional status. Furthermore, this information could be used in the development of public health nutrition policy aimed at improving the nutrition and health of the elderly in Taiwan. PMID:16169830

  15. [A survey on the effects of "Dietary Guideline" nutrition education project].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Zhai, F; Li, D; Li, Y

    2001-05-01

    A survey on the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 5145 persons from five cities of four provinces, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Heilongjiang, before and after the nutritional education project on "Dietary Guideline" has been effectively conducted. An obviously good effect has been achieved among the residents, middle and primary school students and elderly people. Before the nutritional educational project has been carried out, the people who understanding the "Dietary Guideline" was only 12.0%, 29.2% and 15.2% of residents, the elderly and students respectively. But after education, the rates raised to 93.4%, 99.0% and 91.9% respectively. Nearly 90% of residents and the elderly got to know the "Dietary Guideline" through the materials distributed from the project. The nutrition knowledge score was improved greatly after the project was conducted. The attitude towards learning nutrition knowledge was good. At the same time, some dietary behavior and the life style of people had been modified. These results indicated that nutrition education is very important on improving people's nutrition knowledge level, changing people's unhealthy living attitudes and dietary habits. PMID:12525095

  16. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Lee Olstad; Shauna M Downs; Kim D Raine; Tanya R Berry; Linda J McCargar

    2011-01-01

    Background  Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations\\u000a for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few\\u000a studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food\\u000a choices in schools, childcare and recreational

  17. Evaluation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education: Application of Behavioral Theory and Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior…

  18. Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: Practical implications of findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn H. Dolan; Melinda Houston; Scott B. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most

  19. School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed…

  20. Survey of Texas physicians' nutrional [i.e., nutritional] knowledge 

    E-print Network

    Chitwood, Connie Kay

    1991-01-01

    on the dietary knowledge of primary health care workers (15). O'Keefe (et al. ) reported 43. 4i~/o of their sample subjects were family practicioners, 20. 2~/o were internists, and 19. 6~/o were general practitioners. Mlodinow and Barrett-Connor conducted a... and the frequency of exercise which may indicate that those physicians who are exercising more are also choosing leaner cuts of meat. See Table 3. In our study. subjects responded correctly to 46. 3'/o of nutrition knowledge questions. Mlodinow and Barrett-Connor...

  1. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Huish

    2009-11-02

    Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

  2. Examining XMM Observations in the Galactic Bulge Survey Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente; Hynes, R. I.; Britt, C.; Johnson, C.; Jonker, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Torres, M.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Nelemans, G.; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The VXMM catalog was created in an effort to find help find low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) as part of the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). VXMM consists of XMM-Newton detections made in the GBS region, two 6x1 degree regions 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The goal of the project was to find GBS X-ray sources that exist in XMM observations in order to classify them. The XMM data were downloaded from NASA’s database. Source detection was conducted on the filtered data sets using the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey as a guideline for the procedure but incorporating more recent data than 2XMM. The sources detected make up the VXMM catalog, which was used to cross reference with the GBS catalog to find GBS sources in the XMM data. In total the VXMM catalog found 107 GBS sources also detected by XMM. The spectra of several of these sources were examined to see which could be classified based on the XMM data. We focus on CX13 as it was the brightest unclassified GBS source detected by XMM. CX13 was determined to not be an active star as its temperature would to be high. Using a power-law model fit an LMXB was ruled out, as was a background AGN after the variability power spectrum was analyzed. The most likely remaining interpretation of its X-ray spectrum and variability is that it is an absorbed magnetic cataclysmic variable. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789. Vicente Estrada-Carpenter also acknowledges support from the REU Site in Physics and Astronomy (NSF Grant No. 1262890) at Louisiana State University

  3. Examining the potential for nutritional stress in young Steller sea lions: physiological effects of prey composition.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2005-05-01

    The effects of high- and low-lipid prey on the body mass, body condition, and metabolic rates of young captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined to better understand how changes in prey composition might impact the physiology and health of wild sea lions and contribute to their population decline. Results of three feeding experiments suggest that prey lipid content did not significantly affect body mass or relative body condition (lipid mass as a percent of total mass) when sea lions could consume sufficient prey to meet their energy needs. However, when energy intake was insufficient to meet daily requirements, sea lions lost more lipid mass (9.16+/-1.80 kg+/-SE) consuming low-lipid prey compared with eating high-lipid prey (6.52+/-1.65 kg). Similarly, the sea lions lost 2.7+/-0.9 kg of lipid mass while consuming oil-supplemented pollock at maintenance energy levels but gained 5.2+/-2.7 kg lipid mass while consuming identical energetic levels of herring. Contrary to expectations, there was a 9.7+/-1.8% increase in metabolism during mass loss on submaintenance diets. Relative body condition decreased only 3.7+/-3.8% during periods of imposed nutritional stress, despite a 10.4+/-4.8% decrease in body mass. These findings raise questions regarding the efficacy of measures of relative body condition to detect such changes in nutritional status among wild animals. The results of these three experiments suggest that prey composition can have additional effects on sea lion energy stores beyond the direct effects of insufficient energy intake. PMID:15900507

  4. Survey of current enteral nutrition practices in treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, May; Hubbard, Jane; Rudnicki, Stacy A.; Johansen, Carolyn S.; Dalton, Kate; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Forshew, Dalles A.; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and aims Enteral nutrition (EN) is commonly prescribed for dysphagia and weight loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there are currently no ALS-specific EN guidelines. We aimed to survey current practices prescribing EN to ALS patients. Methods An online survey was distributed using list servers administered by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA), and ALS Association (ALSA). Results A total of 148 dietitians, nurses, and physicians participated in the survey, of whom 50% were dietitians and 68% were associated with an ALS clinic. Only 47% of respondents reported their patients to be fully compliant with EN recommendations. Side effects (fullness, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) were the most important reason for patient noncompliance, followed by dependence on caregivers. By contrast, only 3% of providers rated depression/hopelessness as the most important reason for noncompliance. Half of those surveyed reported that more than 25% of patients continued to lose weight after starting EN. Conclusions Our survey results show a high frequency of gastrointestinal side effects and weight loss in ALS patients receiving EN. These findings may be limited by sampling error and non-response bias. Prospective studies are needed to help establish EN guidelines for ALS. PMID:25568837

  5. Nutritional status of the older adult is associated with dentition status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine R Sahyoun; Chien-Lung Lin; Elizabeth Krall

    2003-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to examine associations between the number of posterior occlusal pairs of teeth and the nutritional status of older adults participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) survey. Design Impaired dentition was assessed by number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth (grinding teeth, n=8 pairs) and complete denture status. Nutritional status

  6. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  7. Examining the Use of Surveys in Measuring Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    that manipulates and causes bias in the results, 2) privacy surveys tend to combine multiple privacy issuesExamining the Use of Surveys in Measuring Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Ashraf Khalil Computer depends, however, on surveys and polls as the main tools of data collection [5, 6]. Context-aware services

  8. Biomarkers of diabetes risk in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (2008–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Almoosawi, S; Cole, D; Nicholson, S; Bayes, I; Teucher, B; Bates, B; Mindell, J; Tipping, S; Deverill, C; Stephen, A M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008–2009), year 2 (2009–2010) and year 3 (2010–2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5?years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19–64?years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged ?65?years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1–6.9?mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged ?65?years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (?7?mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations ?6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged ?65?years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention. PMID:24052516

  9. Predictors of Essential Health and Nutrition Service Delivery in Bihar, India: Results From Household and Frontline Worker Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kosec, Katrina; Avula, Rasmi; Holtemeyer, Brian; Tyagi, Parul; Hausladen, Stephanie; Menon, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Bihar, India, coverage of essential health and nutrition interventions is low. These interventions are provided by 2 national programs—the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Health/National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)—through Anganwadi workers (AWWs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), respectively. Little is known, however, about factors that predict effective service delivery by these frontline workers (FLWs) or receipt of services by households. This study examined the predictors of use of 4 services: (1) immunization information and services, (2) food supplements, (3) pregnancy care information, and (4) general nutrition information. Methods: Data are from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 6,002 households in 400 randomly selected villages in 1 district of Bihar state, as well as an integrated survey of 377 AWWs and 382 ASHAs from the same villages. For each of the 4 service delivery outcomes, logistic regression models were specified using a combination of variables hypothesized to be supply- and demand-side drivers of service utilization. Results: About 35% of households reported receiving any of the 4 services. Monetary immunization incentives for AWWs (OR?=?1.55, CI?=?1.02–2.36) and above-median household head education (OR?=?1.39, CI?=?1.05–1.82) were statistically significant predictors of household receipt of immunization services. Higher household socioeconomic status was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving food supplements (OR?=?0.87, CI?=?0.79–0.96). ASHAs receiving incentives for institutional delivery (OR?=?1.52, CI?=?0.99–2.33) was marginally associated with higher odds of receiving pregnancy care information, and ASHAs who maintained records of pregnant women was significantly associated with households receiving such information (OR?=?2.25, CI?=?1.07–4.74). AWWs receiving immunization incentives was associated with significantly higher odds of households receiving general nutrition information (OR?=?1.92, CI?=?1.08–3.41), suggesting a large spillover effect of incentives from product- to information-oriented services. Conclusion: Product-oriented incentives affect delivery of both product- and information-oriented services, although household factors are also important. In India, existing government programs can mitigate supply- and demand-side constraints to receiving essential interventions by optimizing existing incentives for FLWs in national programs, helping FLWs better organize their work, and raising awareness among groups who are less likely to access services. PMID:26085022

  10. Examining the Medical Blogosphere: An Online Survey of Medical Bloggers

    PubMed Central

    Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Background Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. Objectives To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers’ Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. Methods We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants’ ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants’ characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. Results A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated with journalism, the participants most frequently reported including links to original source of material and spending extra time verifying facts, while rarely seeking permission to post copyrighted material. Bloggers who have published a scientific paper were more likely to quote other people or media than those who have never published such a paper (U= 506.5, n1= 41, n2= 35, P= .016). Those blogging under their real name more often included links to original sources than those writing under a pseudonym (U= 446.5, n1= 58, n2= 19, P= .01). Major motivations for blogging were sharing practical knowledge or skills with others, influencing the way others think, and expressing oneself creatively. Conclusions Medical bloggers are highly educated and devoted blog writers, faithful to their sources and readers. Sharing practical knowledge and skills, as well as influencing the way other people think, were major motivations for blogging among our medical bloggers. Medical blogs are frequently picked up by mainstream media; thus, blogs are an important vehicle to influence medical and health policy. PMID:18812312

  11. Do doctors know how much nutrition patients need--a survey from Germany?

    PubMed

    Wirth, R; Smoliner, C; Spamer, C; Marburger, C; Schreiber, F S; Willschrei, H P; Lenzen-Großimlinghaus, R; Schäfer, R; Volkert, D

    2014-07-01

    For the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of malnutrition, it is important to estimate the energy and fluid requirements of an individual patient. To our knowledge, it is unknown how accurately medical doctors can estimate the energy and fluid requirements of patients in a clinical routine situation. Hence, we conducted the following survey. A written face-to-face survey about the energy and fluid requirements of and tube feeding and fluid recommendations for a typical patient was performed with 179 medical doctors. An estimation error of >15% was defined as relevant. The results revealed substantial variations in estimating the energy and fluid needs of the patient. A total of 25% of the participants underestimated the energy requirements, and 47% of the participants underestimated the fluid requirements. In addition, 68% of the participants recommended a daily dose of tube feeding that was <85% of the reference value. A substantial proportion of medical doctors show a lack of knowledge concerning energy and fluid requirements, which demonstrates a need for better medical education with regard to nutrition. PMID:24848626

  12. Inflammation, obesity and metabolic syndrome in depression: Analysis of the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Rethorst, Chad D.; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the rates of elevated inflammation, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) within a large cohort of individuals with depression and to examine the inter-relationships of inflammation and metabolic syndrome in depressed individuals. Method Analyses were conducted on study participants from the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 depression scores ? 10 to: 1) examine the relationship of inflammation (C-reactive protein; CRP) with demographic and clinical characteristics and 2) examine the prevalence of MetS criteria within CRP groups. Results 5579 participants provided PHQ-9 data; of those, 606 had PHQ-9 scores ? 10 and were included in further analysis. Of the 606 depressed participants, 585 participants had valid CRP data; 275 participants (47.01%) had CRP levels ? 3.0 mg/L, while 170 (29.06%) had CRP levels ? 5.0 mg/L. Elevated inflammation was significantly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, BMI, insulin, 2-hour glucose tolerance, and self-report general health (p’s < 0.05). 112 subjects (41.18%) met AHA/NHLBI criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Those with elevated CRP were more likely to meet criteria for MetS (Odds Ratios of 2.81 for those with CRP levels ? 3.0 mg/L and 1.94 for those with CRP levels ? 5.0 mg/L). Conclusion Over 29% of depressed individuals have elevated levels of CRP and 41% met criteria for MetS. Individuals with elevated inflammation are more likely to be obese and meet criteria for MetS. These results highlight the significant inflammatory and metabolic burden of individuals with depression. PMID:25551239

  13. Survey of the Nutrition Knowledge Of Practicing Male and Female Physical Educator/Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James L.; And Others

    An assessment was made of the extent of nutrition knowledge of physical education teachers and coaches. The investigation addressed three primary questions: (1) Do practicing physical educator/coaches possess nutritional knowledge comparable to that of college students enrolled in a university basic nutrition class?; (2) Do male and female…

  14. Indicators to Examine Quality of Large Scale Survey Data: An Example through District Level Household and Facility Survey

    PubMed Central

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Background Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) is used as an example dataset. Methods Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. Results The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. Conclusion The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey. PMID:24598760

  15. The ethics of live patient use in dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Lantzy, Marlaina J; Muzzin, Kathleen B; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S; Campbell, Patricia R; Mallonee, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    A national survey of dental hygienists was conducted to explore ethical issues arising from the use of live patients for dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations. Data were collected regarding respondents' demographics, additional costs they incurred associated with their examination beyond the examination fees, delays in patients' treatment resulting from the examination, unethical candidate and/or patient behaviors they experienced, and provisions they made for patients' follow-up care related to the examination. Five hundred surveys were mailed to dental hygienists from two states in each of the five licensure examination regions. The response rate was 40.6 percent (n=203). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the majority of the respondents spent additional money on examination-related expenses (69.2 percent). Sixty-one percent of the respondents reported paying their patients; however, only 50.5 percent felt such a practice was acceptable. More than half (53.1 percent) reported believing it was appropriate to delay treatment in order to have a patient participate in the examination, although only 16.4 percent reported actually delaying treatment. Informed consent was said to be obtained by 94.9 percent of the respondents. The majority (86.6 percent) said they referred patients for follow-up dental hygiene care. When asked if they felt the examination was an accurate assessment of their clinical skills, 78.7 percent of the respondents agreed that it was. PMID:22659695

  16. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  17. Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven

    2004-07-01

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children, neither poverty nor food insecurity is associated with nutritional outcomes, while among adults and the elderly, both food insecurity and poverty are predictive. These results suggest that researchers should be cautious about assuming connections between food insecurity and nutritional outcomes, particularly among children. PMID:15587700

  18. Socioeconomic Profiles of Nutrition Label Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Zhang; Wen You; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the socio-economic profiles of the nutrition label users and focuses on seven key nutrients: calories, calories from fat, total fat, trans fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. The data are from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-96. Similar conclusions are drawn from both

  19. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Filipino adults based on the National Nutrition and Health Survey 2008

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Shirley L.; Alava, Hilda Diana A.; Castor, Mary Anne R.; De Leon, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no documented data on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Filipino adults. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among adults in the Philippines. Methods Using a multi-staged cluster sampling methodology, this study evaluated 7,202 adults from 3,744 households, 79 provinces and 17 regions. A pre-validated written questionnaire for allergic rhinitis based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies of Childhood was used as the survey instrument. Results The response rate obtained from the interview was 94.1%. The overall prevalence of nose symptoms in the past 12 months was 20% while prevalence of nose symptoms at any time in the past was 23.8%. The proportion among both sexes was similar. The prevalence was highest among the respondents 40-49 years old. The overall prevalence of nose and eye symptoms for the past twelve months was 14.0%. The prevalence of respondents who reported presence of nose problems for the past twelve months was similar across the 12 months of the year with highest rates noted in the months of June and May. Respondents from the rural area (22.1%) reported a higher prevalence of nose symptoms for the past twelve months compared to respondents from urban area (18%). There was no significant difference in prevalence of nose symptoms among residents living in coastal and/or inland areas. Conclusion The overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the Philippines based on the 2008 National Nutrition and Health Survey is 20.0%. PMID:22701863

  20. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. Methods A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Results Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529–0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191–0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698–0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and specificities were 0.563 and 0.920 for occlusal, 0.670 and 0.985 for smooth, and 0.838 and 0.985 for proximal surfaces. Conclusion The methodology purposed for training and calibration of several examiners designated for epidemiological surveys of dental caries in preschool children using the ICDAS is feasible, permitting the assessment of reliability and accuracy of the examiners previously to the survey´s development. PMID:24090355

  1. Midwest Growers’ Mail Survey of Contributors to Migrant Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kilanowski, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross–sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

  2. Midwest growers' mail survey of contributors to migrant health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross-sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

  3. Examining the influence of drivers' characteristics during traffic stops with police: Results from a national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Shepard Engel; Jennifer M. Calnon

    2004-01-01

    The factors that influence officer decision making after a traffic stop is initiated are examined using the Police-Public Contact Survey data collected in 1999. This investigation of police behavior is framed with an understanding of the organizational roots of racial profiling tactics and policies. The findings show that young black and Hispanic males are at increased risk for citations, searches,

  4. Examining User Acceptance of COPLINK Technologies by Law Enforcement Officers: A Survey Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chienting Lin; Paul J. Hu; Jennifer Schroeder; Hsinchun Chen

    2002-01-01

    This study purports to develop and empirically examine a model for explaining technology acceptance decisions by individual law enforcement officers. Specifically, we describe the research model and hypotheses, detail our study design, and highlight important results from a pretest study that included 42 detectives and police officers from the Tucson Police Department (TPD). Based on the pretest results, our survey

  5. Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential…

  6. An overview of the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health Examination Surveys (HESs) can provide essential information on the health and health determinants of a population, which is not available from other data sources. Nevertheless, only some European countries have systems of national HESs. A study conducted in 2006–2008 concluded that it is feasible to organize national HESs using standardized measurement procedures in nearly all EU countries. The feasibility study also outlined a structure for a European Health Examination Survey (EHES), which is a collaboration to organize standardized HESs in countries across Europe. To facilitate setting up national surveys and to gain experience in applying the EHES methods in different cultures, EHES Joint Action (2010–2011) planned and piloted standardized HESs in the working age population in 12 countries. This included countries with earlier national HESs and countries which were planning their first national HES. The core measurements included in all surveys were weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure, and blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles and glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These are modifiable determinants of major chronic diseases not identified in health interview surveys. There was a questionnaire to complement the data on the examination measurements. Methods Evaluation of the pilot surveys was based on review of national manuals and evaluation reports of survey organizers; observations and discussions of survey procedures during site visits and training seminars; and other communication with the survey organizers. Results Despite unavoidable differences in the ways HESs are organized in the various countries, high quality and comparability of the data seems achievable. The biggest challenge in each country was obtaining high participation rate. Most of the pilot countries are now ready to start their full-size national HES, and six of them have already started. Conclusions The EHES Pilot Project has set up the structure for obtaining comparable high quality health indicators on health and important modifiable risk factors of major non-communicable diseases from the European countries. The European Union is now in a key position to make this structure sustainable. The EHES core survey can be expanded to cover other measurements. PMID:22958511

  7. Examinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Dreaper

    1911-01-01

    SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY'S outspoken criticism on the value of examinations will be welcomed by many, but it is uncertain whether the general public could tolerate the present educational system in their absence.

  8. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Childhood Maternal Education Level, Job Status Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chun, Eun-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is known to affect cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, the relationship between childhood SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education and occupational status and adult-onset MetS in the Korean population. Methods We examined the association between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education level and occupational status during an individual's childhood, and MetS in Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. The components of MetS, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure, were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results Significant differences in the association between maternal education level, occupational status, and MetS were found between males and females. In females, the adjusted MetS OR for the highest maternal education quartile relative to the lowest quartile was 0.46 (0.21-0.99). Similarly, in females, the adjusted OR for individuals whose mothers worked when they were children relative to those whose mothers did not work was 1.23 (1.04-1.44). In males, no significant associations between maternal education, maternal occupational status, and MetS were found. Conclusion We found independent, positive associations between maternal education and occupational status and MetS in Korean females. These findings suggest that public health education targeting MetS prevention should be considered, especially among children with less opportunity for maternal support. PMID:25120892

  9. Assessment of nutrition education among pediatric gastroenterologists: A survey of NASPGHAN members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective; however, pediatric gastroenterology fellows believe that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceived ef...

  10. The Complex Emergency Database: A Global Repository of Small-Scale Surveys on Nutrition, Health and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

  11. The National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Commons Revision Survey: Final Report of the Results of a National Survey to Review Proposed Specifications for the Revised Commons Examinations of the NTE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Frieda; Grandy, Jerilee

    In July of 1981, the Policy Council of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE), in conjunction with the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey, completed a series of national surveys to review proposed changes in the NTE Commons Examinations. The survey was designed to tap varying perspectives on the proposed test content and its…

  12. A cross-sectional pilot study to examine food sufficiency and assess nutrition among low-income patients with injection-related venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-04-01

    Adequate nutrition has long been considered a critical component for wound healing, but literature regarding the relationship between nutrition and venous ulcer (VU) healing is limited. A person's nutrition is affected by the availability of food as well as his/her overall health. Food sufficiency and nutrition are important concerns in the care of persons of low income with injection-related VUs, which tend to be large and slow to heal. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between food sufficiency/security and nutrition with regard to demographic, wound, quality-of-life, physical activity, falls, and fall risk variables. Nutrition was examined using 2 well-developed instruments that measure food sufficiency/security and assess nutrition--the United States Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Sufficiency Questionnaire (FSQ) and the Nestle Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). All participants (N = 31, 54% men, mean age 56.1 ± 3.6 years, all African American) were recruited from an outpatient clinic. All had injection-related VUs from a history of injecting illicit substances. In terms of food sufficiency/security, most participants (26, 84%) reported having enough food in the house, but 10 (32%) worried about running out of food. From 16% to 22.6% of participants expressed concern with food sufficiency/security in terms of cutting meal size, eating less, hunger, and weight loss. Food sufficiency/security was high for 19 (61.3%), but 12 (39%) had marginal or lower food sufficiency/security. MNA scores showed 16 participants (52%) were at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Low food sufficiency/security was significantly (P <0.05) associated with less motivation for activity (r = -0.40) and less walking (r = -0.36). Better nutrition assessment scores were significantly associated (P <0.01) with fewer comorbidities (r = -0.57) and falls (r = -0.46) and with higher quality of life (r = 0.50), motivation for physical activity (r = 0.59), and balance confidence (r = 0.60). Both food security and nutrition assessment are important to assess in low-income persons with injection-related VUs. A number of significant relationships of the FSQ and MNA to other variables was found but needs further investigation with a larger sample. PMID:25853376

  13. Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Elham; Hassanzadeh Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Zahra; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar; Moghadami, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars province, during December 2012 to January 2013. A total of 15408 children, aged 0–6 years old, were studied for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Also, socio-demographic measures were obtained from structured questionnaire. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to relate underlying factors to the odds of under-nutrition indices. Results: The rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 9.53, 9.66, and 8.19%, respectively. Male children were more stunted compared to females (OR= 1.41, CI: 1.26–1.58). Also, stunting was significantly associated with lower family income (OR= 3.21, CI: 1.17–8.85) and lower maternal education (OR= 0.80, CI: 0.64–0.98). Living in urban areas, and poor water supply were identified as significant risk factors of all three types of childhood under-nutrition. Moreover, Khamse and Arab ethnic groups were more vulnerable to under-nutrition. There was a suggestion that non-access to health services were associated with wasting (OR= 1.87, CI: 1.39–2.52) and also large family size was related to underweight (OR= 1.35, CI: 1.10–1.65). Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition in the study population was categorized in low levels. However, planning the public preventive strategies can help to control childhood under-nutrition according to underlying factors of malnutrition in the study population including gender, settlement area, family size, ethnicity, family income, maternal education, health services, and also safe water supply. PMID:25114945

  14. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21% of adults below 20 years old consumed chicken at least once a day, while this pattern of intake was not shown in the older age groups. Our findings show that adults, aged 50 to 59 years old, had the highest prevalence of daily consumption of full cream milk with 24% while those aged 18 to 19 years old had the lowest prevalence of daily consumption at 15%. The food consumption pattern of Malaysian adults appears to be satisfactory. However, some changes in food habits are recommended especially in substituting the less wholesome sweetened condensed milk with the more nutritious full cream or skimmed milk. PMID:22691762

  15. Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Azmi, M Y; Junidah, R; Siti Mariam, A; Safiah, M Y; Fatimah, S; Norimah, A K; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Abdul Manan, Wm; Siti Haslinda, M D; Tahir, A

    2009-09-01

    The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg/m2 (CI: 24.21, 24.53) respectively. Based on the WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 12.15% (CI: 11.26, 13.10) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and 26.71% (CI: 25.50, 27.96) overweight (BMI > 25 - 29.9 kg/m2). Significantly, more women were obese [14.66% (CI: 13.37, 16.04)] while significantly more men were overweight [28.55% (CI: 26.77, 30.40)]. Ethnicitywise, prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays [15.28% (CI: 13.91, 16.77)] while overweight was highest for the Indians [31.01% (CI: 26.64, 35.76)]. Both obesity and overweight were highest among those aged 40 - 49 years. Obesity was highest for those whose household income was between RM1,500 - 3,500 while overweight was more prevalent for those whose household income exceeded RM3,500. The prevalence of overweight was highest for those with primary education [31.90% (CI: 29.21, 34.72)]. There was no significant urban rural differential in both obesity and overweight. The study found 9.02% (CI:8.82, 10.61) with chronic energy deficiency (CED) (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2). The prevalence of CED was relatively higher in the indigenous population (Orang Asli) [14.53% (CI: 5.14, 34.77)], subjects aged 18-19 years [26.24% (CI: 21.12, 32.09)], and with monthly household income of < RM1,500 [10.85% (CI: 9.63, 12.20)]. The prevalence of CED was not significantly different among the geographical zones and educational levels, and between urban/rural areas and sexes. The results call for priority action to address the serious problem of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults as it poses a grave burden to the country's resources and development. PMID:22691810

  16. Online Survey Examining Practitioners’ Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

  17. Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Rickett, Katherine

    2010-10-01

    In a 1995 pivotal study, Kushner described the attitudes, practice behaviors, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. This article recognized nutrition and dietary counseling as key components in the delivery of preventive services by primary care physicians. Kushner called for a multifaceted approach to change physicians' counseling practices. The prevailing belief today is that little has changed. Healthy People 2010 and the U.S. Preventive Task Force identify the need for physicians to address nutrition with patients. The 2010 objective was to increase to 75% the proportion of office visits that included ordering or providing diet counseling for patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension. At the midcourse review, the proportion actually declined from 42% to 40%. Primary care physicians continue to believe that providing nutrition counseling is within their realm of responsibility. Yet the gap remains between the proportion of patients who physicians believe would benefit from nutrition counseling and those who receive it from their primary care physician or are referred to dietitians and other healthcare professionals. The barriers cited in recent years continue to be those listed by Kushner: lack of time and compensation and, to a lesser extent, lack of knowledge and resources. The 2010 Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation and First Lady Obama's "Let's Move Campaign" spotlight the need for counseling adults and children on diet and physical activity. PMID:20962310

  18. Compliance with the European and national nutritional objectives in a Mediterranean population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Bondia-Pons; Ll Serra-Majem; A I Castellote; M C López-Sabater

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To analyze compliance with the current European and Spanish nutritional objectives in a representative sample from Catalonia, a Spanish Mediterranean region; and to examine relationships between diet and plasma fatty acid composition.Design:Cross-sectional nutritional survey.Setting:Population based random sample derived from the Catalan Nutrition Survey.Subjects:A total of 516 healthy adult men (n=203) and women (n=313).Methods:Dietary habits were assessed by means of a

  19. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

  20. A Nutritional Survey of Children in Head Start Centers in Central United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Marie Z.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a questionnaire in evaluating the nutritional status of Head Start children in rural, small city, and urban areas in central United States. The questionnaire, which was primarily concerned with the food preferences of the children, was filled out by the mother of each of the 154…

  1. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  2. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  3. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of body mass index in Japanese adults in a representative sample from the National Nutrition Survey 1990–1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Yoshiike; Y Matsumura; MM Zaman; M Yamaguchi

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and reference percentile curves of body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2) in Japanese adults.DESIGN: Cross-sectional nationwide surveys (The National Nutrition Survey, Japan) carried out in 1990–1994. A sample of 23 556 males and 28 751 females aged 15–84 y was used for this analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of grades 1 (BMI: 25.0–29.9), 2 (30.0–39.9) and

  5. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. II. Dietary intake and biochemical assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The total dietary intake of energy and of individual nutrients of 99 grades 3 and 6 children from 10 greater Winnipeg shcools were generally comparable to those reported by Nutrition Canada for the Manitoba and national samples, although the percentile distributions of total caloric intake and dietary intake of vitamin A for the Winnipeg children tended to be lower. The median daily intake of protein was 212% of the Canadian Dietary Standard and most came from animal sources. Dietary fat was largely from animal sources as well. Hemoglobin concentrations were marginally low in four children, and urinary riboflavin:creatinine ratios were low in six children. There was no biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency. The results suggest a need for change in dietary patterns and for education in nutrition, including relative nutrient/cost benefits. A well planned school snack program with an education component is a medium by which change could be introduced. This should preferable be part of a total school health program. PMID:837315

  6. A Survey of Collection Development for United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Preparation MaterialEC

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Dean; Hasman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to ascertain medical and dental libraries' collection development policies, evaluation methods, purchase decisions, and issues that relate to print and electronic United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation materials. Methods: The investigators surveyed librarians supporting American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools (n?=?58/125) on the USMLE and librarians supporting American Dental Association (ADA)–accredited dental schools (n?=?23/56) on the NBDE. The investigators analyzed the data by cross-tabulating and filtering the results using EFM Continuum web survey software. Investigators also surveyed print and electronic USMLE and NBDE preparation materials from 2004–2007 to determine the number of publications and existence of reviews. Results: A majority of responding AAMC libraries (62%, n?=?58) provide at least 1 electronic or online USMLE preparation resource and buy an average of 11.6 print USMLE titles annually. Due to a paucity of NBDE print and electronic resources, ADA libraries bought significantly fewer print resources, and only 1 subscribed to an electronic resource. The most often reported evaluation methods for both populations were feedback from medical or dental students, feedback from medical or dental faculty, and online trials. Some AAMC (10%, n?=?58) and ADA libraries (39%, n?=?23) libraries reported that no evaluation of these materials occured at their libraries. Conclusions: From 2004–2007, publishers produced 45 USMLE preparation resources (total n?=?546) to every 1 NBDE preparation resource (total n?=?12). Users' needs, institutional missions and goals, financial status, and official collection policies most often underlie decisions to collect or not collect examination preparation materials. Evaluating the quality of examination preparation materials can be problematic due to lack of published reviews, lack of usability testing by libraries, and librarians' and library users' unfamiliarity with the actual content of examinations. Libraries must integrate faculty and students into the purchase process to make sure examination preparation resources of the highest quality are purchased. PMID:18654641

  7. Caloric and nutrient intake in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with extended-release methylphenidate: analysis of a cross-sectional nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Design Observational (case-control). Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). Main outcome measures A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p?nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered. PMID:25057372

  8. Examining the Range of Cometary Dust Characteristics with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, R.; Bauer, J. M.; Kramer, E.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Lisse, C. M.; Meech, K. J.; Weissman, P. R.; Tholen, D.; Walker, R.; Wright, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Cometary dust provides insight into the composition of nuclei, as well as the forces behind its ejection and evolution. In this work, we will explore the characteristics of dust as seen in the near-nucleus environments around more than 100 active comets that were observed by the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) mission. WISE conducted an all-sky survey at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns) between January and December 2010. Many of the comets detected showed comae, tails, and/or trails, making this a rich dataset with which to examine the ensemble properties of cometary dust in the Solar System. Our work includes computing thermal fits for the dust, creating color temperature maps, and constraining the grain size distributions around the comets. With these results, we aim to provide context for the Rosetta mission results as well as a broad understanding of the range of cometary dust traits within the Solar System.

  9. THE VALUE OF PHYSICAL EXAMINATION IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SURVEY FOR IDENTIFYING YOUTH PITCHERS WITH ARM PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Mellecker, Chloe; Scallon, Greg; Wooldridge, Caitlin; Edwards, Alan; Albright, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a screening survey in identifying injuries in youth baseball pitchers. It is hypothesized that a standalone survey is unlikely to give a complete picture and that an additional physical examination is necessary to identify all injuries. Methods Seventy-seven youth baseball players who pitched in the last 12 months completed the survey. Players underwent physical examination if they reported a history of time-loss injury (16 players) or if they had any current complaints of pain without a history of time-loss injury (22 players). Results This screening protocol resulted in positive physical examination findings in 37.6% of all 77 players. This included a rate of 56.3% of pitchers with a positive time-loss injury history and 90.9% of pitchers with a negative time-loss injury, but positive complaint of pain. The most common complaint in both groups was elbow tenderness with the most common location being the medial epicondyle. Conclusion While the survey was effective at identifying time-loss injuries, it may neglect more mild injuries, underestimating the percentage of players with pain and positive physical examination findings. The high frequency of positive examination findings in athletes without a history of time-loss injury demands further investigation. PMID:22096432

  10. Consumer Understanding and Use of Food and Nutrition Labeling in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besler, Halit Tanju; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Uyar, Muhemmed Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patterns of food and nutrition labels use by Turkish consumers, and examine constraints on the use of this information. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Twenty-six regions of Turkey. Participants: Consumers (n = 1,536), aged 12-56 years. Variables measured: Level of interest in food and nutrition labels, the…

  11. WHO ARE WE? EXAMINING THE RESULTS OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR PLAY THERAPY MEMBERSHIP SURVEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Ryan; Tomi Gomory; Jeffrey R. Lacasse

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the various characteristics and attributes of a sample of play therapists (N=891). The data were collected using multiple methods, including a web-based survey, to collect information from the membership of the Association for Play Therapy (APT). The survey instrument collected information on various issues such as members’ educational background, continuing education experiences and needs, methods of obtaining

  12. Obstetric Care and Method of Delivery in Mexico: Results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lozano, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. Results 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66–4.84), between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02–3.20) and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84–3.03). Conclusions The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings. PMID:25101781

  13. Determination of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Human Plasma, Breast Milk and Food Samples: Application in Nutrition Survey for Establishment of “Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Kamao; Naoko Tsugawa; Yoshitomo Suhara; Toshio Okano

    2007-01-01

    Dietary habits are an important risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases. To carry out a nutrition survey of fat-soluble vitamins, we developed determination methods of fat-soluble vitamins using liquid chromatography- atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\/tandem mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In these methods, stable isotope-labeled compounds or vitamin K analogs with a satu- rated side-chain were used as

  14. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. PMID:25070696

  15. Too stressed out to participate? Examining the relation between stressors and survey response behavior.

    PubMed

    Barr, Christopher D; Spitzmüller, Christiane; Stuebing, Karla K

    2008-07-01

    Despite the use of survey-based organizational data in many studies of organizational behavior, survey response behavior and nonresponse are rarely studied phenomena. This study expands on previously proposed survey response and nonresponse frameworks by integrating the job stress literature. The authors investigated whether overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict experienced by individuals relate to survey response behavior. Using organizational citizenship behavior theory and social exchange theory as theoretical frameworks, the authors proposed that nonrespondents experience higher levels of stressors than respondents. Data collected in a longitudinal field study partially supported the hypotheses. As hypothesized, overload increased the likelihood of nonresponse. Contrary to hypotheses, role ambiguity decreased the likelihood of nonresponse. Role conflict was not significantly related to nonresponse. PMID:18572994

  16. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  17. Low whole grain intake in the UK: results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-01

    Increased whole grain intake has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Countries including the USA, Canada, Denmark and Australia have specific dietary guidelines on whole grain intake but others, including the UK, do not. Data from 1986/87 and 2000/01 have shown that whole grain intake is low and declining in British adults. The aim of the present study was to describe whole grain intakes in the most current dietary assessment of UK households using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11. In the present study, 4 d diet diaries were completed by 3073 individuals between 2008 and 2011, along with details of socio-economic status (SES). The median daily whole grain intake, calculated for each individual on a dry weight basis, was 20 g/d for adults and 13 g/d for children/teenagers. The corresponding energy-adjusted whole grain intake was 27 g/10 MJ per d for adults and 20 g/10 MJ per d for children/teenagers. Whole grain intake (absolute and energy-adjusted) increased with age, but was lowest in teenagers (13-17 years) and younger adults up to the age of 34 years. Of the total study population, 18 % of adults and 15 % of children/teenagers did not consume any whole-grain foods. Individuals from lower SES groups had a significantly lower whole grain intake than those from more advantaged classifications. The whole grain intake in the UK, although higher than in 2000/01, remains low and below that in the US and Danish recommendations in all age classes. Favourable pricing with increased availability of whole-grain foods and education may help to increase whole grain intake in countries without whole-grain recommendations. Teenagers and younger adults may need targeting to help increase whole grain consumption. PMID:25904034

  18. Gender differences in the association between smoking and dyslipidemia: 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung Ha Lee; Song Vogue Ahn; Nam Wook Hur; Dong Phil Choi; Hyeon Chang Kim; Il Suh

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundSmoking has been reported to be associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. However, it remains uncertain whether adverse metabolic effects of smoking on dyslipidemia differ with gender. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between smoking and dyslipidemia in men and women.

  19. Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...

  20. Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician's concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition. PMID:22025921

  1. Farm to School and Nutrition Education: Positively Affecting Elementary School-Aged Children's Nutrition Knowledge and Consumption Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Ashley; Null, Dawn; Long Roth, Sara; Tragoudas, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Good nutrition is crucial. School-aged children battle social and health issues such as poor nutrition, childhood obesity, and minimal nutrition knowledge. This study was a quasi-experimental design analyzing the effects of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) nutrition curriculum with a Farm to School program to assess nutrition knowledge of 3rd grade students, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. Methods Third grade boys and girls (n=65) participated in this study. The intervention consisted of two nutrition education classes and a farm tour. Data were collected at baseline and postintervention. Surveys assessed nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable consumption behavior, and awareness of farms and farmers. Chi-squared tests of independence were performed to examine the relation between the baseline and postintervention responses. Results Significant differences were found concerning knowledge of fiber (p<0.001). Knowledge of vitamins and minerals, reported vegetable consumption behavior at school, and farm exposure were also significant (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that CATCH nutrition education and farm tours can positively affect school-aged children's nutrition knowledge and fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. PMID:23308373

  2. [German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). First results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Wolf, U; Becker, K; Conrad, A; Hünken, A; Lüdecke, A; Müssig-Zufika, M; Riedel, S; Seiffert, I; Seiwert, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M

    2007-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) of the Robert Koch Institute and the fourth GerES of the Federal Environment Agency. The main objective of GerESs is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. GerES IV was performed from 2003 to 2006. A total of 1.790 children aged 3-14 years from 150 sampling locations participated in GerES IV. Samples of blood, urine, tap water, house dust and indoor air were analysed. Hearing tests, measurements of traffic noise and interviews to get exposure-related information were conducted. First results indicate a clear decrease of the exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury. Cotinine concentrations in urine can be used to classify the exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects' households indicates that in some households the guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance were not always met. This is the case for nickel, copper and lead which are used as pipe material for domestic plumbing. PMID:17514475

  3. Costs of postpartum care: examining associations from the Ontario mother and infant survey.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Sword, W; Watt, S; Gafni, A; Krueger, P; Sheehan, D; Soon-Lee, K

    2001-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 1,250 mothers of "normal" newborn infants was conducted to assess mother and infant characteristics as well as the costs of health and social services used in the first 4 weeks after discharge from hospital in the province of Ontario, Canada. Each mother was asked to recall use of services for herself and her infant. This utilization was multiplied by the unit cost of each service and summed to arrive at the total cost of services used. Although re-admission rates were low (1% for mothers, 4% for infants), costs associated with hospital and emergency room care ($194 on average per mother/infant dyad) accounted for the greatest proportion of total health-care costs. Physician or midwife visits, which were received by almost all mothers, were the next most costly service ($128 on average per dyad). Mothers with incomes under $20,000 had more medical costs than those with higher incomes. Costs of community nursing care ($86 on average per dyad) were higher for mothers with more than 5 self-identified learning needs (e.g., infant feeding, infant care and behaviour, emotional changes in self, signs of illness in infant); perception of their own health as poor; perception of inadequate help and support at home; many signs and symptoms of depression; and postpartum hospital stay of 48 hours or less. Costs for social work visits were higher for mothers with depression and mothers with low incomes. Total health and social service costs were double for mothers with family incomes under $20,000 ($788 vs. $399 on average per dyad) and for mothers with clinical depression ($845 vs. $413). Specifically, nursing care costs were greater for mothers with high depression scores ($135 vs. $81). PMID:11928152

  4. The National Adolescent Student Health Survey: Survey Replication Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association, Kent, OH.

    The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS), initiated in 1985, is conducted to examine the health-related knowledge, practices, and attitudes of the nation's youth in the following health areas: AIDS; Nutrition; Consumer Health; Sexually Transmitted Disease; Drug and Alcohol Use; Suicide; Injury Prevention; and Violence. Findings…

  5. Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    PubMed

    González de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Reyes-Vázquez, Horacio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2013-05-01

    We present: 1) indicators of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) and median age of introduction of foods analyzed by geographic and socioeconomic variables for the 2006 national probabilistic Health Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006); and 2) changes in IYCFP indicators between the 1999 national probabilistic Nutrition Survey and ENSANUT-2006, analyzed by the same variables. Participants were women 12-49 y and their <2-y-old children (2953 in 2006 and 3191 in 1999). Indicators were estimated with the status quo method. The median age of introduction of foods was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using recall data. The national median duration of breastfeeding was similar in both surveys, 9.7 mo in 1999 and 10.4 mo in 2006, but decreased in the vulnerable population. In 1999 indigenous women breastfed 20.8 mo but did so for only 13.0 mo in 2006. The national percentage of those exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo also remained stable: 20% in 1999 and 22.3% in 2006. Nevertheless, exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo changed within the indigenous population, from 46% in 1999 to 34.5% in 2006. Between surveys, most breastfeeding indicators had lower values in vulnerable populations than in those better-off. Complementary feeding, however, improved overall. Complementary feeding was inadequately timed: median age of introduction of plain water was 3 mo, formula and non-human milk was 5 mo, and cereals, legumes, and animal foods was 5 mo. Late introduction of animal foods occurred among vulnerable indigenous population when 50% consumed these products at 8 mo. Mexican IYCFP indicate that public policy must protect breastfeeding while promoting the timely introduction of complementary feeding. PMID:23514772

  6. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  7. Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna; Matanda, Dennis J; Urke, Helga B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the UNICEF framework for childcare, this study examined the association of childcare practices (CCP) with infant and young children's growth (height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), and investigated whether care practices are more important to growth in some sociodemographic subgroups of children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Urban and rural Ghana. Participants The study sample comprised 1187 dyads of mothers aged 15–49?years and their youngest child (aged 6–36?months). Results The results showed that CCP was a significant predictor of HAZ, after controlling for covariates/confounders at child, maternal and household levels. Children with higher CCP scores had higher HAZ. A 1-unit increase in the CCP score was associated with a 0.17-unit increase in HAZ. Child's and mother's age, number of children under 5?years, place of residence, maternal weight and wealth index were also significantly associated with HAZ. Statistical interaction analyses revealed no subgroup differences in the CCP/HAZ relationship. Conclusions This study found a significant, positive association between CCP and child growth, after accounting for other important determinants of child growth at maternal and household levels. This calls for research into the effects on growth of various CCP components, with longitudinal cohort study designs that can disentangle causal relationships. PMID:25366675

  8. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009. PMID:24757561

  9. Prevalence and trends of obesity and association with socioeconomic status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and II (BMI ?30 kg/m(2)) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m(2) in men and 22.8 kg/m(2) in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m(2) and 24.4 kg/m(2) in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991-2009. PMID:24757561

  10. Examining the spatial congruence between data obtained with a novel activity location questionnaire, continuous GPS tracking, and prompted recall surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Place and health researchers are increasingly interested in integrating individuals’ mobility and the experience they have with multiple settings in their studies. In practice, however, few tools exist which allow for rapid and accurate gathering of detailed information on the geographic location of places where people regularly undertake activities. We describe the development and validation of a new activity location questionnaire which can be useful in accounting for multiple environmental influences in large population health investigations. Methods To develop the questionnaire, we relied on a literature review of similar data collection tools and on results of a pilot study wherein we explored content validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity. To estimate convergent validity, we used data from a study of users of a public bicycle share program conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2011. We examined the spatial congruence between questionnaire data and data from three other sources: 1) one-week GPS tracks; 2) activity locations extracted from the GPS tracks; and 3) a prompted recall survey of locations visited during the day. Proximity and convex hull measures were used to compare questionnaire-derived data and GPS and prompted recall survey data. Results In the sample, 75% of questionnaire-reported activity locations were located within 400 meters of an activity location recorded on the GPS track or through the prompted recall survey. Results from convex hull analyses suggested questionnaire activity locations were more concentrated in space than GPS or prompted-recall locations. Conclusions The new questionnaire has high convergent validity and can be used to accurately collect data on regular activity spaces in terms of locations regularly visited. The methods, measures, and findings presented provide new material to further study mobility in place and health research. PMID:24025119

  11. Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

    While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

  12. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  13. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  14. SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

  15. Gastrointestinal symptoms and food/nutrition concerns after the great East Japan earthquake in March 2011: survey of evacuees in a temporary shelter.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Nakao, Atsunori; Kuboyama, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Atsunori; Masutani, Motomaru; Ueda, Takahiro; Kotani, Joji

    2014-06-01

    On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern Japan. A resulting tsunami struck the Japan Pacific coast, causing >20,000 deaths, injuries and missing persons. Survivors' post-tsunami health and nutritional status were surveyed one month after the disaster in a school shelter in Ishinomaki City. Hyogo College of Medicine's disaster relief team observations and survivors' questionnaires were used to assess the disaster's effects on survivors' lifestyles and gastrointestinal symptoms while residing in temporary shelters. Of 236 disaster evacuees 9-88 years of age (mean age 52 years), 23% lost weight and 28% reported decreased food intake one month after the earthquake. Up to 25% of the participants presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation (10%), appetite loss (6.4%), vomiting (6.4%), and nausea (2.1%). Although the victims preferred more vegetables (44%) or fruit (33%), most food aid received, such as rice balls or bread, was carbohydrate-based, possibly because of easy provision and abundance in emergency food pantries. The authors asked the volunteers and the Japan Self-Defense Forces to provide a more balanced diet, including vegetables and fruit. Consumption of imbalanced diets may have caused more gastrointestinal symptoms for the survivors. Because of the victims' hesitation to request more balanced diets, and because of poorly controlled existing chronic disease and mental stress, professional public health providers should assure emergency food nutrition after disasters. PMID:24905001

  16. Urinary cadmium and beta2?microglobulin: Correlation with nutrition and smoking history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Kowal

    1988-01-01

    Urinary cadmium and beta2?microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the individuals. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with dietary iron (significance level of 0.0065), negatively correlated with dietary calcium (significance level of

  17. Parental understanding of basic infant nutrition: misinformed feeding choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Hobbie; Susan Baker; Cynthia Bayerl

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACTTo assess mothers' knowledge of good infant nutritional practices, a survey was conducted by the Institute of Pediatric Nutrition. The survey addressed issues related to breast-feeding, the use of iron-fortified formula, frequent spitting up, the introduction of cow's milk into the infant diet, and the nutritional value of fruit juice. Mothers who responded to the survey had difficulty identifying the

  18. Impacts of China's edible oil pricing policy on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-01-01

    China's health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991-2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

  19. Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact. As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. Methods A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). Results The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4?±?6.3 vs. 43.4?±?8.9; p?

  20. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  1. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...tank internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. 189.40-3 Section 189...tank internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except as provided...internal structural examination or underwater survey, damage or deterioration to the...

  2. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  3. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  4. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  5. Mission Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    swinward

    2010-04-12

    Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

  6. Nutrition Expert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

  7. Whole grain intake and its association with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain consumption and the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers. A recent analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (NDNS-RP) has shown lower intake of whole grain in the UK. It is important to understand whether the health benefits associated with whole grain intake are present at low levels of consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the association of whole grain intake with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health (anthropometric and blood measures) in the NDNS-RP 2008-11, a representative dietary survey of UK households. A 4-d diet diary was completed by 3073 individuals. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure levels, and blood and urine samples were collected after diary completion. Individual whole grain intake was calculated with consumers categorised into tertiles of intake. Higher intake of whole grain was associated with significantly decreased leucocyte counts. Significantly higher concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in adults in the lowest tertile of whole grain intake. No associations with the remaining health markers were seen, after adjustments for sex and age. Over 70 % of this population did not consume the minimum recommend intake associated with disease risk reduction, which may explain small variation across health markers. Nutrient intakes in consumers compared with non-consumers were closer to dietary reference values, such as higher intakes of fibre, Mg and Fe, and lower intakes of Na, suggesting that higher intake of whole grain is associated with improved diet quality. PMID:25893512

  8. Oral contraceptives and nutritional status in adolescent British girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Thane; Christopher J. Bates; Ann Prentice

    2002-01-01

    Associations between oral contraceptive pill (OC) use and vitamin, mineral and lipid status were examined in 117 postmenarcheal 16-to-18-year-old British girls, from the 1997 National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4 to 18 years. Thirty-nine were taking OCs at the time of blood, anthropometric and sociodemographic assessment, while seventy-eight were not. After adjusting for age, body mass

  9. Diet, nutritional status, and cancer risk in american blacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Kirkcaldy Hargreaves; Claudia Baquet; Amiri Gamshadzahi

    1989-01-01

    About 35% (10–70%) of all cancers may be associated with nutritional causes (1). However, while natural or added substances in foods may be carcinogenic, nutritional deficiencies or excesses may promote carcinogenesis. We compared data from blacks and whites using dietary and nutritional status surveys in the United States to determine whether the poorer dietary patterns and nutritional status of American

  10. Assessing the Nutritional Needs of Homeless Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Grover; AC Hergenroeder; SR Morrow; BL Haefner

    1998-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed to describe the nutritional habits and needs of homeless adolescents. It incorporated the Block Food Frequency (BFFQ) questionnaire with 37 questions regarding: current practices of obtaining food; nutritional education needs; and demographic information. The survey was reviewed, pilot-tested, and revised Subjects were 18-20 year old residents at a homeless shelter for less than 72 hours

  11. USDA Human Nutrition Center, 1978-1982, and Coordination of Human Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald F. Combs

    Survey findings, confirming widespread malnutrition, led to the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and increased funding of related Federal programs. In 1976, the ARS Administrator proposed to Congress a greatly expanded program for human nutrition research. This led to the development of USDA Human Nutrition Research Centers at Universities. Funding of these Centers resulted mainly from

  12. Rekindling the role of nurses in patients' oral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Diana; Johnson, Maree; Langdon, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a worldwide problem. A nutritional care policy was evaluated to determine whether nutrition was enhanced by improving patients' access and nurses' supervision of meals. Fourteen pre-audit wards (435 patients) and 20 postaudit wards (422 patients) across three hospitals participated in a pre-post audit and observation study with an examination of documentation. A food satisfaction survey was completed by 226 patients (pre) and 240 patients (post). A modest increase in the proportion of patients receiving supervision with meals (83% pre, 88% post, P?=?0.058) was not associated with an increase in consumption (50% or more of meal). Patients report poor appetite in the presence of good to fair food quality. The nurse's role in nutritional care was defined. Protected mealtimes supported by nurse managers reorganizing staff mealtimes with assistance from carers, volunteers and other health professionals were endorsed. Nurses must ensure that patient's meal trays are accessible. PMID:24666654

  13. Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

  14. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  15. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  16. Why Have Tobacco Control Policies Stalled? Using Genetic Moderation to Examine Policy Impacts

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by genotype were C/C genotype: b = 20.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = 20

  17. An examination of the relationship between calcium and magnesium and hypertension

    E-print Network

    Georghiades, Mary Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II) (79). The data for height and weight are not complete, as certain physical measurements could not be done. One subject, confined to a wheelchair, did not have measures taken for height or weight. One subject...

  18. The Effects of Ethnicity, Sex and Father's Occupation on Heart Health Knowledge and Nutrition Behavior of School Children: The Texas Youth Health Awareness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdine, James N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Relationships among ethnicity, sex, and father's occupation with heart health knowledge and nutrition behavior were studied in Texas seventh- and eighth-grade students. Findings indicated a strong need for heart health education and for culturally relevant nutrition education. (Author/CJB)

  19. FIRMS’ RESPONSES TO NUTRITIONAL POLICIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Hakim Hammoudi; Lamia Rouached; Louis-Georges Soler

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of nutritional policies on the behavior of firms, particularly in terms of food quality and prices, and to assess the potential impacts of such policies from a public health point of view. We determine how new products that are nutritionally improved can emerge in a market where incumbent firms offer

  20. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  1. Nutritional Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

  2. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11?835 male and 12?561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004?kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  3. Redox-modulatory vitamins and minerals that prospectively predict mortality in older British people: the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Christopher J.; Hamer, Mark; Mishra, Gita D.

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power, for total, vascular, cancer and respiratory mortality, of selected redox-modulatory (vitamin and mineral nutrient) indices measured at baseline, was studied in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (community-living subset) of people aged 65 years and over. Mortality status and its primary and underlying causes were recorded for 1054 (mean age 76·6 (SD 7·4) years and 49·0 % female) participants, from the baseline survey in 1994–5 until September 2008. During this interval, 74 % of the male and 62 % of the female participants died. Total mortality was significantly predicted by baseline plasma concentrations (per SD) of vitamin C (hazard ratio (HR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·88), ?-carotene (HR 0·90; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·99), Se (HR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·84), Zn (HR 0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·87), Cu (HR 1·27; 95 % CI 1·14, 1·42) and Fe (HR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·89). Total mortality was also significantly predicted by baseline dietary intakes (per SD) of food energy (HR 0·86; 95 % CI 0·79, 0·94), vitamin C (HR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·94), carotenoids (HR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·96), Zn (HR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·96) and Cu (HR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00). Prediction patterns and significance for primary vascular, cancer and respiratory mortality differed in certain respects, but not fundamentally. Model adjustment for known disease or mortality risk predictors resulted in loss of significance for some of the indices; however, plasma Se and Zn, and food energy remained significant predictors. We conclude that total and primary vascular, cancer and respiratory mortality in older British people of both sexes is predicted by several biochemical indices of redox-modulatory nutrients, some of which may reflect the respondents’ acute-phase status at baseline, whereas others may reflect the healthiness of their lifestyle. PMID:20807458

  4. Nutritional and socio-economic factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from Equatorial Guinea: results from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Villamor, Eduardo; Molina, Laura; Sánchez, Ignacio; Lwanga, Magdalena; Bernis, Cristina; Benito, Agustín; Roche, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria has traditionally been a major endemic disease in Equatorial Guinea. Although parasitaemia prevalence on the insular region has been substantially reduced by vector control in the past few years, the prevalence in the mainland remains over 50% in children younger than five years. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour for febrile illness at country level, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the EG National Malaria Control Programme. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of children 0 to 5 years old, using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample at the national level. It included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and thick and thin blood smears to determine the Plasmodium infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for parasitaemia, taking into account the cluster design. Results The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 50.9%; it was higher in rural (58.8%) compared to urban areas (44.0%, p = 0.06). Age was positively associated with parasitemia (p < 0.0001). In rural areas, risk factors included longer distance to health facilities (p = 0.01) and a low proportion of households with access to protected water in the community (p = 0.02). Having had an episode of cough in the 15 days prior to the survey was inversely related to parasitemia (p = 0.04). In urban areas, the risk factors were stunting (p = 0.005), not having taken colostrum (p = 0.01), and that someone in the household slept under a bed net (p = 0.002); maternal antimalarial medication intake during pregnancy (p = 0.003) and the household socio-economic status (p = 0.0002) were negatively associated with parasitemia. Only 55% of children with fever were taken outside their homes for care, and treatment seeking behaviour differed substantially between rural and urban populations. Conclusion Results suggest that a national programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences between rural and urban communities in relation to risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour, integrate nutrition programmes, incorporate campaigns on the importance of early treatment, and target appropriately for bed nets to reach the under-fives. PMID:19814788

  5. Examining Participant Engagement in an Information Technology-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Men: The Manup Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Dixon, Marcus W; Rosenkranz, Richard; Caperchione, Cristina; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Kolt, Gregory S; Maeder, Anthony; Ding, Hang; Taylor, Pennie; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-01-01

    Background Males experience a shorter life expectancy and higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their female counterparts. To improve health outcomes among males, interventions specifically developed for males that target their health behaviors are needed. Information technology (IT)-based interventions may be a promising intervention approach in this population group, however, little is known about how to maximize engagement and retention in Web-based programs. Objective The current study sought to explore attributes hypothesized to influence user engagement among a subsample of participants from the ManUp study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an interactive Web-based intervention for promoting physical activity and nutrition among middle-aged males. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted and audiotaped with 20 of the ManUp participants. Interview questions were based on a conceptual model of engagement and centered on why participants took part in the study, what they liked and did not like about the intervention they received, and how they think the intervention could be improved. Interview recordings were transcribed and coded into themes. Results There were five themes that were identified in the study. These themes were: (1) users’ motives, (2) users’ desired outcomes, (3) users’ positive experiences, (4) users’ negative emotions, and (5) attributes desired by user. Conclusions There is little research in the field that has explored user experiences in human-computer interactions and how such experiences may relate to engagement, especially among males. Although not conclusive, the current study provides some insight into what personal attributes of middle-aged males (such as their key motives and goals for participating) and attributes of the intervention materials (such as usability, control, and interactivity) may impact on user engagement in this group. These findings will be helpful for informing the design and implementation of future health behavior interventions for males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000081910; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000081910 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6M4lBlvCA). PMID:24389361

  6. State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

  7. Nutrition Information Sources Used by Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice A. Thomsen; R. Dale Terry; Rosalie J. Amos

    1988-01-01

    Sources from which adolescents receive general nutrition information and are most likely to seek information about specific nutrition topics were examined. Data were collected from 163 14- to 18-year-old males and females. Over 90 per cent of the respondents reported that they had Iearned about nutrition in at least one school course during the current or previous school years. Home

  8. A review of the use of health examination data from the Health Survey for England in government policy development and implementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Information is needed at all stages of the policy making process. The Health Survey for England (HSE) is an annual cross-sectional health examination survey of the non-institutionalised general population in England. It was originally set up to inform national policy making and monitoring by the Department of Health. This paper examines how the nurse collected physical and biological measurement data from the HSE have been essential or useful for identification of a health issue amenable to policy intervention; initiation, development or implementation of a strategy; choice and monitoring of targets; or assessment and evaluation of policies. Methods Specific examples of use of HSE data were identified through interviews with senior members of staff at the Department of Health and the Health and Social Care Information Centre. Policy documents mentioned by interviewees were retrieved for review, and reference lists of associated policy documents checked. Systematic searches of Chief Medical Officer Reports, Government ‘Command Papers’, and clinical guidance documents were also undertaken. Results HSE examination data have been used at all stages of the policy making process. Data have been used to identify an issue amenable to policy-intervention (e.g. quantifying prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease), in strategy development (in models to inform chronic respiratory disease policy), for target setting and monitoring (the 1992 blood pressure target) and in evaluation of health policy (the effect of the smoking ban on second hand smoke exposure). Conclusions A health examination survey is a useful part of a national health information system. PMID:25114791

  9. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  10. Preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation in the pharmaceutical industry: an IQ consortium survey examining the current landscape.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Edgar; Bohnert, Tonika; Chakravarty, Arijit; Damian-Iordache, Valeriu; Gibson, Christopher; Hsu, Cheng-Pang; Heimbach, Tycho; Krishnatry, Anu Shilpa; Liederer, Bianca M; Lin, Jing; Maurer, Tristan; Mettetal, Jerome T; Mudra, Daniel R; Nijsen, Marjoleen Jma; Raybon, Joseph; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Virna; Suryawanshi, Satyendra; Su, Yaming; Trapa, Patrick; Tsai, Alice; Vakilynejad, Majid; Wang, Shining; Wong, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The application of modeling and simulation techniques is increasingly common in preclinical stages of the drug discovery and development process. A survey focusing on preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis was conducted across pharmaceutical companies that are members of the International Consortium for Quality and Innovation in Pharmaceutical Development. Based on survey responses, ~68% of companies use preclinical PK/PD analysis in all therapeutic areas indicating its broad application. An important goal of preclinical PK/PD analysis in all pharmaceutical companies is for the selection/optimization of doses and/or dose regimens, including prediction of human efficacious doses. Oncology was the therapeutic area with the most PK/PD analysis support and where it showed the most impact. Consistent use of more complex systems pharmacology models and hybrid physiologically based pharmacokinetic models with PK/PD components was less common compared to traditional PK/PD models. Preclinical PK/PD analysis is increasingly being included in regulatory submissions with ~73% of companies including these data to some degree. Most companies (~86%) have seen impact of preclinical PK/PD analyses in drug development. Finally, ~59% of pharmaceutical companies have plans to expand their PK/PD modeling groups over the next 2 years indicating continued growth. The growth of preclinical PK/PD modeling groups in pharmaceutical industry is necessary to establish required resources and skills to further expand use of preclinical PK/PD modeling in a meaningful and impactful manner. PMID:25630504

  11. Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger were used to measure early-life nutritional deficiencies. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that both anthropometric measures and self-report markers of early-life nutritional status were significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline for both men and women after controlling for age and ethnicity. Adjustments for childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status, adulthood health, and lifestyle habits had little effect on these associations except for the effect of hunger among men. Results from multinomial logistic regression models show that during the three-year follow-up period, arm length was significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment after controlling for various confounders in men, but not in women. Our findings suggest that early-life nutritional deprivation may contribute to cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults. PMID:20591545

  12. Nutrition Cafe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

  13. Nutrition: What Your Body Needs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-21

    In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

  14. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  15. THE NUTRITIONAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCT CONSUMPTION ON DIETARY INTAKES OF YOUNG ADULTS (1995-1996): THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on the dietary intakes of adults. Dietary intakes of adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey (1995-1996) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Dietary intake data was collected on 1266 adults (61% females, 39% males; 74% whites, 26% blacks...

  16. Examining the Infrared Variable Star Population Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using the SAGE-SMC Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Seale, J.; Sewi?o, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Meixner, M.; Marengo, M.; Terrazas, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S3MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 ?m band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ˜2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  17. Trends in dietary cholesterol intake among Chinese adults: a longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Dietary cholesterol is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Changes in dietary patterns in China recently might have an impact on the trends of diet-related risk factors of chronic diseases. This study aims to monitor the changes in daily cholesterol intake and its food sources in Chinese adults. Design A longitudinal study using demographic and dietary data of adults younger than 60?years from eight waves (1991–2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys was conducted. Mixed-effect models were used in this study. Setting The data were derived from urban and rural communities in nine provinces (autonomous regions) in China. Participants There were 21?273 participants (10?091 males and 11?182 females) in this study. Outcomes The major outcome is daily cholesterol intake amount, which was calculated by using the Chinese Food Composition Table, based on dietary data. Results The mean daily cholesterol intake in Chinese adults increased from 165.8?mg/day in 1991 to 266.3?mg/day in 2011. Cholesterol consumed by participants in different age (18–39 and 40–59?years), sex and urbanisation groups steadily elevated over time (p<0.0001), as did the proportions of participants with greater than 300?mg/day cholesterol consumption. In each subgroup, cholesterol originating from most of the food groups showed increasing trends over time (p<0.0001), except for animal fat and organ meats. Eggs, pork, fish and shellfish in that order remained the top three sources in 1991, 2000 and 2011, whereas milks were a negligible contributor. Cholesterol from animal fat declined and was insignificant in 2011 in most of the subgroups, while cholesterol being of poultry origin increased and became considerable in 2011. Conclusions Adults in China consumed increasingly high cholesterol and deviated from the recommended intake level over the past two decades. Adults need to pay more attention to intakes of eggs, pork, fish and shellfish. PMID:26038359

  18. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  19. The application of genetics and nutritional genomics in practice: an international survey of knowledge, involvement and confidence among dietitians in the US, Australia and the UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jorja; Bertrand, Brenda; Hayes, Veronica; Li, Sherly X; Thomas, Jane; Truby, Helen; Whelan, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    As a result of expanding scientific understanding of the interplay between genetics and dietary risk factors, those involved in nutritional management need to understand genetics and nutritional genomics in order to inform management of individuals and groups. The aim of this study was to measure and determine factors affecting dietitians' knowledge, involvement and confidence in genetics and nutritional genomics across the US, Australia and the UK. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using an online questionnaire that measured knowledge and current involvement and confidence in genetics and nutritional genomics. The questionnaire was distributed to dietitians in the US, Australia and the UK using email lists from the relevant professional associations. Data were collected from 1,844 dietitians who had practiced in the previous 6 months. The main outcomes were knowledge of genetics and nutritional genomics and involvement and confidence in undertaking clinical and educational activities related to genetics and nutritional genomics. Mean scores for knowledge, involvement and confidence were calculated. Analysis of variance and ? (2) analysis were used to compare scores and frequencies. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine predictors of high scores. The results demonstrated significant differences in involvement (p < 0.001) and confidence (p < 0.001) but not knowledge scores (p = 0.119) between countries. Overall, dietitians reported low levels of knowledge (mean knowledge score 56.3 %), involvement (mean number of activities undertaken 20.0-22.7 %) and confidence (mean confidence score 25.8-29.7 %). Significant relationships between confidence, involvement and knowledge were observed. Variables relating to education, experience, sector of employment and attitudes were also significantly associated with knowledge, involvement and confidence. Dietitians' knowledge, involvement and confidence relating to genetics and nutritional genomics remain low and further investigation into factors contributing to this is required. PMID:23861045

  20. Serum TSH, T 4 , and Thyroid Antibodies in the United States Population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH G. HOLLOWELL; NORMAN W. STAEHLING; W. DANA FLANDERS; W. HARRY HANNON; ELAINE W. GUNTER; CAROLE A. SPENCER; LEWIS E. BRAVERMAN

    2010-01-01

    NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T4, antithy- roperoxidase (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) anti- bodies from a sample of 17,353 people aged >12 yr represent- ing the geographic and ethnic distribution of the U.S. population. These data provide a reference for other studies of these analytes in the U.S. For the 16,533 people who did not report thyroid disease,

  1. Characteristics associated with poor glycemic control among adults with self-reported diagnosed diabetes--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed K; McKeever Bullard, Kai; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Barker, Lawrence; Gregg, Edward W

    2012-06-15

    Nationally representative estimates indicate that 18.8 million adults in the United States have received a diagnosis with diabetes mellitus. When glycemic control is not optimized, diabetes imposes additional burdensome care requirements, health-care costs, and high risk of disabling complications, and this has been especially evident in socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations. For example, higher levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1c) have been associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy, increased risk of chronic kidney disease, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Reducing A1c levels through combined clinical and effective self-management has demonstrated reduced risk for microvascular complications. Although the most appropriate target A1c levels to achieve optimal health impact might vary among persons, the majority of adults with diabetes will benefit from reduction of A1c levels to ?7%; targets for patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia, or with limited life expectancy, or with advanced complications, or with certain comorbid conditions might be higher. Nevertheless, an A1c level of 9% constitutes a clearly modifiable, high level of risk that few, if any, persons with diabetes should be exposed to. Accordingly, the Healthy People 2020 objectives include a 10% reduction in the proportion of the diabetes population that has poor glycemic control (A1c >9%) as a target. PMID:22695461

  2. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1991-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée M Ned; Ajay Yesupriya; Giuseppina Imperatore; Diane T Smelser; Ramal Moonesinghe; Man-huei Chang; Nicole F Dowling

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. METHODS: We evaluated

  3. Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

  4. HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES): A GOLDMINE OF DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than 30 years, EPA has been one of many collaborating agencies that help plan and support funding of data collection through NHANES. Because only a limited number of Agency managers and staff are aware of the content and availability of this rich database, this Handbook...

  5. Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the third national health and nutrition examination survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Ninomiya; Gilbert L'Italien; M. H. Crique; J. L. White; Anthony Gamst; Roland S. Chen

    2004-01-01

    1.53 to 2.64), stroke (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.16), and MI\\/stroke (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.64 to 2.57). The syndrome was significantly associated with MI\\/stroke in both women and men. Among the component conditions, insulin resistance (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66), low HDL-C (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), hypertension (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00

  6. Change in methodology for collection of drinking water intake in What We Eat In America/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Implications for analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to provide updated estimates of drinking water intake (total, tap, plain bottled) for groups aged =1 year in the USA and to determine whether intakes collected in 2005-2006 using the 5-step USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) for the 24 h recall differ from int...

  7. The Association between Metabolic Syndrome or Chronic Kidney Disease and Hearing Thresholds in Koreans: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu Hyang; Park, Jong Won; Yoon, Kyung Woo; Do, Jun Young

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the general Korean population. Patients and Methods A total of 16,554 participants were included in this study. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or a dipstick proteinuria result of ?1+. The hearing thresholds were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Low-frequency (Freq) was defined as pure-tone averages at 0.5 and 1 kHz, while Mid-Freq and High-Freq were defined as the average thresholds at mid-frequency (2 and 3 kHz) and high frequency (4 and 6 kHz), respectively. Results In men, the hearing thresholds were 15.1 ± 14.5 dB, 22.2 ± 21.3 dB, and 37.3 ± 26.5 dB for Low-, Mid-, and High-Freq, respectively. In women, the hearing thresholds were 14.9 ± 15.3 dB, 16.6 ± 18.0 dB, and 26.1 ± 21.5 dB for Low-, Mid-, and High-Freq, respectively. The hearing thresholds for men were significantly higher than the hearing thresholds for women in all 3 threshold categories. Male and female subjects with MetS or CKD had higher hearing thresholds than the subjects that did not have these disorders. In the multivariate analysis, MetS was associated with increased hearing thresholds in women, and CKD was associated with increased hearing thresholds in men and women. Conclusion MetS is associated with hearing thresholds in women, and CKD is associated with hearing thresholds in men and women. Therefore, patients with MetS or CKD should be closely monitored for hearing impairment. PMID:25794036

  8. Population frequency distribution of non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (third national health and nutrition examination survey [NHANES iii], 1988–1994)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D Gardner; Marilyn A Winkleby; Stephen P Fortmann

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide population frequency distribution data for non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol) concentrations and to evaluate whether differences exist by gender, ethnicity, or level of education. Serum levels of non–HDL cholesterol and sociodemographic characteristics were determined for 3,618 black, 3,528 Mexican-American, and 6,043 white women and men, aged ?25 years,

  9. Depressive Symptoms are Associated with Poor Adherence to Some Lifestyle but not Medication Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    ), control/lose weight (N=2177), eat fewer high fat/cholesterol foods (N=2924), and increase physical activity (N=2540). Logistic regression models (adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, body mass in PHQ-9 total score was associated with a 14% lower likelihood of adherence to the control/lose weight

  10. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  11. [Prevalence of sensitisation to aeraoallergens and food allergens: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Haftenberger, M; Laußmann, D; Ellert, U; Kalcklösch, M; Langen, U; Schlaud, M; Schmitz, R; Thamm, M

    2013-05-01

    In view of the increasing prevalence of allergies, up-to-date data on the prevalence of allergic sensitisation are of major interest. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2011) blood samples from a population-based sample of 7,025 participants aged 18 to 79 years were analysed for specific IgE antibodies against 50 common single allergens and screened for common aeroallergens (SX1) and grass pollen (GX1). In all, 48.6?% of the participants were sensitised to at least one allergen. Overall, men were more frequently sensitised to at least one allergen than women were. Sensitisations to at least one allergen were more common among younger than older participants and among participants with a higher socio-economic status. In all, 33.6?% of the participants were sensitised to common aeroallergens, 25.5??% to food allergens and 22.6?% to wasp or bee venoms. Compared with the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), the prevalence of sensitisation to common aeroallergens increased from 29.8 to 33.6?%.This increase was statistically significant only in women. The results of DEGS1 still showed a high prevalence of allergic sensitisation. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703487

  12. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  13. Nutrition for working and service dogs.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, Joseph; Shmalberg, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Conformation, genetics, and behavioral drive are the major determinants of success in canine athletes, although controllable variables, such as training and nutrition, play an important role. The scope and breadth of canine athletic events has expanded dramatically in the past 30 years, but with limited research on performance nutrition. There are considerable data examining nutritional physiology in endurance dogs and in sprinting dogs; however, nutritional studies for agility, field trial, and detection are rare. This article highlights basic nutritional physiology and interventions for exercise, and reviews newer investigations regarding aging working and service dogs, and canine detection activities. PMID:24951343

  14. Definitions for public health nutrition: a developing consensus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Hughes

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the level of agreement amongst a panel of public health nutrition leaders regarding the key descriptors used to define the field of public health nutrition. Design: Cross-sectional survey requiring quantitative and qualitative responses representing the first round of a consensus development Delphi technique. Setting: International. Subjects: Expert panel of 24 public health nutrition leaders from nine countries

  15. Potential Nutrition Messages in Magazines Read by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzler, Ann A.; Grun, Ingolf

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed advertisements in magazines read by college students in nutrition class for hidden food and nutrition messages. Hidden messages for females could imply beauty through fashion products, beauty aids, and supplements but with nutrition slimming plan. Males may be receiving subtle message that food choices do not matter and that alcohol and…

  16. Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. Methods Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles. Results Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. Conclusions The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children’s food consumption and eating behaviour. PMID:23078656

  17. Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination

    E-print Network

    Serfling, Robert

    and health sciences research, which help develop sound public health policy, direct and design health population has major impli- cations for health care needs, public policy, and research priorities. NCHS is working with public health agencies to increase the knowledge of the health status of older Americans

  18. Honeybee nutrition is linked to landscape composition

    PubMed Central

    Donkersley, Philip; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger W; Jones, Kevin C; Wilson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators in Europe have been linked to changes in land use. Pollinator nutrition is dependent on floral resources (i.e., nectar and pollen), which are linked to landscape composition. Here, we present a stratified analysis of the nutritional composition of beebread in managed honeybee hives with a view to examining potential sources of variation in its nutritional composition. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that beebread composition correlates with local land use and therefore available floral resources. The results demonstrated that the starch, lipid, and moisture contents of beebread are all highly conserved across hives, whereas levels of protein and nonreducing sugar increased as the year progressed, reducing sugars, however, decreased during the first half of the year and then increased toward the end. Local land use around hives was quantified using data from the Countryside Survey 2007 Land Cover Map. Bee-bread protein content was negatively correlated with increasing levels of arable and horticultural farmland surrounding hives and positively correlated with the cover of natural grasslands and broadleaf woodlands. Reducing sugar content was also positively correlated with the amount of broad-leaved woodland in a 3 Km² radius from the hives. Previous studies on a range of invertebrates, including honeybees, indicate that dietary protein intake may have a major impact on correlates of fitness, including longevity and immune function. The finding that beebread protein content correlates with land use suggests that landscape composition may impact on insect pollinator well-being and provides a link between landscape and the nutritional ecology of socially foraging insects in a way not previously considered. PMID:25505544

  19. Religious affiliation and disparities in risk of non-communicable diseases and health behaviours: findings from the fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Wichaidit, Wit; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; McNeil, Edward; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Putwatana, Panwadee; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare the health-related behaviours and risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between Muslims and non-Muslims in Thailand, a predominantly Buddhist country in which Muslims are the second largest religious group. Data from the fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES IV) conducted in 2009 were used to run multivariate survey logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender and socio-economic status indicators. Data from 20,450 respondents, of whom 807 (3.9%) were Muslims, were included in the study. Muslims were significantly more likely to have daily consumption of deep-fried food (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15-1.58) and packaged snacks (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI=1.30-1.86), and have inadequate control of hypercholesterolemia (adjusted OR=2.95; 95% CI=1.30-6.68). In conclusion, we found disparity in the majority of risk factors for NCDs between Muslim and non-Muslim Thais. PMID:24684694

  20. Food and Nutrition Research Briefs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Noticias en español Nutrition News Podcasts Press Room Science for Kids Videos What's New? Bee Survey: Summer/Winter losses New issue: Healthy Animals - mobile New podcast: Heating Improves Tomato Flavor News Links ... ARS Science Hall of Fame Citrus Disease (Huanglongbing) Contact News & ...

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  2. [Trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria at Toyama University Hospital over the past six years--from the standpoint of laboratory examination].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tomomi; Hayashi, Shirou; Niimi, Hideki; Kitajima, Isao

    2012-07-01

    Specimens of bacterial ocular infections are frequently received in the clinical laboratory. However, a comprehensive trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria is very rare. Our objective is to understand the current tendency of ocular infections with bacteria in patients at Toyama University Hospital from the standpoint of laboratory examination. We studied 263 cases of ocular infection with bacteria diagnosed at Toyama University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011. 123 were male and 140 were female, with a mean age of 61.2(0-98) years. Specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Cultures were positive in 174(66.2%) patients. The most common bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus (28.1%), followed by Corynebacterium (19.3%), Streptococcus (9.3%), and Propionibacterium (8.6%). MRSA accounted for 18.8% of all S. aureus isolates, and has increased in recent years. The number of bacteria detected was larger in March, June, July, August, and October. Age distribution indicated that around 70% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients over 60 years old. The most common specimen of ocular infections with bacteria was eye discharge (detection rate; 87.8%), followed by corneal scraping(41%), aqueous humor (19%), and vitreous body (27%). Nearly 80% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, dacryocystitis, and conjunctivitis. As for the disease specific detection rate, endophthalmitis was very low (38.3%). The detection rate by years indicated that the way doctors pick up the specimens greatly affects the detection rate. Based on this survey, we need close cooperation with medical doctors concerning laboratory examination in ocular infection with bacteria, and we must improve the detection sensitivity of specimens from patients with endophthalmitis. PMID:22973718

  3. Survey of nutritional supplements for selected illegal anabolic steroids and ephedrine using LCMS\\/MS and GC-MS methods, respectively

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Martello; M. Felli; M. Chiarotti

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that nutritional supplements may contain undeclared substances that are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC)\\/World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This paper describes a qualitative liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS\\/MS) method to detect anabolic androgenic steroids (4-androsten-3,17-dion, 4-oestren-3,17-dion, 5?-androsten-17?-ol-3-one, boldenone, nandrolone, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone, and testosterone decanoate) and ephedrine in food supplements. The

  4. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  5. Meal planning and nutritional supplements use among elite bodybuilders in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Jip Kuo

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between exercise and nutrition is important for bodybuilders. The intake of food during post-exercise recovery is necessary for hypertrophy to occur. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the meal planning and use of such supplements among elite bodybuilders in Taiwan.MethodThirty-four (26 male and 8 female) bodybuilders completed a questionnaire which conducted to examine the

  6. Sexual Assault Program HIV Non-occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Practices: A Survey of Sexual Assault and Forensic Nurse Examiner Program Coordinators

    PubMed Central

    Draughon, Jessica E.; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Hansen, Bryan R.; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)/Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) program practices related to HIV testing, non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), and common barriers to offering HIV testing and nPEP. A convenience sample of 174 SANE/FNE programs in the United States and Canada was drawn from the International Association of Forensic Nurses database, and program coordinators completed web-based surveys. Three quarters of programs had nPEP policies, 31% provided HIV testing; and 63% offered nPEP routinely or upon request. Using Chi-square and Fishers' exact tests a greater proportion of Canadian programs had an nPEP protocol (p = .010), provided HIV testing (p = .004), and offered nPEP (p = .0001) than U.S.-based programs. Program coordinators rated providing pre-/post-counseling and follow-up as the most important barrier to HIV testing and medication costs as the most important barrier to providing nPEP. Our results indicate HIV-related services are offered inconsistently across SANE/FNE programs. PMID:24103741

  7. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1988-01-01

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities.

  8. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

  9. The effects of family structure variables on the nutritional status of children: an empirical assessment 

    E-print Network

    Kucera, Betty

    1986-01-01

    The Nutritional Status of American Children: An Overview The National Nutrition Surveys Clinical Findings Anthropometric Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biochemical Findings Dietary Intakes Independent Nutrition Studies . Statement..., age, income, and place-of-residence), clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary assessments were conducted in the national surveys. It has been observed that varying standards used to establish "low" or "deficient" ratings for biochemical...

  10. Snow depth of the Weddell and Bellingshausen sea ice covers from IceBridge surveys in 2010 and 2011: An examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.; Maksym, T.

    2014-07-01

    We examine the snow radar data from the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas acquired by eight IceBridge (OIB) flightlines in October of 2010 and 2011. In snow depth retrieval, the sidelobes from the stronger scattering snow-ice (s-i) interfaces could be misidentified as returns from the weaker air-snow (a-s) interfaces. In this paper, we first introduce a retrieval procedure that accounts for the structure of the radar system impulse response followed by a survey of the snow depths in the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas. Limitations and potential biases in our approach are discussed. Differences between snow depth estimates from a repeat survey of one Weddell Sea track separated by 12 days, without accounting for variability due to ice motion, is -0.7 ± 13.6 cm. Average snow depth is thicker in coastal northwestern Weddell and thins toward Cape Norvegia, a decrease of >30 cm. In the Bellingshausen, the thickest snow is found nearshore in both Octobers and is thickest next to the Abbot Ice Shelf. Snow depth is linearly related to freeboard when freeboards are low but diverge as the freeboard increases especially in the thicker/rougher ice of the western Weddell. We find correlations of 0.71-0.84 between snow depth and surface roughness suggesting preferential accumulation over deformed ice. Retrievals also seem to be related to radar backscatter through surface roughness. Snow depths reported here, generally higher than those from in situ records, suggest dissimilarities in sample populations. Implications of these differences on Antarctic sea ice thickness are discussed.

  11. Health, nutrition and prosperity: a microeconomic perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A positive correlation between health and economic prosperity has been widely documented, but the extent to which this reflects a causal effect of health on economic outcomes is very controversial. Two classes of evidence are examined. First, carefully designed random assignment studies in the laboratory and field provide compelling evidence that nutritional deficiency - particularly iron deficiency - reduces work capacity and, in some cases, work output. Confidence in these results is bolstered by a good understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Some random assignment studies indicate an improved yield from health services in the labour market. Second, observational studies suggest that general markers of nutritional status, such as height and body mass index (BMI), are significant predictors of economic success although their interpretation is confounded by the fact that they reflect influences from early childhood and family background. Energy intake and possibly the quality of the diet have also been found to be predictive of economic success in observational studies. However, the identification of causal pathways in these studies is difficult and involves statistical assumptions about unobserved heterogeneity that are difficult to test. Illustrations using survey data demonstrate the practical importance of this concern. Furthermore, failure to take into account the dynamic interplay between changes in health and economic status has led to limited progress being reported in the literature. A broadening of random assignment studies to measure the effects of an intervention on economic prosperity, investment in population-based longitudinal socioeconomic surveys, and application of emerging technologies for a better measure of health in these surveys will yield very high returns in improving our understanding of how health influences economic prosperity. PMID:11953788

  12. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  13. Nutrition Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  14. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Boushey

    Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

  15. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  16. Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

  17. An Examination of the Association of Abuse (Physical, Sexual or Emotional) and Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD): Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lutfey, Karen E.; Link, Carol L.; Litman, Heather J.; Rosen, Raymond C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Study objective To examine associations between abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) in childhood and adolescence/adulthood and sexual activity and dysfunction (FSD) in women. Design We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a community-based epidemiologic study of urologic and sexual symptoms and risk factors in a racially/ethnically diverse random sample of women aged 30–79 (N=3,205 women). Setting Boston Area community Patients Participants were community residents. Interventions Data were observational; no interventions were made. Main outcome measure Sexual activity and dysfunction rates (FSD) were assessed by means of a validated questionnaire: the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Abuse history was not significantly associated with likelihood of sexual activity. Among those who were sexually active with a partner, a history of each of three types of abuse approximately doubles the risk of FSD. Specifically, childhood emotional (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.28, 3.56), adult sexual (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.23, 3.08), and adult emotional abuse (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.15, 3.01) were all significantly and positively associated with sexual dysfunction (p < .05) after adjusting for covariates (including depression). Analyses of the six FSD domains showed that the relationships were strongest for pain (p = .006) and satisfaction (p < .001). Conclusions These findings extend previous literature by identifying an association between FSD and multiple types of abuse, even after adjusting for depression. PMID:18023433

  18. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  19. [Nutritional Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Patients].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Eun

    2015-06-25

    Nutritional screening and assessment in patients with malnutrition is the critical first step for nutritional care. Although nutritional assessment is a rigorous process that includes obtaining diet and medical history, current clinical status, physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratory data, and often functional and economic information, it is a very effective and worthy practice in terms of reducing various complications, morbidity, mortality and total medical costs. Systematic approaches with appropriate tools for nutritional screening and assessment are needed based on the clinical situations in each institute. PMID:26087687

  20. Understandings of prenatal nutrition among Argentine women.

    PubMed

    Hess, Camber M; Maughan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is an important determinant of birth outcome and infant health. In this study, we sought to identify the current knowledge of prenatal nutrition among women in Tucumán, Argentina, to examine the extent to which knowledge was implemented and to identify opportunities for improvement in prenatal care and education. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 women about their eating habits during pregnancy, prenatal nutrition education and knowledge, and attitudes about nutrition and pregnancy. Four major themes were identified: incomplete knowledge or practice, lack of comprehension, cultural beliefs, and noncompliance with medical advice. Suggested interventions are discussed. PMID:22242655

  1. The challenges of nutrition policymaking.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health. PMID:25889246

  2. Heat or Eat? Cold-Weather Shocks and Nutrition in Poor American Families

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; DeLeire, Thomas; Haider, Steven; Currie, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The authors sought to determine the effects of cold-weather periods on budgets and nutritional outcomes among poor American families. Methods. The Consumer Expenditure Survey was used to track expenditures on food and home fuels, and the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to track calorie consumption, dietary quality, vitamin deficiencies, and anemia. Results. Both poor and richer families increased fuel expenditures in response to unusually cold weather. Poor families reduced food expenditures by roughly the same amount as their increase in fuel expenditures, whereas richer families increased food expenditures. Conclusions. Poor parents and their children spend less on and eat less food during cold-weather budgetary shocks. Existing social programs fail to buffer against these shocks. PMID:12835201

  3. Nutrition-Labeling Regulation Impacts on Restaurant Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Chan, Nadine; Krieger, James; Nelson, Young; Boles, Myde; Colburn, Trina; Glanz, Karen; Ta, Myduc; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown. Purpose To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county. Methods Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys–Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008–2010 and analyses conducted in 2011. Results Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not differentially increase in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children’s menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county. Conclusions A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of awayfrom- home eating beyond menu labeling. PMID:23079173

  4. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266

  5. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:17514448

  6. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  7. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  8. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  9. Dairy Consumption and Related Nutrient Intake in African-American Adults and Children in the United States: Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICTOR FULGONI III; JILL NICHOLLS; ALAN REED; RITA BUCKLEY; KAREN KAFER; PETER HUTH; DOUGLAS DIRIENZO; GREGORY D. MILLER

    Objective To establish the first baseline of dairy and re- lated nutrient intake in African Americans, an at-risk population of public health concern in the United States. To document dairy consumption in African Americans by age and sex during 1994-1998 and 1999-2000 and com- pare it with concomitant dairy, calcium, and related nu- trient intakes in non-African-American adults and chil-

  10. Cooking losses of thiamin in food and its nutritional significance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Fujiwara, M

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the discrepancy between values of thiamin intake reported in national nutrition survey in Japan and judgment which was concluded by medical and biochemical examination in our field survey, thiamin of various daily foods were analyzed pre and post cooking in the various cooking methods, the following results were obtained. (1) The thiamin contents in cooked daily meals were 50-60 percent of the calculated values on an average. (2) The cooking losses of thiamin were particularly large in rice and green vegetables. (3) The loss of thiamin largest in boiling, followed by baking, parching and frying. (4) High temperature, pH, and chlorine on the public water accelerated thiamin losses. (5) The decrease of thiamin in cooked foods is caused by both of getting away of thiamin from foods and cleavage of thiamin of foods. PMID:2081984

  11. Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy

    1992-01-01

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

  12. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. PMID:24056208

  13. Energy Balance And Nutritional Status Of Female Athletes With Subclinical Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A Beals; M. M. Manore

    1996-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the energy balance and nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.Evidence indicates that female athletes with clinical eating disorders often suffer severe nutritional deficiencies. Little is known, however, about the nutritional status of female athletes with sub clinical eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess energy balance and nutritional status

  14. LabNotes - Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    2006-10-15

    An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

  15. Nutrition and the fertility of younger women in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B A; Mccabe, J L

    1977-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between various measures of household nutrition and fertility in Zaire (where malnutrition is rampant), in particular, the total effect of these nutrition measures on the length of time between births when infant mortality rates are held constant. Closed birth intervals (including average birth interval and length of 1st and 2nd closed birth intervals) and probability of occurrence of 2nd birth after the 1st birth, whether or not the 2nd birth occurred before the survey date, are examined to provide support to the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between calorie consumption and interval between births. Data used for analysis are households (taken from the 1969 Socio-Economic Survey of Kinshasa) headed by a man with only 1 wife (aged 20-24 years at survey date). The main policy implication of the study is that rises in calorie consumption associated with the early stages of modernization may be expected to increase fertility in noncontracepting populations if there is no change in infant mortality rates. If infant mortlaity declines, the total effect of an increase in calorie consumption on the fertility of women is ambiguous. Another implication is that if calorie consumption can be held constant and protein consumption increases, both infant mortality and fertility may fall. A fall in infant mortality may result in a fall in fertility, although the average length of the period of postpartum amenorrhea may fall. A combined examination of similar data from other cities of Zaire and a cross time study of other data sets may help unravel the complex biological and behavioral determinants of fertility. PMID:12260791

  16. Purposive Facebook Recruitment Endows Cost-Effective Nutrition Education Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. Objective The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. Methods English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Results Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, <40 years, overweight or obese body mass index, and not eating competent. A total of 807 Facebook users clicked on the WI ad with 73 unique site visitors and 47 of them completing the program evaluation (ie, 47/807, 5.8% of clickers and 47/73, 64% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low-income completer was US $27.53. Conclusions With Facebook we successfully recruited low-income Pennsylvanians to online nutrition program evaluations. Benefits using Facebook as a recruitment strategy included real-time recruitment management with lower costs and more efficiency compared to previous data from traditional research recruitment strategies reported in the literature. Limitations prompted by repeated survey attempts need to be addressed to optimize this recruitment strategy. PMID:23948573

  17. [Connection between nutrition and economy].

    PubMed

    Biró, G

    1997-12-28

    The economical conditions remarkably influence through food supply the nutrition although it is an a priori biological category. These determine the implementation of nutritional habits, conscious nutritional intentions, and limit the chances of individual decisions. The influence of economical conditions could be measured by use of "income elasticity" and "dietary efficiency". The latter serves as background for the elaboration of diets of different price but approaching the nutritional physiological optimum. The households have an important economical role because of value of time used for food purchasing and preparation of meals. In general the GNP/capita values determine the proportion of nutrients in diet and by this means the risk and frequency of diet-related diseases. Some of Central and Eastern European countries, among them Hungary as well, take place in groups higher by one-two categories, than appropriate to their GNP/capita. In Hungary the price of foodstuffs increased vigorously and the food consumption decreased by 3 per cent between 1994 and 1980 or 1992. Mainly the consumption of meat, milk and dairy products has diminished. The meat consumption has been shifted towards the consumption of poultry showing lower rise in prices. The consumption of vegetable oil and margarine has increased essentially because the lard became more expensive than the vegetable oil. The changes in prices touch more strongly the people of low income, their diet is combined chiefly from cheap foodstuffs and therefore it is monotonous, the qualitative starvation appears. Sociological surveys showed poverty in 17-31 percent of population in 1992. The inequality in income shows a strong association with the health status of population, furthermore with the lifestyle and the features of nutrition. Also in Hungary we should reckon with the unfavourable consequences of economical factors in the scope of health status and nutrition. PMID:9463182

  18. Developing a Comprehensive System for Content-Based Retrieval of Image and Text Data from a National Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Antani; Mukil Natarajan; Jonathan L. Long; L. Rodney Long; George R. Thom

    The article describes the status of our ongoing R&D at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) towards the development of an advanced multimedia database biomedical information system that supports content-based image retrieval (CBIR). NLM maintains a collection of 17,000 digitized spinal X-rays along with text survey data from the Second National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES II). These

  19. Developing a comprehensive system for content-based retrieval of image and text data from a national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer K. Antani; Mukil Natarajan; Jonathan L. Long; L. Rodney Long; George R. Thoma

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the status of our ongoing R&D at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) towards the development of an advanced multimedia database biomedical information system that supports content-based image retrieval (CBIR). NLM maintains a collection of 17,000 digitized spinal X-rays along with text survey data from the Second National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES II). These

  20. The nutrition magician: integrating nutrition into basic education.

    PubMed

    Hollis, C

    1989-01-01

    A primer on nutrition and other educational materials were produced in 1985-87 as part of the Jamaica Primary Education Nutrition Project carried out by the Education Development Center in collaboration with the Jamaica Ministry of Education, UNESCO, and USAID. The main purpose of the project was to determine whether integrating nutrition education into existing school curricula was an efficient way to concurrently increase students' nutritional knowledge and reading skills. There are several reasons why the effort was made to reach children directly instead of their mothers. Although children form eating habits and preferences early in life, they remain susceptible to change through school-based education. Peer pressure and support may then reenforce education which takes place in school, especially since children's choice of food while they are away from home is more influenced by their friends than by their parents. Finally, in developing countries, older children often care for their younger siblings. The author describes planning research, baseline survey, collaborative materials design workshop, materials development and testing, project implementation and monitoring, and program evaluation. PMID:12346420

  1. Carbohydrate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Allen, M S

    1991-07-01

    An understanding of carbohydrate nutrition is essential to optimize production of dairy cattle. Two rations, both of which appear to be balanced, may have dramatically different results when fed to high-producing dairy cattle. Carbohydrates directly affect microbial protein production and therefore protein nutrition of dairy cattle. Energy intake can be maximized by considering the amount and type of carbohydrate in the ration: 1. The fiber level of the ration should be evaluated. NDF levels should be between 25 and 30% for high-producing cows in early lactation. Within this range, less fiber is required with adequate forage particle length and high frequency of grain feeding, and when buffers are fed and slowly fermented NSC sources are included in the ratio. For mid- and late-lactation cows, fiber levels are higher, ranging between 30 and 36% NDF depending upon the energy required to support milk production and restoration of body condition. 2. Provide adequate effective fiber. There should be some forage particles 1.5 in long in the ration. Limit most high-fiber byproducts to 25% of fiber requirements. 3. Feed highly digestible fiber sources. Differences in fiber digestibility of 30% will result in over 4 Mcal of NEL per day with 15 lb NDF intake. In addition, highly digestible fiber has less gut fill effect, possibly increasing dry matter intake. 4. Consider site of starch digestion. Slowly degraded starch sources such as sorghum may require steam flaking to increase ruminal fermentation. Other situations may require the addition of a slowly degraded starch source. 5. Increase frequency of concentrate feeding. Feed grain at least four times per day or include in a total mixed ration. 6. Include buffers. Under some situations (corn silage, early lactation) buffers allow more grain to be fed. 7. Add fat. Fat supplementation to milking cows has become a common practice in high-producing herds. Fat has about three times the energy of cracked corn and is often used to replace a portion of the grain to increase the energy density of the ration. It is important to realize that fat can cost up to two to three times more per megacalorie of energy than grain. Before fat is added to the ration, less expensive ways to increase energy density (listed previously) should be thoroughly explored. PMID:1654174

  2. Beefing up with the Chans: Evidence for the effects of relative income and income inequality on health from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuo Chen; David Meltzer

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the hypothesis that the well-being of individuals is shaped not just by the absolute level of resources available to them but also the level of resources available to them relative to others in their cohort or community. Several causal pathways have been hypothesized to explain associations between relative social position and health. For

  3. Favorable Impact of Nutrition Education on California WIC Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Whaley, Shannon E.; Spector, Phil; Gomez, Judy; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of coordinated statewide nutrition education on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) family behavior regarding fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. Design: Survey of different cross-sectional samples of WIC families before and after education. Setting:…

  4. Urban-Rural Disparities of Child Health and Nutritional Status in China from 1989 to 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Liu; Hai Fang; Zhong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes urban–rural disparities of China's child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989–2006. The results show that on average urban children have

  5. Health and health risks among sexual minority women: an examination of three subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; VanKim, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine insurance status, source of routine care, cigarette and alcohol use, and self-rated health among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexual women who do not have sex with women. We found higher risks of being uninsured among lesbian and bisexual women, worse self-rated health among bisexual women, higher alcohol use among bisexual and heterosexual WSW, and higher smoking across all subgroups. PMID:24825204

  6. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  7. Overweight and Obesity among Palestinian Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (1999-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Jildeh, Christine; Dkeideek, Sahar; Qasrawi, Radwan; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Al Sabbah, Haleama

    2012-01-01

    Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18–64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45–54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women) or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women). When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P < 0.05). Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status) were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented. PMID:22523663

  8. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Those Blind From Birth Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) by James Garrity, MD NOTE: ... Optic Neuropathies) Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia (nutritional amblyopia) is damage to ...

  9. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  10. Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years. PMID:16572719

  11. A Multiple Group Repeated Measures Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Examination of the Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) Among College Samples

    E-print Network

    Short, Stephen David

    2011-08-31

    . university prior to and following completion of either an undergraduate political science, biology, or evolutionary psychology course. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences...

  12. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  13. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  14. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  15. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  16. Nutrition and oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Marshall; Peter Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and oral cancer is reviewed. Ecologic and case-control studies provide most of the evidence regarding the nutritional epidemiology of oral cancer. The ecologic evidence is that the considerable geographic variation in the incidence of oral cancer is consistent with variation in nutrition. Because incipient oral cancer is likely to affect the diets of

  17. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  18. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  19. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  20. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    Chest X-ray examination had been used rather soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen K in 1895 as it was possible to detect chest abnormality by simple radiography. After the discovery of radiophotography independently by Abreu M and Koga Y in 1936, it was applied as a method of mass screening for TB in Japan, and Imamura A made a special lecture on "The mass screening for TB" using radiophotography in 1940 in the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for TB. From experiences of mass screening, it was found that there were many cases of TB who do not aware of their own disease, and to know the prevalence of TB, the screening of survey subjects by X-ray examination is indispensable. Noticing the importance of mass health examination by chest X-ray, Dr. Tanaka S, then director of information division, JATAHQ, edited a book entitled "How to carry out mass health examination for TB" in 1951, then he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare and engaged in the preparation of the first TB prevalence survey. Random sampling technique was already developed, and health center network covering the whole country was already completed in early 1950s. Using these background, the first TB prevalence survey was conducted in 1953. TB Prevalence Survey Committee was organized asking cooperation of experts in TB, epidemiology and statistics, and the survey in sampled area was carried out by a survey team headed by the director of health center in charge of the sampled area. The survey teams engaged in the survey with enthusiasm, and the rate of response to the survey was 99.3%. The result of this survey was published in the WHO Bulletin, 1955. After the survey in 1953, the following prevalence surveys were carried out in 1958, 1963, 1968 and 1973. Outline of these surveys was shown in Table 1, and the rate of examination was high in all, except the survey in 1973. In this year, TB prevalence survey was carried out in conjunction with the national nutritional survey and the national mental health survey, and unfortunately, there were some opponent groups against the national mental health survey, which affected the rate of response to the TB survey, too. In addition to the 5 prevalence surveys, one thirds of the survey population in 1953, 1958 and 1963 was surveyed in the next year to know the incidence of TB. Follow-up survey on active TB cases found in the 1953 and 1958 survey was carried out in 1964, and similar follow-up survey was carried out in 1968 for active TB cases found in 1953, 1958 and 1963 surveys. Moreover, survey subjects excluding active TB cases in 1968 were followed up until 1973, and the incidence of newly registered TB cases during this period was surveyed. Summarized results of TB prevalence surveys are reported. The first survey was carried out in 1953, and had been repeated every 5 years until 1973. As national TB control program (NTP) under new TB Control Law had been implemented since 1951, the results of 5 surveys clearly indicated the outcome of NTP of Japan. Age-specific prevalence of active TB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 1. Due to advances in chemotherapy, there was certain difference in the definition of active TB in 1953 and 1958, and chemotherapy was indicated more widely for those with TB pathology in lung in 1958. Comparing the age-specific prevalence of active TB in 1953 and 1958, the prevalence decreased in 1958 below 35 years of age, and increased above 35 years. The decline in the prevalence of active TB in age groups below 35 in spite of widening of definition of active TB in 1958 indicated the efficacy of TB control with mass screening and BCG vaccination and treatment for detected cases. As the definition of active TB had been unchanged since 1958 up to 1973, the decline in the prevalence of active TB seen in all age groups clearly indicated the achievements of NTP. Overall trend of prevalence of active TB, cavitary TB, bacillary TB and smear+PTB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 2 together with epidemiological figures obtained from vital registration, namely incidence of

  1. The perilous journey of nutrition evaluation.

    PubMed

    Austin, J E

    1978-12-01

    Program evaluation in the area of nutrition has been both insufficient and deficient. A 1976 to 1977 survey of nutrition programs throughout the world being conducted as part of a Harvard Institute for International Development Project revealed that of 140 programs surveyed only 23% reported having analyzed nutritional status data and only 15% indicated they had analyzed their programs' cost data. Nutrition evaluation faces a series of impediments to its successful implementation, and these evaluation barriers fall into 4 main categories: technical; financial; psychological; and political. The nature of malnutrition, the imperfections in the measuring instruments, the sophistication requirements of evaluation design as well as the ambiguity of the data collected have combined to present a technical barrier to evaluation. The scarcity of funds traditionally available to mount nutrition programs has made program administrators stingy when contemplating evaluation budgets. Regarding the psychological, evaluations are threatening, and people fear them. Few nutritional programs are totally insulated from politics. Their emergence is based not primarily on realizing nutritional needs but on achieving political ends. These barriers go far in explaining the relative neglect of nutrition evaluation, yet they are not insurmountable. There are 5 basic questions that the task of nutrition evaluation must address: why do it; for whom; by whom; when; and how. An attempt is made to answer each of these questions in detail. Evaluation is important to good planning which is critical to effective implementation. Effective implementation is a prerequisite to improving the nutritional well being of the population. Evaluation can and should serve many potential users. There appears to be 7 potential main user groups: national planners; funders; sectoral planners; program managers; field workers; beneficiaries; and researchers. The question of who should carry out the evaluations will depend on 3 main factors: technical requirements; objectivity; and resource availability. The evaluation information system should be mounted as an ongoing mechanism which produces various flows and forms of data at various times depending on end user needs. In terms of the how question the effort is made to present a framework within which such techniques can be applied to evaluate nutrition programs. The framework has 3 components: target group definition; costing procedures; and performance indicators. PMID:103427

  2. Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin: correlation with nutrition and smoking history (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the individuals. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with dietary iron (significance level of 0.0065), negatively correlated with dietary calcium (significance level of less than 0.0001), and significantly (level of less than 0.001) higher in past or present smokers than in those who had never smoked. The results suggest increased cadmium absorption in the presence of low dietary intake of iron, low dietary intake of calcium, and cigarette smoking in the general population of the United States.

  3. Extension Professionals' Strengths and Needs Related to Nutrition and Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Bowen, Elaine; Zoumenou, Virginie; Schuster, Ellen R.; Boggess, May; Manore, Melinda M.; Gerrior, Shirley A.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of a Web-based nationwide survey of nutrition and health Extension specialists representing 42 states. Survey items (n = 36) assessed five areas: curriculum review, nutrition and physical activity, professional training, communication, and evaluation. An internal curriculum review was common, but few states shared their criteria…

  4. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n?=?185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  5. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-03-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of our study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (eg, location, racial/ethnic composition, and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics data were used for school characteristics (n=505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores (prevalence difference [PD] -13.7, 95% CI -25.0 to -2.3), and less likely to sell sport drinks (PD -36.3, 95% CI -51.8 to -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD 17.7, 95% CI 5.5 to 29.9) and on school grounds (PD 15.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012, the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (eg, limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, and banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the influence of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. PMID:25441964

  6. Prospects for better nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Rajan; van den Briel, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production. PMID:25384721

  7. Canadians’ Perceptions of Food, Diet, and Health – A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schermel, Alyssa; Mendoza, Julio; Henson, Spencer; Dukeshire, Steven; Pasut, Laura; Emrich, Teri E.; Lou, Wendy; Qi, Ying; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor nutrition is harmful to one’s health as it can lead to overweight and obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Understanding consumer perceptions toward diet and nutrition is critical to advancing nutrition-related population health interventions to address such issues. The purpose of this paper was to examine Canadians’ perceived health and diet status, compared to their actual health status, and general concern about their own diet and beliefs about health. Also analyzed were some of the perceived barriers to eating “healthy” foods, with a focus on the availability of “healthy” processed foods. Methods Two surveys were administered online to a group of Canadian panelists from all ten provinces during May 2010 to January 2011. Thirty thousand were invited; 6,665 completed the baseline survey and 5,494 completed the second survey. Panelists were selected to be nationally representative of the Canadian adult population by age, sex, province and education level, according to 2006 census data. Results Approximately one third of Canadians perceived their health or diet to be very good while very few Canadians perceived their health or diet to be very poor. While the majority of Canadians believed food and nutrition to be very important for improving one’s health, fewer Canadians were concerned about their own diets. The majority of Canadians reported difficulty finding “healthy” processed foods (low in salt and sugar and with sufficient vitamins and minerals). Many also reported difficulty finding healthy foods that are affordable. Conclusion Although consumers believe that nutrition is one of the most important factors for maintaining health, there are still a number of attitudinal and perceived environmental barriers to healthy eating. PMID:24465832

  8. The Self-Reported Clinical Practice Behaviors of Australian Optometrists as Related to Smoking, Diet and Nutritional Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. Results A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to enquire about patients’ smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05). Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2%) and dry eye disease (63.9%). The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners’ nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there are no clear predictors of practitioner behavior across the three domains. Overall, this study suggests that there is scope for Australian optometrists to improve their routine engagement by questioning patients, as well as providing evidence-based clinical advice, about smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement behaviors, being key modifiable lifestyle risk factors with long-term implications for eye health. PMID:25886641

  9. Endocrine-nutrition interactions in birds.

    PubMed

    Scanes, C G; Griminger, P

    1990-01-01

    This review will discuss the uses of avian models, particularly the chicken, to examine nutrition-endocrine interactions. The chicken has been employed extensively to examine nutritional effects. The effects of fasting, protein deficiency and calcium deficiency on endocrine status have been the subject of intense investigation in young chicks and adult female chickens. The ratio of circulating concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) is substantially changed by fasting or protein deficiency. Similarly, protein deficiency reduces circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) while protein deficiency increases growth hormone (GH). Moreover, protein deficiency increases the sensitivity and responsiveness of adrenocortical cells. The chicken also as advantages for studying diabetes, endocrine pancreatic functioning due to the splenic lobe of the pancreas being predominantly endocrine in nature, and the cellular mechanism of GH on chicken adipose tissue. The adult female chicken with its high calcium requirement is a unique system for examining nutritional effects on reproduction. PMID:1974808

  10. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar

    2013-03-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet. PMID:23273468

  11. Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    2001-01-01

    The rapid shift in the stage of nutrition towards a pattern of degenerative disease is accelerating in the developing world. Data from China, as shown by the China Health and Nutrition Survey, between 1989 and 1993, are illustrative of these shifts. For example, an increase from 22.8 to 66.6% in the proportion of adults consuming a higher-fat diet, rapid shifts in the structure of diet as income changes, and important price relationships are examples that are presented. There appears to reflect a basic shift in eating preferences, induced mainly by shifts in income, prices and food availability, but also by the modern food industry and the mass media. Furthermore, the remarkable shift in the occupations structure in lower-income countries from agricultural labour towards employment in manufacturing and services implies a reduction in energy expenditure. One consequence of the nutrition transition has been a decline in undernutrition accompanied by a rapid increase in obesity. There are marked differences between urban and rural eating patterns, particularly regarding the consumption of food prepared away from home. Other issues considered are the fetal origins hypothesis, whereby the metabolic efficiencies that served well in conditions of fetal undernutrition become maladaptive with overnutrition, leading to the development of abnormal lipid profiles, altered glucose and insulin metabolism and obesity. Furthermore, obesity and activity are closely linked with adult-onset diabetes. The shift towards a diet higher in fat and meat and lower in carbohydrates and fibre, together with the shift towards less onerous physical activity, carries unwanted nutritional and health effects. It is also clear that the causes of obesity must be viewed as environmental rather than personal or genetic. PMID:11708577

  12. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

  13. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  14. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  15. The Competencies in Nutrition Essential for Comprehensive Nursing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trooboff, Rebecca C.

    Faculty of nursing education programs within the Georgia university system were surveyed to ascertain their opinions about the nutrition competencies that they consider essential for comprehensive nursing practice and the level of nursing education program(s) to which these competencies are best suited. The survey instrument, 56 competency…

  16. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional

  17. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  18. Online Nutrition Education: Enhancing Opportunities for Limited-Resource Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patty; Cluskey, Mary; Hino, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Delivering nutrition education using the Internet could allow educators to reach larger audiences at lower cost. Low-income adults living in a rural community participated in focus groups to examine their interest in, experience with, and motivators to accessing nutrition education online. This audience described limited motivation in seeking…

  19. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition

  20. The Relationship Between State Policies for Competitive Foods and School Nutrition Practices in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Emily O’Malley; Galic, Mara; Brener, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most students in grades kindergarten through 12 have access to foods and beverages during the school day outside the federal school meal programs, which are called competitive foods. At the time of this study, competitive foods were subject to minimal federal nutrition standards, but states could implement additional standards. Our analysis examined the association between school nutrition practices and alignment of state policies with Institute of Medicine recommendations (IOM Standards). Methods For this analysis we used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) report, Competitive Foods and Beverages in US Schools: A State Policy Analysis and CDC’s 2010 School Health Profiles (Profiles) survey to examine descriptive associations between state policies for competitive foods and school nutrition practices. Results Access to chocolate candy, soda pop, sports drinks, and caffeinated foods or beverages was lower in schools in states with policies more closely aligned with IOM Standards. No association was found for access to fruits or nonfried vegetables. Conclusion Schools in states with policies more closely aligned with the IOM Standards reported reduced access to less healthful competitive foods. Encouraging more schools to follow these standards will help create healthier school environments and may help promote healthy eating among US children. PMID:24762530

  1. RE-EXAMINING HIGH ABUNDANCE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MASS-METALLICITY OUTLIERS: HIGH N/O, EVOLVED WOLF-RAYET GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marble, Andrew R., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of four dwarf galaxies representative of a larger sample observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and identified by Peeples et al. as low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity relation. Peeples showed that these four objects (with metallicity estimates of 8.5 {<=} 12 + log(O/H) {<=} 8.8) have oxygen abundance offsets of 0.4-0.6 dex from the M{sub B} luminosity-metallicity relation. Our new observations extend the wavelength coverage to include the [O II] {lambda}{lambda}3726, 3729 doublet, which adds leverage in oxygen abundance estimates and allows measurements of N/O ratios. All four spectra are low excitation, with relatively high N/O ratios (N/O {approx}> 0.10), each of which tend to bias estimates based on strong emission lines toward high oxygen abundances. These spectra all fall in a regime where the 'standard' strong-line methods for metallicity determinations are not well calibrated either empirically or by photoionization modeling. By comparing our spectra directly to photoionization models, we estimate oxygen abundances in the range of 7.9 {<=} 12 + log (O/H) {<=} 8.4, consistent with the scatter of the mass-metallicity relation. We discuss the physical nature of these galaxies that leads to their unusual spectra (and previous classification as outliers), finding their low excitation, elevated N/O, and strong Balmer absorption are consistent with the properties expected from galaxies evolving past the 'Wolf-Rayet galaxy' phase. We compare our results to the 'main' sample of Peeples and conclude that they are outliers primarily due to enrichment of nitrogen relative to oxygen and not due to unusually high oxygen abundances for their masses or luminosities.

  2. Re-examining High Abundance Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mass-Metallicity Outliers: High N/O, Evolved Wolf-Rayet Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Marble, Andrew R.

    2011-09-01

    We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of four dwarf galaxies representative of a larger sample observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and identified by Peeples et al. as low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity relation. Peeples showed that these four objects (with metallicity estimates of 8.5 <= 12 + log(O/H) <= 8.8) have oxygen abundance offsets of 0.4-0.6 dex from the MB luminosity-metallicity relation. Our new observations extend the wavelength coverage to include the [O II] ??3726, 3729 doublet, which adds leverage in oxygen abundance estimates and allows measurements of N/O ratios. All four spectra are low excitation, with relatively high N/O ratios (N/O >~ 0.10), each of which tend to bias estimates based on strong emission lines toward high oxygen abundances. These spectra all fall in a regime where the "standard" strong-line methods for metallicity determinations are not well calibrated either empirically or by photoionization modeling. By comparing our spectra directly to photoionization models, we estimate oxygen abundances in the range of 7.9 <= 12 + log (O/H) <= 8.4, consistent with the scatter of the mass-metallicity relation. We discuss the physical nature of these galaxies that leads to their unusual spectra (and previous classification as outliers), finding their low excitation, elevated N/O, and strong Balmer absorption are consistent with the properties expected from galaxies evolving past the "Wolf-Rayet galaxy" phase. We compare our results to the "main" sample of Peeples and conclude that they are outliers primarily due to enrichment of nitrogen relative to oxygen and not due to unusually high oxygen abundances for their masses or luminosities.

  3. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  4. Online Examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophal Chao; Yenumula B. Reddy

    2008-01-01

    While there is an enormous amount of material to study, the usage of internet technology is increasingly shielding the need for textbooks. Currently, students spend lot of money for textbooks, while study material is available on the internet. This internet-based examination system is flexible for teachers to set and control the student examinations. There are many features like information sharing

  5. Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

  6. Influences of Constructivist-Oriented Nutrition Education on Urban Middle School Students' Nutrition Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…

  7. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318

  8. Toward a National Nutrition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1972-01-01

    Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)

  9. Creation of a regional medical-nutrition education network.

    PubMed

    Feldman, E B; Borum, P R; DiGirolamo, M; Feldman, D S; Greene, J M; Leonard, S B; Morgan, S L; Moinuddin, J F; Read, M S; Weinsier, R L

    1989-01-01

    The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SER-MEN) was developed to coordinate and improve nutrition education in a consortium of the medical schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. SERMEN's central office is at the Medical College of Georgia with the testing office at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Students, faculty, and consultants in nutrition, education, and computer networking work together on projects on each campus that are coordinated and planned through semiannual meetings. A standardized examination was developed with the Nutrition Test-Item Bank to assess nutrition knowledge at various years of medical students from network schools. Each SERMEN school is connected to a microcomputer system at the central office that provides access to a data base of nutrition education and resources on each campus for developing curricula and syllabi. Funding has been provided by societies, foundations, and government agencies. PMID:2911995

  10. Down syndrome and epilepsy: a nutritional connection?

    PubMed

    Thiel, R J; Fowkes, S W

    2004-01-01

    Non-Asian individuals with Down syndrome are much more likely to develop epileptic seizure disorders than individuals without Down syndrome. Examination of nutrient and metabolite levels in patients with these two seemingly disparate disorders reveals numerous similarities. Compared to individuals without these disorders, individuals with Down syndrome and individuals with seizures may have lower levels of vitamin A, vitamin B1, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc, carnitine, carnosine, choline, and possibly serine. Excesses of copper, cysteine, phenylalanine, and superoxide dismutase are also sometimes encountered in both disorders. In addition to common nutritional lower levels and excesses, disorders of metabolism involving vitamin B6, vitamin D, calcium, and tryptophan may play a common role. This paper hypothesizes that nutritional factors may account for the high joint occurrence of these conditions. Further examination of these data may provide insights into nutritional, metabolic and pharmacological treatments for both conditions. PMID:14729002

  11. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  12. Infant mortality and child nutrition in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Diane; Rammohan, Anu; Smith, Murray D

    2008-09-01

    The excess female infant mortality observed in South Asia has typically been attributed to gender discrimination in the intra-household allocation of food and medical care. However, studies on child nutrition find no evidence of gender differences. A natural explanation could be that in environments of high infant mortality of females, the surviving children are healthier, so that child nutrition cannot be studied independently of mortality. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey to investigate if there are any gender differences in survival probabilities and whether this leads to differences in child nutrition. We argue the importance of establishing whether or not there exists a dependence relationship between the two random variables--infant mortality and child nutrition--and in order to detect this we employ a copula approach to model specification. The results suggest, for example, that while male children have a significantly lower likelihood of surviving their first year relative to female children, should they survive they have significantly better height-for-age Z-scores. From a policy perspective, household wealth and public health interventions such as vaccinations are found to be important predictors of better nutritional outcomes. PMID:18636430

  13. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  14. Nutrition and bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and bladder cancer is reviewed. A role of diet and nutrition in bladder carcinogenisis is plausible since most substances or metabolites, including carcinogens, are excreted through the urinary tract. Ecologic studies on populations have found positive correlations between fats and oils and bladder cancer, but these are reflected only partly in the international

  15. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  16. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  17. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin H. Williams

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on

  18. The principles and strategic steps of a simple nutrition message.

    PubMed

    Jalil, F

    1991-01-01

    High prevalences of protein-energy malnutrition, anemia, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies have persisted since their identification by the National Nutrition Survey of Pakistan, 1966. While diarrhoea can be managed with oral rehydration therapy and iodine deficiency prevented with iodinization of salts, no simple tool for management of malnutrition is available. Strategies vary. In Pakistan, where the literacy rate is low but food grains are sufficient, precise and correct messages about nutrition education can potentially reduce the problem. PMID:1957621

  19. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  20. [Digestive system diseases and style of nutrition among secondary school students].

    PubMed

    Chemperek, E; Jeleniewski, M

    2001-03-01

    In the paper there was examined 246 pupils from secondary school. The auditorial survey including 23 questions was drawn up. The questions referred to digestive diseases occurrence among members of family, pupils under the survey, their style of nutrition, financial status of their family. It was interesting how kind of food, keeping regular hours, behaviour during eating is connected with frequency of digestive disease occurrence. 14.5% of pupils suffered from alimentary tract diseases especially constipation and peptic ulcer. A large percentage (46.2%) do not eat regularly, and 85% is in a hurry, doing something else during eating. 39.4% of examined use spices, ketchup, mustard every time, 17.5% do not eat vegetables, fruit at all, 45.9% eat sweets every day. Before leaving for school 45.9% pupils do not even eat breakfast. 69.1% of subjects claimed that stress is a reason of occurence their digestive disorders. In the paper abnormal style of nutrition is more frequent among pupils complaining of digestive system diseases. PMID:11398515

  1. The Nutritional Impact of the Dairy Price Support Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heien, Dale; Wessells, Cathy Roheim

    1988-01-01

    Examined the impact of the dairy price support program and its resulting higher prices on nutrition intake, especially calcium. A demand system emphasizing dairy products was estimated. Concluded that nutrient intake would increase substantially if the program was terminated. (JOW)

  2. Research Links Nutrition to Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauss, Alexander G.

    1985-01-01

    Social and medical research studies are examined that show the dramatic effects of biochemical and nutritional factors on antisocial behavior. They include studies of cobalt levels in hair samples of violent and nonviolent criminals, effects of diet on chronic delinquents, and effects of vitamin/mineral supplements on behaviorally disordered…

  3. Nutrition and Learning: The Breakfast Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Annette; And Others

    A pilot study examined the effects of improved breakfast nutrition on students' academic achievement. Participants were 142 intermediate school children who usually ate breakfast in school. All children were given the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Form 1, Levels A-D, and were ranked according to their total reading scores. The experimental and…

  4. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  5. Food bank users: sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Jacobs Starkey; Harriet V. Kuhnlein; Katherine Gray-Donald

    1998-01-01

    Background: The continued expansion of food assistance programs makes it im- portant to examine the sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional profiles of people relying on this service. The authors undertook such a study in a large urban centre. Methods: A total of 490 food bank users were randomly selected from a stratified random sample of 57 urban food banks in Montreal.

  6. [Total parenteral nutrition in surgery].

    PubMed

    Sirovich, M G; Ruotolo, F; Andrich, R; del Vecchio, T

    1979-09-01

    Following a number of general remarks regarding the metabolic physiopathology of the surgical patient, the indications and biochemical premises for total parenteral nutrition are examined. Stress is also labor, on problems of administration routes and modalities and on the chemico-clinical controls needed to weigh up the technique. Finally, the results of personal experience in the treatment of 16 patients whose prevalent pathology consist of necrotico-haemorrhagic A.P. and its sequelae are reported. The usefulness of the technique is confirmed because it offers interesting results in difficult and often dramatic surgical situations. PMID:117402

  7. Potential nutrition messages in magazines read by college students.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A; Grün, I

    1990-01-01

    Advertisements in magazines read by 12% or more of college students enrolled in an introductory nutrition class were surveyed for hidden food and nutrition messages. Meanings were identified by categories of activities, products, and people. Less than 10% of the ads featuring people fell into food categories. Of these, more were for alcohol and supplements; fewer were for basic or extra-calorie foods. Hidden messages for females could imply beauty through fashion products, beauty aids, and supplements but with a nutrition slimming plan. Males may be receiving a subtle message that food choices do not matter, and that alcohol and supplements are desirable in everyday life. PMID:2264519

  8. Perceptions of nutrition support in pediatric oncology patients and parents.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Belongia, Meghan; Haddigan Mulberry, Mollie; Schulta, Christina; Phillips, Sharon; Simpson, Pippa M; Nugent, Melodee L

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 60% of pediatric oncology patients experience malnutrition during cancer therapy. Initiation of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) are interventions aimed at maintaining and promoting growth. Limited literature addressing perceptions of nutrition support methods exists. To develop effective guidelines on nutrition education, it is important to understand perceptions regarding nutrition support. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe perceptions of pediatric oncology patients and parents regarding the use of EN and PN and identify influencing variables. A convenience sample of pediatric oncology patients and parents were surveyed at a large Midwestern children's hospital. The majority of those surveyed chose PN over EN if they or their child were unable to eat or maintain their nutritional status. Perceptions may be influenced by comfort, ease of nutrition or medication administration, experience, health care team's recommendation, choice, and image. This study provides health care professionals an initial opportunity to understand perceptions of EN and PN, which may provide a foundation for a multi-institutional study and enhance patient and family education. PMID:23380526

  9. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-08-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations. PMID:26066922

  10. Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

  11. HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

  12. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  13. Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2014-11-01

    Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups. PMID:25123100

  14. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  15. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  16. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  17. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ?20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ?50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ?50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population. PMID:25408583

  18. Predicted contribution of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour to the usual folic acid intake for the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-20041-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather C Hamner; Joseph Mulinare; Mary E Cogswell; Alina L Flores; Coleen A Boyle; Christine E Prue; Chia-Yih Wang; Alicia L Carriquiry; Owen Devine

    Background: Folic acid can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) if taken before pregnancy. Compared with other race-ethnicities, Hispanic women have higher rates of NTDs, lower rates of folic acid supplement use, and lower total folic acid intakes. Objective: The objective was to assess potential effects of fortify- ing corn masa flour with folic acid on Mexican

  19. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan-He Yang; Heather K Carter; Joseph Mulinare; RJ Berry; JM Friedman; J David Erickson

    Background: Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Up to 70% of neural tube defects can be prevented by the consumption of folic acid by women before and early during pregnancy. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminefolicacidintakeinwomen of childbearing age in the United States. Design: We analyzed nutrient intake data reported by 1685 non- pregnant women aged 15-49 y

  20. Prospective 10-year evaluation of hypobetalipoproteinemia in a cohort of 772 firefighters and cross-sectional evaluation of hypocholesterolemia in 1,479 men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Glueck; William Kelley; Arun Gupta; Robert N. Fontaine; Ping Wang; Peter S. Gartside

    1997-01-01

    Our specific aim in a 10-year prospective study of 772 Cincinnati firemen (predominantly aged 26 to 46 years) was to determine the prevalence, attributes, and etiology of persistent hypobetalipoproteinemia, defined by entry low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) less than 75 mg\\/dL. A second specific aim was to cross-sectionally assess hypocholesterolemia (defined by total serum cholesterol [TC] < 130 mg\\/dL) in 1,314

  1. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  2. Food sources of linoleic acid (PFA 18:2), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  3. Food sources of EPA and DHA (20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  4. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  5. Food sources of oleic acid (MFA 18:1), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  6. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyang Li; Earl S Ford; James Tsai; Guixiang Zhao; Lina S Balluz; Samuel S Gidding

    2011-01-01

    Background  Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and\\u000a predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not\\u000a well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk\\u000a of death from CVD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed data from 1,122 adults

  7. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  8. Texas camelid health and management survey

    E-print Network

    Jacklitsch, Brenda Louise

    2009-06-02

    A web-based and mail-out survey instrument was created to gather information on camelids in Texas. Information on management, nutrition, diseases, and reproductive problems was collected. The objectives of this research study were: (1) to establish...

  9. Texas camelid health and management survey 

    E-print Network

    Jacklitsch, Brenda Louise

    2009-06-02

    A web-based and mail-out survey instrument was created to gather information on camelids in Texas. Information on management, nutrition, diseases, and reproductive problems was collected. The objectives of this research ...

  10. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  11. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  12. Lower Nutritional Status and Higher Food Insufficiency in Frail Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ellen; Winters-Stone, Kerrie M.; Loprinzi, Paul D.; Tang, Alice M.; Crespo, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of aging. We examine frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status, and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ?60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ?2 and pre-frailty as meeting 1 of the following 4 item criteria: 1) slow walking; 2) muscular weakness; 3) exhaustion, and 4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as “sometimes” or “often” not having enough food to eat. Analyses adjusted for gender, race, age, smoking, education, income, BMI, other comorbid conditions, and complex survey design. Prevalence of frailty was highest among people who were obese (20.8%), followed by overweight (18.4%), normal weight (16.1%), and lowest among people who were underweight (13.8%). Independent of BMI, daily energy intake was lowest in people who were frail, followed by pre-frail, and highest in people who were not frail (mean kJ ± SE: 6648±130, 6966±79, 7280±84, respectively, p<0.01). Energy adjusted macronutrient intakes were similar in people with and without frailty. Frail (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-12.7) and pre-frail (AOR=2.1, 95% CI 0.8-5.8) people were more likely to report being food insufficient than not frail people. Serum albumin, carotenoids, and selenium levels were lower in frail adults than not frail adults. Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve nutritional status and food insufficiency among frail older adults, while not necessarily increasing BMI. PMID:23113895

  13. Household Food Expenditure Patterns, Food Nutrient Consumption and Nutritional Vulnerability in Nigeria: Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Dare

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the patterns of food spending, food nutrient consumption, and nutrient deficiency profiles of households in Nigeria using a cross-sectional nationwide household survey data. Food nutrients were estimated from food expenditure data while the nutrient deficiency profiles were assessed adapting Foster et al. (1984) poverty index. The study established widespread nutritional deficiencies with low-income household cohorts bearing a greater burden of the deficiencies. Protein-protein deficiency appears to be much more prevalent in urban than rural areas. However, the deficiency of micro-nutrients seems to diffuse across urban-rural divides of the country with deficiency of calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C appearing to be more pronounced in rural areas while phosphorous, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin B3 deficiencies seem to be higher in urban settings. Pro-poor income growth strategies and sensitively guided urban-rural food and nutrition interventions are advocated for improved food consumption and nutritional deficiency reduction. PMID:26083997

  14. Enteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papadopoulou; A MacDonald; M D Williams; P J Darbyshire; I W Booth

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric

  15. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  16. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  17. Nutritive Value of Foods.

    E-print Network

    Anoymous,

    1982-01-01

    ] . . . , ..~ . . ~ .. - CONTENTS Page Explanation of the tables .................................................................... 1 Further information ......................................................................... 3 Index...) ............................................. 32 5 Food sources of additional nutrients ................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34 1 (Blank Pale to Origiaal BuUetlot .. , -.t . , . '~ .; * ? '."r NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS Extension Foods...

  18. Nutrition and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Abram

    1975-01-01

    Nutrition as a treatment component for schizophrenia is a novel concept. A brief introduction outlines the need for physicians to become nutritionally minded, since the processing of food has deteriorated its quality. The elements of good nutrition are described. There are several etiologies for the schizophrenia syndrome. It is suggested that these include Vitamin B-3 and B-6 dependency, mineral deficiency, particularly zinc, and cerebral reactions (termed allergy). The treatment based upon these ideas includes good nutrition (junk-free diet), megadoses of some vitamins, minerals, attention to certain foods which produce psychosis in a few; all in a judicious combination with standard psychiatric therapy. Such a program will improve the recovery rate over standard therapy alone. PMID:20469184

  19. FAO: Food and Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.

  20. Nutrition 9-12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

  1. US Nutrition Assistance Programs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hunger and food insecurity in seniors while promoting socialization, health, well-being and delayed adverse health conditions. ... and Nutrition Information Center. Access curricula, lesson plans, research, participant materials, and professional development tools specifically for ...

  2. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...

  3. Nutrition in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

    2004-11-01

    It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

  4. National nutrition supplementation programmes.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Chaturvedi, S; Nayar, D

    1992-12-01

    Currently major nutrition supplementation programs in India are: 1) Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS); 2) Mid-day meal Programs (MDM); 3) Special Nutrition Programs (SNP); 4) Wheat Based Nutrition Programs (WNP); 5) Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP); 6) Balwadi Nutrition Programs (BNP); 7) National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Program (NNAPP); 8) National Program for Prevention of Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency; and 9) National Goiter Control Program (NGCP). The history of the respective programs, their beneficiaries, objectives, activities, organization, and evaluation are detailed. The ICDS beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and women aged 15-44 years, who are provided the following: supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-ups; referral services; treatment of minor illnesses; pre-school education to children aged 3-6 years. The MDM program's intended beneficiaries are children attending the primary school. Children belonging to backward classes, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe families are given priority. The SNP is to provide supplementary nutrition and health care services including supply of vitamin A solution and iron and folic acid tablets to pre-school children, and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor groups in urban slums and tribal areas. The ANP strives to make people conscious of their nutritional needs and to provide supplementary nutrition to children aged between 3-6 years and to pregnant and lactating mothers. The beneficiaries of the WNP scheme are children of pre-school age and nursing and expectant mothers in areas with high infant mortality such as urban slums and backward rural areas. The program of BNP aims to supply about one-third of the calorie and half of the protein requirements of pre-school children between the age of 3-5 years to improve the nutritional status. The NNAPP scheme beneficiaries are children in the 1-5 age group and pregnant and nursing mothers, female acceptors of terminal methods of family planning and IUDs. The NGCP aims to supply iodized salt to the entire country by 1992. PMID:1291517

  5. Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life. PMID:19854605

  6. Genomics: food and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M A; Mutch, D M; German, J B

    2001-10-01

    Nutrition is traditionally a multidisciplinary field applying principles of molecular biochemistry and statistical epidemiology to integrative metabolism and population health. Genomics, with its global perspective, is now reinventing the future of human metabolic health. Creative experimental designs are addressing metabolic questions in nutrition ranging from energy regulation to aging, and from mechanisms of absorption to the interspecies molecular crosstalk of bacteria and human cells within the intestine. PMID:11604331

  7. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

  8. Ward nutrition coordinators to improve patient nutrition in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jackie

    It is important that patients receive adequate nutrition while in hospital. Reports and research over the past 10 years have highlighted the problems in the NHS of managing the nutritional needs of patients (King's Fund, 1992; McWhirter and Pennington, 1994; Edington et al, 2000). This article describes a successful pilot study addressing nutrition at the ward level. It resulted from a multidisciplinary team forming to share their specific nutritional concerns; through creative thinking they devised a new role of nutrition coordinator. In the study a healthcare assistant was used from the existing ward establishment and given one-week intensive multidisciplinary induction before commencing the role in the wards. The main focus of the role was to facilitate, rather than undertake, the nutritional care of patients throughout their stay. Following a 6-month trial, the role demonstrated a significant impact on nutritional screening, nutritional service, patients' perceptions of their nutritional care, and staff satisfaction. PMID:14581841

  9. SURVEY GUIDE SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Vadim

    SURVEY GUIDE 1 SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS A GUIDE TO DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SURVEYS #12;S U R V E Y GU I D E OFFICE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS This guide describes in non-technical terms the underlying principles of good survey design and implementation. Clear, simple explanations lead the reader

  10. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  11. Temporal Trends in the Use of Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M.; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend enteral over parenteral nutrition in critical illness and do not recommend early initiation. Few data are available on parenteral nutrition use or timing of initiation in the ICU or how this use may have changed over time. Methods: We used the Project IMPACT database to evaluate temporal trends in parenteral nutrition use (total and partial parenteral nutrition and lipid supplementation) and timing of initiation in adult ICU admissions from 2001 to 2008. We used ?2 tests and analysis of variance to examine characteristics of patients receiving parenteral nutrition and multilevel multivariate logistic regression models to assess parenteral nutrition use over time, in all patients and in specific subgroups. Results: Of 337,442 patients, 20,913 (6.2%) received parenteral nutrition. Adjusting for patient characteristics, the use of parenteral nutrition decreased modestly over time (adjusted probability, 7.2% in 2001-2002 vs 5.5% in 2007-2008, P < .001). Enteral nutrition use increased simultaneously (adjusted probability, 11.5% in 2001-2002 vs 15.3% in 2007-2008, P < .001). Use of parenteral nutrition declined most rapidly in emergent surgical patients, patients with moderate illness severity, patients in the surgical ICU, and patients admitted to an academic facility (P ? .01 for all interactions with year). When used, parenteral nutrition was initiated a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), after ICU admission and > 90% of patients had parenteral nutrition initiated within 7 days; timing of initiation of parenteral nutrition did not change from 2001 to 2008. Conclusions: Use of parenteral nutrition in US ICUs declined from 2001 through 2008 in all patients and in all examined subgroups, with the majority of parenteral nutrition initiated within the first 7 days in ICU; enteral nutrition use coincidently increased over the same time period. PMID:24233390

  12. A nutritional dilemma: fish consumption, mercury exposure and growth of children in Amazonian Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Benefice; Selma J. Luna Monrroy; Ronald W. Lopez Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    To study associations between nutritional status and mercury exposure among communities of the Beni River. Cross-sectional survey of mothers and their children from 15 riverside Amerindian communities in the Beni River valley (Amazonian Bolivia). Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. A total of 556 people were measured. Anthropometric indices of nutrition were calculated after measurements

  13. Preliminary Report on Dietitians’ Views and Confidence Related to Nutrition Care for Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy D. Ozier; Beverly W. Henry

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that nutrition professionals have gaps in knowledge and skills related to prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating, thus inhibiting effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore registered dietitians’ (RDs’) views and confidence levels regarding nutrition care across the spectrum of eating disorders. An online survey management tool was used to collect data

  14. Participant-Centered Education: Building a New WIC Nutrition Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deehy, Karen; Hoger, Fatima S.; Kallio, Jan; Klumpyan, Kay; Samoa, Siniva; Sell, Karen; Yee, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the readiness of the Western Region Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) states to implement participant-centered nutrition education (PCE) and to develop a PCE model for WIC service delivery. Design: Formative research including on-line survey, qualitative in-depth interviews, focus…

  15. Nutrition Attitudes and Health Practices of Patrons of the Dining Services at East Carolina University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Hartung

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the gender differences regarding nutrition attitudes and health practices in the college environment. The sample consisted of a combination of 1001 university students, faculty, and staff who eat at East Carolina University dining facilities. Females comprised 53% of the respondents, while males constituted 47%. Participants were given a thirty-three-item survey regarding nutrition

  16. Nutritional Care in a Nursing Home in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Neri, Barbara; De Chiara, Stefania; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a clinical condition due to the imbalance among needs, intake and use of nutrients, leading to the increase of morbidity and mortality, and to the impairment of quality of life. Even in industrialized countries undernutrition is becoming an alarming phenomenon, especially involving elderly institutionalized subjects. A multicentric study called PIMAI (Project Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy), was carried out in Italy over 2005. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals and in nursing care homes (NH), to assess the level of nutritional attention and to measure the perceived quality in food and nutritional care. This paper represents a preliminary analysis of data collected in a NH included in the PIMAI project. Materials and methods A total of 100 subjects (29 males and 71 females, aged 80.2±10 years), were recruited from January to June 2005 at the Clinical Rehabilitation Institute “Villa delle Querce” in Nemi (Rome), among patients in the NH facility. All the participants underwent a multidimensional geriatric evaluation (considering nutritional, clinical, functional and cognitive parameters), and a survey on “perceived quality” of nutritional care. Results and discussion According to nutritional status defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment®, data analysis showed a high prevalence of malnutrition (36%) especially related to advanced age, chewing, cognitive and functional impairments. Patients seemed to consider nutrition to be important for their health; on the other hand, they were not thoroughly satisfied with the quality of food. Particularly, it was observed scarce attention to nutritional status from medical and nursing staff. Conclusions Our study confirms the need to pay greater attention to nutritional status in elderly institutionalized subjects. Medical and nursing teams need to be aware of the importance to perform an evaluation of nutritional status in these subset of subjects. PMID:23405217

  17. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ?18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country’s stage in the nutrition transition increased one’s odds of having an obese BMI score (?30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one’s weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results The sample (n?=?149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ?30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants’ lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin’s nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ?30 kg/m2 (OR?=?0.97 p?nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants’ perception of their weight as above normal (OR?=?1.06, p?nutrition transition score had a stronger effect on females than males. Conclusion These results suggest that country of origin’s nutrition transition score and gender affect Latino immigrants’ objective and subjective measures of weight. Future investigation should investigate the relationship between gender and the nutrition transition in Latin America and how the nutrition transition globalizes obesity and weight consciousness. PMID:25001844

  18. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  19. 76 FR 79646 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Request-Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...be sent to: Steven Carlson, Office of Research and Analysis, Food and Nutrition Service/USDA, 3101 Park Center...survey with SNAP participants who purchase food in a catchment area around a nationally representative sample of...

  20. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051

  1. Clinical trials in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Hsu-Hage, B H; Lukito, W

    1999-09-01

    Trials of nutritional intervention in a wide range of health and disease states, preventive and therapeutic, are required. Not only has the emergence of chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) with acknowledged nutritional pathogenesis created this imperative need, but so also have other conditions which, previously, had not been regarded as nutritionally based. Among the latter are health problems associated with ageing: the menopause, a decline in immune function, and a decline in cognitive function. At the same time, there is a new set of materno-foetal and infant nutrition issues for investigation which relate to new food exposures and the long-term effects of nutritionally mediated gene expression. The emergence of the new food science of phytochemicals with human biological importance also sets the scene for their evaluation in traditional diets and novel foods. Such trials are more complex than comparable pharmacotherapeutic studies because of the complexity of food chemistry, as well as the food behavioural changes which may accompany a nutritional intervention, and the general problem of there not being a 'gold standard' for food intake methodology. Choice of study population is also a key issue in relation to the extrapolation of findings from a particular trial, with population representativeness being an advantage. In order to obtain useful information on manageable sample sizes, either intermediate end-points (short of morbidity and mortality) need to be studied or high-risk groups (such as the aged) need to be recruited. There are some unique ethical issues which must inform clinical nutrition trials. These include certain preventive imperatives like the right to be fed, the risks in disruption of food cultures and the need for food security and sustainability. Rapid changes in the food supply do, however, make such trials more important, while the value of food-health knowledge that cannot be obtained by trial must still be appreciated. PMID:24394168

  2. National, regional, and global trends in body mass index since 1980: Systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Mariel M; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cowan, Melanie; Danaei, Goodarz; Lin, John K; Paciorek, Christopher J; Singh, Gitanjali M; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Lu, Yuan; Bahalim, Adil N; Farzadfar, Farshad; Riley, Leanne M; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Rising body weight is a major public health concern. However there have been few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body mass index (BMI), and none that have used recent national health examination surveys. Methods We estimated trends in mean in BMI and their uncertainties for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. For each sex, we used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate BMI by age, country, and year, accounting for whether a given study was nationally representative. Findings Between 1980 and 2008, global mean BMI increased at an annualized rate of 0.4 (95% uncertainty interval 0.2, 0.6, posterior probability (PP) of being a true increase > 0.999) kg/m2/decade for men and 0.5 (0.3–0.7, PP > 0.999) for women. National BMI change for women ranged from non-significant declines in 19 countries to rising over 2.5 (PP > 0.999) kg/m2/decade in Tonga and Cook Islands. There was an increase in male BMI in all but a few countries, reaching over 2 kg/m2/decade in Nauru and Cook Islands, PP > 0.999. Male and female BMIs in 2008 were highest in some Oceania countries, reaching 33.9 (32.8, 35.0) kg/m2 (men) and 35.0 (33.6, 36.3) (women) in Nauru. Female BMI was lowest in Bangladesh (20.5; 19.8, 21.3) kg/m2 and male BMI in Democratic Republic of the Congo 19.9 (18.2, 21.5), with BMI also below 21.5 kg/m2 for both sexes in a few countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and East, South, and Southeast Asia. USA had the highest BMI among high-income countries, followed by New Zealand. In 2008, an estimated 1.47 billion adults worldwide had BMI ? 25 kg/m2; of these 205 (193, 217) million men and 297 (280, 315) million women were obese. Interpretation Globally, mean BMI increased since 1980. The trends since 1980, and mean population BMI in 2008, varied substantially across nations. Interventions and policies that can curb or reverse the increase, and mitigate the health effects of high BMI by targeting its metabolic mediators, are needed in most countries. PMID:21295846

  3. Comparison of Effects of Total Enteral versus Total Parenteral Nutrition on Ischemia\\/Reperfusion-Induced Heart Injury in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hagiwara; H. Iwasaka; C. Shingu; T. Noguchi

    2008-01-01

    Background: The long-term effect of nutrition on cardiac function remains to be elucidated. One possible link is the newly discovered gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to be cardioprotective. Aim: The present study examined whether total enteral nutrition (TEN) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) differ in their modulation of ghrelin production and their effects on cardiac function after ischemia\\/reperfusion

  4. Understanding the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    1996-09-01

    This article presents an overview of nutrition transition and experiences in China and Russia with monitoring of economic and health changes. Fogel (1994) showed that improvements in nutrition were associated with significant shifts in economic productivity. Over the past 300 years, the pace of dietary change has increased to some extent worldwide. Dietary changes are evident in changes in average stature and body composition and parallel major changes in health status. The nutrition transition follows the pattern of collecting food, famine, receding famine, degenerative disease, and behavioral change. The author's first proposition is that nutritional trends and dietary change are associated with population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution. Urban population has a distinctly different diet from rural population. Urban diets include superior grains, more milled and polished grains, higher fat content, more animal products, more sugar, and more prepared and processed food. Urban and rural diets are farther apart in low-income countries. The author's second proposition is that diet and activity are affected by income, patterns of work, and socioeconomic changes. Women's role changes affect household food preparation. Income allows for the purchase of goods or services that affect diet. Income increases are related to greater expenditures on food. The third proposition is that diet changes are associated with changes in knowledge and access to mass media. The last proposition is that interaction between epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic changes determines the nature and pace of nutrition transition. PMID:12178476

  5. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge among musical theatre students.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Karin; Endres, Eva; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David; Wanke, Eileen; Mache, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Eating is a central part in human (social) life. Athletic performance and physical attractiveness are linked to appropriate nutritional behavior, especially for performing artists. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge have not been examined in musical theatre students so far, which this study aims to analyze. We administered a cross-sectional questionnaire study to 37 musical theatre students. Results for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) showed non-pathological values for 92% of all participants, but 81% of participants answered correctly on only 30-59% of questions on the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Our study results reveal the need for specific nutritional knowledge transfer programs for this target group. PMID:23462900

  6. NATIONAL SURVEY OF MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1991 National Survey of Men was conducted to examine issues related to sexual behavior and condom use among U.S. men aged 20 to 39. Data collection and processing took place between March 1991 and January 1992. This survey was intended to serve as a baseline survey for a long...

  7. Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry

  8. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  9. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  10. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  11. [Nutritional support for patients].

    PubMed

    Corbee, Ronald Jan; van Kerkhoven, Wim

    2012-06-01

    A good intake of fluids and essential nutrients in the first fourteen days is of vital importance to recuperating animals. Moreover, it is important to encourage cats and dogs to eat after illness or surgery, in order to promote optimal functioning of the gut and the immune system. Enteral nutrition is to be preferred to nasogastric feeding or parenteral nutrition. In the first stage of recovery, during the first 24 to 48 hours, it is important to feed the gut' with nutrients, and thereafter, in the second stage of recovery (after day 3), the calorie intake can be increased. Timely nutritional support with nutraceuticals, such as arginine, glutamine, taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotic fibres, can considerably shorten the recovery period of cats and dogs after illness or surgery PMID:22734193

  12. Nutrition in conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Egal, Florence

    2006-08-01

    High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar. PMID:16923242

  13. Nutritional Adequacy of Self–Selected Low–Fat Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. KRUMMEL; X. LIU

    1999-01-01

    To identify areas for nutrition interventions, nutrient intakes were examined in a cross-sectional sample of West Virginians. A random sample of adults (N=788, ages 18–74) completed one 24-hour recall over the telephone. Trained interviewers, using the University of Minnesota Nutrition Data System (vs.2.9), conducted the recalls. Forty-two percent of the sample had consumed a lower fat diet (?30% of Calories)

  14. Home parenteral nutrition: a multi-professional approach.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Adam

    2015-07-01

    This article explores the complexities of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and how it has developed as a home therapy. It examines the various indications and treatment options, discussing access and the associated complications. The relationship between the multiprofessional team is paramount to the success of the therapy. Working in partnership with home-care providers is also discussed. It gives an overview of patients receiving parenteral nutrition at home and the impact it has on their lives. PMID:26087204

  15. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... or the flu. With the right balance of nutrition, extra fat and calories , and prescribed supplements, though, ...

  16. On consumers’ willingness to purchase nutritionally enhanced genetically modified food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Canavari; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses consumers' willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food products with two different types of benefits: an input (i.e., reduced pesticides) and an output trait benefit (i.e., nutritionally enhanced). Data were collected using a telephone survey of an Italian households sample. Discrete choice approach is used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Four separate probit models

  17. COMMUNITY READINESS FOR NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To present findings from an assessing of community readiness for nutrition and physical activities in three rural Delta communities. Methods: The Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Survey, an instrument that translates qualitative interviews into six dimensions of readiness, was adapted for ...

  18. Clinical avian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. PMID:25155663

  19. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  20. Plant nutrition 1: membrane transport and energetics, potassium nutrition, and sodium toxicity.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    In this first of three lessons spanning the topic of Plant Nutrition, we examine primarily the energetics and mechanisms of nutrient uptake and transport. These processes are particularly well illustrated by an examination of the essential nutrient potassium (K), and the closely related element sodium (Na). We also examine the challenges associated with providing plants with sufficient K to support vigorous growth, and the detrimental effects of sodium accumulation in soils. Finally, we examine efforts to improve the salinity tolerance of crop plants. PMID:25352152