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1

THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES III)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94, was conducted on a nationwide probability sample of approximately 33,994 persons 2 months and over. The survey was designed to obtain nationally representative information on the health and nutritio...

2

SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)  

EPA Science Inventory

The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

3

76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2011-11-23

4

77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control...Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its...

2012-06-11

5

HANDBOOK FOR USE OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEYS (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has been sponsoring National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) since 1971. There have been four completed surveys, with the last one (NHANES-III) being conducted from 1988-1994, and involving over 40,000 subjects. ...

6

Serum creatinine levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the distribution of serum creatinine levels by sex, age, and ethnic group in a representative sample of the US population. Serum creatinine level was evaluated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 18,723 participants aged 12 years and older who were examined between 1988 and 1994. Differences in mean serum creatinine levels

CA Jones; GM McQuillan; JW Kusek; Eberhardt; WH Herman; J Coresh; M Salive; LY Agodoa

1998-01-01

7

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

8

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

9

Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

2014-01-01

10

Healthy Diets, Healthy Hearing: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002  

PubMed Central

Objective A significant relationship between dietary nutrient intake and susceptibility to acquired hearing loss is emerging. Variability in the outcomes across studies is likely related to differences in the specific metrics used to quantify nutrient intake and hearing status. Most studies have used single nutrient analysis. Although this analysis is valuable, interactions between nutrients are increasingly recognized and could modify modeling of single nutrient effects. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between diet and hearing using a metric of overall dietary quality. Design This cross-sectional analysis was based on Healthy Eating Index data and audiological thresholds. Study sample Data for adults between the ages of 20 to 69 years of age were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Results Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, diabetes, and noise exposure, we found a significant negative relationship (Wald F = 6.54, df = 4, 29; p ? 0.05) between dietary quality and thresholds at higher frequencies, where higher dietary quality was associated with lower hearing thresholds. There was no statistically significant relationship between dietary quality and threshold sensitivity at lower frequencies. Conclusions The current findings support an association between healthier eating and lower high frequency thresholds in adults. PMID:23594420

Spankovich, C.; Le Prell, C.G.

2014-01-01

11

Correlates of serum lutein + zeaxanthin: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

The determinants of blood levels of carotenoids were previously investigated in small or select samples. The relations of serum lutein + zeaxanthin to possible diet, lifestyle, and physiological determinants in 7059 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), > or = 40 y old, were examined. In a fully adjusted, multiple linear regression model, lower serum lutein + zeaxanthin was significantly associated with smoking, heavy drinking, being white, female, or not being physically active, having lower dietary lutein + zeaxanthin, higher fat-free mass, a higher percentage of fat mass, a higher waist-hip ratio, lower serum cholesterol, a higher white blood cell count, and high levels of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). The model explained 24% of the variation present in serum lutein + zeaxanthin for the current sample. The correlation between dietary and serum lutein + zeaxanthin was 0.17 and increased to 0.18 after adjusting for the effects of given covariates. Each 10% increase in dietary lutein + zeaxanthin was associated with a 1% increase in serum conditional on other terms in the model. Many factors that influence the level of serum lutein + zeaxanthin remain unknown. PMID:15333733

Gruber, Michael; Chappell, Richard; Millen, Amy; LaRowe, Tara; Moeller, Suzen M; Iannaccone, Alessandro; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Mares, Julie

2004-09-01

12

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Results Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001) than men. Among men, current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.62) and past history of cancer (OR, 2.55) were independently related to underweight. Among women, young age (OR, 2.06), former smoking (OR, 1.69), and being unmarried (OR, 1.56) were identified as independently related factors of underweight. In addition, among both men and women, alcohol drinking (men OR, 0.57; women OR, 0.77) and past history of chronic diseases (men OR, 0.55; women OR, 0.43) were independently related to a lower frequency of underweight. Conclusion We showed that various sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women. PMID:24340160

Park, Sung Il; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

2013-01-01

13

Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use in the United States Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The use of supplements remains a wide- spread behavior among people motivated by general health concerns. We analyzed data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to pro- vide new and current information on supplement use in the United States. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplement use in the US population,

Lina S. Balluz; Stephanie M. Kieszak; Rossanne M. Philen; Joseph Mulinare

2000-01-01

14

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

15

Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. Objective To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005–2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES). The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. Results Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67). The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82). Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32) compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. Conclusions Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma. PMID:25393836

Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Myung Hun; Friedman, David; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-01-01

16

Cadmium Exposure and Hypertension in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cadmium induces hypertension in animal models. Epidemiologic studies of cadmium exposure and hypertension, however, have been inconsistent. Objective We aimed to investigate the association of blood and urine cadmium with blood pressure levels and with the prevalence of hypertension in U.S. adults who participated in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied participants ? 20 years of age with determinations of cadmium in blood (n = 10,991) and urine (n = 3,496). Blood and urine cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured using a standardized protocol. Results The geometric means of blood and urine cadmium were 3.77 nmol/L and 2.46 nmol/L, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the average differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure comparing participants in the 90th vs. 10th percentile of the blood cadmium distribution were 1.36 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.28 to 3.00] and 1.68 mmHg (95% CI, 0.57–2.78), respectively. The corresponding differences were 2.35 mmHg and 3.27 mmHg among never smokers, 1.69 mmHg and 1.55 mmHg among former smokers, and 0.02 mmHg and 0.69 mmHg among current smokers. No association was observed for urine cadmium with blood pressure levels, or for blood and urine cadmium with the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions Cadmium levels in blood, but not in urine, were associated with a modest elevation in blood pressure levels. The association was stronger among never smokers, intermediate among former smokers, and small or null among current smokers. Our findings add to the concern of renal and cardiovascular cadmium toxicity at chronic low levels of exposure in the general population. PMID:18197299

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Guallar, Eliseo

2008-01-01

17

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

18

Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.  

PubMed Central

Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

2004-01-01

19

Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ? 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ? 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

2014-01-01

20

Shiftwork and Prostate-Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Results from prior studies have been mixed but generally support an association between circadian disruption and prostate cancer. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between shiftwork and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study. Methods We combined three NHANES surveys (2005–2010) to obtain current work schedule among employed men aged 40 to 65 years with no prior history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer). Men who reported working regular night shifts or rotating shifts were considered shiftworkers. We obtained the total and percentage free PSA test results for these men and dichotomized total PSA into less than 4.0ng/mL or 4.0ng/mL or greater and total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater combined with percentage free PSA less than or equal to 25%. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we compared PSA level among current shiftworkers and nonshiftworkers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found a statistically significant, age-adjusted association between current shiftwork and elevated PSA at the 4.0ng/mL or greater level (odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 5.70; P = .03). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio was 2.62 (95% CI = 1.16 to 5.95; P = .02). The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for those with total PSA of 4.0ng/mL or greater and free PSA less than or equal to 25% was 3.13 (95% CI = 1.38 to 7.09; P = .01). Conclusions We observed a strong positive association with shiftwork and elevated PSA level. Our data support the notion that sleep or circadian disruption is associated with elevated PSA, indicating that shiftworking men likely have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. PMID:23943864

2013-01-01

21

Sarcopenia Exacerbates Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance and Dysglycemia: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.MethodologyWe performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III

Preethi Srikanthan; Andrea L. Hevener; Arun S. Karlamangla; Conrad P. Earnest

2010-01-01

22

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

23

Association between Rice Consumption and Selected Indicators of Dietary and Nutritional Status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25. PMID:25602463

Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

2015-01-01

24

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2009–2011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%–20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%–31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

2014-01-01

25

The associations between smoking and occupational categories: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey from 2008 to 2010.  

PubMed

The implementation of smoke-free policies for workplaces and their impacts have been far from satisfactory. We investigated smoking prevalence in various occupations using data (n = 9283) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2008 to 2010. Young adults who were working in the occupation categories of "service and sales," "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forest workers," and "crafts and machine operation" for men and "service and sales" for women showed 1.8 to 7.1 and 3.7 times higher (P < .05) smoking prevalence compared with the reference (managers and professionals), respectively, and the highest prevalence among the 7 occupational categories that were studied. Drinking and stress level were positively associated with being current smokers. We provide quantitative evidence supporting clinicians and policy makers wishing to establish smoking-cessation programs in workplaces for young adults in South Korea, and evidence supporting the improvement of prevention by the concomitant reduction of risk factors. PMID:23139337

Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Junhyoung

2015-03-01

26

Diet and Airway Obstruction: A Cross Sectional Study from the Second Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Several dietary factors, such as antioxidant vitamins, have potential roles in the development of obstructive lung diseases. However, the results of studies on the relationships between dietary factors and obstructive lung diseases are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine which nutrients are related to airway obstruction (AO) in the Korean population. Methods We used data obtained as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) in 2001. Analysis was restricted to 1,005 adults who were 18 years of age and older, who had two or more acceptable spirometry curves, and who had participated in the nutrition examination survey. AO was defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.7. Results Of the 1,005 study subjects, 78 (7.8%) had AO. Statistically significant factors associated with AO were 55 years of age or older (p = 0.032), central obesity (p = 0.047), hypertension (p < 0.001), smoking of 20 pack-years or more (p < 0.001), low income (p < 0.001), and low dietary protein intake expressed as a ratio of protein to recommended dietary allowance for Koreans (p = 0.037). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed four factors that were independently associated with AO: smoking of 20 pack-years or more (odds ratio [OR], 5.801; p < 0.001), hypertension (OR, 3.905; p < 0.001), low protein intake (OR, 0.992; p = 0.004), and low income (OR, 1.962; p = 0.018). Conclusions In the Korean NHANES, smoking, hypertension, and low income were related to AO. Among dietary factors, only low protein intake was associated with AO. PMID:20526385

Lee, Jin Hwa; Sim, Yun Su; Suh, Gee Young; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Shin, Dong Ho; Koh, Kyung Haeng; Kim, Yeon Jae; Park, Wan; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Man Jae

2010-01-01

27

Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

28

Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. WIC-08-NH  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses the most recently available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) to provide a comprehensive picture of the diets of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant children--the largest segment of the WIC population. The report examines nutrient intakes, diet quality, and food…

Cole, Nancy; Fox, Mary Kay

2008-01-01

29

INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

30

Smoothed Urinary Iodine Percentiles for the US Population and Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Iodine intake is essential for normal growth, development and metabolism throughout life, especially for women during gestation and lactation. The present study applies a novel statistical approach, providing smoothed urinary iodine (UI) percentile curves for the total US population as well as the categories of sex, race/ethnicity, women of childbearing age and pregnant women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to NHANES nutritional biomarker data. Methods We used UI and urinary creatinine that were measured in participants aged 6 and older in the NHANES survey periods 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. A nonparametric double-kernel method was applied to smooth percentile curves for UI and creatinine-corrected results. Results The UI population estimates showed a U-shaped distribution by age for the total US population. Overall, females had lower UI concentrations and median values compared to males (median UI for females, 141.8 µg/l; median UI for males, 176.1 µg/l; p < 0.0001). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest median UI concentrations compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.0001). Among women of childbearing age (15-44 years), UI concentrations mostly declined with increasing age. Pregnant women aged 35 years and older tended to have higher UI concentrations than younger pregnant women at similar percentiles. Conclusions The smoothed reference distribution of UI concentrations provides an improved and visual display of the entire distribution of values for the US population and specific demographic categories. PMID:24783051

Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Li, Yan; Caudill, Samuel P.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Jones, Robert L.

2013-01-01

31

Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ?19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2014-01-01

32

Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).  

PubMed

We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

2014-01-01

33

Temporal Trends in Phthalate Exposures: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate [BBzP; metabolite, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)], di-n-butyl phthalate [DnBP; metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates; however, little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: We examined temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the general U.S. population and whether trends vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11,071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ?DEHP metabolites decreased between 2001–2002 and 2009–2010 [percent change (95% CI): –42% (–49, –34); –17% (–23, –9); –32% (–39, –23) and –37% (–46, –26), respectively]. In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period [percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively]. Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ?DEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults, but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: Exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends, but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Citation: Zota AZ, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. 2014. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect 122:235–241;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306681 PMID:24425099

Calafat, Antonia M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2014-01-01

34

Introduction The National Health and Nutrition Examination  

E-print Network

a changing focus on a variety of health and nutrition measurements to meet emerging needs. The survey, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions. The examination component consists of medical, dental and will have a dental screening. Depending upon the age of the participant, the rest of the examination

Serfling, Robert

35

Diabetes and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms among Korean women. Methods We performed an analysis of data for 6,572 women aged 30 or over obtained from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. We examined the presence of depressive symptoms and the treatment of depression according to diabetes status. Results The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 22.6% of subjects with diabetes. In the multiple logistic regression model, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.21) but the treatment of depression among diabetics was less common (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.55). Uncontrolled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin ? 7%) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.69 to 1.73) among diabetics. Conclusion Physicians should manage individuals with diabetes in consideration of the presence of depressive symptoms, especially in those with uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:24921031

Sung, Han Na; Chae, Hong Seok; Kim, Eung Soo

2014-01-01

36

Low economic status is associated with suboptimal intakes of nutritious foods by adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and compares the social characteristics such as education, marital status and housing and food and nutrient intakes of adults from low-, medium-, and high- income households. There were 2,675 adults, ages 60 yea...

37

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third national health and nutrition examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently developed clinical practice guidelines and calibration of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) serum creatinine assay provide a basis for estimating the prevalence and distribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States using standardized criteria based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and persistent albuminuria. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 15,625

Josef Coresh; Brad C. Astor; Tom Greene; Garabed Eknoyan; Andrew S. Levey

2003-01-01

38

Healthy Eating Index and C-reactive protein concentration: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether diet quality is associated with C-reactive protein concentration.Design: Cross-sectional study using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994).Setting: Representative sample of the US population.Subjects: A total of 13 811 men and women aged ?20 y.Interventions: We examined the cross-sectional associations between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), a measure of diet quality according

E S Ford; A H Mokdad; S Liu

2005-01-01

39

Suicidal Ideation in Underweight Adults Who Attempt to Lose Weight: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We examined suicidal ideation, doctor-diagnosed depression, depressive mood, stress, physical activity, health-related behavior, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status by weight loss attempts. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between suicidal ideation and weight loss attempts. The following covariates were controlled for: age, sex, physical activity, alcohol problem, marital status, education, income, occupation, self-perception of body image, chronic disease, and body mass index. Results There were 101 subjects in the weight loss attempt group and 1,021 in the non-attempt group. The attempt group had a higher risk of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 4.53) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.98). After depressive symptoms were added to the covariates, the risk of suicidal ideation was also significant (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.35). The two groups did not significantly differ in doctor-diagnosed depression and stress. Conclusion Weight loss attempts were associated with suicidal ideation in underweight Korean adults.

Lee, Jungkwon

2015-01-01

40

Iron Status and Reproduction in US Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18–49 were taken from the 1999–2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health. PMID:25375360

Miller, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

41

Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults. PMID:23766884

Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung

2013-01-01

42

High Urinary Tungsten Concentration Is Associated with Stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there has been an exponential increase in tungsten demand, potentially increasing human exposure to the metal. Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the association between tungsten and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke using six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of 8614 adults (18–74 years) with 193 reported stroke diagnoses and 428 reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals (18–50 years). Results Elevated tungsten concentrations were strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of stroke, independent of typical risk factors (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.17, 2.34). The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.53). Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the human health effects of tungsten to date. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress. PMID:24244278

Tyrrell, Jessica; Galloway, Tamara S.; Abo-Zaid, Ghada; Melzer, David; Depledge, Michael H.; Osborne, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

43

Cadmium and Peripheral Arterial Disease: Gender Differences in the 1999–2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in the association of blood and urine cadmium concentrations with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were evaluated by using data from 6,456 US adults aged ?40 years who participated in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial blood pressure index of <0.9 in at least one leg. For men, the adjusted odds ratios for PAD comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles of blood and urine cadmium concentrations were 1.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 4.05) and 4.90 (95% CI: 1.55, 15.54), respectively, with a progressive dose-response relation and no difference by smoking status. For women, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.66, 2.16) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.71), but there was evidence of effect modification by smoking: among women ever smokers, there was a positive, progressive dose-response relation; among women never smokers, there was a U-shaped dose-response relation. Higher blood and urine cadmium levels were associated with increased prevalence of PAD, but women never smokers showed a U-shaped relation with increased prevalence of PAD at very low cadmium levels. These findings add to the concern of increased cadmium exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor in the general population. PMID:20693268

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Guallar, Eliseo

2010-01-01

44

Sleep Duration and Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Short sleep duration has been reported to increase the risk of diabetes. However, the influence of sleep duration on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been clarified. In this study we evaluated the association between sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. Sleep duration was classified into five groups: <6, 6, 7, 8, and ?9 h/day. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c showed a U-shaped trend according to sleep duration. Sleep duration of 7 h/day had the lowest HbA1c (7.26%) among the subjects (P=0.026). In the older age group (?65 yr), a sleep duration of 6 h/day was associated with the lowest HbA1c (7.26%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of worse glycemic control (HbA1c ?7.0%) in group of sleep duration of ?9 h/day was 1.48 (1.04-2.13) compared with the group of 7 h/day. This relationship disappeared after adjusting duration of diabetes (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.93-2.03). Our results suggest that sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients has U-shaped relationship which was mainly affected by duration of diabetes. PMID:24015039

Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Bong Sun; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min Suk; Choi, Yong Jun; Han, Seung Jin; Chung, Yoon-sok; Lee, Kwan-Woo

2013-01-01

45

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight. PMID:24340161

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

46

Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

2014-01-01

47

The Association between Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the relationship between chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in a representative population of Korean diabetic adults. Methods We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). A total of 15,409 individuals (weighted frequency, 32,168,636) aged 19 and over who completed ophthalmologic and renal functional examinations were evaluated. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria greater than 1+. Seven standard photographs from the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study were obtained from each eye after pharmacological pupil dilatation. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was defined as the presence of 1 or more retinal microaneurysms or retinal blot hemorrhages with or without more severe lesions. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) was defined as the presence of a clinically significant macular edema (CSME) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Results CKD was significantly associated with DR and VTDR (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI); 2.49(1.43-4.35) and 3.74(1.56-8.95), respectively) in the diabetic population. After controlling for confounders, however, CKD was significantly associated only with DR [adjusted OR (aOR), 95% CI; 2.34(1.04-5.28)]. In the subgroup analysis for CKD, only proteinuria was significantly associated with DR and VTDR (aOR, 95% CI; 4.56(1.51-13.77) and 5.61(1.06-29.87), respectively) in this population. Conclusions Our results show that CKD appears to be associated with DR and VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. In particular, proteinuria, not decreased eGFR, is more significantly associated with DR or VTDR. PMID:25849364

Park, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jeong Ah; Han, Jae-Hyung; Park, Yong-Moon; Yim, Hyeon Woo

2015-01-01

48

Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (?: -0.07, P<0.01), but there was no relationship among men (?: 0.08, P>0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (?: -0.26, P<0.05), but there was no association between MD and telomere length among those not using antidepressants (?: -0.00, P>0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention. PMID:25178165

Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

2015-04-01

49

Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (? 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

2014-02-01

50

Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (? 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun

2014-01-01

51

Blood pressure in relation to environmental lead exposure in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003 to 2010.  

PubMed

In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 ?g/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 ?g/dL). In multivariable analyses of all participants, blood lead doubling was associated with higher (P?0.0007) systolic and diastolic pressure (+0.76 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.13 and +0.43 mm Hg; 0.18-0.68), but not with the odds of hypertension (0.95; 0.90-1.01; P=0.11). Associations with blood lead were nonsignificant (P?0.09) for systolic pressure in women and for diastolic pressure in non-whites. Among men, systolic pressure increased with blood lead (P?0.060) with effect sizes associated with blood lead doubling ranging from +0.65 mm Hg in whites to +1.61 mm Hg in blacks. For systolic pressure, interactions of ethnicity and sex with blood lead were all significant (P?0.019). In conclusion, small and inconsistent effect sizes in the associations of blood pressure with blood lead likely exclude current environmental lead exposure as a major hypertension cause in the United States. PMID:25287397

Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

2015-01-01

52

The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2010.  

PubMed

Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults. PMID:25185135

Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

2014-11-01

53

Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.  

PubMed

There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

2015-02-01

54

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: The 2001 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korea, a rapidly changing country. Data of 5,132 adults aged 20-85 were used from the 2001 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to identify risk factors for T2D. Three models were specified: (i) socioeconomic and demographic factors (model 1: age, gender, education, poverty income ratio, employment), (ii) behavioral risk factors and covariates (model 2: obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary quality, family history of T2D, co-morbidity) and (iii) socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral factors (model 3). The prevalence of T2D was 7.4%. Less education (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.84), age (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.56-3.08 in 40-59 yrs, OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.76-5.95 in 60 yrs + comparing to 20-39 yrs) and abdominal obesity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.79-2.82) were risk factors for T2D even after controlling for other factors simultaneously. There was a significant association of T2D with ever smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.67). The relationship of age with T2D was modified by gender in model 1 and the relationship of smoking with T2D was modified by obesity in model 2. Less educated, older, obese or ever smokers were more likely to have T2D. Gender mediated the relationship of age, and obesity mediated the relationship of smoking, with T2D. Intervention programs for T2D in Korea should take the interactions among risk factors into account. PMID:20098581

Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

2009-01-01

55

Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male?=?1,994; female?=?1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 ?g/L in men and 3.7 ?g/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

2014-01-01

56

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Physical Activity and Bone Density: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008  

PubMed Central

Introduction Participation in regular physical activity (PA) may help maintain bone health as people age. However, most American adults do not engage in the recommended minimum levels of PA, and there are racial/ethnic differences in PA participation. This study aimed to determine whether current physical activity is related to bone density in a racially/ethnically diverse sample after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, poverty–income ratio, tobacco use, vitamin D and calcium intake, and use of osteoporosis medications. Methods We obtained data on femoral bone mineral density for 2,819 adults aged 40 to 80 years who self-reported their race/ethnicity on the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on PA levels were obtained by self-report. We used linear regression models to examine the association between PA and bone density for each racial/ethnic group. Results A greater percentage of non-Hispanic blacks (60.9%) and Hispanics (53.3%) reported low levels of PA than non-Hispanic whites (45.3%, P < .001). Non-Hispanic blacks (16.3%) and Hispanics (18.5%) had a lower prevalence of osteopenia than non-Hispanic whites (25.5%; P = .01) but were similar in the prevalence of normal and osteoporosis categories when compared with whites. There was a 0.031 g/cm2 difference in bone density between those in the high PA versus the low PA category (P = .003). This association remained (? = 0.027, P < .001) after adjusting for race/ethnicity, sex, body mass index, poverty–income ratio, tobacco use, and use of osteoporosis medications. Conclusion Despite lower levels of activity, blacks and Hispanics were not more likely to have osteoporosis, and high levels of activity were significantly associated with higher bone density even when controlling for race/ethnicity and confounders. The lack of consistency in bone density differences suggests that the cause of the differences maybe multifactorial. PMID:24370111

Shaw, Benjamin A.; Gensburg, Lenore; Okorodudu, Daniel; Corsino, Leonor

2013-01-01

57

Age-Related Association of Refractive Error with Intraocular Pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. Methods A total of 7,277 adults (?19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19–39 years), middle- (40–59 years), and old- (?60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. Results The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0±0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9±0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1±0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8±0.2 mmHg (P for trend?=?0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P<0.05). In the young- and middle-age groups, higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all P<0.05). In the old-age group, the association between IOP and refractive error was not significant (P?=?0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta?=??0.08 and ?0.12; P?=?0.002 and <0.001 for young- and middle-age group, respectively), but not in the old-age group (beta?=?0.03; P?=?0.728), after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, region of habitation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Myopic refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age. PMID:25369147

Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

2014-01-01

58

Hearing Impairment Associated With Depression in US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ?10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1–1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3–2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7–3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1–2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3–11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss. PMID:24604103

Li, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Themann, Christa L.; Wilson, M. Roy

2014-01-01

59

The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioeconomic status as an independent variable, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios reflecting the likelihood of injury according to socioeconomic status while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In 797 subjects who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 290 persons (36.4%) had a work-related injury. As their income, home value, and educational status increased, their injury experiences decreased. Among occupational groups, the craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers showed the highest rate (10.6%) of injury experience, and the lowest rate (5.7%) was found in the unemployed group. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the experience of injury was significantly related to several socioeconomic factors: high income (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86), high home value (OR?=?0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96), low education status (OR?=?1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and specific occupations such as craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling work (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI: 1.60-2.47), skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery work (OR?=?1.43; 95% CI: 1.02-2.01), and simple labor (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82). Conclusions The injury experience rate differed depending on the socioeconomic status. A negative correlation was found between the injury experience rate and income, low home value, and education level. Moreover, a higher rate of injury experience was found in occupation groups and physical worker groups in comparison to the unemployed group and white-collar worker groups. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for injury management in Korea. PMID:24472308

2014-01-01

60

Hepatitis B Vaccination Prevalence and its Predictors Among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccination prevalence and its predictors were estimated among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American,\\u000a and Multiracial (A-PI-NA-M) adults. Using 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, estimates of HBV vaccination\\u000a among A-PI-NA-M adults (N = 233) were compared with all other racial\\/ethnic groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate predictors\\u000a of vaccination. Among A-PI-NA-M adults 42% (95%CI

John W. AyersHee-Soon; Hee-Soon Juon; Sunmin Lee; Eunmi Park

2010-01-01

61

Dietary supplement use pattern of U.S. adult population in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).  

PubMed

Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) suggested that nearly half of U.S. adults aged 20 to 69 reported taking at least one dietary supplement in the past month. Logistic regression showed that the following factors were independently associated with a greater likelihood of supplement use: being female, older, white, having higher level of education, non-SNAP participation, and living in a food-secure household. To compare nutrient intakes between supplement users and non-supplement users, daily intakes of eight nutrients were examined. When considering nutrients from food, supplement users tended to consume greater amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, and iron; meanwhile there was no association between supplement use and daily intakes of vitamin B12 and zinc from food sources only. Including nutrients from daily supplement use, supplement users consumed greater amounts of all eight nutrients. PMID:23282192

Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Houser, Robert F

2013-01-01

62

Innovations in national nutrition surveys.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate. PMID:23336562

Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

2013-02-01

63

Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. However, few studies have attempted to examine the vitamin D status of wage workers and the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the association between occupational conditions and vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers. Methods Wage workers aged 20–65 years from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012; n?=?5409) were included in our analysis. We measured the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identified the correlations with the working conditions of these subjects. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in male and female subjects was 69.5% and 83.1%, respectively. Among the male subjects, a significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions was observed among shift workers, office workers, and permanent workers. No significant correlation with any type of working conditions was observed among female subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers was very high and was found to correlate significantly with working conditions, likely because of insufficient exposure to sunlight associated with certain types of work. Wage workers require more frequent outdoor activity and nutrition management to maintain sufficient vitamin D level.

2014-01-01

64

Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.  

PubMed

Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using ?(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. PMID:24953790

Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

2014-12-01

65

The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

2013-01-01

66

Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ?10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ?65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed. PMID:24550649

Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

2014-02-01

67

Effects of diet modification on meal quality and quality of life in korean diabetic patients: data from Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2007-2011).  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that diet modification provides beneficial effects on the management of diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of diet modification on nutrient intake and quality of life in a large sample of diabetic patients. This study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). A total of 2,484 of diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Then, we compared the overall quality of dietary intake between diabetic patients with diet modification and those without dietary modification. The result showed that subjects on diabetic diet (DDG) showed lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST before and after the adjustment for covariates (all p < 0.05). The results of nutrient assessment showed that DDG had lower intakes of total energy, fat, and carbohydrate (all p < 0.05), but higher intakes of energy from protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin and vitamin C than NDG. (all p < 0.05). In addition, nutritional adequacy ratio of calcium and vitamin B2 were significantly higher in DDG than those in normal diet group (NDG) (p < 0.05). However, we observed no significant differences in quality of life between two groups. In conclusion, diet modification in diabetic patients seemed to be effective to improve blood lipid profile and the adequacy of nutrient intake without sacrificing the quality of life. PMID:25136538

Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong; Chung, Hye-Kyung

2014-07-01

68

Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-12-01

69

The Associations between Serum Zinc Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing rapidly worldwide. The functions of zinc may have a potential association with metabolic syndrome, but such associations have not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors among South Korean adults ?20 years of age. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2010. A total of 1,926 participants were analyzed in this study. Serum zinc levels in men were negatively associated with elevated fasting glucose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.93) and positively associated with elevated triglycerides (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.13). A difference in serum zinc levels was detected in women, depending on the number of metabolic syndrome components (p?=?0.002). Furthermore, serum zinc levels showed a decreasing trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components in women with metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that serum zinc levels might be associated with metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors. Further gender-specific studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dietary or supplemental zinc intake on metabolic syndrome. PMID:25153887

Seo, Jin-A; Song, Sang-Wook; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Ha-Na

2014-01-01

70

Has Income-related Inequity in Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Been Improved? Evidence From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2005 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the extent of income-related inequity in health care utilization and expenditures to compare the extent in 2005 and 2010 in Korea. Methods We employed the concentration indices and the horizontal inequity index proposed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer based on one- and two-part models. This study was conducted using data from the 2005 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined health care utilization and expenditures for different types of health care providers, including health centers, physician clinics, hospitals, general hospitals, dental care, and licensed traditional medical practitioners. Results The results show the equitable distribution of overall health care utilization with pro-poor tendencies and modest pro-rich inequity in the amount of medical expenditures in 2010. For the decomposition analysis, non-need variables such as income, education, private insurance, and occupational status have contributed considerably to pro-rich inequality in health care over the period between 2005 and 2010. Conclusions We found that health care utilization in Korea in 2010 was fairly equitable, but the poor still have some barriers to accessing primary care and continuing to receive medical care. PMID:24137526

Kim, Eunkyoung; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

71

Soda and Cell Aging: Associations between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and risk of cardiometabolic disease. We examined cross-sectional associations between consumption of SSBs, diet soda and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. Methods The study population included 5,309 adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no prior history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (?=?0.010, 95% CI ?0.020, ?0.001, P=0.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (?= 0.016, 95% CI ?0.000, 0.033). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages and telomere length. Conclusions Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas may influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

2014-01-01

72

Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

Kwon, Yong-Seok

2014-01-01

73

Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

2014-01-01

74

Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (?19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ? 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. PMID:24304610

Duffey, Kiyah J.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

75

Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population. Methods Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status. Results The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males. Conclusions This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24015265

Kim, Ho; Lee, Su Mi; Oh, Yun Jung; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

2013-01-01

76

Association Between Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men without Prostatic Disease—The 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in otherwise healthy men; systemic inflammation has been associated with cancer. The study of systemic inflammatory markers in men without clinical prostate disease, but with elevated PSA may characterize the subgroup of men at higher risk for subsequent prostate cancer. METHODS We investigated the associations between systemic inflammatory markers and serum PSA in 3,164 healthy men without prostatic disease, aged >40 years, from the 2001 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Serum total PSA levels and concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were recorded. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratio were calculated. PSA elevation was defined as levels equal or greater than 4 ng/ml. RESULTS Elevated serum PSA (194 men, 6.1% of the total), was significantly associated with plasma fibrinogen (ORmultiv=1.88; 95% CI, 1.09–3.25), and NLR (ORmultiv=1.14; 95% CI, 1.03–1.26), after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, education, race, co-morbidities, and use of medications. CONCLUSIONS Markers of systemic inflammation were associated with elevated PSA in men without known prostatic disease. Future studies are needed to examine these markers’ relationship with prostate cancer occurrence and progression. PMID:24435840

McDonald, Alicia C.; Vira, Manish A.; Vidal, Adriana C.; Gan, Wenqi; Freedland, Stephen J.; Taioli, Emanuela

2015-01-01

77

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gout, an inflammatory arthritis, reportedly afflicts more than 2 million men and women in the United States. Previous reports have suggested an association between gout and kidney stone disease; however, these studies did not adjust for such important potential confounders as obesity and the presence of hypertension. To our knowledge, no published study has examined the independent association between

Holly Mattix Kramer; Gary Curhan

2002-01-01

78

Heavy Metals and Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the role of lead and cadmium as partial mediators between smoking and composite cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CCVD). We also studied the association between urinary heavy metals and CCVD. Pooled data from NHANES 1999-2006 were examined. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease was determined using a standardized questionnaire asking about history of stroke, angina, heart attack, coronary artery disease, and

Shikhar Agarwal; Tarique Zaman; E. Murat Tuzcu; Samir R Kapadia

2011-01-01

79

Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

2014-01-01

80

Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

81

Association of the Estimated 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion with Albuminuria in Adult Koreans: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations. Objective This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria. Design This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2), in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine. Results On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001). Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71–2.21], p?=?0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Conclusions These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population. PMID:25313865

Han, Sang Youb; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

82

Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10.  

PubMed

Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that have been shown to prevent cancer in some studies. Whether phyto-oestrogen intake affects obesity status in a population is still unclear. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the association of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with obesity and metabolic parameters in children and adults. Data from 1294 children (age 6-19 years) and from 3661 adults (age ? 20 years) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10 were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of BMI, waist circumference, serum metabolites (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting glucose and fasting insulin) and the metabolic syndrome with urinary phyto-oestrogen levels. When stratified by age and sex, we found a stronger association (OR 0·30, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·54; P< 0·001) between urinary enterolactone levels and obesity in adult males (age 20-60 years) than in children (age 12-19 years) or the elderly (age >60 years) in the same survey. However, no associations with urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein were found in the overall population. We also found that the elevation of enterolactone levels was inversely associated with TAG levels, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels and the metabolic syndrome in males aged 20-60 years, but positively associated with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone is inversely associated with obesity in adult males. PMID:25634494

Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

2015-02-28

83

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

84

Systematic evaluation of environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental and behavioural factors are thought to contribute to all-cause mortality. Here, we develop a method to systematically screen and validate the potential independent contributions to all-cause mortality of 249 environmental and behavioural factors in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We used Cox proportional hazards regression to associate 249 factors with all-cause mortality while adjusting for sociodemographic factors on data in the 1999–2000 and 2001–02 surveys (median 5.5 follow-up years). We controlled for multiple comparisons with the false discovery rate (FDR) and validated significant findings in the 2003–04 survey (median 2.8 follow-up years). We selected 249 factors from a set of all possible factors based on their presence in both the 1999–2002 and 2003–04 surveys and linkage with at least 20 deceased participants. We evaluated the correlation pattern of validated factors and built a multivariable model to identify their independent contribution to mortality. Results We identified seven environmental and behavioural factors associated with all-cause mortality, including serum and urinary cadmium, serum lycopene levels, smoking (3-level factor) and physical activity. In a multivariable model, only physical activity, past smoking, smoking in participant’s home and lycopene were independently associated with mortality. These three factors explained 2.1% of the variance of all-cause mortality after adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our association study suggests that, of the set of 249 factors in NHANES, physical activity, smoking, serum lycopene and serum/urinary cadmium are associated with all-cause mortality as identified in previous studies and after controlling for multiple hypotheses and validation in an independent survey. Whereas other NHANES factors may be associated with mortality, they may require larger cohorts with longer time of follow-up to detect. It is possible to use a systematic association study to prioritize risk factors for further investigation. PMID:24345851

Patel, Chirag J; Rehkopf, David H; Leppert, John T; Bortz, Walter M; Cullen, Mark R; Chertow, Glenn M; Ioannidis, John PA

2013-01-01

85

Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican) (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706), non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602), and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957). Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879) and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637) are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important. PMID:25485292

Cohen, Catherine Crawford

2014-01-01

86

Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risks of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies have revealed many inconsistent results regarding the relationship between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and factors that characterize metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from 2,880 children and adolescents aged 10-18 years collected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We investigated the data according to quartiles of 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with adjustment for sex and age differed significantly between the serum 25(OH)D groups and exhibited negative trend as 25(OH)D concentrations increased. The number of subjects with metabolic syndrome was greater in the low 25(OH)D groups (I, II, and III quartile) than in the high 25(OH)D group (IV quartile) (P=0.029). BMI and waist circumference were lower in the high 25(OH)D group. Serum 25(OH)D concentration correlated negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (?=-0.073, P<0.001) and correlated positively with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (?=0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with an increase of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

Lee, Dong Yup; Kwon, Ah Reum; Ahn, Jung Min; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

2015-01-01

87

Effect of high parathyroid hormone level on bone mineral density in a vitamin D-sufficient population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.  

PubMed

The detrimental effect of high parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone has not been adequately evaluated in vitamin D-sufficient Koreans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high PTH on bone mineral density (BMD) in such a population. A total of 5,403 subjects (2,644 men and 2,759 postmenopausal women; ?50 years old) were selected from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were divided into four groups according to vitamin D status (<20 and ?20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (?65 and >65 pg/mL). Total hip and spine BMD were evaluated in each group. High PTH level was found in 50% of vitamin D-deficient subjects and 35% of vitamin D-sufficient subjects. In the vitamin D-deficient group, subjects with normal PTH level had higher total hip and spine BMD than those with high PTH after adjusting for multiple confounding factors, regardless of gender. In the vitamin D-sufficient group, only women with high PTH showed lower total hip and spine BMD than those with normal PTH. Multivariable linear regression analysis found that PTH level was independently associated with total hip BMD in vitamin D-sufficient women as well as vitamin D-insufficient women, but no association was found in men. In conclusion, high serum PTH level has an additive detrimental effect on BMD in postmenopausal women even though they had sufficient vitamin D levels. PMID:25242259

Kim, Se Hwa; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Soo-Kyung

2014-12-25

88

Prevalence of asbestos-related pleural changes on x-ray in the United States: Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) data  

SciTech Connect

Pleural thickening on x-ray is a specific marker for exposure to asbestos, which in turn carries an excess risk for lung disease and cancer. In World War II, a large cohort of asbestos workers was employed in shipyards in the United States. About 30 years have elapsed between their exposure and the 1974 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I), done on a probability sample of US residents. A defined subgroup of subjects between ages 18 and 75 years (n = 6758) had chest x-rays. All films read by HANES as showing pleural changes (n = 289), and a 3 to 1, age-, sex-, race-matched control series were re-read by three readers using the International Labor Organization criteria for diagnosis of pleural pneumoconiosis. Using 2/3 readings as positive, 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had pleural changes on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with pleural changes in the mid-1970s. If about 12% of asbestos workers develop pleural changes, there would have been about 10 million workers or persons with substantial asbestos exposure to produce those with pleural changes. This estimate is in line with those made by other investigators, but was arrived at by a different and more direct method. This cohort will make a substantial contribution to cancer morbidity into the next century.

Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; Ragan, N.B.; Anderson, H.A.

1986-09-01

89

Influenza Vaccination and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors : A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120314

2014-01-01

90

Prevalence of occupational pleural thickening: a look at chest x-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

SciTech Connect

The prevalence of occupational pleural thickening in the United States in the mid-1970s was estimated; since asbestos often reduces pleural thickening, this estimate in turn was used to estimate the presence of asbestos exposure. Chest x-rays obtained by the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were reread by three readers using the International Labour Office criteria for diagnosis of pleural thickening consistent with dust exposure. All 289 x-rays showing any pleural abnormalities plus a 3-to-1 age-, sex-, and race-matched control series were reread. Using two of three readings as positive, and extrapolating to the US population from this defined sample, the authors showed that 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had occupational pleural thickening on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with occupational pleural thickening and approximately 8 million people with asbestos exposure in the mid-1970s. This cohort might make a substantial contribution to cancer mortality into the next century.

Rogan, W.J.; Gladenn, B.C.; Ragan, B.; Anderson, H.A.

1987-11-01

91

Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

92

Impact of Peripheral Arterial Disease on Functional Limitation in Congestive Heart Failure: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004)  

PubMed Central

Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often coexists with congestive heart failure (CHF) and can be masked by symptoms of CHF such as functional limitation (FL), a common manifestation for both. Therefore, we sought to estimate the prevalence of PAD and its independent association with FL in CHF. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 to quantify weighted prevalence of CHF and PAD. Study cohort consisted of 7513, with ankle brachial index (ABI) measurements at baseline. Independent association of PAD (ABI ? 0.9) with FL in CHF was determined with multivariate logistic regression (MVLR). Results. Overall weighted PAD prevalence was 5.2%. CHF was present in 305 participants, and the weighted prevalence of PAD in this subgroup was 19.2%. When compared, participants with CHF and PAD were more likely to be older (P < 0.001), hypertensive (P = 0.005) and hypercholesterolemic (P = 0.013) than participants with CHF alone. MVLR showed that PAD (adjusted OR?=?5.15; 95% CI:?2.2, 12.05: P < 0.05) and arthritis (adjusted OR?=?2.36; 95% CI:?1.10, 5.06:?P < 0.05) were independently associated with FL in CHF. Conclusion. Independent association of PAD with FL suggests the need for reinforced screening for PAD in individuals with CHF. PMID:23346456

Adesunloye, Bamidele A.; Valadri, Ravinder; Mbaezue, Nkechi M.; Onwuanyi, Anekwe E.

2012-01-01

93

Glycated Hemoglobin Value for Fasting Plasma Glucose of 126 mg/dL in Korean: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

We aimed to estimate the cutoff value of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, A1c) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 126 mg/dL in the Korean adult population, using the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5,421 participants without a history of diabetes and over 19 years of age were included in the analysis. A point-wise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the optimal A1c cutoff value. A1c threshold of 6.1% produced the highest sum of sensitivity (85.2%) and specificity (90.5%) for FPG of 126 mg/dL (area under the curve, 0.941, P<0.001). A1c of 6.5% produced a sensitivity of 67.7% and specificity of 98.0% for FPG of 126 mg/dL. Considering A1c as one of three criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes and the specificity of an A1c cutoff of 6.5%, the current diagnostic criteria of A1c?6.5% might be acceptable in the Korean adult population. PMID:25541612

Kim, Jung Min; Hong, Jae Won; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

94

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Workers by Occupational Group: Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased rapidly in South Korea over the past 10 years. However, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in workers grouped according to the specific type of work is not well understood in Korea. In this study, we assessed the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and evaluated the risk of the metabolic syndrome among occupational groups. Methods From the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010), 3,303 employed participants were included in this study. The unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome were estimated and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the presence of the metabolic syndrome as a dependent variable, and adjusting for age, education level, household income, drinking behavior, smoking status, physical activity, work hours, and work scheduling pattern. Results Among male workers, non-manual workers had the greatest age-adjusted prevalence (26.4%, 95% CI: 22.3-30.5%) among the occupational groups. In a logistic regression analysis, male manual workers had a significantly lower odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome relative to non-manual workers (0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrated differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and identified the greatest risk for the metabolic syndrome in male non-manual workers. PMID:24472422

2013-01-01

95

Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.  

PubMed

Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 µg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 µg/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 µg/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with -5.54% (95% CI: -8.70, -2.37) and -4.50% (95% CI: -8.79, -0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks. PMID:25504027

Zota, Ami R; Needham, Belinda L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H; Epel, Elissa S

2015-01-15

96

Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the association of contributors of total water intake with dietary characteristics in US children. Objective: We examined intakes of total water and its contributors and their associations with diet and meal reporting in children and adolescents. Design: Dietary data for children 2–19 y of age (n = 3978) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were used to compute usual intake of total water. The association of total water and its contributors with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary and meal attributes was examined by using multiple regression analysis. Results: The adjusted mean intakes of total water in Americans aged 2–5, 6–11, and 12–19 y were 1.4, 1.6, and 2.4 L, respectively. The mean usual intake of total water was generally less than the Adequate Intake; overall, more boys reported intakes of at least the Adequate Intake. The percentage of total water intake from plain water increased with age. Plain water intake was inversely associated with the intake of beverage moisture and the energy density of foods; conversely, beverage moisture was positively associated with dietary energy, fat, and the energy density of foods. Associations of water contributors with meal patterns (number of eating occasions, reporting of breakfast or snack) were inconsistent across age groups. Nearly 80% of food moisture, >66% of beverage moisture, and ?30% of plain water were reported with main meals. Conclusions: Intake of total water over 24 h from different contributors varied by age. Qualitative differences in dietary intake in association with the amount of plain water and beverage moisture in the recalls were observed. American children and adolescents consumed more than two-thirds of their daily beverages with main meals. PMID:20685949

Graubard, Barry I

2010-01-01

97

Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

2014-11-01

98

Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was 5.44 ?g/L. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population. PMID:25580399

Kim, Young-Nam; Kim, Young A; Yang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Bog-Hieu

2014-01-01

99

Association of Childhood Obesity with Atopic and Non-Atopic Asthma: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and asthma prevalence have both risen among children over the last several decades, and research efforts increasingly suggest that obesity is associated with asthma. Some, but not all, studies have shown that the effect of obesity on asthma is stronger among non-atopic individuals than among those with atopy. Systemic inflammation may be a factor in this relationship. Objective To examine the association of obesity with atopic and non-atopic asthma among U.S. children and to assess the role of C-reactive protein. Design Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine the relationship of weight to current asthma using logistic regression. Overweight was defined as ? 85th percentile of BMI-for-age and obesity was defined as ? 95% percentile of BMI-for-age. The presence of at least one positive allergen-specific IgE was used to stratify the relationship by atopic status in 2005-2006 data (n=3,387). Setting and Participants Stratified, multi-stage probability sampling was used to identify survey participants. This analysis includes children age 2-19 (n=16,074) from the 1999-2006 NHANES who have information on BMI and current asthma. Main Outcome Measure Self-report of doctor-diagnosed current asthma. Results Obesity was significantly related to current asthma among children and adolescents (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.12). The association was stronger in non-atopic children (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.21, 5.02) than in atopic children (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.70, 2.57)(interaction p-value=0.09). C-reactive protein levels were associated with current asthma in non-atopic children, but not after adjusting for BMI. Conclusion Excess weight in children is associated with higher rates of asthma, especially asthma that is not accompanied by allergic disease. PMID:20707763

Visness, Cynthia M.; London, Stephanie J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Calatroni, Agustin; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2010-01-01

100

Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

2015-01-01

101

Gender and racial/ethnic differences in the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with markers of diabetes risk: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals associated with diabetes. Although women and minorities are more likely to be exposed to phthalates, no prior studies have examined phthalate exposure and markers of diabetes risk evaluating effect modification by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods We analyzed CDC data for 8 urinary phthalate metabolites from 3,083 non-diabetic, non-pregnant participants aged 12-?Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008. We used median regression to assess the associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), controlling for urinary creatinine as well as several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Stratified analyses were conducted to compare the gender- and race/ethnicity-specific patterns for the associations. Results Urinary levels of several phthalate metabolites, including MBzP, MnBP, MiBP, MCPP and ?DEHP showed significant positive associations with FBG, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. No clear difference was noted between men and women. Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks had stronger dose–response relationships for MnBP, MiBP, MCPP and ?DEHP compared to non-Hispanic whites. For example, the highest quartile of MiBP relative to its lowest quartile showed a median FBG increase of 5.82 mg/dL (95% CI: 3.77, 7.87) in Mexican-Americans, 3.63 mg/dL (95% CI: 1.23, 6.03) in blacks and 1.79 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.29, 3.87) in whites. Conclusions The findings suggest that certain populations may be more vulnerable to phthalates with respect to disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Whether endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute to gender and racial/ethnic differences in diabetes risk will be an important area for further study. PMID:24499162

2014-01-01

102

Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States – National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. Methods The sample included 5139 participants aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days in the prior 30 days. Results Among these adults, 7.2% had restrictive impairment (FEV1/FVC???70%; FVC?

2013-01-01

103

Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 ?g/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ? Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ? Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ? Some groups may be more susceptible to perchlorate than others.

Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Miller, Mark D., E-mail: ucsfpehsumiller@gmail.com [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Cushing, Lara, E-mail: lara.cushing@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States)] [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States); Blount, Benjamin C., E-mail: bkb3@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F47, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Allan H., E-mail: ahsmith@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, 1950 Addison St., Suite 204, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States)

2013-05-15

104

Combined Effects of Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Iodine on Thyroid Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-8  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference = 0.40 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14-0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference = 1.07 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55-1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. PMID:23473920

Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

2013-01-01

105

Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

106

Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

107

Validation of FRAX without BMD: An age-related analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2010).  

PubMed

Although the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) is widely used to evaluate probabilities of fractures, there is no consensus regarding whether it is accurate when bone mineral density (BMD) is not included. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the 10-year predicted fracture probabilities calculated using FRAX with and without BMD. Data were collected from the 2010 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 2706 participants (1260 men and 1446 women) aged 50-90years were analyzed. Ten-year predicted probabilities for major osteoporotic and hip fractures were calculated using the FRAX model. In men, the 10-year probabilities without BMD were 3.9±1.8% and 1.3±1.4% for major osteoporotic and hip fractures, respectively. In women, the 10-year probabilities without BMD were 7.7±4.4% and 2.6±2.9% for major osteoporotic and hip fractures, respectively. These probabilities were significantly correlated with the probabilities calculated using FRAX with BMD (all, p<0.001). When participants were divided into 10-year age groups and compared with the 10-year predicted fracture probability with BMD, the 10-year predicted fracture probability without BMD was lower in men 50-59years old, similar to men 60-69years old, and higher in men ?70years old. The FRAX scores without BMD were generally lower for all women. The FRAX model without BMD appears to be a slightly lower fracture probability compared to that calculated with BMD, especially in younger participants. Although these results have important clinical implications for areas with limited ability to evaluate BMD, they must be confirmed by a large prospective study. PMID:25697083

Kim, Ji Wan; Koh, Jung-Min; Park, Jai Hyung; Chang, Jae Suk

2015-06-01

108

Concentrations of the Sunscreen Agent Benzophenone-3 in Residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004  

PubMed Central

Background The capability of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) to absorb and dissipate ultraviolet radiation facilitates its use as a sunscreen agent. BP-3 has other uses in many consumer products (e.g., as fragrance and flavor enhancer, photoinitiator, ultraviolet curing agent, polymerization inhibitor). Objectives Our goal was to assess exposure to BP-3 in a representative sample of the U.S. general population ? 6 years of age. Methods Using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,517 urine samples collected as part of the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results We detected BP-3 in 96.8% of the samples. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentrations were 22.9 ?g/L (22.2 ?g/g creatinine) and 1,040 ?g/L (1,070 ?g/g creatinine), respectively. Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations were significantly higher (p ? 0.04) for females than for males, regardless of age. LSGM concentrations were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than for non-Hispanic blacks (p ? 0.01), regardless of age. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.9–6.5], and non-Hispanic whites were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (adjusted OR = 6.8; 95% CI, 2.9–16.2) to have concentrations above the 95th percentile. Conclusions Exposure to BP-3 was prevalent in the general U.S. population during 2003–2004. Differences by sex and race/ethnicity probably reflect differences in use of personal care products containing BP-3. PMID:18629311

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Ye, Xiaoyun; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2008-01-01

109

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate how associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Methods Youth age 8–15 (n=3,050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Obesity defined as ?95th percentile of US BMI-for-age reference. ADHD determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Results Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 – 0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43 – 2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52 – 2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79–2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at ? = 0.05. Conclusions Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. PMID:23325553

Byrd, H.C. Michelle; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

110

Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

2015-01-01

111

Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the U.S. population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20?ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults. PMID:25055347

Lee, Sang Gil; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Vance, Terrence; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

2014-10-01

112

Serum PBDEs and Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s, have exhibited endocrine disruption in experimental studies. Tetra- to hexa-BDE congeners are estrogenic, while hepta-BDE and 6-OH-BDE-47 are antiestrogenic. Most PBDEs also have antiandrogenic activity. It is not clear, however, whether PBDEs affect human reproduction. OBJECTIVES The analysis was designed to investigate the potential endocrine disruption of PBDEs on the age at menarche in adolescent girls. METHODS We analyzed the data from a sample of 271 adolescent girls (age 12–19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2004. We estimated the associations between individual and total serum BDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and -154, lipid adjusted) and mean age at menarche. We also calculated the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for menarche prior to age 12 years in relation to PBDE exposure. RESULTS The median total serum BDE concentration was 44.7 ng/g lipid. Higher serum PBDE concentrations were associated with slightly earlier ages at menarche. Each natural log unit of total BDEs was related to a change of ?0.10 (95% CI: ?0.33, 0.13) years of age at menarche and a RR of 1.60 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.28) for experiencing menarche before 12 years of age, after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION These data suggest high concentrations of serum PBDEs during adolescence are associated with a younger age of menarche. PMID:21663902

Chen, Aimin; Chung, Ethan; DeFranco, Emily A.; Pinney, Susan M.; Dietrich, Kim N.

2011-01-01

113

Age at type 2 diabetes onset and glycaemic control: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that age younger than 65 years at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. For adults with self-reported diabetes, we dichotomised age at diabetes diagnosis as younger (<65 years) vs older (?65 years). The primary outcome of interest was HbA1c >9.0% (75 mmol/mol). Secondary outcomes were HbA1c >8.0% (64 mmol/mol) and >7.0% (53 mmol/mol). We used multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Among 1,438 adults with diabetes, a higher proportion of those <65 years at diagnosis compared with those ?65 at diagnosis had an HbA1c >9.0% (14.4% vs 2.5%, p<0.001). After adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, insurance, usual source of care, hyperglycaemia medication, duration of diabetes, family history, BMI and waist circumference, age <65 years at diagnosis remained significantly associated with greater odds of HbA1c > 9.0% (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.54, 6.72), HbA1c > 8.0% (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.43, 5.16) and HbA1c >7.0% (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18, 3.11). The younger group reported fewer comorbidities, but were less likely to report good health (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83). Conclusions/interpretation Younger age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is significantly associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Because patients who are younger at diagnosis have fewer competing comorbidities and complications, safe, aggressive, individualised treatment could benefit this higher-risk group. PMID:23995472

Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; Wexler, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

114

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

115

Association between Low-Grade Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have indicated that low UACR levels (<30 ?g/mg) previously considered to be in the normal range (‘low-grade albuminuria’) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We studied 9,736 participants with albuminuria in the normal range from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Results The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease measured using the Framingham risk score (FRS) ? 20% (high risk) were 22.5 ± 0.7% and 14.5 ± 0.7%, respectively, in males and 23.3 ± 0.8% and 8.5 ± 0.4%, respectively in females. Weighted comparisons among the tertiles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS increased with increasing UACR (MS: males, 15.9 ± 1.1, 20.2 ± 1.2, 32.4 ± 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 17.6 ± 1.0, 22.7 ± 1.0, 30.2 ± 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. High-risk FRS: males, 9.5 ± 0.7, 12.3 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 5.8 ± 0.6, 7.9 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive association persisted after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes. The weighted comparisons among the deciles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS began to increase at the ranges of 3.89–5.15 and 5.16–7.36 mg/g Cr, respectively. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with estimated cardiovascular risk and MS in a nationally representative sample of Koreans. PMID:25742159

Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2015-01-01

116

Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time.

Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

2015-01-01

117

Association between Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have identified that physical activity (PA) has positive influences on quality of life. However, there has been little domestic research about the relation of PA to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the general population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PA on HRQoL in Korean adults aged 40 years or over. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data acquired from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Final study subjects were 10,392 adults aged 40 years or over. According to the severity and frequency of PA, the subjects were divided into three PA groups as follows: high-activity, mid-activity, and low-activity group. We compared the HRQoL estimated by the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D), the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), and EQ-5D index between three PA groups. Results The odds ratios for mid-activity group and high activity group compared with low activity group were significantly decreased in the dimension of mobility of EQ-5D (mid-activity group, 0.81 [0.69-0.94]; high activity group, 0.81 [0.67-0.99]). EQ-VAS was decreased as PA level was lowered from high activity group and mid-activity to low activity group. EQ-5D index was the highest in mid-activity group and the lowest in low activity group. Conclusion PA above mid-activity group showed better HRQoL compared than low activity group. PMID:24921034

Kim, Sunmi; Park, You-Il

2014-01-01

118

Prevalence and risk factors of work related asthma by industry among United States workers: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (1988–94)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of work related asthma and work related wheezing in United States workers. To identify high risk industries that could be targeted for future intervention. To determine the population attributable risk of work related asthma and work related wheezing. Methods: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) was analyzed to determine the prevalence of work related asthma and wheezing and to identify initially defined industries at risk among United States workers aged 20 and older. Separate logistic models were developed with work related asthma and work related wheezing as outcomes. Work related asthma was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported physician diagnosed asthma and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Work related wheezing was defined as affirmative response to questions on self reported wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months and work related symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and atopy. Results: The prevalence of work related asthma was 3.70% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.88 to 4.52) and the prevalence of work related wheezing was 11.46% (95% CI 9.87 to 13.05). The main industries identified at risk of work related asthma and wheeze included the entertainment industry; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; construction; electrical machinery; repair services; and lodging places. The population attributable risk for work related asthma was 36.5% and work related wheezing was 28.5%. Conclusions: The findings provide impetus for further research and actions by public health professionals which prioritise occupational asthma on the public health agenda. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. PMID:12151605

Arif, A; Whitehead, L; Delclos, G; Tortolero, S; Lee, E

2002-01-01

119

Impact of Smoking and Thiocyanate on Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Associations in the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Findings from a recent large study suggest that perchlorate at commonly occurring exposure concentrations may decrease thyroid hormone levels in some women. Decreases in thyroid hormone seen with perchlorate exposure could be even greater in people with concomitant exposure to agents such as thiocyanate that may affect the thyroid by mechanisms similar to those of perchlorate. Objectives and methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the impact of smoking and thiocyanate on the relationship between urinary per-chlorate and serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Results In women with urinary iodine levels < 100 ?g/L, the association between the logarithm of perchlorate and decreased T4 was greater in smokers [regression coefficient (?) = ?1.66, p = 0.0005] than in nonsmokers (? = ?0.54, p = 0.04). In subjects with high, medium, and low cotinine levels, these regression coefficients were ?1.47 (p = 0.0002), ?0.57 (p = 0.03), and ?0.16 (p = 0.59). For high, medium, and low thiocyanate tertiles they were ?1.67 (p = 0.0009), ?0.68 (p = 0.09), and ?0.49 (p = 0.11). Clear interactions between perchlorate and smoking were not seen with TSH or with T4 in women with urinary iodine levels ? 100 ?g/L or in men. Conclusions These results suggest that thiocyanate in tobacco smoke and perchlorate interact in affecting thyroid function, and this effect can take place at commonly occurring perchlorate exposures. Agents other than tobacco smoke might cause similar interactions, and further research on these agents could help identify people who are particularly susceptible to perchlorate. PMID:17805424

Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Howd, Robert

2007-01-01

120

Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

2014-01-01

121

Long Term Mortality Risk in Individuals with Atrial or Ventricular Premature Complexes– Results From The Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

PubMed Central

Premature ectopic beats are frequently detected on routine 12-lead screening-electrocardiogram (ECG). However, their prognostic importance in individuals without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well established. We evaluated prognostic value of atrial premature complexes (APC’s) and ventricular premature complexes (VPC’s) detected by a single 12-lead-ECG. A prospective cohort of 7504 participants selected from nationally-representative, community-dwelling individuals living in United States, enrolled in the Third Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) from 1988 – 94 with follow up through December 2006 without known CVD. The main outcomes were all – cause mortality, CVD related mortality and IHD related mortality. Out of 7504 participants (mean age 60 ± 14 years, 47% women, 49% whites), 89 (1.2%) had APC’s and 110 (1.5%) had VPC’s on 12 – lead ECG. During a follow up of up to 18 years, 2386 deaths occurred, of which 963 were due to CVD and 511 were due to IHD. In a multivariable adjusted for demographics, clinical variables and ECG measures, APC’s were significantly associated with all-cause mortality [HR, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.08–1.80)], CVD death [HR, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.26–2.44)] and IHD death [HR, 2.40 (95% CI, 1.59–3.47)]. For VPCs, however, there were no significant associations with all – cause mortality [HR, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80–1.36)], CVD death [HR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.62–1.43)] and IHD death [HR, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.47–1.52)]. In conclusion, APC’s, but not VPC’s, on routine screening ECG are predictive of adverse events in community-dwelling individuals without known CVD. PMID:24819898

Qureshi, Waqas; Shah, Amit J.; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Soliman, Elsayed Z.

2015-01-01

122

Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

2015-01-01

123

The Association of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Data from the 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examine the association among depression, suicidal ideation and self-reported lower urinary tract symptoms using a large, cross-sectional, population based study. Materials and Methods The study included 2,890 men from the 2005–2006 or 2007–2008 cycles of the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) who were 40 years old or older. Men were asked if they experienced nocturia, urinary hesitancy and/or incomplete bladder emptying. The PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) was used to determine the likelihood of clinical depression and suicidal ideation. Results The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms was 33.7% and 10.3% for men reporting 1 and 2 or more symptoms, respectively. Moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score 10 or greater) and suicidal ideation were reported by 181 (6.3%) and 105 (3.6%) men, respectively. Men reporting moderate to severe depression (compared to those reporting minimal depression) had a higher odds of reporting lower urinary tract symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.09, 95% CI 3.17–8.17 for PHQ-9 score 5 to 9 and AOR 7.62, 95% CI 3.90–14.87 for PHQ-9 score 10 or greater; p trend <0.0001). More lower urinary tract symptoms were associated with a significantly higher odds of moderate to severe depression (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.86–5.15 for 1 symptom and AOR 8.06, 95% CI 4.18–15.53 for 2 or more symptoms, p trend <0.0001) and a higher odds of suicidal ideation (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 0.85–3.42 and AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.40–5.25, respectively, p trend = 0.004). Conclusions A significant relationship was observed between lower urinary tract symptoms and depression/suicidal ideation. While the pathophysiology of the relationship and its significance in clinical practice remain unclear, clinicians may consider screening men with severe lower urinary tract symptoms for depression. PMID:24342145

Breyer, Benjamin N.; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Blaschko, Sarah D.; Erickson, Bradley A.

2014-01-01

124

Associations between immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers with severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated increased levels of serum markers of systemic inflammation and immune system function among individuals with depressive symptoms. Despite these observations, the biological mechanisms behind this association remain elusive. The objective of the present analysis was to examine the individual and joint associations of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein with depression severity and to determine whether oxidative stress might mediate these associations. We conducted an analysis of 3867 subjects from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between three levels of depression symptom severity (as measured by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire) and serum C-reactive protein, white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and four surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Covariates included sex, age, smoking status, physical activity, education, poverty to income ratio, as well as medication use and medical conditions influencing inflammation levels. In separate models, the risk of moderate to severe depression was significantly greater in the highest quartiles of CRP (OR=1.84. 95 percent confidence interval (CI)=1.35-2.52), WBC (OR=1.70, CI=1.31-2.19), and platelet counts (OR=1.41, CI=1.13-1.76) after adjusting for basic sociodemographic and behavioral factors. After additional adjustment for medication use and oxidative stress surrogate measures, the highest quartile of WBC counts remained associated with depression (OR=1.60, CI=1.23-2.09). Adjustment for oxidative stress measures did not substantially affect estimated associations of inflammation/immunologic markers. In summary, we observed significantly elevated white blood cell counts among subjects with moderate and severe depression, and oxidative stress and a medical history of inflammatory diseases do not appear to mediate this association. Although limited through its use of cross-sectional data, this is the first analysis to simultaneously consider immunologic and oxidative stress markers. Further research is needed to identify the biological basis for this persistent association. PMID:19853625

Kobrosly, Roni; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2010-01-01

125

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

2014-01-01

126

Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001-2010.  

PubMed

Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

McGill, Carla R; Iii, Victor L Fulgoni; Devareddy, Latha

2015-01-01

127

Menthol Cigarettes, Race/Ethnicity and Biomarkers of Tobacco Use in US Adults: The 1999- 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, cigarette flavorings are banned, with the exception of menthol. The cooling effects of menthol could facilitate the absorption of tobacco toxicants. We examined levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure among US smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Methods We studied 4,603 White, African-American, and Mexican-American current smokers ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2010 and had data on cigarette type and serum cotinine, blood cadmium, and blood lead concentrations. Urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) (NNAL) was studied in 1,607 participants with available measures. Results A total of 3,210 (74.3%) participants smoked non-menthol cigarettes compared to 1,393 (25.7%) participants who smoked menthol cigarettes. The geometric mean concentrations comparing smokers of non-menthol to menthol cigarettes were 163.1 vs. 175.9 ng/mL for serum cotinine; 0.95 vs. 1.02 ?g/L for blood cadmium; 1.87 vs. 1.75 ?g/dL for blood lead; and 0.27 vs. 0.23 ng/mL for urine NNAL. After multivariable adjustment, the ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing smokers of menthol to non-menthol cigarettes were 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) for cotinine, 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) for cadmium, 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) for lead, and 0.81 (0.65, 1.01) for NNAL. Conclusions In a representative sample of US adult smokers, current menthol cigarette use was associated with increased concentration of blood cadmium, an established carcinogen and highly toxic metal, but not with other biomarkers. Impact These findings provide information regarding possible differences in exposure to toxic constituents among menthol cigarette smokers compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers. PMID:23250935

Jones, Miranda R; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

2012-01-01

128

The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the korean adults: the 2010-2012 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (observational study).  

PubMed

There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n?=?33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6-21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6-9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19-39 years' old) was 4.4% (3.5-5.5), in middle-age adults (40-64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8-22.5), and in older adults (?65 years' old), it was 69.7% (67.8-71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?mL/min/1.73m as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73m, and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing impairment. As such, these groups may benefit from hearing loss screening in addition to those groups typically considered to be of elevated risk including geriatrics, those of low socioeconomic status, and those with considerable occupational noise exposure. PMID:25761183

Hong, Jae W; Jeon, Ju H; Ku, Cheol R; Noh, Jung H; Yoo, Hyung J; Kim, Dong-Jun

2015-03-01

129

Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91-2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37-8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40-5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24959985

Wu, Erin W; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-08-01

130

Association of Acculturation Factors with Dietary Intakes of Folate Among Older Mexican Americans in the Post-Fortification Era: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that acculturation factors are associated with dietary patterns of older Mexican Americans (MAs), but the association of these factors with post-fortification folate intake is unknown. We estimated usual folate intakes for U.S. MAs aged ?60 years (N = 712) by acculturation factors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2006. Mean total folic acid and

Heather C. Hamner; Mary E. Cogswell; Mary Ann Johnson

2011-01-01

131

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and work-related asthma among U.S. adults: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988--1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional analysis of the data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and determinants of asthma and wheezing among US adults, and to identify the occupations and industries at high risk of developing work-related asthma and work-related wheezing. Separate logistic models were developed for physician-diagnosed asthma (MD asthma), wheezing in the

Ahmed Arsalan Arif

2001-01-01

132

Maternal Hypertension after a Low-Birth-Weight Delivery Differs by Race/Ethnicity: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006  

PubMed Central

Studies have suggested an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women with a prior low-birth-weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) delivery. This study evaluated blood pressure and hypertension in women who reported a prior preterm or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) LBW delivery in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 (n?=?6,307). This study also aimed to explore if race/ethnicity, menopause status, and years since last pregnancy modified the above associations. A total of 3,239 white, 1,350 black, and 1,718 Hispanics were assessed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate blood pressure by birth characteristics (preterm-LBW, SGA-LBW, and birthweight ?2,500). Logistic regression models estimated the odds ratios (OR) of hypertension among women who reported a preterm-LBW or SGA-LBW delivery compared with women who reported an infant with birthweight ?2,500 at delivery. Overall, there was a positive association between a preterm-LBW delivery and hypertension (adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.90). Prior SGA-LBW also increased the odds of hypertension, but the estimate did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR?=?1.21, 95% CI 0.76–1.92). Race/ethnicity modified the above associations. Only black women had increased risk of hypertension following SGA-LBW delivery (adjusted OR?=?2.09, 95% CI 1.12–3.90). Black women were at marginally increased risk of hypertension after delivery of a preterm-LBW (adjusted OR?=?1.49, 95% CI 0.93–2.38). Whites and Hispanics had increased, but not statistically significant, risk of hypertension after a preterm-LBW (whites: adjusted OR?=?1.39, 95% CI 0.92–2.10; Hispanics: adjusted OR?=?1.22, 95% CI 0.62–2.38). Stratified analysis indicated that the associations were stronger among women who were premenopausal and whose last pregnancy were more recent. The current study suggests that in a representative United States population, women with a history of preterm- or SGA-LBW deliveries have increased odds of hypertension and this risk appears to be higher for black women and younger women. PMID:25093324

Xu, Jia; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Kuller, Lewis H.; Youk, Ada O.; Catov, Janet M.

2014-01-01

133

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

2013-01-01

134

Smoking, Menthol Cigarettes and All-Cause, Cancer and Cardiovascular Mortality: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including menthol, if the scientific evidence indicates harm. Few studies, however, have evaluated the health effects of menthol cigarette use. Objective To investigate associations of cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette use with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults. Methods We studied 10,289 adults ? 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2004 and were followed through December 2006. We also identified studies comparing risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer for menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers and estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Results Fifty-five percent of participants were never smokers compared to 23%, 17% and 5% of former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers compared to never smokers were 1.24 (0.96, 1.62), 2.40 (1.56, 3.71) and 2.07 (1.20, 3.58), respectively, for all-cause mortality; 0.92 (0.62, 1.37), 2.10 (1.02, 4.31) and 3.48 (1.52, 7.99) for cardiovascular mortality; and 1.91 (1.21, 3.00), 3.82 (2.19, 6.68) and 2.03 (1.00, 4.13) for cancer mortality. Using data from 3 studies of all-cause mortality, 5 of cardiovascular disease and 13 of cancer, the pooled relative risks (95% CI) comparing menthol cigarette smokers to nonmenthol cigarette smokers was 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) for all-cause mortality, 1.28 (0.91, 1.80) for cardiovascular disease and 0.84 (0.76, 0.92) for any cancer. Conclusions In a representative sample of U.S. adults, menthol cigarette smoking was associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality with no differences compared to nonmenthol cigarettes. In the systematic review, menthol cigarette use was associated with inverse risk of cancer compared to nonmenthol cigarette use with some evidence of an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24205038

Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

135

Trend of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in Korean population: data analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

This study was performed to assess the recent trends in lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in the blood among Korean adult population. The geometric means and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were calculated using the data of the subjects from the third (2005, n?=?1997), fourth (2008, n?=?2005; 2009, n?=?1991), and fifth (2010, n?=?1989; 2011, n?=?2014) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Blood lead levels in 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 declined to 2.61 ?g/dL (2.51-2.71), 2.32 ?g/dL (2.27-2.37), 2.29 ?g/dL (2.23-2.35), 2.09 ?g/dL (2.04-2.13), and 1.99 ?g/dL (1.94-2.05), respectively. Blood mercury levels were 4.19 ?g/L (3.99-4.39), 4.73 ?g/L (4.57-4.89), 4.25 ?g/L (4.09-4.41), 3.64 ?g/L (3.49-3.80), and 3.08 ?g/L (2.95-3.22), respectively, which indicated an increase in 2008 compared with those in 2005, and a clear downward trend from 2008 to 2011. Blood cadmium levels were 1.52 ?g/L (1.47-1.57), 0.93 ?g/L (0.89-0.97), 0.94 ?g/L (0.90-0.98), 0.89 ?g/L (0.87-0.92), 0.86 ?g/L (0.83-0.89), respectively, which indicated very high levels in 2005, but a downward trend since 2008. Although the lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in the blood of the Korean adult population are on the decline, they are still relatively high compared with those for the population of the USA, Canada, and Germany. Thus, continuous biological monitoring and measures to reduce these levels are needed in Korea. PMID:25716526

Seo, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kim, Rock-Bum; Chung, Jin-Yong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Hong, Young-Seoub

2015-03-01

136

Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).  

PubMed

There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 ± 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 ± 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri; Sohn, Cheong-Min

2013-12-01

137

The association of acculturation factors with biochemical indices of folate status among Mexican Americans 60 years of age or older in the post-fortification era: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006.  

PubMed

Acculturation factors have been found to affect dietary intakes of folate among older Mexican Americans (MAs) (?60 years). The association of acculturation with folate biomarkers is unknown. We determined whether acculturation factors were associated with folate biomarkers (e.g., serum folate, red blood cell [RBC] folate, and total homocysteine concentrations) and whether this association could be explained by dietary folate. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006, we estimated that 42.8% and 40.1% of older MAs reported speaking Spanish all or most of the time or being born in Mexico, respectively (lower acculturation factors). Lower acculturation factors were not associated with total homocysteine concentrations but were, in general, associated with lower serum folate and RBC folate concentrations, but these associations were not always independent of factors such as sex, education, and poverty, and possibly were mediated by dietary and supplemental folate. Thus, the lower folate status observed among older MA with lower acculturation factors may be modifiable by changes in the intake of folic acid. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics for the following free supplemental resource: a table of the predictors of serum folate or red blood cell folate concentrations among Mexican Americans 60 years of age or older using country of origin or language preference, respectively, as acculturation factors, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.]. PMID:23286641

Hamner, Heather C; Cogswell, Mary E; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-01

138

The direction of the difference between Canadian and American erythrocyte folate concentrations is dependent on the assay method employed: a comparison of the Canadian Health Measures Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Fortification of select grain products with folic acid and periconceptional supplementation recommendations in Canada and the USA have improved folate status, and have been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a comparison of erythrocyte folate concentrations from the 2007-9 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the 2007-8 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Erythrocyte folate concentration was assessed in participants aged 6-79 years (CHMS, n 5248; NHANES, n 7070). To account for different folate assays employed - Immulite 2000 immunoassay (CHMS) and microbiological assay (NHANES) - a conversion equation was generated (n 152 adults) to adjust the CHMS data. t Tests were used to examine country differences. Median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations (method-adjusted) were lower than those of Americans (988 and 1100 nmol/l, respectively), but unadjusted median Canadian erythrocyte folate concentrations were higher (1250 nmol/l). The upper 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate distribution overlapped that of the American erythrocyte folate concentrations, while the lower 95% CI boundary of the method-adjusted Canadian erythrocyte folate data was below the American distribution. In summary, the fact that erythrocyte folate concentrations were either higher or lower in Canadians compared with Americans, depending on whether an adjustment was made to account for assay differences, suggests that caution must be exercised in evaluating erythrocyte folate data from different countries because analytical methods are not readily comparable. Furthermore, we cannot unequivocally conclude that there are true differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the Canadian and American populations in the post-fortification era. PMID:25296277

Colapinto, Cynthia K; Tremblay, Mark S; Aufreiter, Susanne; Bushnik, Tracey; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

2014-12-14

139

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

140

BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94  

EPA Science Inventory

Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure. Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls. Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

141

U.S. HEALTH AND NUTRITION: SAS SURVEY PROCEDURES AND NHANES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to evaluate the health and nutrition of the United States. It is composed of cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. A complex, stratified, mult...

142

Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children aged 5 to 17 years: results from southwestern HHANES, 1982-83. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the estimated prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in 2,550 children, 5 through 17 years of age, who resided in five southwestern states of the United States and were examined in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) of 1982-84 of the National Center for Health Statistics. Dental caries in the Mexican American children was predominantly a disease of occlusal surfaces of molars; few smooth surfaces of posterior and anterior teeth were affected by caries. This intra-oral distribution of dental caries strongly supports the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. Filled tooth surfaces contributed about 66 per cent of the total DMFS (decayed, missing, filled surfaces) scores. The analysis also shows that about 50 per cent of the 17 year old Mexican Americans had five or more filled or decayed teeth. Mild gingivitis was prevalent (76.9 per cent) in the Mexican American children. PMID:3605476

Ismail, A L; Burt, B A; Brunelle, J A

1987-01-01

143

Association of urinary phytoestrogen concentrations with serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Some clinical trials have shown that high phytoestrogen intake may decrease serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and phytoestrogens may also lower prostate cancer risk. It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between the serum PSA level and urine phytoestrogen concentration in generally healthy US men. 824 men, 40+ year old without prostate cancer, who participated in the 2001-2004 NHANES surveys, were included in the analysis. The association of total PSA, free PSA, and PSA ratio [free PSA/total PSA * 100] with concentrations of isoflavones and lignans (standardized for urinary creatinine concentration) was examined using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. The linear regression analyses showed no clear association between creatinine-standardized urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and serum total or free PSA levels or PSA ratio. However, the odds of having a PSA ratio < 15% rose from quartile 1 to quartile 4 of isoflavone excretion (odds ratio = 2.82, 95 % confidence interval 1.28-6.22 for top versus bottom quartile), but there were no associations with having a PSA ratio < 25%. In generally healthy US men, 40+ years old without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, urinary isoflavone and lignan concentrations were not associated with serum PSA level. PMID:23909724

Walser-Domjan, Esther; Richard, Aline; Eichholzer, Monika; Platz, Elizabeth A; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

2014-01-01

144

Nutrition Education for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Fellows: A Survey of NASPGHAN Fellowship Training Programs  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. Methods A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to NASPGHAN, including sites in the United States, Canada and Mexico. The data were examined for patterns in teaching methodology and coverage of specific nutrition topics based on Level 1 training in nutrition, which is the minimum requirement according to published NASPGHAN fellowship training guidelines. Results The majority of the teaching was conducted by MD degree faculty (61%), and most of the education was provided through clinical care experiences. Only 31% of Level 1 nutrition topics were consistently covered by more than 80% of programs, and coverage did not correlate with the size of the programs. Competency in nutrition training was primarily assessed through questions to individuals or groups of fellows (77 and 65%, respectively). Program directors cited a lack of faculty interested in nutrition and a high workload as common obstacles for teaching. Conclusions The methodology of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training is for the most part unstructured and inconsistent among the different programs. The minimum Level 1 requirements are not consistently covered. The development of core curriculums and learning modules may be beneficial in improving nutrition education. PMID:22343911

Martinez, J. Andres; Koyama, Tatsuki; Acra, Sari; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Shulman, Robert J.

2012-01-01

145

Analysis of six elements (ca, mg, fe, zn, cu, and mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables. PMID:25524523

Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2015-03-01

146

Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

2005-01-01

147

Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors  

PubMed Central

Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles in order to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the general U.S. population. Objectives: We identified predictors and evaluated trends in DCP concentrations according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type. Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during NHANES 2003–2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income. Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1–12.9 ?g/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8–1.0 ?g/L) throughout 2003–2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (6–11 years of age) and adults > 60 years of age were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, although differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with increasing income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCP urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations have showed a downward trend since 2003. Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003–2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds. Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. 2014. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol in the U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): trends and predictors. Environ Health Perspect 122:351–355;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816 PMID:24451842

Wong, Lee-Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Calafat, Antonia M.

2014-01-01

148

Excess type 2 diabetes in African-American women and men aged 40–74 and socioeconomic status: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) explains differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes between African-American and non-Hispanic white women and men.DESIGNCross sectional study of diabetes prevalence, SES, and other risk factors ascertained by physical examination and interview.SETTINGInterviews were conducted in subjects' homes; physical examinations were conducted in mobile examination centres.PARTICIPANTS961 African-American women, 1641 non-Hispanic white women, 839 African-American

Jessica M Robbins; Viola Vaccarino; Heping Zhang; Stanislav V Kasl

2000-01-01

149

ALKYL PHOSPHATE RESIDUE VALUES IN THE URINE OF FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (HANES) SAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 Florida citrus pesticide usage survey, it was found that substantial quantities of ethion, carbophenothion, malathion, and dioxathion are used on Florida citrus crops. Ethion is used for Snow scale and Rust mites; carbophenothion is used on Rust and Spider mites, Snow s...

150

Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

2013-01-01

151

Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...

152

Associations between immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers with severity of depressive symptoms: An analysis of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated increased levels of serum markers of systemic inflammation and immune system function among individuals with depressive symptoms. Despite these observations, the biological mechanisms behind this association remain elusive. The objective of the present analysis was to examine the individual and joint associations of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein with depression severity and

Roni Kobrosly; Edwin van Wijngaarden

2010-01-01

153

Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

154

Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

2012-01-01

155

Distributions and Trends of Serum Lipid Levels among United States Children and Adolescents Ages 4–19 Years: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses into adulthood. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, in childhood may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Lipid distributions among children and adolescents were examined using the most recent nationally representative data.Methods.Data from 7,499 examinees in NHANES III (1988–1994) were used

Tamy B. Hickman; Ronette R. Briefel; Margaret D. Carroll; Basil M. Rifkind; James I. Cleeman; Kurt R. Maurer; Clifford L. Johnson

1998-01-01

156

Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ?2 years (n?=?16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended consequence of lowering overall dietary quality. PMID:23927718

2013-01-01

157

Differences in energy, nutrient, and food intakes in a US sample of Mexican-American women and men: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n = 1,404) aged 25-64 years: those born in Mexico, those born in the United States whose primary language was Spanish, and those born in the United States whose primary language was English. Percentages of persons who met the national dietary guidelines for fat, fiber, and potassium and the recommended intakes of vitamins and minerals associated with cardiovascular disease were also compared. In general, Mexican Americans born in Mexico consumed significantly less fat and significantly more fiber; vitamins A, C, E, and B6; and folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium than did those born in the United States, regardless of language spoken. More women and men born in Mexico met the dietary guidelines or recommended nutrient intakes than those born in the United States. The heart-healthy diets of women and men born in Mexico should be encouraged among all Mexican Americans living in the United States, especially given the increasing levels of obesity and diabetes among this rapidly growing group of Americans. PMID:10997545

Dixon, L B; Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M

2000-09-15

158

The relationship between height and neighborhood context across racial/ethnic groups: a multi-level analysis of the 1999-2004 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

While a growing literature has documented a link between neighborhood context and health outcomes, little is known about the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and height. Using individual data from the 1999-2004 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey merged with tract-level data from the U.S. Census, we investigate several neighborhood characteristics, including neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), education index of concentration at the extremes (ICE), and population density, as potential predictors of height. Employing a series of two-level random intercept models, we find a one standard deviation increase in NSES to be associated with a 0.6-1.4 cm height advantage for white and foreign-born Mexican-American females and for U.S. born Mexican-American males, net of individual-level controls. Similarly, a 10 point increase in neighborhood education ICE was associated with 0.23-0.32 cm greater height for white and foreign-born Mexican-American females and U.S. born Mexican-American males. Population density was nominally negatively associated with height for foreign-born Mexican-American females. Our findings reveal that lower physical stature for some ethnic and gender groups is clustered within neighborhoods of low SES and education, suggesting that contextual factors may play a role in influencing height above individual-level attributes. PMID:22613511

Do, D Phuong; Watkins, Daphne C; Hiermeyer, Martin; Finch, Brian K

2013-01-01

159

Sexual Orientation–Related Differences in Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among US Adults Aged 20 to 59 Years: 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated sexual orientation–related differences in tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods. The 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys assessed 11?744 individuals aged 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, tobacco use, and SHS exposure (cotinine levels ??0.05 ng/mL in a nonsmoker). We used multivariate methods to compare tobacco use prevalence and SHS exposure among gay or lesbian (n?=?180), bisexual (n?=?273), homosexually experienced (n?=?388), and exclusively heterosexual (n?=?10?903) individuals, with adjustment for demographic confounding. Results. Lesbian and bisexual women evidenced higher rates of tobacco use than heterosexual women. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was more prevalent among lesbian and homosexually experienced women than among heterosexual women. Nonsmoking lesbians reported greater workplace exposure and bisexual women greater household exposure than heterosexual women did. Identical comparisons among men were not significant except for lower workplace exposure among nonsmoking gay men than among heterosexual men. Conclusions. Nonsmoking sexual-minority women are more likely to be exposed to SHS than nonsmoking heterosexual women. Public health efforts to reduce SHS exposure in this vulnerable population are needed. PMID:23948019

Bandiera, Frank C.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

160

The association between a low urine pH and the components of metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: Findings based on the 2010 Korea National health and nutrition examination survey  

PubMed Central

Background: Low urine pH is related to obesity and insulin resistance, which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to identify the relation between a low urine pH and MS after controlled for other covariates including demographic and lifestyle factors in adult Korean population. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey and 1960 men and 2702 women were included in this study. Study subjects were divided into the group with urine pH <5.5 and the group with urine pH ?5.5 refer to literature. We then evaluated the association between low urine pH and MS. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, regular exercise, and blood urea nitrogen level, the odds ratio (OR) for the presence of MS in the group with urine pH <5.5 was 1.350 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.158-1.573) using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria or 1.304 (95% CI: 1.082-1.572) using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Among MS components, elevated fasting glucose (OR: 1.231, 95% CI: 1.058-1.433, P = 0.007) and elevated triglyceride (TG) (OR: 1.389, 95% CI: 1.189-1.623, P < 0.001) showed a significantly high OR. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that low urine pH is associated with MS in the Korean population. Among MS components, elevated fasting glucose and elevated TG showed a significantly high OR. PMID:25364357

Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Nam, Kyung Jee; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Yi, Yu Hyone; Tak, Young Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Soo Bong; Lee, Ka Young

2014-01-01

161

The effects of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate on free thyroxine for potentially sensitive subpopulations of the 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.  

PubMed

Among women with urinary iodine concentration <100??g/l in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), urinary perchlorate was associated with significant changes in thyroid stimulating hormone and total thyroxine (T4). Although perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate all potentially act to inhibit iodide uptake, free T4 was not found to be associated with exposure to these chemicals in the same data. Fetuses of pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency are thought to be a sensitive subpopulation for perchlorate exposure, but the potential associations between free T4 and exposure to these chemicals among pregnant mothers in NHANES 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 have not been specifically evaluated to date. This study investigates the potential associations between urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate and serum free T4 in individuals with low urinary iodine levels and pregnant women. Multivariate regression models of free T4 were conducted and included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, and covariates known to have an impact on the thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hours of fasting). Meta-analyses were also conducted on non-pregnant and on pregnant women from the two survey cycles. Urinary nitrate was associated with serum free T4 in non-pregnant women of NHANES 2001-2002 who had urinary iodine ?100??g/l. In the meta-analysis, urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were significant predictors of serum free T4 in non-pregnant women. No association was found in men and pregnant women. TPO antibodies were significant predictors of free T4 among non-pregnant women only when the models included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Risk assessment for perchlorate exposure should consider co-exposure to nitrate and thiocyanate. PMID:24149973

Suh, Mina; Abraham, Liz; Hixon, J Gregory; Proctor, Deborah M

2014-11-01

162

Sex Differences Associated With Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Seropositivity Unwareness in Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen-positive Adults: 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the sex-specific factors associated with being unaware of one’s hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity status in a large, HBsAg-positive population of Koreans. Methods: In total, 1197 subjects aged 19 years or older who were HBsAg-positive according to data from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Subjects were considered unaware of their HBsAg seropositivity status if they answered that they had no knowledge of being previously infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or diagnosed with HBV hepatitis. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance estimate were used to assess the significance of the variables using weighted frequencies. Results: The majority (77.8%) of HbsAg-positive Korean adults (females, 81.9%; males, 74.6%) were unaware of their HBsAg seropositivity status. We found that sex (female: prevalence ratio [PR] 1.19), household income (low: PR, 1.15), marital status (never married: PR, 1.18), self-rated health (moderate: PR, 1.14; good: PR, 1.12), and alcohol use (at least 2-3 times/wk: PR, 1.21) were associated with being unaware. In females, age (50 to 59 years: PR, 1.29; ?70 years: PR, 1.30), household income (low: PR, 1.37; middle–low: PR, 1.24), and marital status (never married: PR, 1.33) were associated with being unaware. In males, self-rated health (moderate: PR, 1.14; good: PR, 1.21) and alcohol use (at least 2–3 times/wk: PR, 1.21) were associated with being unaware. Conclusions: Factors related to the socioeconomic status of females and the health-related behaviors of males were found to be associated with being unaware of one’s HBsAg seropositivity status. PMID:25857645

Jang, Suk-Yong; Jang, Sung-In; Bae, Hong-Chul; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

2015-01-01

163

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Vending: Development, Dissemination, and Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and

Carol Voss; Susan Klein; Karen Glanz; Margaret Clawson

2012-01-01

164

An investigation of the association between omega 3 FA and bone mineral density among older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey years 2005–2008  

PubMed Central

Summary The relation of omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) with bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed among adults >60 years; NHANES data (2005–2008). The association of dietary n-3 FA with measures of hip BMD was equivocal, but n-3 FA supplement use was significantly associated with higher spine BMD—a finding that deserves further study. Introduction Associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone mineral density are not well understood. Purpose To evaluate the cross-sectional relation between dietary omega 3 fatty acid intake (specifically docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and octadecatetraenoic) and BMD at the hip and spine among older adults. Methods Omega 3 FA intake (g/day) was assessed from two 24-h recalls using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, in 2005–2008); and omega 3 FA supplement use (yes/no) via questionnaire. Multivariable regression models were developed to explain variance in femoral neck, total femur, and lumbar spine BMD among 2,125 men and women over 60 years. Results Mean age was 70 years. In adjusted models, dietary omega 3 FA were marginally associated with greater femoral neck BMD (p =0.0505), but not with total femur BMD (p =0.95) or lumbar spine BMD (p =0.74). Omega 3 supplement use was significantly positively associated with lumbar spine BMD (p =0.005) but not with femoral neck or total femur BMD. Conclusions Dietary intakes of omega 3 FA were marginally associated with femoral neck BMD; however, omega 3 supplement use was significantly associated with higher lumbar spine BMD in older adults. These results emphasize the need for assessment of total omega 3 intakes (diet and supplements) to provide a greater range of intake and a more accurate picture of the relation between omega 3 FA and BMD. PMID:24121998

Kerstetter, J. E.; Kenny, A. M.; Insogna, K. L.; Walsh, S. J.

2014-01-01

165

Higher Serum Heavy Metal May Be Related with Higher Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration in Koreans: Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2, 2010, 2011)  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (?-GT) may be an early and sensitive marker for oxidative stress. This study was performed to evaluate the association between serum heavy metals and ?-GT concentration. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis based on data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (V-1, 2, 2010, 2011) regarding serum heavy metal concentrations (lead, mercury, and cadmium) as well as serum ?-GT. Serum heavy metals were categorized into tertiles, and serum ?-GT concentration was compared using an analysis of covariance test after relevant variable adjustments. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT in each heavy metal tertile using logistic regression. Results The mean serum lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were 2.67, 5.08, and 1.02 µg/dL in men and 1.95, 3.60, and 1.21 µg/dL in women, respectively. Partial correlation showed a significant positive relation between each heavy metal and serum ?-GT concentration. Comparing serum ?-GT concentration by the tertile of each heavy metal, serum ?-GT concentration showed a significant increase as the tertiles of serum mercury and cadmium in men and that of serum mercury in women increased, but not with lead. The OR of having the highest tertile of serum ?-GT was significant for cadmium in men (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54 to 6.35) and mercury in women (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.10) in the top tertile of each heavy metal. Conclusion Higher serum heavy metal concentration may be related with higher serum ?-GT concentration. In particular, serum cadmium in men and mercury in women showed significant correlation with serum ?-GT concentration. PMID:24724002

Kim, Sung-Jin; Han, Sung-Woo; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

2014-01-01

166

Prevalence, Risk Factors, Quality of Life, and Health-Care Seeking Behaviors of Female Urinary Incontinence: Results From the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2007-2009)  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is a lack of information on female urinary incontinence (UI) in South Korea. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare-seeking behaviors of women with UI. Methods We included 9,873 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. The condition of UI was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Do you have UI?" Additionally, health care seeking behavior for UI was defined as answering "yes" to "Have you ever been treated for UI?' The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean age of our sample was 49.7 years. The overall prevalence of UI was 7.9%. The prevalence of UI significantly increased with age. The rate of healthcare-seeking behavior for UI also significantly increased with age. However, the rate of healthcare seeking for UI was significantly lower when compared to the prevalence of UI. In our multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, and marriage were significantly and independently associated with UI. As the severity of all the subscales of EQ-5D increased, the unadjusted odds ratio for UI also increased. After adjusting for potential confounders, the subscales of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from the EQ-5D were significantly associated with UI. Conclusions UI is a common disease and is significantly associated with QoL. Our results suggest the need for developing preventive measures and treatment policies for UI. PMID:24729925

Kwon, Choon Sig

2014-01-01

167

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-01-01

168

Negative Association between Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate Concentrations in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006  

PubMed Central

Objectives Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15–3.62), 40363 (37512–43431), and 1129 (1029–1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P?=?0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P?=?0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P?=?0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI)?=?0.77 (0.60–0.98) and 0.69 (0.61–0.79), respectively]. Conclusions A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation. PMID:25514572

Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

2014-01-01

169

A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition

Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2013-01-01

170

Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

171

SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

172

Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

2013-01-01

173

46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...15-30 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...vessel must undergo drydock and internal structural examinations as follows:...

2011-10-01

174

46 CFR 167.15-30 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...15-30 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...vessel must undergo drydock and internal structural examinations as follows:...

2010-10-01

175

46 CFR 169.229 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...229 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...vessel must undergo drydock and internal structural examinations as follows:...

2011-10-01

176

46 CFR 169.229 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...229 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey...vessel must undergo drydock and internal structural examinations as follows:...

2010-10-01

177

Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination  

E-print Network

Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health Available online 7 March 2013 Keywords: Perchlorate Iodine Thiocyanate Thyroid hormone National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey a b s t r a c t Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all

California at Berkeley, University of

178

Validity and Reliability of a Nutrition Knowledge Survey for Assessment in Elementary School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited surveys are available to assess the nutrition knowledge of children. The goals of this study were to test the validity and reliability of a computer nutrition knowledge survey for elementary school students and to evaluate the impact of the “Fit Kids ‘r' Healthy Kids” nutrition intervention via the knowledge survey. During survey development, a sample (n=12) of health educators,

Jared R. Gower; Laurie J. Moyer-Mileur; Robert D. Wilkinson; Hillarie Slater; Kristine C. Jordan

2010-01-01

179

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?

2013-01-01

180

Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to improving the recreational facility food environment, however one year following their release, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY remained low. A mandated policy approach could offer an efficacious, cost-effective means of improving the food environment within recreational facilities. PMID:21631946

2011-01-01

181

Three clustering patterns among metabolic syndrome risk factors and their associations with dietary factors in Korean adolescents: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Even though the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents is increasing, little is presently known about this syndrome in adolescents. This study aimed to cluster metabolic risk factors as well as examine the associations between identified patterns and nutrient intake using data from the Korean National Health Examination and Nutritional Assessment (KNHANES). SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 2,958 subjects aged 10 to 18 years along with both biochemical and dietary data information were obtained from KNHANES 2007-2010. Six components of metabolic syndrome were used to identify any patterns via factor analysis. Individuals were categorized into quartile groups according to their pattern score. RESULTS Three clustering patterns with high loadings were identified and named as follows: 1) high blood pressure, 2) dyslipidemia, and 3) glucose abnormality patterns. The high blood pressure pattern showed high loadings of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, the dyslipidemia pattern showed high loadings of triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels, and the glucose abnormality pattern showed high loadings of fasting blood glucose levels. Intakes of fat and riboflavin were significantly decreased, whereas those of sodium and niacin were significantly increased across the quartiles in the dyslipidemia pattern. No nutrient intake except that of thiamin was significantly associated with the high blood pressure or glucose abnormality pattern. CONCLUSION Our findings show that metabolic syndrome risk factors in the Korean adolescent population are characterized by three distinct patterns, which are differentially associated with dietary factors. Characterizing metabolic risk factors and providing specific dietary guidelines for target groups are important.

Yu, Yeon

2015-01-01

182

The association between the incidence of urolithiasis and nutrition based on Japanese National Health and Nutrition Surveys.  

PubMed

To clarify the association between regional variations in urolithiasis incidence and nutrition intake, we evaluated associated data from Japanese national surveys. The incidence of urolithiasis in 12 regions of Japan was calculated from 2005 patient data obtained from 430 hospitals (n = 92,797). Nutrition intake data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. We examined the association between urolithiasis incidence and average intake of various types of food or nutrients by region. Continuing surveys in Japan reveal fixed variations in urolithiasis incidence among geographic regions. The national average of patients with urolithiasis was estimated as 203.1 per 100,000 citizens. Regarding food, intake of fruit correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis (r = -0.721, p = 0.008), while intake of eggs (r = 0.537, p = 0.072) and sugar (r = 0.475, p = 0.119) tended to positively correlate with incidence. Regarding nutrients, intake of potassium (r = -0.500, p = 0.098), vitamin K (r = -0.562, p = 0.057), and pantothenic acid (r = -0.560, p = 0.058) tended to negatively correlate with incidence. The incidence of urolithiasis is higher in geographic areas with populations having low fruit and high sugar intake. PMID:23632912

Yasui, Takahiro; Okada, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Hirose, Masahito; Ando, Ryosuke; Kubota, Yasue; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Gao, Bing; Suzuki, Sadao; Kohri, Kenjiro

2013-06-01

183

Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

184

Nutritional survey in Greek children: nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake

E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis

1997-01-01

185

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

186

Examiner's Manual. School Climate Survey: Student Satisfaction Survey, Teacher Satisfaction Survey, Parent Satisfaction Survey: Form A. Sampler Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for examiners administering the School Climate Survey (SCS), the Teacher Satisfaction Survey (TSS), the Student Satisfaction Survey (SSS), and the Parent Satisfaction Survey (PSS) of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) are provided. These four surveys are the initial result of research/development efforts by…

Halderson, Cynthia; And Others

187

Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.  

PubMed

Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses. PMID:22764138

Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

2012-07-01

188

Adolescent lipoprotein classifications according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) vs. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal lipid levels in adulthood in a Middle East population  

PubMed Central

Background To compare the predictive ability of adolescent lipoprotein classification using the National Examination Survey (NHANES) cut points and those of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal levels in adulthood. Method From 1032 adolescents, aged 14–19 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, all lipid measures were determined at baseline and again after 6 years. Multivariable Odds Ratios (ORs) were calculated for borderline and high categories of lipids to predict dyslipidemia in adulthood, considering the normal level as a reference. Area under the receiving characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess the predictive ability of each adolescent lipid classification. Result Applying the NCEP classification, the prevalences of high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in males were 12.1%, 12.9%, 26.1% and 34.2% respectively; in females the corresponding prevalences were 15.4%, 17.9%, 21.4% and 25.0%, respectively. Using NHANES cut points, the prevalence of high TC, LDL-C and triglycerides were lower, than those defined by NCEP; the ORs of high categories of lipids (defined by NHANES) were higher than ORs based on the NECP classification, except for HDL-C. For all lipid measures, both classifications had similar predictive abilities, except for TC/HDL-C, which had higher predictive power applying the NHANES classification rather than the NCEP one (AUC 71% vs. 68%, respectively). Conclusion No differences were found between NCEP and NHANES classifications for prediction of adult dyslipidemia, except for TC/HDL-C. Because of their simple application, NCEP cut points can be used in clinical settings. PMID:22937812

2012-01-01

189

The association of dietary quality and food group intake patterns with bone health status among Korean postmenopausal women: a study using the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related disease are drawing a lot of attention in Korea as one of the serious health problems. Bone health status may be influenced by the general dietary quality and dietary pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS To determine the relationship between dietary quality and intake patterns and bone health status, the %RNI, NAR, DDS, and food group intake patterns were assessed according to their bone health status for 847 postmenopausal women using the 2010 KNHANES data after eliminating those of likely changing their diet under the advice of doctors or those taking estrogen. RESULTS Bone health became worse as dietary quality deteriorated. All NAR and %RNI values were highly associated with bone health levels and the consumption frequency of Ca sources, DDS and the food group intake patterns also confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that dietary quality and dietary patterns were important for bone health. Nutritional education on eating foods from the five basic food groups has to be emphasized to prevent osteoporosis among older women. PMID:25489406

Go, Gyeongah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lim, Youngsook; Jung, Soyeon; Min, Younghee

2014-01-01

190

Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

Mikow, Victoria A.

191

The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

192

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating, or nutrition, environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. This article reports on the development and evaluation of measures of nutrition environments in retail food stores. Methods: The Nutrition Environment Measures Study developed observational measures of the nutrition environment within retail food stores (NEMS-S)

Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Brian E. Saelens; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

193

The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989–2011  

PubMed Central

The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. PMID:24341753

Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Fengying; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M.

2013-01-01

194

Barriers to Providing Nutrition Counseling by Physicians: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous surveys have shown that there is a disparity between physicians? beliefs about the importance of diet and nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention and the actual delivery of nutrition counseling. The primary objective of this study was to assess the current attitudes, practice behavior, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. Methods.

R. F. Kushner

1995-01-01

195

Survey of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools – An Instructor-Based Analysis  

E-print Network

Abstract- Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey was mailed to the nutrition educator at each institution; recipients could return the survey via mail, fax, or the web. Results: The majority of the 98 medical schools responding to the survey provided nutrition education. In 90 % of responding U.S. medical and osteopathic schools (representing 88 of 98 schools and over 65 % of all institutions), all students were guaranteed exposure to nutrition. An average of 18 ± 12 hours of nutrition was required, including material integrated into other types of courses. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that nutrition education is an integral part of the curriculum of the majority of US medical schools surveyed. A number of medical schools have chosen to incorporate nutrition education into already established basic science and clinical courses. Key Words-Medical education, nutrition education, computer-assisted instruction, curriculum, medical

Frank M. Torti; Kelly M. Adams; Lloyd J. Edwards; Karen C; Lindell Ms Rd

196

Age and kidney function are the primary correlates of fasting plasma total homocysteine levels in non-diabetic and diabetic adults. Results from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is commonly elevated in persons with diabetes. This may be due to effects of insulin and\\/or glucose and\\/or metabolic control on the metabolism or plasma levels of tHcy. This study examined the effects of fasting plasma glucose status on fasting tHcy levels among adults without diabetes, and diabetes per se among adults with a self-report

Glen E Duncan; Sierra M Li; Xiao-Hua Zhou

2005-01-01

197

Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.  

PubMed

The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. PMID:25130685

Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

2014-01-01

198

Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys--toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.  

PubMed

Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets. PMID:25407161

Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

2014-12-01

199

A Survey of Computer Methods in Forensic Handwritten Document Examination  

E-print Network

1 A Survey of Computer Methods in Forensic Handwritten Document Examination Sargur SRIHARI Graham LEEDHAM Abstract Forensic document examination is at a cross-roads due to challenges posed to its recent efforts in the areas of establishing a scientific basis of forensic handwriting examination

200

Lessons Learned About Adolescent Nutrition from the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986–1987, more than 30,000 adolescents completed the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey, a comprehensive assessment of adolescent health status, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Although the survey included relatively few items on nutrition-related issues, a wealth of knowledge about adolescent nutrition was gained. Lessons learned from a decade of subsequent analyses of data collected in the survey and implications for

DIANNE NEUMARK-SZTAINER; MARY STORY; MICHAEL D RESNICK; ROBERT W BLUM

1998-01-01

201

Examining Reliability and Validity of Job Analysis Survey Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job analysis has played a fundamental role in developing and validating licensure and certification examinations, but research on what constitutes reliable and valid job analysis data is lacking. This paper examines the reliability and validity of job analysis survey results. Generalizability theory and the multi-facet Rasch item response theory…

Wang, Ning; Wiser, Randall F.; Newman, Larry S.

202

Serum Nutritional Biomarkers and Their Associations with Sleep among US Adults in Recent National Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005–2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20–85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A) Sleep duration; (B) Sleep disorder; (C) Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as “Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction” (Factor 1), “Sleepiness” (Factor 2) and “Sleep disturbance” (Factor 3). Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene), folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models. Results Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OH)D and sleepiness (as well as insomnia), and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5–6 h per night) compared to normal sleep duration (7–8 h per night). Conclusions A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships. PMID:25137304

Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Canas, Jose A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Shah, Mauli T.; McNeely, Jessica M.; Zonderman, Alan B.

2014-01-01

203

Nutritional status, health conditions and socio-demographic factors in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: Data from SABE survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race\\/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension,\\u000a diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based\\u000a household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ? 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected\\u000a by probabilistic sampling.

R. Da Silva Coqueiro; Aline Rodrigues Barbosa; A. Ferreti Borgatto

2010-01-01

204

Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.  

PubMed

Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68?h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe. PMID:24781690

Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

2014-07-01

205

Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutritional Surveys and Epidemiological Studies12  

PubMed Central

The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session “Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies” focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance and encourage the production of reliable, objective evidence for use in developing dietary guidance for the public. The speakers called for more transparency of research, raw data, consistent data-staging techniques, and improved data analysis. New approaches to collecting data are urgently needed to increase the credibility and utility of findings from nutrition epidemiological studies. Such studies are critical for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the effects of diet on health. PMID:24038252

Webb, Densie; Leahy, Margaret M.; Milner, John A.; Allison, David B.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Gaine, P. Courtney; Matthews, Robert A.J.; Schneeman, Barbara O.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Young, S. Stanley

2013-01-01

206

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Ms. Pearson

2007-10-12

207

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Updated September 27, 2010 Nutrition is a tool that you can use to improve your overall health and quality of life. You’ve probably heard conflicting information about nutrition and breast cancer. You may wonder whether the ...

208

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF NUTRITIONAL SURVEYS IN UNITED STATES ARMY CAMPS  

PubMed Central

Before the war there had never been presented to food experts in this country an opportunity for the extended study of nutrition comparable to that afforded these investigators. Their report sets forth details of observations which support the “training ration,” which is appetizing and secures a proper distribution of the nutrients. Imagesp413-a PMID:18010111

Murlin, John R.; Miller, Caspar W.

1919-01-01

209

Nutritional care of the obese adult burn patient: a U.K. Survey and literature review.  

PubMed

Obesity is an emerging healthcare problem and affects an increasing number of burn patients worldwide. An email survey questionnaire was constructed and distributed among the 16 U.K. burn services providing adult inpatient facilities to investigate nutritional practices in obese thermally injured patients. Responses received from all dieticians invited to participate in the study were analyzed, and a relevant literature review of key aspects of nutritional care is presented. The majority of services believe that obese patients warrant a different nutritional approach with specific emphasis to avoid overfeeding. The most common algebraic formulae used to calculate calorific requirements include the Schofield, Henry, and modified Penn State equations. Indirect calorimetry despite being considered the "criterion standard" tool to calculate energy requirements is not currently used by any of the U.K. burn services. Gastric/enteral nutrition is initiated within 24 hours of admission in the services surveyed, and a variety of different practices were noted in terms of fasting protocols before procedures requiring general anesthesia/sedation. Hypocaloric regimens for obese patients are not supported by the majority of U.K. facilities, given the limited evidence base supporting their use. The results of this survey outline the wide diversity of dietetic practices adopted in the care of obese burn patients and reveal the need for further study to determine optimal nutritional strategies. PMID:24784903

Goutos, Ioannis

2014-01-01

210

[A survey on the effects of "Dietary Guideline" nutrition education project].  

PubMed

A survey on the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 5145 persons from five cities of four provinces, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Heilongjiang, before and after the nutritional education project on "Dietary Guideline" has been effectively conducted. An obviously good effect has been achieved among the residents, middle and primary school students and elderly people. Before the nutritional educational project has been carried out, the people who understanding the "Dietary Guideline" was only 12.0%, 29.2% and 15.2% of residents, the elderly and students respectively. But after education, the rates raised to 93.4%, 99.0% and 91.9% respectively. Nearly 90% of residents and the elderly got to know the "Dietary Guideline" through the materials distributed from the project. The nutrition knowledge score was improved greatly after the project was conducted. The attitude towards learning nutrition knowledge was good. At the same time, some dietary behavior and the life style of people had been modified. These results indicated that nutrition education is very important on improving people's nutrition knowledge level, changing people's unhealthy living attitudes and dietary habits. PMID:12525095

Zhao, L; Zhai, F; Li, D; Li, Y

2001-05-01

211

Evaluation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education: Application of Behavioral Theory and Survey Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior…

Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.

2012-01-01

212

Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: Practical implications of findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most

Shawn H. Dolan; Melinda Houston; Scott B. Martin

2011-01-01

213

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Mrs. Huish

2009-11-02

214

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

215

Examining XMM Observations in the Galactic Bulge Survey Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VXMM catalog was created in an effort to find help find low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) as part of the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). VXMM consists of XMM-Newton detections made in the GBS region, two 6x1 degree regions 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The goal of the project was to find GBS X-ray sources that exist in XMM observations in order to classify them. The XMM data were downloaded from NASA’s database. Source detection was conducted on the filtered data sets using the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey as a guideline for the procedure but incorporating more recent data than 2XMM. The sources detected make up the VXMM catalog, which was used to cross reference with the GBS catalog to find GBS sources in the XMM data. In total the VXMM catalog found 107 GBS sources also detected by XMM. The spectra of several of these sources were examined to see which could be classified based on the XMM data. We focus on CX13 as it was the brightest unclassified GBS source detected by XMM. CX13 was determined to not be an active star as its temperature would to be high. Using a power-law model fit an LMXB was ruled out, as was a background AGN after the variability power spectrum was analyzed. The most likely remaining interpretation of its X-ray spectrum and variability is that it is an absorbed magnetic cataclysmic variable. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789. Vicente Estrada-Carpenter also acknowledges support from the REU Site in Physics and Astronomy (NSF Grant No. 1262890) at Louisiana State University

Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente; Hynes, R. I.; Britt, C.; Johnson, C.; Jonker, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Torres, M.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Nelemans, G.; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

2014-01-01

216

The Validity of Nutrition Screening Initiative DETERMINE Checklist Responses in Older Georgians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative DETERMINE Checklist (NSI) is used throughout the United States to assess nutrition risk of those requesting the services of the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP). This study examined the ability of the NSI to evaluate nutrition risk by comparing the responses between NSI and matched comparable survey questions using the self-administered mail survey data that

Stephanie Sinnett; Rebecca Bengle; Arvine Brown; Anne P. Glass; Mary Ann Johnson; Jung Sun Lee

2010-01-01

217

The results of a national survey regarding nutritional care of obese burn patients.  

PubMed

Little is known about the nutritional needs of obese burn patients. Given the impact of obesity on the morbidity and mortality of these patients, a uniform understanding of perceptions and practices is needed. To elucidate current practices of clinicians working with the obese burn population, the authors constructed a multidisciplinary survey designed to collect this information from practitioners in United States burn centers. An electronic approach was implemented to allow for ease of distribution and completion. A portable document format (pdf) letter was e-mailed to the members of the American Burn Association and then mailed separately to additional registered dietitians identified as working in burn centers. This letter contained a link to a 29-question survey on the SurveyMonkey.com server. Questions took the form of multiple choice and free text entry. Responses were received from physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered dietitians, and nurses. Seventy-five percent of respondents defined obesity as body mass index >30. The Harris-Benedict equation was identified as the most frequently used equation to calculate the caloric needs of burn patients (32%). Fifty-eight percent indicated that they alter their calculations for the obese patient by using adjusted body weight. Calculations for estimated protein needs varied among centers. The majority did not use hypocaloric formulas for obese patients (79%). Enteral nutrition was initiated within the first 24 hours for both obese and nonobese patients at most centers. Sixty-three percent suspend enteral nutrition during operative procedures for all patients. Oral feeding of obese patients was the most preferred route, with total parenteral nutrition being the least preferred. Longer length of stay, poor wound healing, poor graft take, and prolonged intubation were outcomes perceived to occur more in the obese burn population. In the absence of supporting research, clinicians are making adjustments to the nutritional care of obese burn patients. This indicates the need for further research to determine consistent best practices. PMID:21785364

Coen, Jennifer R; Carpenter, Annette M; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Matt, Sarah E; Shaw, Jesse D; Flanagan, Katherine E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

2011-01-01

218

Breastfeeding and maternal employment: results from three national nutritional surveys in Mexico.  

PubMed

To evaluate the association between maternal employment and breastfeeding (both duration and status) in Mexican mothers using data from three National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1999, 2006 and 2012. We analyzed data from the 1999 National Nutrition Survey, the 2006 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the 2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNS-1999, NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012) on 5,385 mothers aged 12-49 years, with infants under 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between breastfeeding and maternal employment adjusted for maternal and infant's socio-demographic covariates. Maternal formal employment was negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers with infants under 1 year. Formally employed mothers were 20 % less likely to breastfeed compared to non-formally employed mothers and 27 % less likely to breastfeed compared to unemployed mothers. Difference in median duration of breastfeeding between formally employed and unemployed mothers was 5.7 months for NNS-1999, 4.7 months for NNHS-2006 and 6.7 months for NNHS-2012 respectively (p < 0.05). In NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012, health care access was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Maternal employment has been negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers of <1 year infants at least for the last 15 years. For Mexicans involved in policy design, implementation or modification, these data might offer robust evidence on this negative association, and can be used confidently as basis for conceiving a more just legislation for working lactating women. PMID:25366099

Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González de Cosío, Teresita

2015-05-01

219

Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

2010-01-01

220

Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

Roberts, Jean

221

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Mrs. Moffat

2010-12-13

222

Nutritional status of the older adult is associated with dentition status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study was designed to examine associations between the number of posterior occlusal pairs of teeth and the nutritional status of older adults participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) survey. Design Impaired dentition was assessed by number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth (grinding teeth, n=8 pairs) and complete denture status. Nutritional status

Nadine R Sahyoun; Chien-Lung Lin; Elizabeth Krall

2003-01-01

223

Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children,

Jayanta Bhattacharya; Janet Currie; Steven Haider

2004-01-01

224

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The...

2013-10-01

225

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The...

2014-10-01

226

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The...

2012-10-01

227

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The...

2011-10-01

228

46 CFR 115.600 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The...

2010-10-01

229

A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

2014-01-01

230

Examining preschoolers' nutrition knowledge using a meal creation and food group classification task: age and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty?nine three? to six?year?old children were interviewed. Findings suggest that the healthy meals children created were lower

Shayla C. Holub

2010-01-01

231

A National Survey to Examine Teacher Professional Development and Implementation of Desktop GIS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the results of an online national survey of K-12 educators who attended a series of GIS training workshops conducted by the authors between 1998 and 2004. Data from the self-report survey (N = 186) suggest new information about potential changes in instruction and assessment patterns following GIS training. The survey

Baker, Thomas R.; Palmer, Anita M.; Kerski, Joseph J.

2009-01-01

232

The Norelco Sport Fanatics Survey: examining behaviors of sport fans.  

PubMed

The Norelco Sport Fanatics Survey administered by Impulse Research to over 1,400 avid sport fans online assessed their support of and involvement with their teams, emotional responses prior to and subsequent to team performance, and the effect of their fandom on their family and social relations. Analysis yielded results which replicated past research and indicated that sport fandom was extremely important to the respondents, intensified affective reactions, and was perceived as a highly social activity with very few negative consequences for interpersonal relations. PMID:12841467

Wann, Daniel L; Friedman, Kim; McHale, Meredith; Jaffe, Andrew

2003-06-01

233

Nutritional Status Of Under-Five Children In Libya; A National Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya. Population and methods A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a national representative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995. Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined using standard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that 4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventy percent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in rural areas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups. Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight. Conclusion The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence of stunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition with evidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of these nutritional problems, particularly overweight. PMID:21499476

Adel, El Taguri; Marie-Françoise, Rolland-Cachera; Mahmud Salaheddin, M; Najeeb, Elmrzougi; Ahmed, Abdel Monem; Ibrahim, Betilmal; Gerard, Lenoir

2008-01-01

234

Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers surveyed; (b) examine relationships between elementary school teacher attitudes about school nutrition environments and perceived influence on the

Beverly Lawler Girard

2010-01-01

235

Husband's preference for a son and women's nutrition: examining the role of actual and desired family composition on women's anaemia and body mass index in India.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between the husband's preference for a son, sex composition of children and risk of anaemia and underweight among married Indian women. Information was collected regarding 29,517 couples having at least one child in the nationally representative 2005-06 National Family Health Survey of India. The exposures were husband's preference for a son and sex composition of children: sons only, daughters only and mixed. Outcome included maternal underweight and moderate/severe anaemia. Husband's preference for a son was not found to be associated with his wife's risk of anaemia or underweight. Sex composition of the children was modestly associated with increased odds of anaemia among women from households with daughters only as compared with those with sons only [AOR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.04, 1.35]. The findings from this population-based study of socio-cultural norms around preference for a son and married Indian women's nutritional status do not support the hypothesis that husband's preference for sons influences the nutritional status of their wives. However, having daughters only is associated with maternal anaemia for reasons that remain to be established. PMID:22150711

Sabarwal, Shagun; Subramanian, S V; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G

2012-01-01

236

Examining the Medical Blogosphere: An Online Survey of Medical Bloggers  

PubMed Central

Background Blogs are the major contributors to the large increase of new websites created each year. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments and, in this way, generate both conversation and encourage collaboration. Despite their popularity, however, little is known about blogs or their creators. Objectives To contribute to a better understanding of the medical blogosphere by investigating the characteristics of medical bloggers and their blogs, including bloggers’ Internet and blogging habits, their motivations for blogging, and whether or not they follow practices associated with journalism. Methods We approached 197 medical bloggers of English-language medical blogs which provided direct contact information, with posts published within the past month. The survey included 37 items designed to evaluate data about Internet and blogging habits, blog characteristics, blogging motivations, and, finally, the demographic data of bloggers. Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used to assess the significance of an association between 2 categorical variables. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was utilized to reveal the relationship between participants’ ages, as well as the number of maintained blogs, and their motivation for blogging. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to reveal relationships between practices associated with journalism and participants’ characteristics like gender and pseudonym use. Results A total of 80 (42%) of 197 eligible participants responded. The majority of responding bloggers were white (75%), highly educated (71% with a Masters degree or doctorate), male (59%), residents of the United States (72%), between the ages of 30 and 49 (58%), and working in the healthcare industry (67%). Most of them were experienced bloggers, with 23% (18/80) blogging for 4 or more years, 38% (30/80) for 2 or 3 years, 32% (26/80) for about a year, and only 7% (6/80) for 6 months or less. Those who received attention from the news media numbered 66% (53/80). When it comes to best practices associated with journalism, the participants most frequently reported including links to original source of material and spending extra time verifying facts, while rarely seeking permission to post copyrighted material. Bloggers who have published a scientific paper were more likely to quote other people or media than those who have never published such a paper (U= 506.5, n1= 41, n2= 35, P= .016). Those blogging under their real name more often included links to original sources than those writing under a pseudonym (U= 446.5, n1= 58, n2= 19, P= .01). Major motivations for blogging were sharing practical knowledge or skills with others, influencing the way others think, and expressing oneself creatively. Conclusions Medical bloggers are highly educated and devoted blog writers, faithful to their sources and readers. Sharing practical knowledge and skills, as well as influencing the way other people think, were major motivations for blogging among our medical bloggers. Medical blogs are frequently picked up by mainstream media; thus, blogs are an important vehicle to influence medical and health policy. PMID:18812312

Lulic, Ileana; Brumini, Gordana

2008-01-01

237

Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed community-dwelling older adults to examine the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences. Results revealed that nutrition problems and risk were prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. Common problems included significant weight change in 6 months and low intake of fruits,…

Keller, Heather H.; Hedley, Margaret R.

2002-01-01

238

Dietary patterns of Australian adults and their association with socioeconomic status: results from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe dietary patterns among men and women in the Australian population, and to explore how these varied according to socioeconomic status (SES).Design: A cross-sectional self-report population survey, the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS), was used.Setting: Private dwelling sample, covering urban and rural areas across Australia.Subjects: Data provided by 6680 adults aged 18–64 who participated in the NNS

G Mishra; K Ball; J Arbuckle; D Crawford

2002-01-01

239

The nutrition and eating habits of women in secure psychiatric conditions: a survey with implications for practice and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrition and eating habits of women in a secure psychiatric service were surveyed using in vivo participation, observation and self-report procedures. It was predicted that high levels of obesity were partly related to unhealthy eating preferences, over-consumption of food and environmental factors that supported an unhealthy lifestyle. The results indicated an obesogenic environment in which patients made unhealthy food

Clive Long; Addic Brillon; Donna Schell; Paula Webster

2009-01-01

240

Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

Sells, S. B.

241

Examining the Use of Surveys in Measuring Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing  

E-print Network

Examining the Use of Surveys in Measuring Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Ashraf Khalil Computer computing, the two domains share many common problems that are inherent in using surveys in general Computer Science Indiana University 150 S. Woodlawn Av., Bloomington 47405 USA connelly

Connelly, Kay

242

Considerations in selection of diet assessment methods for examining the effect of nutrition on cognition.  

PubMed

Older adults are the most rapidly growing age group in the United States, and it is estimated that 22.2 % of U.S. adults over 71 years of age have cognitive impairments without dementia and 13.9% have dementia. Cognitive impairment is associated with reduced quality of life, increased risk of hospitalization, inability to live independently, and increased health care costs; therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and delay of cognitive decline is of increasing importance. There is a growing body of research and interest in the relationship between diet and cognitive function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that cognitive function may be improved and cognitive decline prevented as a function of a particular nutrient, food group or dietary pattern; however, results from these trials have failed to be replicated in randomized controlled trials. One possible reason for the equivocality of findings in the diet and cognitive function literature may be the methodological issues and limitations in the assessment of dietary patterns and nutritional intake. Self-reported dietary data can be biased by many factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education; yet, there is limited research on the impact of cognitive function on the integrity of self-reported dietary data. Cognitive function itself may bias diet assessment methods, subsequently obscuring the evaluation of the nutrition-cognition relationship. The present review summarizes methodological validation studies that provide insight into potential errors of diet assessment methods due to cognitive function, identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for improving diet assessment accuracy in studies of individuals with cognitive impairments. PMID:25732219

Zuniga, K; McAuley, E

2015-01-01

243

German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave  

PubMed Central

Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79?years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79?years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79?years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health. PMID:22938722

2012-01-01

244

Examination of Front-of-Package Nutrition Rating Systems and Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., advises the nation on science, engineering, and medicine, and their website allows the general public to be privy to their findings. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies has released on their website a Phase I report of their recent study on "Front-of-Package Nutrition Rating Systems and Symbols". Visitors can find the full Report on the right side of the page, and can be read online or downloaded as a PDF, both for free. A paperback version of the report can also be ordered for a charge. Visitors interested in a "Report Brief" or "Press Release" can view one in PDF or HTML. One of the most important things the report concludes is that due to the epidemic of obese Americans, "it would be useful to display calorie and serving size information prominently in front-of-package symbols." This would show the importance of calories in weight control. Visitors interested in receiving regular e-mails about the Institute of Medicine's work can sign up under the heading "Stay up to date!" on the right-hand menu.

245

Marketing nutrition in restaurants: a survey of current practices and attitudes.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine attitudes toward nutrition, nutrition marketing practices, the relationship between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices, and nutrition training practices in restaurants. A written questionnaire was mailed to 200 research and development (R & D) directors in restaurant companies included in Restaurants & Institutions' list of top 400 foodservice organizations ranked by sales. Seventy (35%) responded. Most R & D directors did not think they were responsible for improving the health of their consumers. A positive relationship existed between attitudes toward nutrition and nutrition marketing practices (P = .013). Forty-four reported that they marketed nutrition and planned to add nutritious menu items in the future. Forty-six reported that nutritious meal options represented 0 to 10% of total sales. Nutrition information was provided to consumers by 27 restaurant companies but such information often had to be requested. The American Heart Association was a popular source of nutrition and menu-planning information. Twelve companies employed a registered dietitian, and 14 used registered dietitians as consultants. Nutrition-related training for restaurant employees was limited. These findings indicate that dietitians have opportunities to market their skills in developing nutritious menu items and providing staff training. Also, dietitians should encourage consumers (especially those with special dietary needs) to let restaurant managers know their menu and nutrition information needs. PMID:2016493

Sneed, J; Burkhalter, J P

1991-04-01

246

A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

247

Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children?survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children?nutritional status of indigenous peoples. PMID:23552397

2013-01-01

248

Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show…

Shotland, Jeffrey

249

Survey of Forensic Document Examination Habit Areas: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL), US Postal Inspection Service Forensic Laboratory (USPIS), and the Data Fusion Laboratory, Drexel University (DFL) have been collaborating on a large scale research project ''Handwriting Individuality--Moving From Art to Science''. In April 1998 a survey was distributed to the community of forensic document examiners (FDEs) requesting input on the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select the criteria and begin the evaluation of the handwriting samples currently in the project. Preliminary results of the survey were made available to the community at the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) meeting in August 1998 and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) meeting in February 1999. This report provides final documentation of the survey and its results. This survey has two objectives: (1) to compile a list of handwriting features and characteristics used by professional forensic document examiners in the examination and comparison of handwriting and (2) to gather information about the significance of these features and characteristics. These objectives are met by having the FDEs provide an indication of their experience in the frequency of habit area evaluation and the utility of the habit area for discrimination.

G Sperry; PA Manzolillo; RC Hanlan; RJ Muehlberger

1999-09-07

250

Survey of Handwriting Habit Areas Used by Forensic Document Examiners: Degree of Use and Discriminatory Power  

SciTech Connect

In April 1998, a survey was distributed to Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs) requesting an evaluation of the habit areas used and their utility in distinguishing handwriting. The information obtained from this survey was intended to provide the data necessary to select a preliminary set of characteristics for analysis. It is important to use these relative rankings as an indication of general tendency and possible discriminatory dominance as compared to an absolute ranking of discriminatory dominance over the other habit areas. The particular circumstances surrounding the examination of handwriting can dictate a far different ordering of habit areas.

Hanlen, Richard C.; Manzolillo, Patricia A.; Muehlberger, Robert J.; Sperry, Grant R.

1999-11-15

251

Reliability and Validity of Nutrition Knowledge, Social-Psychological Factors, and Food Label Use Scales from the 1995 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo test the reliability and validity of scales on nutrition knowledge, social-psychological factors, and use of food labels developed from the 1995 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) questions.

Saori Obayashi; Leonard J. Bianchi; Won O. Song

2003-01-01

252

Indicators to Examine Quality of Large Scale Survey Data: An Example through District Level Household and Facility Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) is used as an example dataset. Methods Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. Results The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. Conclusion The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey. PMID:24598760

Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

2014-01-01

253

The Survey and Analysis of College Students' Nutritional Status in the Western Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To learn about the students' nutritional status in West College and offer reference for integrated control job of malnutrition and overnutrition. Methods: Using the WHO- recommended standard-weight-method to analysis the current nutrition situation of students' in western region. Results: the mount of students with well nutrition is 61.7% of total, malnutrition is 23.3% and overnutrition is 14.9%. the rate

Duoduo Yang; Xiuhong Ren

2011-01-01

254

75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposals involving whole-genome genotyping of DNA samples...proposals for whole-genome genotyping of more than...intends to provide whole genome-genotyping data from...protocol is closed and the project is transferred to the...submitted. Office of Human Research...

2010-06-07

255

Applied visual analytics for exploring the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

E-print Network

. Keywords: visual analytics, scatterplot, NHANES, diet records. 1. Introduction The United States health includes demographic questions such as gender, age and race/ethnicity. Visual data exploration techniques the different dimensions of the data set. The scatterplot matrix was chosen because it provides the user

Maciejewski, Ross

256

The ethics of live patient use in dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations: a national survey.  

PubMed

A national survey of dental hygienists was conducted to explore ethical issues arising from the use of live patients for dental hygiene clinical licensure examinations. Data were collected regarding respondents' demographics, additional costs they incurred associated with their examination beyond the examination fees, delays in patients' treatment resulting from the examination, unethical candidate and/or patient behaviors they experienced, and provisions they made for patients' follow-up care related to the examination. Five hundred surveys were mailed to dental hygienists from two states in each of the five licensure examination regions. The response rate was 40.6 percent (n=203). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the majority of the respondents spent additional money on examination-related expenses (69.2 percent). Sixty-one percent of the respondents reported paying their patients; however, only 50.5 percent felt such a practice was acceptable. More than half (53.1 percent) reported believing it was appropriate to delay treatment in order to have a patient participate in the examination, although only 16.4 percent reported actually delaying treatment. Informed consent was said to be obtained by 94.9 percent of the respondents. The majority (86.6 percent) said they referred patients for follow-up dental hygiene care. When asked if they felt the examination was an accurate assessment of their clinical skills, 78.7 percent of the respondents agreed that it was. PMID:22659695

Lantzy, Marlaina J; Muzzin, Kathleen B; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S; Campbell, Patricia R; Mallonee, Lisa

2012-06-01

257

Examining the Cultural Validity of a College Student Engagement Survey for Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using critical race theory and quantitative criticalist stance, this study examines the construct validity of an engagement survey, "Student Experiences in the Research University" (SERU) for Latino college students through exploratory factor analysis. Results support the principal seven-factor SERU model. However subfactors exhibited differential…

Hernandez, Ebelia; Mobley, Michael; Coryell, Gayle; Yu, En-Hui; Martinez, Gladys

2013-01-01

258

Examining User Acceptance of COPLINK Technologies by Law Enforcement Officers: A Survey Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study purports to develop and empirically examine a model for explaining technology acceptance decisions by individual law enforcement officers. Specifically, we describe the research model and hypotheses, detail our study design, and highlight important results from a pretest study that included 42 detectives and police officers from the Tucson Police Department (TPD). Based on the pretest results, our survey

Chienting Lin; Paul J. Hu; Jennifer Schroeder; Hsinchun Chen

2002-01-01

259

Assessment of nutrition education among pediatric gastroenterologists: A survey of NASPGHAN members  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective; however, pediatric gastroenterology fellows believe that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceived ef...

260

NUTRITION ASSESSMENT SURVEY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN OF DHARWAD AND HALIYAL TALUKS, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to find out the magnitude of the problem of under nutrition among the rural school going children of ages 4 to 14 years and also to identify the epidemiological factors influencing the nutritional status. All 1808 school going children of 49 villages of Dharwad and Haliyal taluks were included in the study undertaken during Mar-Apr 2005.

KR Pravin Chandra; Uma M Padennavar; T Sadashivappa; GN Prabhakar

261

An overview of the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Joint Action  

PubMed Central

Background Health Examination Surveys (HESs) can provide essential information on the health and health determinants of a population, which is not available from other data sources. Nevertheless, only some European countries have systems of national HESs. A study conducted in 2006–2008 concluded that it is feasible to organize national HESs using standardized measurement procedures in nearly all EU countries. The feasibility study also outlined a structure for a European Health Examination Survey (EHES), which is a collaboration to organize standardized HESs in countries across Europe. To facilitate setting up national surveys and to gain experience in applying the EHES methods in different cultures, EHES Joint Action (2010–2011) planned and piloted standardized HESs in the working age population in 12 countries. This included countries with earlier national HESs and countries which were planning their first national HES. The core measurements included in all surveys were weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure, and blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles and glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These are modifiable determinants of major chronic diseases not identified in health interview surveys. There was a questionnaire to complement the data on the examination measurements. Methods Evaluation of the pilot surveys was based on review of national manuals and evaluation reports of survey organizers; observations and discussions of survey procedures during site visits and training seminars; and other communication with the survey organizers. Results Despite unavoidable differences in the ways HESs are organized in the various countries, high quality and comparability of the data seems achievable. The biggest challenge in each country was obtaining high participation rate. Most of the pilot countries are now ready to start their full-size national HES, and six of them have already started. Conclusions The EHES Pilot Project has set up the structure for obtaining comparable high quality health indicators on health and important modifiable risk factors of major non-communicable diseases from the European countries. The European Union is now in a key position to make this structure sustainable. The EHES core survey can be expanded to cover other measurements. PMID:22958511

2012-01-01

262

Parents' and children's reactions to taking blood in a nutrition survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reactions of parents and their children to the request for a blood sample and an attempt to take blood. METHODS: 1859 children aged 1.5-4.5 years took part in a national survey of diet and nutrition. A retrospective inquiry of the parents' and children's reported reactions was carried out six to 18 months later by postal questionnaire sent only to the 1157 who had given consent for an attempt to take blood. RESULTS: 866 questionnaires were returned; 790 were from parents of children in whom an attempt to take blood had been successful. Thirteen per cent said that their child had given blood previously. About 30% discussed the request with the family doctor or nurse. Some 90% said that they were given enough information and that the phlebotomist was sympathetic. Attempting to take blood caused upset in over 50%, which, in most, lasted for less than five minutes. A substantial minority were upset for up to 30 minutes and a few much longer. Bruising or bleeding occurred in 20-27%. Degree and duration of upset were both adversely associated with a failed attempt to obtain blood. CONCLUSION: The majority of preschool children experienced no more than a little upset of short duration after an attempt to take blood, but a substantial minority exhibited a greater degree of upset. These responses should be taken into account when assessing the benefits and risks of the procedure. The best equipment and expertise should be employed for taking blood as successful attempts are less upsetting. PMID:8984916

Davies, P S; Collins, D L; Gregory, J R; Clarke, P C

1996-01-01

263

The Complex Emergency Database: A Global Repository of Small-Scale Surveys on Nutrition, Health and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2014-01-01

264

The Complex Emergency Database: a global repository of small-scale surveys on nutrition, health and mortality.  

PubMed

Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data. PMID:25333954

Altare, Chiara; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2014-01-01

265

Socioeconomic Differentials in Smoking Duration among Adult Male Smokers in China: Result from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Background A smoker’s risk of diseases and death from smoking is closely related to his/her smoking duration. But little is known about the average length of smoking and the association between smoking duration and socio-economic status (SES) among Chinese smokers. Methods A sample of male ever smokers (N = 2,637) aged 18+ years was drawn from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the average length of smoking and socioeconomic differentials in smoking duration. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to obtain median smoking duration. Log-logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative duration of smoking, adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Results Results showed that Chinese male ever smokers aged 18 years and older had a median duration of smoking of 58 years (95% CI: 56–61). Male ever smokers with a lower status job (i.e. farmers, manual and skilled workers, service workers, and office staff) had a significantly longer duration of smoking than those with a professional or administrative job after adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Individuals who earned the lowest income and who had no education or were being illiterate smoked for 11% and 14% longer, respectively, relative to those who had the highest income or who had college or above education. Conclusion The findings demonstrated the problem of long smoking duration and a pattern of social disparities in smoking duration among Chinese male smokers. Social disparities in smoking behavior may exacerbate the already existing social inequalities in health. Thus, policies and interventions to promote smoking cessation should pay more attention to disadvantaged social groups. PMID:25575097

Guo, Hong; Sa, Zhihong

2015-01-01

266

Nutritional State of Children in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): Based on the DPRK Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012  

PubMed Central

A nationwide nutrition survey began when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) requested assistance from international relief organizations in 1997 due to flooding in 1995-1996, followed by the worsening food shortage peak in 1997. According to reported data for the 15 years since the active intervention and assistance from international societies, the malnutrition and mortality rates of children in the DPRK have improved. However, the prevalence of the stunting reported in the latest 2012 report is 27.9%, which is still a moderate-severe level, and worrisome in terms of international standards. In particular, the prevalence in Ryangangdo, which is regarded as the worst region in the DPRK, is 39.6%, which is a very high level of stunting. To alleviate such regional deviation will be a major task for future assistance. In addition, one cannot emphasize too highly the importance of early nutritional assistance for pregnant women and infants, considering that the recovery from stunted growth is low after two years of age, and the aftereffects would continue for the rest of their lives. PMID:25349828

2014-01-01

267

[Participation in health behaviour change programmes: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

Health behaviour change programmes to promote healthy behaviours are aimed at, among other things, counteracting the emergence of widespread non-communicable diseases. Which population groups use these programmes? This analysis is based on data from DEGS1, which was conducted from 2008-2011. People aged 18-79 years were asked about their participation in programmes in the last 12 months in the fields of nutrition, physical activity and relaxation (n?=?7,807). The analysis was stratified by sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of statutory health insurance fund. A total of 16.6?% of respondents participate in at least one programme for behaviour change, with women using these programmes significantly more frequently, indeed twice as often, as men (22.1?% versus 11?%). The older population participates more often than younger age groups. Women and men with low SES use the programmes significantly less frequently than those with middle or high SES. Women who are insured by the AOK health insurance group have a significantly lower rate of participation than women insured by any other statutory health insurance fund. Overall participation has almost doubled since the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (9.1?%). Further efforts are necessary to reach population groups with low participation rates. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703509

Jordan, S; von der Lippe, E

2013-05-01

268

The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Childhood Maternal Education Level, Job Status Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is known to affect cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, the relationship between childhood SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education and occupational status and adult-onset MetS in the Korean population. Methods We examined the association between childhood SES, as measured by maternal education level and occupational status during an individual's childhood, and MetS in Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. The components of MetS, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure, were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results Significant differences in the association between maternal education level, occupational status, and MetS were found between males and females. In females, the adjusted MetS OR for the highest maternal education quartile relative to the lowest quartile was 0.46 (0.21-0.99). Similarly, in females, the adjusted OR for individuals whose mothers worked when they were children relative to those whose mothers did not work was 1.23 (1.04-1.44). In males, no significant associations between maternal education, maternal occupational status, and MetS were found. Conclusion We found independent, positive associations between maternal education and occupational status and MetS in Korean females. These findings suggest that public health education targeting MetS prevention should be considered, especially among children with less opportunity for maternal support. PMID:25120892

Choi, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chun, Eun-Hye

2014-01-01

269

Examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY'S outspoken criticism on the value of examinations will be welcomed by many, but it is uncertain whether the general public could tolerate the present educational system in their absence.

W. P. Dreaper

1911-01-01

270

Using satellite remote sensing and household survey data to assess human health and nutrition response to environmental change.  

PubMed

Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. PMID:25132700

Brown, Molly E; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B; Carroll, Mark

2014-01-01

271

Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dairy intake may increase prostate cancer risk, but whetherthisisduetocalcium'ssuppressionofcirculatingvitaminD remains unclear. Findings on calcium and vitamin D intake and prostate cancer are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association of dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer. Design: In a prospective study of 3612 men followed from 1982- 1984to1992forthefirstNationalHealthandNutritionExamination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 131 prostate cancer cases were identified.

Marilyn Tseng; Rosalind A Breslow; Barry I Graubard; Regina G Ziegler

272

Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars province, during December 2012 to January 2013. A total of 15408 children, aged 0–6 years old, were studied for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Also, socio-demographic measures were obtained from structured questionnaire. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to relate underlying factors to the odds of under-nutrition indices. Results: The rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 9.53, 9.66, and 8.19%, respectively. Male children were more stunted compared to females (OR= 1.41, CI: 1.26–1.58). Also, stunting was significantly associated with lower family income (OR= 3.21, CI: 1.17–8.85) and lower maternal education (OR= 0.80, CI: 0.64–0.98). Living in urban areas, and poor water supply were identified as significant risk factors of all three types of childhood under-nutrition. Moreover, Khamse and Arab ethnic groups were more vulnerable to under-nutrition. There was a suggestion that non-access to health services were associated with wasting (OR= 1.87, CI: 1.39–2.52) and also large family size was related to underweight (OR= 1.35, CI: 1.10–1.65). Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition in the study population was categorized in low levels. However, planning the public preventive strategies can help to control childhood under-nutrition according to underlying factors of malnutrition in the study population including gender, settlement area, family size, ethnicity, family income, maternal education, health services, and also safe water supply. PMID:25114945

Kavosi, Elham; Hassanzadeh Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Zahra; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar; Moghadami, Mohsen; Heidari, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

273

A Cross-sectional Pilot Study to Examine Food Sufficiency and Assess Nutrition Among Low-income Patients with Injection-related Venous Ulcers.  

PubMed

Adequate nutrition has long been considered a critical component for wound healing, but literature regarding the relationship between nutrition and venous ulcer (VU) healing is limited. A person's nutrition is affected by the availability of food as well as his/her overall health. Food sufficiency and nutrition are important concerns in the care of persons of low income with injection-related VUs, which tend to be large and slow to heal. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between food sufficiency/security and nutrition with regard to demographic, wound, quality-of-life, physical activity, falls, and fall risk variables. Nutrition was examined using 2 well-developed instruments that measure food sufficiency/security and assess nutrition - the United States Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Sufficiency Questionnaire (FSQ) and the Nestle Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). All participants (N = 31, 54% men, mean age 56.1 ± 3.6 years, all African American) were recruited from an outpatient clinic. All had injection-related VUs from a history of injecting illicit substances. In terms of food sufficiency/security, most participants (26, 84%) reported having enough food in the house, but 10 (32%) worried about running out of food. From 16% to 22.6% of participants expressed concern with food sufficiency/security in terms of cutting meal size, eating less, hunger, and weight loss. Food sufficiency/security was high for 19 (61.3%), but 12 (39%) had marginal or lower food sufficiency/security. MNA scores showed 16 participants (52%) were at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Low food sufficiency/security was significantly (P <0.05) associated with less motivation for activity (r = -0.40) and less walking (r = -0.36). Better nutrition assessment scores were significantly associated (P <0.01) with fewer comorbidities (r = -0.57) and falls (r = -0.46) and with higher quality of life (r = 0.50), motivation for physical activity (r = 0.59), and balance confidence (r = 0.60). Both food security and nutrition assessment are important to assess in low-income persons with injection-related VUs. A number of significant relationships of the FSQ and MNA to other variables was found but needs further investigation with a larger sample. PMID:25853376

Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N

2015-04-01

274

Nutritional Guidelines for School Lunch Programs: A Survey of Islamic Schools and Recommendations for Creating a Culture of Healthful Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the status of lunch programs in Islamic schools in the United States and develop recommendations for improving them. Study Design: The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) conducted a survey of lunch programs by mailing questionnaires to 100 Islamic schools in the United States. Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition (MIDAN) developed lunch menus using American and ethnic foods conforming to nationally recommended guidelines. Results: Forty-eight Islamic schools responded to the survey, revealing that 20 schools follow guidelines and only six have dietitians advising on menu planning. Based on this survey, IMANA, with the assistance of MIDAN, has developed a summary of guidelines that schools can follow. These guidelines include sample menus of American and ethnic foods, recommendations for creating a n environment for healthful eating, and sources for funding school lunch programs. Conclusions: IMANA and MIDAN, recognizing the scientific significance and religious relevance of a nutritious diet, have developed these recommendations. This information is provided to aid Islamic schools in implementing guidelines for nutritionally balanced school lunch menus and in creating a culture that fosters a healthful lifestyle. PMID:23610485

Khan, Sumiya; Saeed, Ziena; Diwan, Hanifa Hameed; Hussain, Iqra; Amer, Sarah; Haq, Mohamed M.

2011-01-01

275

Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.  

PubMed

Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

2010-04-01

276

Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).  

PubMed

The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg/m2 (CI: 24.21, 24.53) respectively. Based on the WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 12.15% (CI: 11.26, 13.10) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and 26.71% (CI: 25.50, 27.96) overweight (BMI > 25 - 29.9 kg/m2). Significantly, more women were obese [14.66% (CI: 13.37, 16.04)] while significantly more men were overweight [28.55% (CI: 26.77, 30.40)]. Ethnicitywise, prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays [15.28% (CI: 13.91, 16.77)] while overweight was highest for the Indians [31.01% (CI: 26.64, 35.76)]. Both obesity and overweight were highest among those aged 40 - 49 years. Obesity was highest for those whose household income was between RM1,500 - 3,500 while overweight was more prevalent for those whose household income exceeded RM3,500. The prevalence of overweight was highest for those with primary education [31.90% (CI: 29.21, 34.72)]. There was no significant urban rural differential in both obesity and overweight. The study found 9.02% (CI:8.82, 10.61) with chronic energy deficiency (CED) (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2). The prevalence of CED was relatively higher in the indigenous population (Orang Asli) [14.53% (CI: 5.14, 34.77)], subjects aged 18-19 years [26.24% (CI: 21.12, 32.09)], and with monthly household income of < RM1,500 [10.85% (CI: 9.63, 12.20)]. The prevalence of CED was not significantly different among the geographical zones and educational levels, and between urban/rural areas and sexes. The results call for priority action to address the serious problem of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults as it poses a grave burden to the country's resources and development. PMID:22691810

Azmi, M Y; Junidah, R; Siti Mariam, A; Safiah, M Y; Fatimah, S; Norimah, A K; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Abdul Manan, Wm; Siti Haslinda, M D; Tahir, A

2009-09-01

277

The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results  

PubMed Central

Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical-epidemiological parameters evaluated for indigenous women point to the accentuated occurrence of nutrition transition in all regions of Brazil. Many outcomes also reflected a pattern whereby indigenous women’s and children’s health indicators were worse than those documented for the national Brazilian population, with important regional variations. Observed disparities in health indicators underscore that basic healthcare and sanitation services are not yet as widely available in Brazil’s indigenous communities as they are in the rest of the country. PMID:23331985

2013-01-01

278

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Webinar Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation (PDF) Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ... survey, Nutrition and You: Trends 2008. Read More Media Meet Our Spokespeople expand/collapse Spokespeople Schedule an ...

279

Variation in CT Pediatric Head Examination Radiation Dose: Results From a National Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to examine the variation in radiation dose, CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), and dose-length product (DLP) for pediatric head CT examinations as a function of hospital characteristics across the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A survey inquiring about hospital information, CT scanners, pediatric head examination protocol, CTDIvol, and DLP was mailed to a representative sample of U.S. hospitals. Follow-up mailings were sent to nonrespondents. Descriptive characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents were compared using design-based Pearson chi-square tests. Dose estimates were compared across hospital characteristics using Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test. Hospital-level factors associated with dose estimates were evaluated using multiple linear regressions and modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS. Surveys were sent out to 751 hospitals; 292 responded to the survey, of which 253 were eligible (35.5% response rate, calculated as number of hospitals who completed surveys [n = 253] divided by sum of number who were eligible and initially consented [n = 712] plus estimated number who were eligible among those who refused [n = 1]). Most respondents reported using MDCT scanners (99.2%) and having a dedicated pediatric head CT protocol (93%). Estimated mean reported CTDIvol values were 27.3 mGy (95% CI, 24.4-30.1 mGy), and DLP values were 390.9 mGy × cm (95% CI, 346.6-435.1 mGy × cm). These values did not vary significantly by region, trauma level, teaching status, CT accreditation, number of CT scanners, or report of a dedicated pediatric CT protocol. However, estimated CTDIvol reported by children's hospitals was 19% lower than that reported by general hospitals (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION. Most hospitals (82%) report doses that meet American College of Radiology accreditation levels. However, the mean CTDIvol at children's hospitals was approximately 7 mGy (21%, adjusted for covariates), which was lower than that at nonchildren's hospitals. PMID:25714315

Kanal, Kalpana M; Graves, Janessa M; Vavilala, Monica S; Applegate, Kimberly E; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Rivara, Frederick P

2015-03-01

280

Nutrition survey in an elderly population following admission to a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in elderly patients in institutions has become an issue of clinical concern, but it remains largely unrecognized in acute care hospitals. The demonstrated benefits of intervention emphasize the need for routine nutritional assessment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to test the sensitivity and specificity of 3 nutrition screening tools. METHODS: Between July and November 1996 patients 65 years and older were consecutively recruited from the general medicine, orthopedics, general surgery and neurosciences services of The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus within 72 hours of admission. They were interviewed using 3 nutritional screening tools: one developed by Chandra and colleagues (Chandra), the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A detailed nutrition assessment was then undertaken, which included anthropometric assessment, laboratory tests, determination of risk factors and assessment of dietary intake. A dietitian blinded to the screening results classified each patient as being well nourished, at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was assessed, and screening results were compared with the results of the detailed nutrition assessment for sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (86 women) were recruited. Detailed nutrition assessments were completed for 152 patients, of which 62 (40.8%) were found to be well nourished, 67 (44.1%) at moderate risk for malnutrition and 23 (15.1%) malnourished. Matched comparisons showed that, of the 23 malnourished patients, 1 was found to be at high risk for malnutrition using the Chandra screening tool, 9 using the NSI and 4 using the MNA, giving sensitivities of 32%, 54% and 57%, and specificities of 85%, 61% and 69%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Given the high rate of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition in this study, admitting physicians need to be aware of this problem and its scope. The 3 screening tools tested performed poorly in comparison with the detailed nutrition assessment. This may have been because the score thresholds for the screening tools were set for screening purposes and because the screening tools were designed for different settings and a wider population. PMID:10497606

Azad, N; Murphy, J; Amos, S S; Toppan, J

1999-01-01

281

Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners.  

PubMed

In a 1995 pivotal study, Kushner described the attitudes, practice behaviors, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. This article recognized nutrition and dietary counseling as key components in the delivery of preventive services by primary care physicians. Kushner called for a multifaceted approach to change physicians' counseling practices. The prevailing belief today is that little has changed. Healthy People 2010 and the U.S. Preventive Task Force identify the need for physicians to address nutrition with patients. The 2010 objective was to increase to 75% the proportion of office visits that included ordering or providing diet counseling for patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension. At the midcourse review, the proportion actually declined from 42% to 40%. Primary care physicians continue to believe that providing nutrition counseling is within their realm of responsibility. Yet the gap remains between the proportion of patients who physicians believe would benefit from nutrition counseling and those who receive it from their primary care physician or are referred to dietitians and other healthcare professionals. The barriers cited in recent years continue to be those listed by Kushner: lack of time and compensation and, to a lesser extent, lack of knowledge and resources. The 2010 Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation and First Lady Obama's "Let's Move Campaign" spotlight the need for counseling adults and children on diet and physical activity. PMID:20962310

Kolasa, Kathryn M; Rickett, Katherine

2010-10-01

282

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

2011-10-01

283

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

2010-10-01

284

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

2012-10-01

285

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

2013-10-01

286

46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...completes a satisfactory alternate hull exam, with the underwater survey portion conducted predominantly by an approved underwater ROV, the vessel must undergo one alternate hull and one internal structural exam, within any five-year period. The vessel...

2014-10-01

287

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

288

Nutrition and Eating in Female College Athletes: A Survey of Coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring\\/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention\\/intervention services for athletes at their school, expience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches

Jaimee L. Heffner; Benjamin M. Ogles; Ellsa Gold; Kimberlyann Marsden; Michael Johnson

2003-01-01

289

FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

Abelson, Herbert; And Others

290

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

291

Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

1999-01-01

292

2000–2001 food label and package survey: an update on prevalence of nutrition labeling and claims on processed, packaged foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food label is an important tool for improving the public’s understanding of the health benefits of following a nutritious diet. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has continued to study food labels with its Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS). Data from the 2000–2001 FLAPS characterize various aspects of

Lori Legault; Mary Bender Brandt; Nancie McCabe; Carole Adler; Anna-Marie Brown; Susan Brecher

2004-01-01

293

Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

2007-01-01

294

Applicability of resistivity surveys for examination of heterogeneity in continuous permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrotomography and resistivity measurements are modern visualisation methods, applicable for non-destructive underground surveys. This method is based on differences in resistivity of frozen and thawed soil, fresh and saline water, ice and mineral phases. In permafrost regions it can be applied to understand heterogeneity in the active layer and to search for ice-rich bodies. These factors are strongly connected with permafrost thaw and related processes. By using a large number of electrodes we can obtain pseudo cross-sections, where top layers of datapoints contain resistivity, measured from neighbor electrodes and bottom layers -- from electrodes with higer distances between each other. Obtained cross-section can be compared with another methods of probing, like acoustic methods and permafrost coring. We conducted resistivity surveys of continuous permafrost in Kolyma River basin in Northeastern Siberia. Measurements were made at several sites, including experimentally burned plots, near permafrost coring sites and at yedoma deposits exposure at Dyvanny Yar cliff. We changed the spacing between electrodes to measure resistivity from different depths. For measurements of active layer depth (~ 0.5-1.5m) we used 0.3-0.5m spacing and compared obtained results with direct probing of thaw layer. We found a relationship between measured and real depth. For deeper surveys (up to 10m depth) we used larger spacing -- 2-3m between electrodes. Comparsion of resistivity cross-sections with permafrost core data and visual observation at Dyvanny Yar show possibility of finding ice wedge positions and agreement between average resistivity of bottom layers and ice content in the pemafrost at a similar depth. Resistivity measurements in continuous permafrost are challenging but our results suggest that the method could be useful for examination of thawing changes.

Lebedev, V.; Loranty, M. M.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spektor, V.

2013-12-01

295

The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey: Study Design and Methods  

PubMed Central

Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in subnational areas is limited. A model for regional CVD surveillance is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations underrepresented in current monitoring systems. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (CHES) is a population-based, cross-sectional study on a representative sample of adults living in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, a rural, impoverished area with high rates of poor health outcomes and marked health disparities. The primary objectives of Delta CHES are to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of CVD and CVD risk factors using self-reported and directly measured health metrics and (2) to assess environmental perceptions and existing policies that support or deter healthy choices. An address-based sampling frame is used for household enumeration and participant recruitment and an in-home data collection model is used to collect survey data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples from participants. Data from all sources will be merged into one analytic dataset and sample weights developed to ensure data are representative of the Mississippi Delta region adult population. Information gathered will be used to assess the burden of CVD and guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of cardiovascular health promotion and risk factor control strategies.

Short, Vanessa L.; Ivory-Walls, Tameka; Smith, Larry; Loustalot, Fleetwood

2015-01-01

296

Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. II. Dietary intake and biochemical assessment.  

PubMed Central

The total dietary intake of energy and of individual nutrients of 99 grades 3 and 6 children from 10 greater Winnipeg shcools were generally comparable to those reported by Nutrition Canada for the Manitoba and national samples, although the percentile distributions of total caloric intake and dietary intake of vitamin A for the Winnipeg children tended to be lower. The median daily intake of protein was 212% of the Canadian Dietary Standard and most came from animal sources. Dietary fat was largely from animal sources as well. Hemoglobin concentrations were marginally low in four children, and urinary riboflavin:creatinine ratios were low in six children. There was no biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency. The results suggest a need for change in dietary patterns and for education in nutrition, including relative nutrient/cost benefits. A well planned school snack program with an education component is a medium by which change could be introduced. This should preferable be part of a total school health program. PMID:837315

Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

1977-01-01

297

Breakfast and the diets of Australian children and adolescents: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian children and adolescents by the breakfast meal and compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters (those who ate breakfast 5 days or more a week) and skippers (who are breakfast rarely or never). The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The survey included 24-h recalls, physical measurements and a food-habits questionnaire collected during the period February 1995-March 1996, with a nationally representative sample of 3,007 Australians aged between 2 and 18 years. The median nutrient intakes at breakfast and the proportion of the daily total contributed by breakfast were calculated. Differences between regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers in terms of nutrient intake, body mass index and health status were compared using student t-tests. The findings show the typical breakfast consumed by young Australians was low in fat, high in carbohydrate and a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and magnesium. Those who did not eat breakfast cereal were much more likely to have inadequate nutrient intakes, especially of thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, magnesium and iron. There was no difference between the fat intake and the body mass index of regular breakfast eaters compared with breakfast skippers. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better diets for children and adolescents. PMID:17514538

Williams, Peter

2007-05-01

298

Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian adults by the breakfast meal and to compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS). The survey included 24-h recalls, physical measurements and a food habits questionnaire collected during the period February 1995-March 1996, with a nationally representative sample of 10,851 Australians aged 19 years and older. The median nutrient intakes at breakfast and the proportion of the daily total contributed by breakfast were calculated. Differences between regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers in terms of nutrient intake, body mass index and health status were compared using Student t-tests. The findings show the typical Australian breakfast was low in fat, high in carbohydrate and a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and magnesium. In the NNS regular breakfast eaters had more adequate diets overall, particularly those aged 65+ years. People who did not eat breakfast cereal were much more likely to have inadequate nutrient intakes, especially of thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, magnesium and iron. Regular breakfast eaters were more likely to rate their health as excellent or good than those who skip breakfast, but there was no difference between the fat intake or the body mass index of regular breakfast eaters compared with breakfast skippers. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better diets for adults overall. PMID:16019316

Williams, Peter

2005-02-01

299

Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, corresponding motivation to comply, and control beliefs. The subjects (n = 300) responded to the questionnaire by self-report, and data from 275 students were analyzed using t-test or ?2-test. RESULTS The results showed that 37.8% of subjects were nutrition label users. Three out of 15 behavioral beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. Nutrition label users agreed more strongly on the benefits of using nutrition labels including 'comparing and selecting better foods' (P < 0.001), 'selecting healthy foods' (P < 0.05). The negative belief of 'annoying' was stronger in non-users than in users (P < 0.001). Three out of 7 sources (parents, siblings, best friend) were important in nutrition label use. Twelve out of 15 control beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. These included beliefs regarding constraints of using nutrition labels (e.g., time, spending money for healthy foods) and lack of nutrition knowledge (P < 0.001). Perceived confidence in understanding and applying the specifics of nutrition labels in food selection was also significantly related to nutrition label use (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study found that the beliefs, especially control beliefs, suggested in the TPB were important in explaining nutrition label use. To promote nutrition label use, nutrition education might focus on increasing perceived control over constraints of using nutrition labels, acquiring skills for checking nutrition labels, as well as the benefits of using nutrition labels and receiving support from significant others for nutrition label use. PMID:25671070

Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju

2015-01-01

300

Current coding practices and patterns of code use of registered dietitian nutritionists: the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2013 coding survey.  

PubMed

Coding, coverage, and reimbursement for nutrition services are vital to the dietetics profession, particularly to registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) who provide clinical care. The objective of this study was to assess RDN understanding and use of the medical nutrition therapy (MNT) procedure codes in the delivery of nutrition services. Its design was an Internet survey of all RDNs listed in the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy)/Commission on Dietetics Registration database as of September 2013 who resided in the United States and were not retired. Prior coding and coverage surveys provided a basis for survey development. Parameters assessed included knowledge and use of existing MNT and/or alternative procedure codes, barriers to code use, payer reimbursement patterns, complexity of the patient population served, time spent in the delivery of initial and subsequent care, and practice demographics and management. Results show that a majority of respondents were employed by another and provided outpatient MNT services on a part-time basis. MNT codes were used for the provision of individual services, with minimal use of the MNT codes for group services and subsequent care. The typical patient carries two or more diagnoses. The majority of RDNs uses internal billing departments and support staff in their practices. The payer mix is predominantly Medicare and private/commercial insurance. Managers and manager/providers were more likely than providers to carry malpractice insurance. Results point to the need for further education regarding the full spectrum of Current Procedural Terminology codes available for RDN use and the business side of ambulatory MNT practice, including the need to carry malpractice insurance. This survey is part of continuing Academy efforts to understand the complex web of relationships among clinical practice, coverage, MNT code use, and reimbursement so as to further support nutrition services codes revision and/or expansion. PMID:25257366

Parrott, J Scott; White, Jane V; Schofield, Marsha; Hand, Rosa K; Gregoire, Mary B; Ayoob, Keith T; Pavlinac, Jessie; Lewis, Jaime Lynn; Smith, Karen

2014-10-01

301

Trends in hyperuricemia and gout prevalence: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated trends in uric acid levels, hyperuricemia and gout among adults in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008, using data collection from, Nutrition and health surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted in 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Information on food frequency, medical history, physical measures and fasting blood parameters were analyzed. Mean uric acid levels decreased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 in both genders (6.77 vs 6.59 mg/dL in men and 5.33 vs 4.97 mg/dL in women) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia declined from 25.3% to 22.0% in men (p<0.0001) and from 16.7% to 9.7% in women (p<0.0001). However, the prevalence of gout (self-reported) increased (4.74% vs 8.21% in men and 2.19% vs 2.33% in women, p<0.0001). Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns that explained significant amounts of variance in uric acid. Frequency of consumption of lean meat, soy products and soymilk, milk, eggs, vegetables, carrots, mushrooms, fruit and coffee were negatively associated with hyperuricemia, whereas consumption of organ meats, bamboo shoots, and soft drinks were positively associated with hyperuricemia. The dietary factor score (DFS) composed of the frequency of above food items decreased from -5.40 to -6.00 between the two surveys (p<0.0001). In conclusion, uric acid levels and prevalence of hyperuricemia both declined, whilst self-reported gout increased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Changes in dietary patterns may in part explain the decrease in uric acid levels between the two national surveys. PMID:21669599

Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Lee, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Pan, Wen-Harn

2011-01-01

302

[Summary of a survey on radiation exposure during pediatric computed tomography examinations in Japan, focusing on the computed tomography examination environment].  

PubMed

We carried out a nationwide questionnaire survey of pediatric computed tomography (CT) in 339 facilities. Most facilities operated multi detector-row CT (MDCT), and over half operated 64, 128, 256 and 320-slice MDCT. In 32% of facilities, pediatric CT protocols were set taking image quality and dose into consideration. However, in the other facilities, pediatric CT protocols may not be optimized because there is no clear standard for image quality or dosage for pediatric CT examinations in Japan. To promote the optimization of pediatric CT protocols, we regard it as an urgent task to establish diagnostic reference levels for pediatric CT examinations. PMID:24953322

Takei, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Shoici; Miyazaki, Osamu; Matsubara, Kosuke; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Shimada, Yoshiya; Akahane, Keiichi; Fujii, Keisuke

2014-06-01

303

Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses  

PubMed Central

During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea (=Typhlotriton) spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano. Furthermore, E. spelaea capture numbers increased significantly during the time that grey bats (Myotis grisescens) deposited fresh guano. We investigated the hypothesis that this behaviour was not incidental to the capture of invertebrate prey, but a diet switch to an energy-rich detritus in an oligotrophic environment. Stable isotope assays determined that guano may be assimilated into salamander muscle tissue, and nutritional analyses revealed that guano is a comparable food source to potential invertebrate prey items. This is the first report of coprophagy in a salamander and in any amphibian for reasons other than intestinal inoculation. Because many temperate subterranean environments are often energy poor and this limitation is thought to select for increased diet breadth, we predict that coprophagy may be common in subterranean vertebrates where it is not currently recognized. PMID:16615210

Fenolio, Danté B; Graening, G.O; Collier, Bret A; Stout, Jim F

2005-01-01

304

Factors Associated with Untreated Diabetes: Analysis of Data from 20,496 Participants in the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to examine factors associated with untreated diabetes in a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. Research Design and Methods We pooled data from the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey from 2005 to 2009 (n = 20,496). Individuals aged 20 years and older were included in the analysis. We classified participants as having diabetes if they had HbA1c levels ?6.5% (?48 mmol/mol). People with diabetes who self-reported that they were not currently receiving diabetic treatment were considered to be untreated. We conducted a multinomial logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with untreated diabetes relative to non-diabetic individuals. Results Of 20,496 participants who were included in the analysis, untreated diabetes was present in 748 (3.6%). Among participants with untreated diabetes, 48.3% were previously diagnosed with diabetes, and 46.5% had HbA1c levels ?7.0% (?53 mmol/mol). Participants with untreated diabetes were significantly more likely than non-diabetic participants to be male, older, and currently smoking, have lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher BMI, non-HDL cholesterol levels, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions A substantial proportion of people in Japan with untreated diabetes have poor glycemic control. Targeting relevant factors for untreated diabetes in screening programs may be effective to enhance the treatment and control of diabetes. PMID:25756183

Ikeda, Nayu; Noda, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Kenji; Noda, Mitsuhiko

2015-01-01

305

Examining the Range of Cometary Dust Characteristics with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cometary dust provides insight into the composition of nuclei, as well as the forces behind its ejection and evolution. In this work, we will explore the characteristics of dust as seen in the near-nucleus environments around more than 100 active comets that were observed by the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) mission. WISE conducted an all-sky survey at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns) between January and December 2010. Many of the comets detected showed comae, tails, and/or trails, making this a rich dataset with which to examine the ensemble properties of cometary dust in the Solar System. Our work includes computing thermal fits for the dust, creating color temperature maps, and constraining the grain size distributions around the comets. With these results, we aim to provide context for the Rosetta mission results as well as a broad understanding of the range of cometary dust traits within the Solar System.

Stevenson, R.; Bauer, J. M.; Kramer, E.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Lisse, C. M.; Meech, K. J.; Weissman, P. R.; Tholen, D.; Walker, R.; Wright, E. L.

2012-12-01

306

A survey of the nutritional adequacy of meals served and eaten by patients.  

PubMed

The survey was carried out at one hospital to evaluate the nutrient content of the food served to and consumed by eight female patients. A weighed food intake was undertaken on the subjects chosen, over three days. Observations were also recorded regarding the nursing and catering practices relating to meals. The results showed that the food served to this group of patients was deficient in energy, folic acid, iron and vitamin D and that this group of patients failed to achieve an adequate vitamin C, protein, calcium and fibre intake. Problems also existed with the ordering and service procedure for meals, timing of meals, quantities of food delivered to the ward and procedure of patients who are eating poorly. Although the numbers in the survey were too small for statistical analysis, it was felt that the results were as representative as possible. This survey was felt to be very worthwhile and highlighted the need for all members of staff involved in the care of these patients to work together to consider ways that the patients' food intake could be improved in the future. The study, carried out by a dietitian is particularly relevant to the work of nurses in this field, as they are often the key persons affecting the patient's choice and consumption of food. PMID:2008236

Simon, S

1991-01-01

307

The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior. Analyses were based on the 2003 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,322 students in grades six through eight in 73 Florida public middle schools. Analyses included ?2 tests and logistic regression. The outcome measure was buying a snack or beverage from vending machines 2 or more days during the previous 5 days instead of buying lunch. The survey response rate was 72%. Eighteen percent of respondents reported purchasing a snack or beverage from a vending machine 2 or more days during the previous 5 school days instead of buying school lunch. Although healthier options were available, the most commonly purchased vending machine items were chips, pretzels/crackers, candy bars, soda, and sport drinks. More students chose snacks or beverages instead of lunch in schools where beverage vending machines were also available than did students in schools where beverage vending machines were unavailable: 19% and 7%, respectively (P?0.05). The strongest risk factor for buying snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunch was availability of beverage vending machines in schools (adjusted odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.7). Other statistically significant risk factors were smoking, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, Hispanic ethnicity, and older age. Although healthier choices were available, the most common choices were the less-healthy foods. Schools should consider developing policies to reduce the availability of less-healthy choices in vending machines and to reduce access to beverage vending machines. PMID:20869493

Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Huang, Youjie; Sherry, Bettylou; Bensyl, Diana M

2010-10-01

308

Obstetric Care and Method of Delivery in Mexico: Results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. Results 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66–4.84), between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02–3.20) and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84–3.03). Conclusions The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings. PMID:25101781

Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lozano, Rafael

2014-01-01

309

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009  

PubMed Central

This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20?yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20)?mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C. PMID:24800083

Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

2014-01-01

310

Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.  

PubMed

The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. PMID:25070696

Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

2014-09-01

311

Why have physical activity levels declined among Chinese adults? Findings from the 1991 - 2006 China Health and Nutrition Surveys  

PubMed Central

Between 1991 and 2006, average weekly physical activity among adults in China fell by 32%. This paper discusses why total and occupational physical activity levels have fallen, and models the association between the rapid decline and various dimensions of exogenous community urbanization. We hypothesize that a) physical activity levels are negatively associated with urbanization; b) urbanization domains that affect job functions and opportunities will contribute most to changes in physical activity levels; and c) these urbanization domains will be more strongly associated for men than for women because home activities account for a larger proportion of physical activity for women. To test these hypotheses, we used longitudinal data from individuals aged 18 to 55 in the 1991-2006 China Health and Nutrition Surveys. We find that physical activity declines were strongly associated with greater availability of higher educational institutions, housing infrastructure, sanitation improvements and the economic well-being of the community in which people function. These urbanization factors predict more than four-fifths of the decline in occupational physical activity over the 1991-2006 period for men and nearly two-thirds of the decline for women. They are also associated with 57% of the decline in total physical activity for men and 40% of the decline for women. Intervention strategies to promote physical activity in the workplace, at home, for transit and via exercise should be considered a major health priority in China. PMID:19232811

Ng, Shu Wen; Norton, Edward C; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

312

Consumer Understanding and Use of Food and Nutrition Labeling in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine patterns of food and nutrition labels use by Turkish consumers, and examine constraints on the use of this information. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Twenty-six regions of Turkey. Participants: Consumers (n = 1,536), aged 12-56 years. Variables measured: Level of interest in food and nutrition labels, the…

Besler, Halit Tanju; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Uyar, Muhemmed Fatih

2012-01-01

313

URINARY CADMIUM AND BETA2-MICROGLOBULIN: CORRELATION WITH NUTRITION AND SMOKING HISTORY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the indivi...

314

What Money Can Buy: Examining the effects of prepaid monetary incentives on survey response rates among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of prepaid monetary incentives on college students' rate of responding to a survey designed to assess beliefs and values. It also assessed the extent to which incentive effectiveness depended on such student characteristics as gender, race, and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that $2 incentives enhance response rates over $0, but that $5 incentives do

Katalin Szelényi; Alyssa N. Bryant; Jennifer A. Lindholm

2005-01-01

315

Use Of Food Nutrition Labels is Associated with Lower Fat Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 mandated that standardized nutrition information appear on almost all packaged foods manufactured after May 1994. This study describes the demographic and diet-related psychosocial correlates of nutrition label use, and examines the relationship between label use and diet.Design\\/subjects Data are from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1,450 adult residents of Washington State.

MARIAN L NEUHOUSER; ALAN R KRISTAL; RUTH E PATTERSON

1999-01-01

316

Association between serum magnesium and anemia: china health and nutrition survey.  

PubMed

The role of magnesium in anemia remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anemia and its association with serum magnesium in a nationally representative sample. A total of 8,511 participants aged 18 years and over were recruited in this cross-sectional survey in 2009. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration less than 130 g/l for men and less than 120 g/l for women. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to explore the association of magnesium and anemia. The prevalence of anemia in total was 14.0% with 8.8% for men and 18.5% for women (P<0.0001), respectively. The interaction terms between magnesium and gender and ferritin were significant (P<0.001). In men with serum ferritin?15 ng/ml, compared with the first quartile of magnesium, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for those in the second, third, and fourth quartile of magnesium were 0.65 (0.46, 0.91), 0.77 (0.55, 1.09), and 0.63 (0.45, 0.89), respectively, after adjusting multiple confounders. Likewise, in women with serum ferritin?15 ng/ml, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.56, 0.91), 0.64 (0.49, 0.84), and 0.53 (0.40, 0.71). The associations between magnesium and anemia were not significant in neither men nor women with serum ferritin<15 ng/ml. Serum magnesium was inversely associated with anemia in both men and women, in particular among adults with high serum ferritin levels. PMID:24789475

Zhan, Yiqiang; Chen, Ruoqing; Zheng, Wenwen; Guo, Chenyu; Lu, Leihong; Ji, Xiaopeng; Chi, Zhiyuan; Yu, Jinming

2014-06-01

317

A Nutritional Status Survey of Older Adults in Long-Term Care in the Yazd Province of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to assess the nutritional status of older adults because of its role in ensuring health and quality of life and its association with functional status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of an older adult population living in long-term care institutions in the Yazd province of Iran. Fifty elderly subjects were randomly

Fatemeh Kaseb; Maryam Rashidi; Mohammad Hosein Eshraghian

2009-01-01

318

Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups. PMID:25354462

Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

2014-12-01

319

Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

2011-01-01

320

Urinary cadmium in the 1999–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic low-level cadmium (Cd) exposure is linked to kidney and cardiovascular disease, fractures, and cancer. Diet and smoking are primary sources of exposure in the general population. We analyzed urinary Cd in NHANES 1999-2008 to determine whether levels declined significantly...

321

Relationship of Monocyte Count and Peripheral Arterial Disease Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although white blood cell (WBC) count has been consistently associated with cardiovascular end points, little information is available on the independent contribution of specific white blood cell types. The objective of this study is to assess the independent association of WBC types and other inflammatory markers with the presence of reduced ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), a marker of subclinical

Khurram Nasir; Eliseo Guallar; Ana Navas-Acien; Michael H. Criqui; Joao A. C. Lima

322

Serum selenium concentrations and diabetes in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high selenium levels are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of serum selenium concentrations with fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes in the most rec...

323

Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Institute. 2002. Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: ... 2001. Suggested citation Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA, Yoon SS. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in ...

324

Actinic Skin Damage and Mortality - the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsSubjects were 8472 white participants aged 25–74 years in the First National Health and

Wei He; Fei Zhu; Xiaoguang Ma; Xinyu Zhao; Min Zheng; Zhao Chen; Steven B. Heymsfield; Shankuan Zhu

2011-01-01

325

SERUM ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN FLORIDA CITRUS WORKERS COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY SAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The monitoring of organochloride residues is important because they have a propensity to accumulate in the tissues of man and animals. All chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides can be absorbed through dermal, oral, and respiratory routes. Storage is determined primarily by metabol...

326

Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in women and children's nutritional status in Pakistan in 2011: an analysis of data from a nationally representative survey  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Pakistan has one of the highest levels of child and maternal undernutrition worldwide, but little information about geographical and socioeconomic inequalities is available. We aimed to analyse anthropometric indicators for childhood and maternal nutrition at a district level in Pakistan and assess the association of nutritional status with food security and maternal and household socioeconomic factors. Methods We used data from the 2011 Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, which included anthropometric measurements for 33?638 children younger than 5 years and 24?826 women of childbearing age. We estimated the prevalences of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children and of underweight, overweight, and obesity in women for all 143 districts of Pakistan using a Bayesian spatial technique. We used a mixed-effect linear model to analyse the association of nutritional status with individual and household sociodemographic factors and food security. Findings Stunting prevalence in Pakistan's districts ranged between 22% (95% credible interval 19–26) and 76% (69–83); the lowest figures for wasting and underweight were both less than 2·5% and the highest were 42% (34–50) for wasting and 54% (49–59) for underweight. In 106 districts, more women were overweight than were underweight; in 49 of these districts more women were obese than were underweight. Children were better nourished if their mothers were taller or had higher weight, if they lived in wealthier households, and if their mothers had 10 or more years of education. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse nutritional outcomes for both children and women. Interpretation We noted large social and geographical inequalities in child and maternal nutrition in Pakistan, masked by national and provincial averages. Pakistan is also beginning to face the concurrent challenge of high burden of childhood undernutrition and overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Planning, implementation, and evaluation of programmes for food and nutrition should be based on district-level needs and outcomes. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:25794676

Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bhatti, Zaid; Soofi, Sajid B; Fortunato, Lea; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2015-01-01

327

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention. PMID:23714275

2013-01-01

328

College Students' Nutrition Information Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition information networks accessible to or being accessed by college students were studied. Data were collected on the types of networks, the extent of their use, and the relationship of use tofood behavior. Undergraduate students (179 men, 300 women) in an introductory nutrition class rated their perceived use of nutrition information networks; provided frequency-of-use responses to a survey offood choicesfat

Ann A. Hertzler; Robert B. Frary

1995-01-01

329

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

330

Examining the Role of Patient Experience Surveys in Measuring Health Care Quality  

PubMed Central

Patient care experience surveys evaluate the degree to which care is patient-centered. This article reviews the literature on the association between patient experiences and other measures of health care quality. Research indicates that better patient care experiences are associated with higher levels of adherence to recommended prevention and treatment processes, better clinical outcomes, better patient safety within hospitals, and less health care utilization. Patient experience measures that are collected using psychometrically sound instruments, employing recommended sample sizes and adjustment procedures, and implemented according to standard protocols are intrinsically meaningful and are appropriate complements for clinical process and outcome measures in public reporting and pay-for-performance programs. PMID:25027409

Elliott, Marc N.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Hays, Ron D.; Lehrman, William G.; Rybowski, Lise; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Cleary, Paul D.

2015-01-01

331

Measures of self-reported morbidity according to age, gender and general medical services eligibility in the national survey of lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The survey of lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN) is a national representative sample of 6,539 adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  To report on both global and disease specific measures of self-reported morbidity according to age, gender and medical card\\u000a status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Reported rates of morbidity are given for angina, heart attack, stroke, raised blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes mellitus\\u000a and for other general conditions as well

C. C. Kelleher; J. Harrington; S. Friel

2002-01-01

332

Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

2014-01-01

333

Education: a syllabus survey: examining the state of current practice in introductory computer graphics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This column is the second in a series revisiting the introductory computer graphics course for undergraduate computer science majors. It has been 10 years since the last formal discussions resulted in a list of topics for [2]. Of the 23 collected, two were strictly for graduate students and one was primarily an image-processing course. This column examines the remaining 20

Rosalee Wolfe

1999-01-01

334

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

335

Nutrition Education in Colleges of Pharmacy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges of pharmacy in the United States were surveyed to determine the status of nutrition education; 54 colleges responded. Entry-level programs required a median of 12 to 15 contact hours of nutrition-related coursework. Experiential training was offered by 69 percent. Increased emphasis on nutrition over the next five years was anticipated by 44 percent. Continuing education in nutrition was offered

Sarah J. Miller

1995-01-01

336

Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives Guided by the UNICEF framework for childcare, this study examined the association of childcare practices (CCP) with infant and young children's growth (height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), and investigated whether care practices are more important to growth in some sociodemographic subgroups of children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Urban and rural Ghana. Participants The study sample comprised 1187 dyads of mothers aged 15–49?years and their youngest child (aged 6–36?months). Results The results showed that CCP was a significant predictor of HAZ, after controlling for covariates/confounders at child, maternal and household levels. Children with higher CCP scores had higher HAZ. A 1-unit increase in the CCP score was associated with a 0.17-unit increase in HAZ. Child's and mother's age, number of children under 5?years, place of residence, maternal weight and wealth index were also significantly associated with HAZ. Statistical interaction analyses revealed no subgroup differences in the CCP/HAZ relationship. Conclusions This study found a significant, positive association between CCP and child growth, after accounting for other important determinants of child growth at maternal and household levels. This calls for research into the effects on growth of various CCP components, with longitudinal cohort study designs that can disentangle causal relationships. PMID:25366675

Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna; Matanda, Dennis J; Urke, Helga B

2014-01-01

337

Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.  

PubMed

Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones. PMID:25735879

Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

2015-03-30

338

A survey of 165 sporotrichosis cases examined in Nagasaki prefecture from 1951 to 2012.  

PubMed

A total of 165 sporotrichosis cases occurring in Nagasaki prefecture, and examined at Nagasaki University Hospital, were evaluated. Both males and females were equally affected, with no significant differences in the affected body regions. Lesions were frequently seen on the face (49 cases, 29.5%) and upper limbs (101 cases, 60.9%). The localised cutaneous type of sporotrichosis (105 cases, 62.9%) was much more frequent than the lymphocutaneous type (62 cases, 37.1%). The infection rate in patients over 50 years of age was 73.1%. The most frequent occupation among the patients was farming (52 cases, 37.4%), and 34 patients had a history of injury. Regarding the geographical distribution of sporotrichosis, 48 cases occurred in the Shimabara peninsula (31.2%) and this is much higher than expected for the population size. Before 1994, almost all sporotrichosis cases (112 cases, 96.5%) were treated with potassium iodide (KI). After 1995, the number of patients treated with KI decreased (nine cases, 23.1%), and itraconazole (ITZ) was used in 21 cases (59.0%) and terbinafine in six cases (15.3%). The time between ITZ and KI treatment and cure was 13.8 weeks and 12.5 weeks, respectively. All 116 cases, for which the outcome was known, were cured or improved. PMID:24283850

Takenaka, Motoi; Yoshizaki, Asako; Utani, Atushi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro

2014-05-01

339

Survey of dose area product received by patients undergoing common radiological examinations in four centers in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Patient dosimetry studies in diagnostic radiology in Nigeria have been on measurement of entrance skin dose and effective dose. Another important and easy to measure radiation dose descriptor that could be used to assess patient dose in radiological procedures is dose area product (DAP). Knowledge of DAP with location and projection of X-ray beam allows direct calculation of organ dose and effective dose. In this study, DAP for commonly performed radiological examinations (abdomen, chest, lumbo sacral joint, pelvis, paranasal sinus, and skull) in four diagnostic centers in Nigeria were determined. These centers comprise of three classes of health care center namely tertiary, private, and specialist hospitals. Mathematical method was used to determine DAP received by 336 patients undergoing radiological examinations at the selected diagnostic centers. The DAP received by patient from each radiological examination varies from center to center. The range factor (RF) of DAP for individual patients ranged from 1.55-4.56, while RF of DAP among the selected centers was 2.27-55.84. The highest RF of DAP (55.84) was obtained from X-ray examination of the chest. This variation was due to the application of anti-scatter grid, and high kVp and high mAs values for chest examination by only one of the centers. The very wide variation in DAP found among diagnostic centers in this survey showed that there is need to harmonize radiological techniques of common X-ray examination among different diagnostic centers. This would ensure optimal protection of patient against excessive radiation dose. PMID:22766942

Akinlade, Bidemi I; Farai, Idowu P; Okunade, Akintunde A

2012-01-01

340

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

341

Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

2008-01-01

342

Nutrition and Health with an Evaluation on Nutritional Surveillance in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

343

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

344

Dining-out behaviors of residents in Chuncheon city, Korea, in comparison to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2001.  

PubMed

Dining-out behavior is associated not only with socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, education, occupation, residence, and marital status, but also with individual preferences, such as eating-out activities, interests, and opinions. We investigated dining-out behaviors and their associated factors. Announcements by health practioners and the Chief of Dong Office were used to recruit 739 residents (217 males and 522 females) in Chuncheon, Korea. Information on the frequency and reasons for eating out, the standards for meal selection, and the overall satisfaction with restaurants, based on taste, nutrition, amount, price, service, sanitation, and subsidiary facilities of restaurants, was obtained through personal interviews with a structured questionnaire. Among all respondents, 46.3% of subjects ate outside of the home once or twice a month, and 33.8% reported that they ate out only a few times a year, or never. This was much higher than the national average of 52.0% as reported by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHNS) in 2001. The frequency of eating out differed significantly according to age (p=0.001), family income (p<0.001), residential area (p<0.001), and educational level (p<0.001). The most common reasons for dining out were meetings (46.7%), followed by special celebrations (15.4%), and enjoyment (11.2%). Korean food (55.3%) was the most frequently selected type of meal when eating out, and food was most often selected based on personal preferences (41.4%) and taste (29.8%); only 5.5% and 7.7% of subjects considered nutrition or other factors (e.g., sanitation), respectively. The results showed that the frequency of eating out for Chuncheon residents was much lower than the national average; in addition, eating-out behaviors depended on the residents' socio-demographic and personal characteristics. PMID:20535387

Kang, Yang-Wha; Hong, Kyung-Eui; Choi, Hyeon-Jeong; Joung, Hyojee

2007-01-01

345

Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits. PMID:23866261

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

2014-05-01

346

Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

347

Policy-related determinants of child nutritional status in China: The effect of only-child status and access to healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the determinants of child nutritional status in China, focusing specifically on those determinants related to health system reform and only-child status. Data are drawn from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991–2000). The empirical relationship between nutritional status, on the one hand, and income, access to quality healthcare and being an only-child, on the

Caryn Bredenkamp

2009-01-01

348

Gastrointestinal symptoms and food/nutrition concerns after the great East Japan earthquake in March 2011: survey of evacuees in a temporary shelter.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern Japan. A resulting tsunami struck the Japan Pacific coast, causing >20,000 deaths, injuries and missing persons. Survivors' post-tsunami health and nutritional status were surveyed one month after the disaster in a school shelter in Ishinomaki City. Hyogo College of Medicine's disaster relief team observations and survivors' questionnaires were used to assess the disaster's effects on survivors' lifestyles and gastrointestinal symptoms while residing in temporary shelters. Of 236 disaster evacuees 9-88 years of age (mean age 52 years), 23% lost weight and 28% reported decreased food intake one month after the earthquake. Up to 25% of the participants presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation (10%), appetite loss (6.4%), vomiting (6.4%), and nausea (2.1%). Although the victims preferred more vegetables (44%) or fruit (33%), most food aid received, such as rice balls or bread, was carbohydrate-based, possibly because of easy provision and abundance in emergency food pantries. The authors asked the volunteers and the Japan Self-Defense Forces to provide a more balanced diet, including vegetables and fruit. Consumption of imbalanced diets may have caused more gastrointestinal symptoms for the survivors. Because of the victims' hesitation to request more balanced diets, and because of poorly controlled existing chronic disease and mental stress, professional public health providers should assure emergency food nutrition after disasters. PMID:24905001

Inoue, Tomoko; Nakao, Atsunori; Kuboyama, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Atsunori; Masutani, Motomaru; Ueda, Takahiro; Kotani, Joji

2014-06-01

349

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

350

Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) availability with the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Our work builds on previous research by developing a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without, using serum…

Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.

2006-01-01

351

Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: A comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice  

PubMed Central

Background Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. Methods This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. Results There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. Conclusions There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS. PMID:24678598

2014-01-01

352

Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger

Zhenmei Zhang; Danan Gu; Mark D. Hayward

2010-01-01

353

SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

354

Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE) would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE); 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83%) having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17%) of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE. PMID:23140094

2012-01-01

355

Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?  

PubMed

The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. PMID:22728950

Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

2012-10-01

356

NUTRITION AND TOLERANCE TO ATABRINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little study has been made of the effect of continuous drug admin istration upon the nutritive requirements, or conversely, of the effect of nutritive state upon the ability of the animal to withstand phar macological agents. However, a survey of the literature reveals suf ficient evidence to indicate that the action of some drugs may depend to a certain extent

D. M. HEGSTED; F. J. STABE

357

Secondary Teachers' Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary teachers of health and physical education, home economics, science, and social studies were assessed. Of the 518 teachers who completed the survey instruments, 43 percent had never taken a food or nutrition course, and 63 percent had no inservice training in nutrition or food…

Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.

358

Nutrition in centenarians.  

PubMed

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-03-01

359

Title: Exploration ofDeep Thinking Skills ofUW-Stout Students via Examination of National Survey ofStudent Engagement andAdditional Institutional Data  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the critical thinking skills ofUW-Stout students by examining their responses to National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), and comparing these responses to peer group and national survey results. Survey respondents included first year and senior students. Data from the institutional research reports in 2001 to 2006 were used to perform the analysis. This included data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, Faculty Survey of Student Engagement, ACT-CAAP test, ACT Student Opinion Survey, and UW-Stout's General Education Senior Level survey. Statistical significance was measured at the.05 level; Glass's delta effect size was used. Analysis revealed that throughout the survey sample UW-Stout students were on the whole significantly below peer and national samples for critical thinking. Analysis ofsupplementary data revealed that faculty at UW-Stout perceived higher levels of student critical thinking, and student performance on a national test of critical thinking was on par with peer and national samples. Further investigation revealed low student perception of institutional environment to support critical thinking, in fact and in perception. RecommendIII using a learning portfolio intervention for both first year and senior students to facilitate

Susan Greene; Louis Milanesi Ph. D

2007-01-01

360

Nutrition Counter  

MedlinePLUS

... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

361

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

362

Examining the Environment: The Development of a Survey Instrument to Assess Student Perceptions of the University Outdoor Physical Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument to measure student perceptions of the outdoor physical campus environment. Using campus planning and environments literature and expert consultation, a survey instrument was developed to measure student satisfaction with the outdoor campus environment and the…

Eckert, Erica

2012-01-01

363

Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

swinward

2010-04-12

364

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

365

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

366

Nutrition and Genomics Workshop  

Cancer.gov

This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.

367

Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools  

PubMed Central

Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n?=?42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

2013-01-01

368

Gaps in Survey Data on Cancer in American Indian and Alaska Native Populations: Examination of US Population Surveys, 1960–2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Population-based data are essential for quantifying the problems and measuring the progress made by comprehensive cancer control programs. However, cancer information specific to the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population is not readily available. We identified major population-based surveys conducted in the United States that contain questions related to cancer, documented the AI/AN sample size in these surveys, and identified gaps in the types of cancer-related information these surveys collect. Methods We conducted an Internet query of US Department of Health and Human Services agency websites and a Medline search to identify population-based surveys conducted in the United States from 1960 through 2010 that contained information about cancer. We used a data extraction form to collect information about the purpose, sample size, data collection methods, and type of information covered in the surveys. Results Seventeen survey sources met the inclusion criteria. Information on access to and use of cancer treatment, follow-up care, and barriers to receiving timely and quality care was not consistently collected. Estimates specific to the AI/AN population were often lacking because of inadequate AI/AN sample size. For example, 9 national surveys reviewed reported an AI/AN sample size smaller than 500, and 10 had an AI/AN sample percentage less than 1.5%. Conclusion Continued efforts are needed to increase the overall number of AI/AN participants in these surveys, improve the quality of information on racial/ethnic background, and collect more information on treatment and survivorship. PMID:23517582

Duran, Tinka; Stimpson, Jim P.; Smith, Corey

2013-01-01

369

Malnutrition in emergencies: the framing of nutrition concerns in the humanitarian appeals process, 1992 to 2009.  

PubMed

This paper examines how nutrition has been used to raise humanitarian relief resources through the United Nations appeals process, from 1992 to early 2009. Recent calls for "nutrition safety nets" as a response to the world food price crisis reflect a growing recognition of nutrition as a key element in crisis management, not simply as a metric of how bad things have become. The evolution in thinking about the role of nutrition in emergency programming is reflected in changes in how nutrition has been conceptualized and presented in the consolidated appeals process. Based on a desk review, supported by key informant interviews, the paper highlights important changes that include an increasing distinction that separates nutrition from food, water, and health; the importance of synergies across sectors; increased emphasis on "essential packages" of inputs and services versus stand-alone activities; the importance of technical rigor in food and nutrition assessment and surveys; the need for technical competency and capacity in the design and management of nutrition interventions; and the importance of planning for long-term change even in delivering a short-term response. There has also been growing emphasis on specificity in objectives--a trend linked to demand for more accountability across the humanitarian system. Enhanced emergency preparedness will require further capacity building and improved systems for surveillance and data management. Without more systematic, targeted attention to pre-crisis malnutrition, the resources needed to tackle nutrition problems during emergencies will continue to grow. PMID:20496628

Webb, Patrick

2009-12-01

370

2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. PMID:22616443

2011-12-01

371

Assessing the Nutritional Needs of Homeless Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey instrument was developed to describe the nutritional habits and needs of homeless adolescents. It incorporated the Block Food Frequency (BFFQ) questionnaire with 37 questions regarding: current practices of obtaining food; nutritional education needs; and demographic information. The survey was reviewed, pilot-tested, and revised Subjects were 18-20 year old residents at a homeless shelter for less than 72 hours

J. L. Grover; AC Hergenroeder; SR Morrow; BL Haefner

1998-01-01

372

The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines  

PubMed Central

Background Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007. However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. Methods All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p?survey, but in 4 cases the questionnaire was not fully completed (with single items missing). More than half of the study participants (n?=?34/59; 58%) have experienced (at least sometimes or rarely) candidates that they deemed incompetent and perhaps even dangerous to the patients’ health who nevertheless passed the oral exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included “strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations”, “reliability”, “validity”, “competence in grading”, “critical grading”, and “departmental improvements” concerning oral examinations. Conclusions In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical problems and a criteria-based critical grading system for oral examinations. Since the impact of the training was particularly high for colleagues from the operative disciplines, the training program should be offered especially in surgical departments. PMID:23822855

2013-01-01

373

Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

Ma, Xin

2007-01-01

374

Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

2010-01-01

375

Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractUsing data from a national survey, this study analyses US consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified foods that provide additional nutritional benefits. Using an ordered probit model, this study examines the relation between the willingness to consume genetically modified foods and consumers’ economic, demographic and value attributes. Empirical results suggest that despite having some reservations, especially about the use of biotechnology

Ferdaus Hossain; Benjamin Onyango

2004-01-01

376

Use of Nutritional Information in Canada: National Trends between 2004 and 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine longitudinal trends in use of nutrition information among Canadians. Design: Population-based telephone and Internet surveys. Setting and Participants: Representative samples of Canadian adults recruited with random-digit dialing sampling in 2004 (n = 2,405) and 2006 (n = 2,014) and an online commercial panel in 2008 (n =…

Goodman, Samantha; Hammond, David; Pillo-Blocka, Francy; Glanville, Theresa; Jenkins, Richard

2011-01-01

377

Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

2007-01-01

378

Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models various pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia, using a national sample of children. Pathways examined include socioeconomic status, health knowledge, modern attitudes towards health care, female autonomy, and reproductive behavior. The data come from the 1998 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression results suggest that socioeconomic factors are the most important pathways

Michelle Bellessa Frost; Renata Forste; David W. Haas

2005-01-01

379

Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

2011-01-01

380

Review of nutrition labeling formats.  

PubMed

This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format. PMID:2071796

Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

1991-07-01

381

The Effects of Ethnicity, Sex and Father's Occupation on Heart Health Knowledge and Nutrition Behavior of School Children: The Texas Youth Health Awareness Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among ethnicity, sex, and father's occupation with heart health knowledge and nutrition behavior were studied in Texas seventh- and eighth-grade students. Findings indicated a strong need for heart health education and for culturally relevant nutrition education. (Author/CJB)

Burdine, James N.; And Others

1984-01-01

382

Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2005-01-01

383

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

384

Examining Trends in International Study: A Survey of Faculty-Led Field Courses within American Departments of Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of an online survey administered to chairs of American departments of geography to ascertain current trends and perceived value of international faculty-led field courses within their departments. The majority of reporting chairs indicated increased field course offerings over the past decade most often resulting…

Mullens, Jo Beth; Bristow, Robert S.; Cuper, Prudence

2012-01-01

385

Examining the Literacy Histories of Doctoral Students in an Educational Studies Program through Surveys and Interviews: A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explain the relationship between literacy experiences over time and the literacy identities of the doctoral students in a teacher education and higher education program. The quantitative phase, surveying 36 participants, revealed a positive correlation between participant's…

Adams-Budde, Melissa; Howard, Christy; Jolliff, Grant; Myers, Joy

2014-01-01

386

Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11?835 male and 12?561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01?kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005?kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004?kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

387

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

388

Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

1982-01-01

389

Examining Participant Engagement in an Information Technology-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Men: The Manup Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Males experience a shorter life expectancy and higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their female counterparts. To improve health outcomes among males, interventions specifically developed for males that target their health behaviors are needed. Information technology (IT)-based interventions may be a promising intervention approach in this population group, however, little is known about how to maximize engagement and retention in Web-based programs. Objective The current study sought to explore attributes hypothesized to influence user engagement among a subsample of participants from the ManUp study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an interactive Web-based intervention for promoting physical activity and nutrition among middle-aged males. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted and audiotaped with 20 of the ManUp participants. Interview questions were based on a conceptual model of engagement and centered on why participants took part in the study, what they liked and did not like about the intervention they received, and how they think the intervention could be improved. Interview recordings were transcribed and coded into themes. Results There were five themes that were identified in the study. These themes were: (1) users’ motives, (2) users’ desired outcomes, (3) users’ positive experiences, (4) users’ negative emotions, and (5) attributes desired by user. Conclusions There is little research in the field that has explored user experiences in human-computer interactions and how such experiences may relate to engagement, especially among males. Although not conclusive, the current study provides some insight into what personal attributes of middle-aged males (such as their key motives and goals for participating) and attributes of the intervention materials (such as usability, control, and interactivity) may impact on user engagement in this group. These findings will be helpful for informing the design and implementation of future health behavior interventions for males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000081910; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000081910 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6M4lBlvCA). PMID:24389361

Vandelanotte, Corneel; Dixon, Marcus W; Rosenkranz, Richard; Caperchione, Cristina; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Kolt, Gregory S; Maeder, Anthony; Ding, Hang; Taylor, Pennie; Duncan, Mitch J

2014-01-01

390

Advancement of the 10-species subgingival Zurich Biofilm model by examining different nutritional conditions and defining the structure of the in vitro biofilms  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontitis is caused by a highly complex consortium of bacteria that establishes as biofilms in subgingival pockets. It is a disease that occurs worldwide and its consequences are a major health concern. Investigations in situ are not possible and the bacterial community varies greatly between patients and even within different loci. Due to the high complexity of the consortium and the availability of samples, a clear definition of the pathogenic bacteria and their mechanisms of pathogenicity are still not available. In the current study we addressed the need of a defined model system by advancing our previously described subgingival biofilm model towards a bacterial composition that reflects the one observed in diseased sites of patients and analysed the structure of these biofilms. Results We further developed the growth media by systematic variation of key components resulting in improved stability and the firm establishment of spirochetes in the 10-species subgingival Zurich biofilm model. A high concentration of heat-inactivated human serum allowed the best proliferation of the used species. Therefore we further investigated these biofilms by analysing their structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy following fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The species showed mutual interactions as expected from other studies. The abundances of all organisms present in this model were determined by microscopic counting following species-specific identification by both fluorescence in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescence. The newly integrated treponemes were the most abundant organisms. Conclusions The use of 50% of heat-inactivated human serum used in the improved growth medium resulted in significantly thicker and more stable biofilms, and the quantitative representation of the used species represents the in vivo community of periodontitis patients much closer than in biofilms grown in the two media with less or no human serum. The appearance of T. denticola, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the top layer of the biofilms, and the high abundance of T. denticola, reflects well the microbial situation observed at diseased sites. The improved model biofilms will allow further investigations of interactions between individual species and of the effects of atmospheric or nutritional changes, as well as interactions with tissue cells. PMID:23040057

2012-01-01

391

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

392

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

393

State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

394

Nutrition Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

395

SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTBackground: Experiencing ethical problems requires both ethically problematic situations and ethical sensitivity. Ethically problematic treatment decisions are distressing and might reflect health care quality problems. Whether all physicians actually experience ethical problems, what these problems are and how they vary according to physician age, gender and work sector are largely unknown.Methods: A mail survey of all non-retired physicians licensed in

SAMULI I. SAARNI; PIITU PARMANNE; RITVA HALILA

2008-01-01

396

Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

397

Nutrition Action Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

398

Preclinical Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape.  

PubMed

The application of modeling and simulation techniques is increasingly common in preclinical stages of the drug discovery and development process. A survey focusing on preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis was conducted across pharmaceutical companies that are members of the International Consortium for Quality and Innovation in Pharmaceutical Development. Based on survey responses, ~68% of companies use preclinical PK/PD analysis in all therapeutic areas indicating its broad application. An important goal of preclinical PK/PD analysis in all pharmaceutical companies is for the selection/optimization of doses and/or dose regimens, including prediction of human efficacious doses. Oncology was the therapeutic area with the most PK/PD analysis support and where it showed the most impact. Consistent use of more complex systems pharmacology models and hybrid physiologically based pharmacokinetic models with PK/PD components was less common compared to traditional PK/PD models. Preclinical PK/PD analysis is increasingly being included in regulatory submissions with ~73% of companies including these data to some degree. Most companies (~86%) have seen impact of preclinical PK/PD analyses in drug development. Finally, ~59% of pharmaceutical companies have plans to expand their PK/PD modeling groups over the next 2 years indicating continued growth. The growth of preclinical PK/PD modeling groups in pharmaceutical industry is necessary to establish required resources and skills to further expand use of preclinical PK/PD modeling in a meaningful and impactful manner. PMID:25630504

Schuck, Edgar; Bohnert, Tonika; Chakravarty, Arijit; Damian-Iordache, Valeriu; Gibson, Christopher; Hsu, Cheng-Pang; Heimbach, Tycho; Krishnatry, Anu Shilpa; Liederer, Bianca M; Lin, Jing; Maurer, Tristan; Mettetal, Jerome T; Mudra, Daniel R; Nijsen, Marjoleen Jma; Raybon, Joseph; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Virna; Suryawanshi, Satyendra; Su, Yaming; Trapa, Patrick; Tsai, Alice; Vakilynejad, Majid; Wang, Shining; Wong, Harvey

2015-03-01

399

Nutrition: What Your Body Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-12-23

400

A review of the use of health examination data from the Health Survey for England in government policy development and implementation  

PubMed Central

Background Information is needed at all stages of the policy making process. The Health Survey for England (HSE) is an annual cross-sectional health examination survey of the non-institutionalised general population in England. It was originally set up to inform national policy making and monitoring by the Department of Health. This paper examines how the nurse collected physical and biological measurement data from the HSE have been essential or useful for identification of a health issue amenable to policy intervention; initiation, development or implementation of a strategy; choice and monitoring of targets; or assessment and evaluation of policies. Methods Specific examples of use of HSE data were identified through interviews with senior members of staff at the Department of Health and the Health and Social Care Information Centre. Policy documents mentioned by interviewees were retrieved for review, and reference lists of associated policy documents checked. Systematic searches of Chief Medical Officer Reports, Government ‘Command Papers’, and clinical guidance documents were also undertaken. Results HSE examination data have been used at all stages of the policy making process. Data have been used to identify an issue amenable to policy-intervention (e.g. quantifying prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease), in strategy development (in models to inform chronic respiratory disease policy), for target setting and monitoring (the 1992 blood pressure target) and in evaluation of health policy (the effect of the smoking ban on second hand smoke exposure). Conclusions A health examination survey is a useful part of a national health information system. PMID:25114791

2014-01-01

401

Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n?=?119), including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs), quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs), enrolled nurses (ENs)/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs) and assistants in nursing (AINs) was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT) capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents after hospital discharge. Conclusions This survey identified a high volume of information exchange activities, as well as inefficient procedures, such as the transfer of information from paper to computer systems and the reliance upon faxes for communication with external providers. These findings contribute to evidence for the need for interoperable IT systems to allow more efficient and reliable information exchange between facilities and external providers. PMID:22856585

2012-01-01

402

Examining the Infrared Variable Star Population Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using the SAGE-SMC Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S3MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 ?m band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ˜2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Seale, J.; Sewi?o, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Meixner, M.; Marengo, M.; Terrazas, M.

2015-02-01