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Sample records for nutritional status dietary

  1. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents: A Study from North Western India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…

  2. HIGHER DIETARY VARIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH BETTER NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN FRAIL ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: A narrow range of food choices may lead to dietary inadequacies, a particular concern in elderly people. We hypothesized that consumption of a more diverse diet would predict better nutritional status in frail elderly persons. SUBJECTS: Subjects included 98 frail nursing home residents (3...

  3. Relation of dietary fat intake perception to nutritional status and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Yong, H Y; Zalilah, M S; Yap, L D

    2009-09-01

    Excess dietary fat intake is associated with many chronic diseases. This cross-sectional study determines the differences in nutritional status and diet-related psychosocial factors by accuracy levels of dietary fat intake perceptions among adults. A total of 202 Universiti Putra Malaysia staff (20-55 years old) volunteered to participate in the study. Dietary fat accuracy levels (under-estimate, accurate and over-estimate) were determined by assessing actual fat intake through 24-hour diet recall and self-rated fat intake. Diet-related psychosocial factors assessed were perceived risks, intention to change, outcome expectancies and perceived barriers. About half (49.5%) of the respondents were classified as accurate estimators, while 35.6% and 14.9% were under-estimators and over-estimators, respectively. Dietary fat intake differed significantly between the dietary fat accuracy groups with under-estimators having the highest amount of dietary fat intake (F=17.10; p<0.001) and percentage of fat calories (F=103.99 + 0.533%, p<0.001). Over-estimators had the highest mean BMI (F=3.11, p<0.05) compared to other groups. Among the fat accuracy groups, under-estimators reported the least barriers to eating low fat foods (F= 3.671, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in waist circumference, energy intake, perceived disease risks, intention to change and outcome expectancies among the dietary fat accuracy groups. These findings suggest that inaccurate perceptions of dietary fat intake should not be overlooked as one of the cognitive barriers to dietary change and factors that influence nutritional status among adults. PMID:22691817

  4. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-01-01

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  5. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation. PMID:24352121

  6. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    PubMed

    Colić Barić, Irena; Satalić, Zvonimir; Lukesić, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (P<0.05). Low-fat dairy products, whole grain products and breakfast cereals were consumed more often by females (P<0.05). The most common choice for snacks was fruit. Males exercised more than females (4.4 h/week versus 1.6 h/week; P<0.05). A higher percentage of females (29.8%) than males (17.2%) smoked cigarettes. For alcohol consumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed. PMID:14522693

  7. Dietary Pattern among Schoolchildren with Normal Nutritional Status in Navarre, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days) in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females) with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3–11.7). There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6) and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine) and Vitamins A; D and E intake. PMID:24732017

  8. [Dietary pattern and nutritional status of metalworkers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Lourenço, Paulo Maurício

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status, dietary and leisure-time physical activity patterns, and energy intake of 65 male metalworkers aged 19 to 58 years from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described in the context of a surveillance build-up system. Mean body mass index was 25.0 kg/m2 (44.6% of the workers were overweight), and mean daily energy intake was 3,209.1 kcal, with a macronutrient distribution of 17.8%, 21.8%, and 60.6% of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively. The most frequently eaten foods were rice, beans, bread, coffee, sugar, butter, juice, whole milk, soda, beef, and poultry. Vegetable, fruit, meat, and egg intakes were higher than the Food Pyramid Guide suggested portions. The results show a paradox for a surveillance system: (1) high prevalence of overweight, but dietary macronutrients within internationally recommended levels; (2) a well-balanced dietary pattern; and (3) some leisure-time physical activity in half of the workers. PMID:15300284

  9. Dietary intakes and nutritional status of old people with dementia living at home in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Nes, M; Sem, S W; Rousseau, B; Bjørneboe, G E; Engedal, K; Trygg, K; Pedersen, J I

    1988-07-01

    A nutritional study was carried out of 16 independent-living elderly (9 women, 7 men) suffering from dementia and a control group matched for sex and age. The study consisted of interview (with participants or relatives/home helps), a 3-d weighed dietary record and biochemical determinations of blood components. No significant difference in mean daily energy intake between demented elderly (women 7.2 +/- 2.0 MJ, men 8.6 +/- 1.2 MJ) and controls (women 6.9 +/- 0.7 MJ, men 9.4 +/- 2.0 MJ) was found. The women with dementia had lower dietary intakes of protein (P less than 0.05), thiamin (P less than 0.05) and vitamin C (P less than 0.01) than female controls. For both sexes in both groups the nutrients most lacking were vitamin D and thiamin. Dietary supplements were more frequently used among elderly with dementia (50 per cent) than among controls (13 per cent) (P less than 0.05). Except for vitamin D, supplements did not reduce the number of demented elderly with low intakes (less than two-thirds of the recommendations) because generally those in most need were non-users. The demented elderly had lower levels of haemoglobin and folic acid (blood and plasma) (P less than 0.05) but better thiamin status (alpha-transketolase) than controls (P less than 0.05). No difference in mean levels of protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B12 in serum was found. Individuals with blood or serum levels of nutrients below reference values were more frequently found among the demented elderly than among controls. In the dementia group 2 individuals with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D also had clinical evidence of osteomalacia. PMID:3265665

  10. The Nutrinet-Santé Study: a web-based prospective study on the relationship between nutrition and health and determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nutrition-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer are of multiple origin, and may be due to genetic, biologic, behavioural and environmental factors. In order to detangle the specific role of nutritional factors, very large population sample cohort studies comprising precisely measured dietary intake and all necessary information for accurately assessing potential confounding factors are needed. Widespread use of internet is an opportunity to gradually collect huge amounts of data from a large sample of volunteers that can be automatically verified and processed. The objectives of the NutriNet-Santé study are: 1) to investigate the relationship between nutrition (nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, physical activity), mortality and health outcomes; and 2) to examine the determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status (sociological, economic, cultural, biological, cognitive, perceptions, preferences, etc.), using a web-based approach. Methods/design Our web-based prospective cohort study is being conducted for a scheduled follow-up of 10 years. Using a dedicated web site, recruitment will be carried out for 5 years so as to register 500 000 volunteers aged ≥ 18 years among whom 60% are expected to be included (having complete baseline data) and followed-up for at least 5 years for 240 000 participants. Questionnaires administered via internet at baseline and each year thereafter will assess socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, health status, physical activity and diet. Surveillance of health events will be implemented via questionnaires on hospitalisation and use of medication, and linkage with a national database on vital statistics. Biochemical samples and clinical examination will be collected in a subsample of volunteers. Discussion Self-administered data collection using internet as a complement to collection of biological data will enable identifying nutrition-related risks and

  11. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  12. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a ‘glucose-intolerant’ phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  13. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression. PMID:26159903

  15. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  16. Dietary vitamin D₂--a potentially underestimated contributor to vitamin D nutritional status of adults?

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kinsella, Michael; McNulty, Breige A; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-07-28

    It has been suggested that vitamin D₂ is not very prevalent in the human food chain. However, data from a number of recent intervention studies suggest that the majority of subjects had measurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ (25(OH)D₂) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D₂, unlike 25(OH)D₃, is not directly influenced by exposure of skin to sun and thus has dietary origins; however, quantifying dietary vitamin D₂ is difficult due to the limitations of food composition data. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterise serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations in the participants of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) in Ireland, and to use these serum concentrations to estimate the intake of vitamin D₂ using a mathematical modelling approach. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS method, and information on diet as well as subject characteristics was obtained from the NANS. Of these participants, 78.7 % (n 884) had serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations above the limit of quantification, and the mean, maximum, 10th, 50th (median) and 90th percentile values of serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were 3.69, 27.6, 1.71, 2.96 and 6.36 nmol/l, respectively. To approximate the intake of vitamin D₂ from these serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations, we used recently published data on the relationship between vitamin D intake and the responses of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The projected 5th to 95th percentile intakes of vitamin D₂ for adults were in the range of 0.9-1.2 and 5-6 μg/d, respectively, and the median intake ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 μg/d. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that 25(OH)D₂ concentrations are present in the sera of adults from this nationally representative sample. Vitamin D₂ may have an impact on nutritional adequacy at a population level and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:24780068

  17. Food Insecurity and Not Dietary Diversity Is a Predictor of Nutrition Status in Children within Semiarid Agro-Ecological Zones in Eastern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses; Karanja, Robert M.; Mutisya, Richard; Kombe, Yeri; Kaduka, Lydia U.

    2014-01-01

    Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya are associated with historical land degradation, climate change, and food insecurity. Both counties lie in lower midland (LM) lower humidity to semiarid (LM4), and semiarid (LM5) agroecological zones (AEZ). We assessed food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status of children and women. Materials and Methods. A total of 277 woman-child pairs aged 15–46 years and 6–36 months respectively, were recruited from farmer households. Food security and dietary diversity were assessed using standard tools. Weight and height, or length in children, were used for computation of nutritional status. Findings. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in food security and dietary diversity score (DDS) between LM4 and LM5. Stunting, wasting, and underweight levels among children in LM4 and LM5 were comparable as were BMI scores among women. However, significant associations (P = 0.023) were found between severe food insecurity and nutritional status of children but not of their caregivers. Stunting was significantly higher in older children (>2 years) and among children whose caregivers were older. Conclusion. Differences in AEZ may not affect dietary diversity and nutritional status of farmer households. Consequently use of DDS may lead to underestimation of food insecurity in semiarid settings. PMID:25328691

  18. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  19. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  20. Project Renourish: A Dietary Intervention to Improve Nutritional Status in People with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beange, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An intervention in Australia to improve the nutrition of 69 underweight, institutionalized persons (mean age 27) with multiple disabilities including severe intellectual disability involved an enriched diet for a year with increased energy density. Results included increased weight, improved vitamin and mineral levels, and fewer infections.…

  1. Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

  2. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  3. Nutritional status of lactating women in Bogor district, Indonesia: cross-sectional dietary intake in three economic quintiles and comparison with pre-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Briawan, Dodik; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The way in which women accommodate for their increased nutritional needs during the lactation period is poorly investigated. In a cross-sectional study involving 220 lactating women (LW), equally distributed in economic quintiles (Q2, Q3, Q4), we investigated whether habitual dietary intake of LW differed from that of 200 pre-pregnant women (PPW) studied using the same methodology. Differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status were also investigated. Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24-h dietary recalls and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn and vitamins A and C intakes were calculated utilising local food composition tables and were compared against Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes 25 % of LW. For Q2-LW, this proportion was >50 %, except for protein. LW across all studied economic quintiles approximately doubled their vegetable intake, and 71 % of LW indicated a belief that this enhances lactation performance. Biochemical status parameters were analysed in a subset of forty-five women. Anaemia as well as Fe, Zn and Se deficiencies were prevalent among LW, supporting the nutrient intake deficiency data. Despite increasing intakes in LW compared with PPW, habitual diets in the study area do not provide for daily nutrient requirements in substantial proportions for both LW and PPW across all investigated economic groups. PMID:27341617

  4. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  5. Identification of dietary patterns by factor analysis and study of the relationship with nutritional status of rural adolescents using factor scores.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, Kodavalla; Brahmam, Ginnela Narsimhachary Veera; Vijayaraghavan, Kamasamudram

    2015-01-01

    Study was undertaken to know food and nutrient consumption patterns and their relationship with nutritional status among rural adolescents in Orissa. It was a Community based cross sectional study, conducted at district level in the State of Orissa. Data on 686 adolescent boys and 689 adolescent girls were utilized. Factor analysis was used to find dietary pattern and discriminate analysis and its relationship with undernutrition. The study revealed that among adolescent boys, there existed six patterns among food-groups and three patterns among nutrients explaining 52% and 76% of total variation. Similarly among adolescent girls, seven patterns among food groups and three patterns among nutrients, explaining 67% and 80% of total variation. The discriminate analysis using the factor scores revealed overall 56% of adolescent boys, and 53% of girls were correctly classified. About 46% of boys who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 40% who were normal were predicted as thin. Among girls 50% who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 36% who were normal were predicted as thin. In conclusions, there exists considerable relationship between dietary patterns and nutritional status among rural adolescents. PMID:26825586

  6. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H. M.; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Mathers, John C.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  7. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    PubMed

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = -0.037; r² = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  8. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors. PMID:23572295

  9. Nutritional status of pre-pregnant and pregnant women residing in Bogor district, Indonesia: a cross-sectional dietary and nutrient intake study.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Briawan, Dodik; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Shah, Priyali; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The diet of Indonesian women of childbearing age is relatively poor, posing increased risk for suboptimal pregnancy outcome. In a cross-sectional study including 403 women in three economic quintiles (Q), we investigated differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status and whether regular dietary intakes of pregnant women (PW, n 203) differ from that of pre-pregnant women (PPW, n 200). Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24 h dietary recall and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were calculated utilising Food Composition Tables and compared with Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes <70 % and Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes <77 % of the local recommendation were considered insufficient. A higher intake of milk/dairy products (Q3, Q4), fruits and vegetables (Q2) and snacks (Q3) in PW was observed compared with PPW, but insufficient to meet nutrient requirements. Nutrient intake calculations showed insufficiency in 26 % of PPW for protein and up to 70 % for Fe. Deficient nutrient intakes in PW were found in 49 % of the subjects for energy and up to 85 % for Fe. Energy and protein intakes decreased with decreasing economic quintiles in PPW and PW. Ca and vitamin A intakes were lower in Q2 compared with Q4. The proportion of animal protein in Q2-PW was low (31 %). Biochemical status parameters in a subset showed that anaemia and Fe and Zn deficiencies were prevalent among PPW and PW. Habitual diets in the study area did not meet the nutrient requirements for both PPW and PW across the investigated economic groups. PMID:27079653

  10. Do Indonesians follow its Dietary Guidelines?: evidence related to food consumption, healthy lifestyle, and nutritional status within the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages derived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed afterward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guidelines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that information for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health consequence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegetables, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand-washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given. PMID:21859671

  11. Preschool child feeding, health and nutritional status in Gualaceo, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R

    1987-09-01

    Anthropologic, survey, dietary recall and anthropometric techniques were used to study the correlates of nutritional status of preschool children under five years of age in Gualaceo Ecuador. A widespread stunting was found among the children. Nutritional status was worst among infants comprised between 12 and 23 months old but it improved between April and August, thus suggesting seasonality changes of nutritional status. The correlates of nutritional status (expressed as Z score of weight-for-age) were dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, migration, household income, material goods owned, and parental education. A regression model with these variables predicted 63% of the variability in weight-for-age. The prediction of height-for-age was similar, but only predicted 43% of the variability in height-for-age. Correlates of dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, and migration were child age, maternal age and arm circumference, parental education, use of birth control, household food expenditure, material goods owned, and the raising of animals. Parental education was a correlate of dietary diversity, fertility and migration. Parental education was related to change in weight-for-age in the longitudinal subset. Pre-harvest time and a pathway of illness leading to decreased dietary diversity and to decreased nutritional status in April, were suggested as important to preschool child nutritional status. Hot-cold ideology--resulting in food withdrawal during illness and restriction of high-protein and high-calorie foods--appears to be an important mechanism determining preschool child nutritional status. Breast-feeding, sanitary, higienic, birth control, and drinking (alcohol) practices were suggested as areas that could be improved, in order to improve preschool child nutritional status. Communication between parents and western health care providers was also suggested as an area for improvement. PMID:3506399

  12. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children. PMID:26580646

  13. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  14. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  15. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  16. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  17. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  18. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

  19. Nutritional status and nutritional therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Corina; Eliakim, Rami; Shamir, Raanan

    2009-01-01

    Underweight and specific nutrient deficiencies are frequent in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, a significant number of children with IBD, especially Crohn’s disease (CD) have impaired linear growth. Nutrition has an important role in the management of IBD. In adults with CD, enteral nutrition (EN) is effective in inducing clinical remission of IBD, although it is less efficient than corticosteroids. Exclusive EN is an established primary therapy for pediatric CD. Limited data suggests that EN is as efficient as corticosteroids for induction of remission. Additional advantages of nutritional therapy are control of inflammation, mucosal healing, positive benefits to growth and overall nutritional status with minimal adverse effects. The available evidence suggests that supplementary EN may be effective also for maintenance of remission in CD. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. However, EN supplementation could be considered as an alternative or as an adjunct to maintenance drug therapy in CD. EN does not have a primary therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis. Specific compositions of enteral diets-elemental diets or diets containing specific components-were not shown to have any advantage over standard polymeric diets and their place in the treatment of CD or UC need further evaluation. Recent theories suggest that diet may be implicated in the etiology of IBD, however there are no proven dietary approaches to reduce the risk of developing IBD. PMID:19496185

  20. Benefits of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klosterbuer, Abby; Roughead, Zamzam Fariba; Slavin, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    Dietary fiber is widely recognized as an important part of a healthy diet and is a common addition to enteral nutrition (EN) formulas. Fiber sources differ in characteristics such as solubility, fermentability, and viscosity, and it is now well known that different types of fiber exert varying physiological effects in the body. Clinical studies suggest fiber can exert a wide range of benefits in areas such as bowel function, gut health, immunity, blood glucose control, and serum lipid levels. Although early clinical nutrition products contained fiber from a single source, it is now thought that blends of fiber from multiple sources more closely resemble a regular diet and may provide a greater range of benefits for the patient. Current recommendations support the use of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition when no contraindications exist, but little information exists about which types and combinations of fibers provide the relevant benefit in certain patient populations. This article summarizes the different types of fiber commonly added to EN products and reviews the current literature on the use of fiber blends in clinical nutrition. PMID:21947646

  1. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women. PMID:27086430

  2. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  3. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk. PMID:7602459

  4. Nutritional Aspects of Crewmembers' Cardiovascular Health Indicated by Dietary Lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Marcelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This summer's project examined the relationships between dietary and physiological factors on serum lipoproteins using data from past United States astronauts. Nutritional assessment was required to determine whether a relationship existed between dietary intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in crewmembers. Risk for CVD was assessed by the measurement of preflight, inflight, and postflight serum lipoproteins. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the dietary practices of past crewmembers before and during flight, and to examine their relationship with blood indicators of lipid status. Because of mortality and morbidity associated with CVD, such assessments are critical for the maintenance of astronaut health before, during, and after space flight. It was anticipated that the results from this project would assess the effects space flight and diet have on cardiovascular health, thus, defining the adequacy of the current dietary recommendations during space travel. It was hypothesized that the mean preflight serum lipoproteins compared to mean postflight serum lipoproteins would not be statistically different and that the current inflight diet is adequate in nutrient content, having little or no effect on lipoprotein levels.

  5. Overview of nutritional status in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1981-01-01

    Nutritional surveys attempt to estimate the nutritional status of people from various physical (clinical, anthropometric) and biochemical (with respect to nutrients) measurements, whereas dietary surveys attempt to measure what people eat. Although dietary surveys help explain possible reasons for clinical and laboratory findings, the nutritional status of people cannot be inferred from the diet alone. The determinants of nutritional status and, for that matter, the health of the individual and the population as a whole, include a variety of factors, biologic (genetic), behavioral, sociocultural, economic, and environmental. Diet is one environmental factor of great importance in determining man's level of health and well-being. The 1971-1974 HANES showed that excessive weight or obesity is a major health problem affecting people at all age and economic levels. At the same time, the survey showed a trend toward low calorie intake among certain adults over age 45, particularly women over age 60. The data also indicate that iron deficiency occurs among young children, pregnant women, and the elderly and that dental caries is a prevalent condition. Vitamin and iodine deficiencies, for practical purposes, do not exist in the U.S. population, although several surveys have uncovered certain vitamin deficiencies among the elderly. Dietary deficiencies, where they occur, are related to socioeconomic and cultural factors, specific conditions, and disease states. Reliable data do not exist to estimate the extent of malnutrition among the hospitalized and institutionalized population. PMID:7301853

  6. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  7. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Devaney, Barbara

    This publication, which is based on the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study, describes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP), presents findings on the nutrients and foods provided in school meals, and describes the dietary intakes of the nation's students on a typical school day. Data were derived…

  8. The effect of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake among Croatian university students.

    PubMed

    Kresić, Greta; Kendel Jovanović, Gordana; Pavicić Zezel, Sandra; Cvijanović, Olga; Ivezić, Goran

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes among university students. The students (264 males and 741 females) were asked to answer a validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and to fulfil a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Gender, university status (freshmen, juniors, seniors) and eating arrangements (home, restaurants, self-cooking) were used as predictors of the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. The findings indicated that women (p = 0.008), senior students (p < 0.001) and those who prepare food for themselves (p = 0.038) have higher nutrition knowledge scores. The assessment of nutrition knowledge had parallels in dietary intake, and adherence to the dietary recommendations was significantly associated with nutrition knowledge scores (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed differences in daily intakes of grains (p < 0.001), meat and beans group (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), fruits (p = 0.002) and oils (p < 0.001) in relation to all predictors. However nutrition knowledge acted as a modifier of the influence of eating arrangements. Logistic regression has shown that students with the highest nutrition knowledge are twelve times more likely to have a diet in accordance to recommendations compared to students with the lowest level of knowledge ([OR] = 12.03, 95% [CI] = 6.64-21.79, p < 0.001). The results support the value of including nutrition knowledge in health education campaigns targeting the student population with the aim of improving their dietary intake. PMID:20102047

  9. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly

  10. Dietary Practices, Attitudes, and Physiological Status of Collegiate Freshman Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Rosenbloom, Christine A.; Skinner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Determined the eating habits, attitudes, and physiological status of freshman collegiate football players who completed a nutrition screening survey and provided fasting blood samples and data on height and weight. Results indicated that as a group, there were no major problems in dietary practices and physiological status, though there was room…

  11. Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Korean Myopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Lee, Jang Woo; Suh, Mi Ri; Lee, Song Mi

    2016-01-01

    In myopathy patients, fat mass increases as the disease progresses, while lean body mass decreases. The present study aimed to investigate the overall nutritional status of Korean myopathy patients through surveys of diet and dietary habits, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and biochemistry tests, as well as the examination of related factors, for the purpose of using such findings as a basis for improving the nutritional status in myopathy patients. The energy intake of all participants was found to be insufficient at only 44.5% of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2010 (KDRIs 2010), whereas protein intake was sufficient at 89.8% of KDRIs 2010. Dietary fiber intake was found to be 58.4% of sufficient dietary fiber intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. Calcium intake was found to be 55.0% and magnesium was 14.9% of the recommended calcium and magnesium intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. With respect to quality of life (QOL), overall increase in QOL domain score showed significant positive correlations with vegetable fat intake (p < 0.05), vegetable protein intake (p < 0.05), and dietary fiber intake (p < 0.05). With respect to BIA, the mean phage angle of all participants was found to be 2.49 ± 0.93°, which was below the cutoff value. As a study that examined nutrient analysis and dietary habits of myopathy patients in Korea, the present study is meaningful in providing the basic data for future studies that aim to present dietary guidelines for patients suffering from myopathy. PMID:26839876

  12. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

  13. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency. PMID:7721375

  14. A computer application for dietary analysis in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M M; Ahmed, K

    1983-07-01

    The computerized dietary assessment system developed at Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals, to assist dietitians with routine calculation of nutrient intakes of patients, as a component of clinical nutrition assessment is described. The program was designed for dietary assessments of hospitalized patients and ambulatory patients, and to facilitate teaching students about dietary management of medical nutrition problems. To meet program objectives, efforts were directed toward software development, with flexibility to meet the needs of a wide variety of users, to accommodate rapidly changing nutrient composition data, to allow tailoring of the database to individual clinical settings, and for future expansion. The regionally accessible dietary assessment system is easy to use and is rapid, requiring 10 to 15 minutes to complete each one-day assessment. The program has been well accepted and utilized by hospital nutritionists in several clinical areas, for establishing dietary goals, monitoring progress, and in patient education. PMID:10278279

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  16. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  17. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Nutrition in Asia and Future Nutrition Policy Studies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of health disparities has been reported around the world. One of the intermediate factors between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is nutrition. Many studies reported socioeconomically disadvantaged people had more risk of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases than others in western society. Micronutrient intake affected by SES, but little evidence indicates that SES affects either energy intake or the macronutrient composition of the diet in western countries. In contrast, there is not enough evidence of a consistent relationship between SES and nutrition in Asian countries at present. The present status of nutrition disparities in Asia is considered to vary by economic level of the country. For developing countries in Asia, India and Vietnam, SES associates with BMI positively in women. For relatively developed countries in Asia, Korea and Japan, SES associates with BMI negatively in women. Low SES groups consume more carbohydrate, and less protein and fat, so not only micronutrient but also macronutrient intake is affected by SES both in developing and in developed Asian countries. There are some studies on the pathway from SES to diet/nutrition. The association between low SES and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods, concern about food price and dietary knowledge. Nutrition policy research is required to reduce nutrition disparities in Asia. We need a collaborative study of the impact of potential political options on diet and on health with other academic fields. PMID:26598891

  18. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients. PMID:27132122

  19. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG. PMID:24018006

  20. Differences in dietary intake associated with smoking status.

    PubMed

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to identify and describe smoking-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of tobacco-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study which was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products and consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on sex and age (+/- 5 years). Nutritional data were analysed as log-transformed frequencies of thirty food items, nine factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and estimated daily nutrient scores for fat, vitamin A, fibre, and cholesterol. In general, the dietary habits of ex-smokers more closely resembled those of never-smokers than those of current smokers. We found that after controlling for case-control status, education, alcohol consumption, and age, there were many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by smoking status than could be explained merely by chance. For both sexes we observed significantly increased consumption of fruits and higher vitamin A and fibre scores in non-smokers compared to current smokers (for any smoking vs non-smoking comparison the P-value was always less than 0.002, 0.01, and 0.007, respectively). A similar but weaker relationship was observed for high-fat, sweet foods such as ice cream. An inverse association, also of smaller magnitude, was found for other high-fat foods items. Implications for further study and strengths and weaknesses of the current study are discussed. PMID:2369884

  1. [Influence of the dietary level of vitamin B6 on the vitamin nutritional status of the lactating rat and the litter (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hammoudia, F; Leclerc, J

    1981-01-01

    Seven groups of female rats which had given birth to the litters of 8 youngs (or litters adjusted to 8 youngs) were fed diets containing respectively 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg of vitamin B6. Fourteen days after littering, the vitamin B6 content was measured in female tissues (blood, liver, carcass) or in those of the youngs (liver, carcass). Besides, the vitamin B6 content in the stomach of the youngs was measured, 3, 7 and 14 days after birth. 1. When the dietary vitamin B6 content is less than or equal to 1 mg/kg the blood vitamin level in the mother remains very low. As the dietary level rises (beyond 1 mg/kg) the blood vitamin level markedly increases. However the liver and carcass vitamin contents in the mother do not show any baseline value only the carcass content reaches a top value. 2. The highest vitamin B6 content in the stomach of the youngs (milk) is already reached when the diets contains 4 mg/kg of the vitamin. 3. Same results are obtained regarding the vitamin contents of the liver and carcass in the youngs. Therefore it appears that these levels are mainly related to the milk vitamin B6 content in the mother. In a previous work however, it was shown that in similar experimental conditions, the maximum tissue thiamin contents depend upon other mechanisms. PMID:7319722

  2. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  3. A study of the dietary intake of Cypriot children and adolescents aged 6–18 years and the association of mother’s educational status and children’s weight status on adherence to nutritional recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A balanced diet is fundamental for healthy growth and development of children. The aim of this study was to document and evaluate the dietary intake of Cypriot children aged 6–18 years (y) against recommendations, and to determine whether maternal education and children’s weight status are associated with adherence to recommendations. Methods The dietary intake of a random sample of 1414 Cypriot children was assessed using a 3-day food diary. Adherence to recommendations was estimated and the association of their mother’s education and their own weight status on adherence were explored. Results A large percentage of children consumed less than the minimum of 45% energy (en) of carbohydrate (18.4%-66.5% in different age groups) and exceeded the recommended intakes of total fat (42.4%-83.8%), saturated fatty acids (90.4%-97.1%) and protein (65.2%-82.7%), while almost all (94.7%-100%) failed to meet the recommended fibre intake. Additionally, a large proportion of children (27.0%-59.0%) consumed >300 mg/day cholesterol and exceeded the upper limit of sodium (47.5%-78.5%). In children aged 9.0-13.9y, there was a high prevalence of inadequacy for magnesium (85.0%-89.9%), in girls aged 14.0-18.9y, of Vitamin A (25.3%), Vitamin B6 (21.0%) and iron (25.3%) and in boys of the same group, of Vitamin A (35.8%). Children whose mother was more educated were more likely to consume >15%en from protein, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.85 (95% CI:1.13-3.03) for mothers with tertiary education and exceed the consumption of 300 mg/day cholesterol (OR 2.13 (95% CI:1.29-3.50) and OR 1.84 (95% CI:1.09-3.09) for mothers with secondary and tertiary education respectively). Children whose mothers were more educated, were less likely to have Vitamin B1 (p<0.05) and Vitamin B6 intakes below the EAR (p < 0.05 for secondary school and p < 0.001 for College/University) and iron intake below the AI (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese children were more likely to consume >15%en

  4. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  5. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control). PMID:24827061

  6. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  7. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Himmerich, H; Erbguth, F

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and specific nutritional supplements can have prophylactic or therapeutic properties with respect to certain psychiatric disorders. A traditional Mediterranean diet, for example, seems to have prophylactic benefits against depression and dementia, whereas overeating and obesity increase the risk for both.Although evidence for nutritional supplements in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is not sufficient for general recommendations, data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) seem to point to their use for specific indications. Folate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for instance, seem to have antidepressant properties, zinc may be beneficial in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) could reduce extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) seems to be effective against negative symptoms, abnormal movements and akathisia in schizophrenia.Psychiatric disorders, in turn, may lead to deficiency of mineral nutrients and vitamins. For instance, vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency is common in alcohol-dependent patients and should therefore be considered during withdrawal treatment. Although vitamin malnutrition is uncommon in developed countries, vitamin deficiency syndromes, such as pernicious anemia or Wernicke's encephalopathy are still relevant differential diagnoses.Some psychopharmacological drugs may additionally change the nutritional habits of the patients in an unfavorable way leading to weight gain and obesity and the risk for further psychiatric problems. PMID:25421417

  8. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

  9. [Nutritional status of institutionalized Venezuelan elderly].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nahir; Hernández, Rosa; Herrera, Héctor; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-09-01

    With the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of institutionalized elders in different geriatric units of the metropolitan area of Caracas, 126 subjects with ages between 60 and 96 years old were evaluated. The Mini Nutritional Assessment was applied and were identified 48.4% individuals with nutritional risk, 5.6% malnourished and 46% without nutritional problems. Females presented higher prevalences of malnutrition and risk, while males presented an adequate nutritional state. By sex and age, females and males over 80 years presented a higher prevalence of malnutrition and risk when they were compared whit those younger. A low dayly liquid intake, a BMI equal or under of 23 kg/m2 and a limited physical performance were the items that presented the highest prevalence among the studied elders. In conclusion, the high prevalence of malnutrition risk in this population group, remarks the necessity to include into the global geriatric evaluation, a quick, simple and non-invasive instrument that allows to estimate the nutritional status of the elders. PMID:16152778

  10. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  11. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  12. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  13. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential. PMID:2518785

  14. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  15. Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important life stage for the development of dietary preferences and health behaviour. Longitudinal studies indicated that cardiovascular status in adolescence predicts cardiovascular risk marker values in adulthood. Several diet quality indices for adolescents have been developed in the past, but literature concerning associations between indices and biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status is rather sparse. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status. Methods For the present analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS 2003–2006) were used. The analysis included 5,198 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years. The Healthy Food Diversity Index (HFD), the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY), the Indicator Food Index (IFI) and a simple fruit/vegetable intake index were derived from food frequency questionnaire information to indicate a healthy diet. Adjusted mean values for homocysteine, uric acid, CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, ferritin, HbA1c, folate, vitamin B12 and BMI were calculated using complex-samples general linear models for quintiles of the different indices. Furthermore, the agreement in ranking between the different indices was calculated by weighted kappa. All statistical analyses were conducted for boys and girls separately, and were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Folate was positively associated with the HFD, the HuSKY, and fruit/vegetable intake for both boys and girls and with IFI for boys. Among girls, positive associations were seen between vitamin B12 and the IFI and between diastolic blood pressure and the IFI as well as fruit/vegetable intake. A negative association was found between homocysteine and the HFD, the HuSKY, and the IFI for both boys and girls and with fruit/vegetable intake for boys. Among boys, uric acid and

  16. Dietary fiber: nutritional lessons for macronutrient substitutes.

    PubMed

    Behall, K M

    1997-05-23

    The wide array of low-fat foods containing soluble fibers have the potential for helping in weight loss or weight control. Consumption of soluble fibers in sufficient quantities has been shown to lower serum lipid concentrations and to improve glycemic response. Some individuals could, eventually, consume a significant portion of their soluble dietary fiber from processed foods containing soluble-fiber fat substitutes. Changes in dietary fiber and starch sources increase the amount of fermentable material reaching the colon. Short-chain fatty acids thus produced are used as an energy source by colonocytes and may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. However, colonic fermentation can also result in flatulence or diarrhea. In addition, some diets high in soluble fiber have been shown to change intestinal cell morphology in rats. The possible benefits from consumption of a diet high in soluble fiber fat substitutes in serum lipid reduction, glycemic response improvement, and/or weight reduction as well as potential problems in flatulence, mineral absorption, and colonic cell hyperproliferation should be investigated. PMID:9186765

  17. In-Depth Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Korean American Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Jongeun; Kim, Miyong T.; Han, Hae-Ra

    2009-01-01

    While studies of immigrants have generally indicated significant dietary changes upon immigration that mirror a Western diet, previous data are limited to the dietary patterns and intakes of younger and middle-aged adults. Using a relatively large sample of Korean American elderly (KAE) immigrants, this paper offers an in-depth assessment of the nutritional status of KAE, one of the most rapidly increasing minority populations in the United States. A total of 202 KAE in a metropolitan city on the East coast participated in a comprehensive nutritional survey using 24-hour dietary recall. Despite their spending about 16 years in the U.S., the KAE consumed more than two regular meals in a day which qualified under a Korean food pattern. When compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, the average consumption of nutrients reported was generally lower than Americans, with the exception of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and sodium intakes. Inadequate intakes of calcium, dietary fiber, and folate were notable when examined in comparison to the Dietary Reference Intakes. The findings can help healthcare providers and researchers to design appropriate nutritional education programs to facilitate the adoption of healthier dietary practices in this immigrant population. In particular, future interventions should consider ways to lower sodium intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among KAE, while encouraging them to maintain their healthy dietary pattern. PMID:19818265

  18. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  19. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  20. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  1. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  2. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  3. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community

    PubMed Central

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country’s population the ‘nutritional transition’ often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. Material and Methods 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate ‘adult equivalent’ per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. Results 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Conclusion Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2—probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status. PMID:26559817

  4. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  5. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  6. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  7. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  8. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  9. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  10. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Aronson, William; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US men and the prevalence continues to rise world-wide especially in countries where men consume a 'Western-style' diet. Epidemiologic, preclinical and clinical studies suggest a potential role for dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa. 'This minireview provides an overview of recent published literature with regard to nutrients, dietary factors, dietary patterns and PCa incidence and progression. Low carbohydrates intake, soy protein, omega-3 (w-3) fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression. A higher saturated fat intake and a higher β-carotene status may increase risk. A 'U' shape relationship may exist between folate, vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium with PCa risk. Despite the inconsistent and inconclusive findings, the potential for a role of dietary intake for the prevention and treatment of PCa is promising. The combination of all the beneficial factors for PCa risk reduction in a healthy dietary pattern may be the best dietary advice. This pattern includes rich fruits and vegetables, reduced refined carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, and reduced cooked meats. Further carefully designed prospective trials are warranted. PMID:25573005

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences. PMID:24959114

  12. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  13. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    PubMed

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability. PMID:10984998

  14. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8

  15. Nutritional Properties of Dietary Omega-3-Enriched Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Murru, Elisabetta; Carta, Gianfranca

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids regulate several physiological functions. However, to exert their properties, they have to be present in the diet in an optimal balance. Particular attention has been focused on tissue highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs) n-6/n-3 ratio, influenced by the type and the esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA when esterified to phospholipids (PLs) are more efficiently incorporated into tissue PLs and seem to possess peculiar properties through specific mechanism(s) of action, such as the capacity to affect endocannabinoid biosynthesis at much lower doses than EPA and DHA in triglyceride form, probably because of the above mentioned higher incorporation into tissue PLs. Downregulation of the endocannabinoid system seems to mediate the positive effects exerted by omega-3-enriched PLs on several parameters of metabolic syndrome. PLs are one of the major dietary forms of EPA and DHA we are exposed to with the everyday diet; therefore, it is not surprising that it guarantees an effective EPA and DHA nutritional activity. Future studies should address whether EPA and DHA in PL form are also more effective than other formulations in ameliorating other pathological conditions where n-3 HPUFAs seem to exert beneficial activities such as cancer and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23984423

  16. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: summary and discussion.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, J A; Devaney, B L; Gordon, A R

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key findings of the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study and discusses the implications for policy and practice in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). Reducing total fat offered in NSLP lunches to the amount set in the Dietary Guidelines, as called for in the proposed regulations published by the US Department of Agriculture in June 1994, would be facilitated by changing the legislative requirement to serve whole milk. In addition, the following menu choices and meal preparation methods would reduce considerably the amounts of fat in NSLP lunches: reducing the average meat serving from 2 to 1.5 oz; eliminating high-fat meats, high-fat cheese, nuts, and nut butters; eliminating high-fat desserts and milk-based desserts; and reducing sharply the use of added fats in food preparation. PMID:7832175

  17. [Nutritional status of vitamin A in preschoolers with ocular diseases].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Fierro, Emma T; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Kumazawa-Ichikawa, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Vélez-Gómez, Ezequiel

    2009-09-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A in preschool children with ocular diseases attending to the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara. In a cross sectional design 100 preschool children between 24 and 71 mo of age with ocular diseases were included. Vitamin A intake was evaluated by 24 h dietetic recall, plasma Retinol concentration by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); and, conjunctiva impression cytology (CIC) was carried out by a trained pathologist. ANOVA and U Mann Whitney tests, and also Spearman correlations were estimated. There were 44.1% females and 55,9% males. Strabismus was the most common disease (41,9%), conjunctivitis (19,4%), and congenital diseases (17,2%). The mean intake of Vitamin A was 374 microg/d +/- 706 and the serum concentration of retinol was of 30 microg/dL +/- 7,6; CIC was normal in 75,6%. The percentage of vitamin A deficiency was 3,2% according to the serum concentration of Retinol and 3,5% to the CIC criteria. It was not association between the nutritional status of vitamin A and ocular diseases. A positive correlation between vitamin A intake and weight/height index (r = 0,244) was found. In conclusion, most preschool children covered the dietary reference intake recommendation of vitamin A; deficiency of this vitamin was lower and, it was not associated to ocular diseases. PMID:19886511

  18. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  19. Association of nutritional status with quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life. PMID:24460363

  20. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251

  1. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  2. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  3. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  4. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Maritsa Carla; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2009-03-01

    A vegetarian diet may have beneficial effects on human health, however when it is not well-balanced may be deficient in some nutrients, as minerals for example. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of zinc and selenium in vegetarians in the city of São Paulo. A cross-sectional study was performed, and the inclusion criteria were age > or = 18 years, both gender, no use of food or pharmaceutical supplements. Thirty vegetarian, of both genders, mean age of 27 years and 4.5 years of vegetarianism had performed the study, and their mean BMI was 21.5. Zinc plasma concentration was 71 and 62.5 microg/dL for men and women and erythrocyte concentration was 37 microg/gHb for both genders. Selenium concentration was 73.5 and 77.3 microg/L in plasma and 51.4 and 66.9 microg/L in erythrocytes for men and women, respectively. These biochemical values show that, according to the references, selenium blood levels are adequate and zinc concentration in erythrocytes is deficient in the studied population. For this reason, vegetarians should be constantly assessed and receive nutritional support to reduce the effects of inadequate zinc status. PMID:18953504

  5. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  6. The French National Nutrition and Health Program score is associated with nutritional status and risk of major chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Estaquio, Carla; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Dauchet, Luc; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Few studies have found that adherence to dietary guidelines reduces the incidence of chronic disease. In 2001, a National Nutrition and Health Program (Program National Nutrition Santé) was implemented in France and included 9 quantified priority nutritional goals involving fruit, vegetable, and nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and physical activity. We developed an index score that includes indicators of these public health objectives and examined the association between this score and the incidence of major chronic diseases in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort. Data from middle-aged adults free of major chronic diseases and who provided at least 3 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up have been included in the present analysis (n = 4,976). Major chronic disease, documented during the 8-y follow-up period (n = 455), was defined as the combination of cardiovascular disease (n = 131), cancer (n = 261), or death (n = 63), whichever came first. In fully adjusted Cox models, men in the top tertile score compared with those in the lowest one had a 36% lower risk of major chronic diseases (hazard ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96). No association was found in women. Healthy diet and lifestyle were associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, particularly in men, thereby underlying relevance of the French nutritional recommendations. PMID:18424606

  7. Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid-base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391

  8. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  9. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  10. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  11. Oral and nutritional status in frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena; Routasalo, Pirkko; Lauri, Sirkka; Ainamo, Anja

    2003-01-01

    This article describes associations between oral health and nutritional status among chronically ill older adults who were living at home and receiving regular professional home care services. A structured questionnaire, oral examination, and Mini-Nutritional Assessment were completed for 51 subjects (mean age 83.7 years). Two-thirds of the sample were edentulous, and one-third had between 2 and 23 teeth (mean 10.59, SD +/- 6.92). Sixty percent of subjects complained of xerostomia, while dentists found only 48% to have clinical signs of dry mouth. More than half of the subjects had stimulated saliva rates of < 0.8 ml/min. Stimulated saliva secretion rates were lower for persons with no functional natural dentition or prostheses (p = 0.012). Subjects assessed their dentures to be more functional than did the dentist (Kappa 0.338). No one was considered malnourished. 47% were at risk of malnutrition, and 52% were well nourished. The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and eating problems were significantly associated to lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015, respectively). Subjects with a natural functioning dentition had higher BMI scores (p = 0.0485). PMID:15085957

  12. Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    An abundance of research has investigated causes and treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research includes identification of suboptimal levels of nutrients and sensitivities to certain foods and food additives. This review gives an overview of this research and provides an up-to-date account of clinical trials that have been conducted with zinc, iron, magnesium, Pycnogenol, omega-3 fatty acids, and food sensitivities. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar and included studies published before April 2008. Although further research is required, the current evidence supports indications of nutritional and dietary influences on behavior and learning in these children, with the strongest support to date reported for omega-3s and behavioral food reactions. PMID:18826452

  13. Mother surrogate and nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Choudhry, M

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted on 200 preschool children to find out the effect of mother surrogate on the nutritional status. The nutritional status of children was found to be affected by the time devoted by mother on child care activities, working status of mother and type of family independently and jointly. The children cared by mother had better nutritional status than those children who were cared by servants and any other family member in the absence of mother. It shows that no one can substitute the care provided by the mother. PMID:8253493

  14. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

  15. Influence of diet and nutritional status on drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Walter-Sack, I; Klotz, U

    1996-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute to a wide inter- and intraindividual variability in drug metabolism. Among the environmental factors that may influence drug metabolism, the diet and nutritional status of the individuals are important determinants. As altered drug-metabolising enzyme activities can influence the intensity and duration of drug action, such factors should be considered in pharmacotherapy. For this reason the effects of dietary energy, protein deficiency, nutritional ingredients, special diet forms and nutrition regimens and malnutritional states must be differentiated. In various pharmacokinetic studies different model drugs metabolised either by oxidative phase I pathways [e.g. phenazone (antipyrine), aminopyrine, phenacetin, theophylline, propranolol, nifedipine] or phase II conjugation reactions [e.g. paracetamol (acetaminophen), oxazepam] were used and from the calculated pharmacokinetic data some information on the involved and affected drug-metabolising enzymes [e.g. cytochrome P450 (CYP) subspecies, glucuronosyltransferases] can be generated. It is well known that smoking, charcoal broiled food or cruciferous vegetables induce the metabolism of many xenobiotics, whereas grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of the high clearance drugs nifedipine, nitrendipine or felodipine by inhibiting their presystemic (intestinal) elimination. Energy deficiency, and especially a low intake of protein, will cause a decrease of about 20 to 40% in phenazone and theophylline clearance and elimination of those drugs can be accelerated by a protein-rich diet. In the same way, protein deficiency induced by either vegetarian food or undernourishment will have the opposite pharmacokinetic consequences. On the basis of some more examples from the literature it is emphasised that the variable influence of the above factors should be taken into account in study participant selection and study design when the pharmacokinetics of a drug must be

  16. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  17. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  18. Nutritional Knowledge, Practice, and Dietary Habits among school Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Results: Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials. PMID:26157569

  19. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  20. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  1. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  2. Infant Feeding Practices, Dietary Adequacy, and Micronutrient Status Measures in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  3. Senator McGovern on Dietary Goals: Without Nutrition Education, "Everything Else is Lost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    An interview with Senator McGovern who was chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs for nine years. In its final year, 1977, the committee published "Dietary Goals for the United States." (BB)

  4. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  5. Impact of long-term use of oral nutritional supplement on nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and growth of Filipino preschool children.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P < 0·01). Male children, total energy intake and parental employment status were associated with weight-for-height percentile gain (P < 0·05), whereas higher parental education level and ONS compliance were significantly associated with height-for-age percentile gain over time (P < 0·05). Long-term ONS intervention did not interfere with normal food intake and helped promote nutritional adequacy and growth of Filipino children. PMID:27293557

  6. Screening Children for Nutritional Status: Suggestions for Child Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    This report details two screening programs aimed at determining childhood nutritional problems within a given community. Discussed in section I is a simplified screening approach which involves gathering information about the frequency of specific food stuffs and food nutrients in the community; obtaining family demographic and dietary information…

  7. Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

  8. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended. PMID:12810409

  9. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR. PMID:15916044

  10. Measuring vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements for nutrition studies in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article illustrates the importance of having analytical data on the vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplements in nutrition studies and describes efforts to develop an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) by a consortium of federal agencies in the USA. ...

  11. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  12. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. PMID:26514720

  13. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  14. Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status Indicators of Participant and Nonparticipant Pupils of a Parent-Supported School Lunch Program in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walingo, Mary K.; Musamali, Betty

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…

  15. Young children's dietary habits and associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea

    2010-02-01

    The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:19751782

  16. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population. PMID:22977690

  17. Diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; O'Shea, Donal

    2015-08-14

    Nutrition knowledge and skills enable individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to make food choices that optimise metabolic self-management and quality of life. The present study examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and skills, and nutrient intake in T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake was conducted in 124 T2DM individuals managed in usual care (64% male, age 57.4 (sd 5.6) years, BMI 32.5 (sd 5.8) kg/m2), using the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl) questionnaire and a 4 d food diary. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, food label use and weight management were also collected. The average ADKnowl dietary subscale score was 59.2 (sd 16.4) %. Knowledge deficits relating to the impact of macronutrients/foods on blood glucose and lipids were identified. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower intakes of sugar (10.8 (sd 4.7) v. 13.7 (sd 4.6) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), non-milk sugar (9.1 (sd 4.8) v. 12.1 (sd 4.7) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001) and fruit/vegetables (230.8 (sd 175.1) v. 322.8 (sd 179.7) g for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), and higher dietary glycaemic index (GI) (61.4 (sd 4.5) v. 58.4 (sd 4.6) for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.002). The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight. Sugar was the most frequently checked nutrient on food labels (59%), with only 12.1% checking foods for their energy content. Significant knowledge and skill deficits, associated with the impact of macronutrients/foods on metabolic parameters and food label use, were found. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower sugar and fruit/vegetable intake and higher dietary GI. Dietary education, integrated throughout the lifespan of T2DM, may

  18. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  19. Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. Results: The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score ≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score ≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Conclusions: Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:25765447

  20. Nutritional status influences plasma fibrinogen concentration: evidence from the THUSA survey.

    PubMed

    James, S; Vorster, H H; Venter, C S; Kruger, H S; Nell, T A; Veldman, F J; Ubbink, J B

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional status and risk factors for chronic diseases, including plasma fibrinogen and its determinants, of Africans in the Northwest Province of South Africa, have been studied in a cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 1854 "apparently healthy" African men and women volunteers aged 15 years and older was recruited from 37 randomly selected sites throughout the Province and stratified for level of urbanisation. Information was collected using validated and culture-sensitive questionnaires. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and all measurements were done with standardised methodology using appropriate equipment, procedures, and controls. Fibrinogen concentration was measured in citrated plasma with the method of Clauss, using the ACL200 automated system and the international fibrinogen standard. The results revealed a population with a high mean plasma fibrinogen (3.17+/-1.10 g/L for HIV-negative men and 3. 64+/-1.12 g/L for HIV-negative women). Factors known to influence plasma fibrinogen, such as age, gender, smoking habit, and physical activity, were also observed in this population. Young rural men and women had the lowest fibrinogen level. Nasal snuff taking and HIV infection did not influence fibrinogen concentration. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower plasma fibrinogen was associated with low to normal body mass index in women, and with dietary intakes compatible with prudent dietary guidelines in men and women (low intakes of animal protein; trans fatty acids and higher intakes of plant protein; dietary fibre, vitamin E, and iron, and a high dietary P/S ratio). Subjects in the higher quartiles of plasma fibrinogen had significantly lower iron, vitamin E, and vitamin B6 (women) status. Increases in fibrinogen were associated with significant increases in serum lipids. Both under- and overnutrition seem to be associated with high plasma fibrinogen. It is concluded that overall nutritional status, possibly in addition to specific

  1. Dietary nutrient intake and antioxidant status in preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    Sheykhi, Mahdiye; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is the most common cause of maternal death in the world. Some studies showed that inadequate intake of foods rich in antioxidant leads to increase oxidative stress and adverting obstetrical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and dietary nutrient intake in pregnant women with PE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 55 pregnant women with PE admitted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were interviewed about demographic data and dietary intakes by using a 168-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of this serum was measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Nonparametric correlation statistics were used to meet assumptions of normality and equal variances. Results: Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in comparison with healthy pregnant women (which measured as pilot). Intake of vitamin E was below the dietary reference intakes, and was positively associated with serum TAC (r = 0.367, P = 0.003), but this correlation was significantly negative about dietary selenium. There wasn’t any significant correlation between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, copper and serum TAC. Conclusion: Our findings showed that intake of vitamin E was positively associated with serum TAC. Little support was found on a relationship between dietary intakes of other micronutrients and serum TAC. Further research is required to explore the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and antioxidant status in women with PE. PMID:26605222

  2. Antioxidant Status before and after Dietary Intervention in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Patients.

    PubMed

    Karajibani, M; Hashemi, M; Montazerifar, F; Dikshit, M

    2010-12-01

    There is some evidence showing an inverse correlation between dietary sources including natural antioxidant vitamins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary antioxidants on oxidative stress in CVD patients. This study was carried out on 31 CVD patients and 63 healthy individuals. Nutritional status and dietary antioxidant vitamins were assessed by 48-hour recall. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as the levels of vitamins A, E, C, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined before and after serving fresh fruits and vegetables for 3 months. Before intervention intake, levels of vitamins A, E and C were significantly lower in patients than in normal individuals (P<0.001). The serum levels of vitamins A, E and C were significantly lower in the cases than in the control subjects. After intervention, the serum levels of vitamins A, E and C were increased significantly (P<0.0001). Similarly, the levels of TAC as well as the activities of SOD and GPx were found to increase by end of 3 months. In addition, a significant increase of TAC and a decrease in MDA levels were observed. In conclusion, the findings show that dietary supplementation improves the antioxidant defense system in CVD patients. PMID:22691986

  3. Interactions between C-Reactive Protein Genotypes with Markers of Nutritional Status in Relation to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C.; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R.; Towers, G. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  4. Interactions between C-reactive protein genotypes with markers of nutritional status in relation to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, G Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  5. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing. PMID:24289210

  6. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  7. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of hypertensive patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg

  8. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  9. EFFECTS OF A NUTRITION EDUCATION PROGRAM ON THE DIETARY BEHAVIOR AND NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE OF SECOND-GRADE AND THIRD-GRADE STUDENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students sel...

  10. Vision impairment and nutritional status among older assisted living residents.

    PubMed

    Muurinen, Seija M; Soini, Helena H; Suominen, Merja H; Saarela, Riitta K T; Savikko, Niina M; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common among older persons. It is a risk factor for disability, and it may be associated with nutritional status via decline in functional status. However, only few studies have examined the relationship between vision impairment and nutritional status, which was investigated in this cross-sectional study. The study included all residents living in the assisted living facilities in Helsinki and Espoo in 2007. Residents in temporary respite care were excluded (5%). Of permanent residents (N=2214), 70% (N=1475) consented. Trained nurses performed a personal interview and assessment of each resident including the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), functional and health status. Patient records were used to confirm demographic data and medical history. Mortality in 2010 was retrieved from central registers. Of the residents, 17.5% (N=245) had vision impairment and they were not able to read regular print. Those with vision impairment were older, more often females, and malnourished according to MNA. They had lower BMI, and suffered more often from dementia and chewing problems than those without vision impairment. In logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, chewing problems and dementia, vision impairment was independently associated with resident's malnutrition (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.80-3.51). According to our results older residents in assisted living with vision impairment are at high risk for malnutrition. Therefore it is important to assess nutritional status of persons with vision impairment. It would be beneficial to repeat this kind of a study also in elderly community population. PMID:24398167

  11. Nutritional status of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) influences susceptibility to contaminant exposure.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Jones, Malcolm B

    2008-08-11

    Using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a model, this study tested the hypothesis that nutritional status influences susceptibility of adult crabs (>60mm carapace width (CW)) to environmental contamination. In the laboratory, crabs were either starved, given a restricted diet (fed on alternate days) or fully fed (fed each day). In addition, crabs under each feeding regime were exposed to a sublethal concentration (200microgl(-1)) of pyrene (PYR) as a model organic (PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon)) contaminant. Various physiological end points were measured after 7 and 14 days. Results indicated that adult shore crab physiology was relatively robust to short-term (7 days) nutritional changes as multivariate analysis (ANOSIM) showed no significant difference in shore crab physiological condition between control and pyrene-exposed crabs, irrespective of dietary feeding regime [Global R=0.018, P (%)=19.2]. After 14 days, however, starved crabs showed significant impacts to physiological condition (as revealed by multivariate analysis) [Global R=0.134, P (%)=0.1], [R=0.209, P (%)=0.1]; starved individuals had significantly lower antioxidant status (F(2,48)=5.35, P<0.01) compared to crabs under both types of feeding regime. Exposure to pyrene resulted in significantly elevated pyrene metabolite concentrations in the urine at 7 and 14 days compared with control individuals (P<0.001), validating contaminant bioavailability, and this was found for all dietary treatments. Also, exposed crabs had significantly increased protein levels (proteinuria) than controls (P<0.001) in their urine after 7 and 14 days, irrespective of dietary regime. After 7 days, pyrene-exposed crabs showed significantly increased antioxidant status (P<0.001) and cellular functioning (increased cellular viability and decreased phagocytosis) (P<0.001) compared to control crabs; however, after 14 days, antioxidant status (P<0.01) and cellular viability (P<0.001) were significantly decreased in pyrene

  12. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

  13. The Relation Between Nutrition Knowledge and the Dietary Intake of Selected Women: A Basis for Adult Education Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Reba Jones

    To investigate the relationship between the estimated quality of dietary intake and (1) knowledge of nutrition concepts, (2) attitude toward nutrition, (3) food preferences, and (4) perception of personal control of dietary intake, information was gathered from two 24-hour food recalls and other instruments administered to 102 women representing…

  14. The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…

  15. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  16. [Investigation of actual nutrition and some factors of physical status in rugby players].

    PubMed

    Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities. PMID:24340935

  17. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  19. Nutritional Supplementation Is a Necessary Complement to Dietary Counseling among Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; Ramalho, Andrea; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel; Cople-Rodrigues, Cláudia dos Santos; Georg, Ingebourg; Paiva, Eliane; Argolo, Sheila Vasques Leandro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization recommend dietary counseling for patients with malnutrition during tuberculosis treatment. Patients under tuberculosis therapy (infected and not infected with HIV) were followed-up to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary counseling. Objective: describe the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: an observational follow-up study over a 180-day period of tuberculosis therapy in adults was conducted. Subjects were assessed for body composition (using BMI, TSF and MUAC parameters), serum biomarkers and offered dietary counseling. The data obtained at each visit (D15, D30, D60, D90, D120, D150, and D180) were analyzed, showing trajectories over time and central tendencies each time. Results: at baseline, the mean age was 41.1 (±13.4) years; they were predominantly male, with income lower than a local minimum wage and at least six years of schooling. Patients showed predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis. At baseline, all patients suffered from malnutrition. The overall energy malnutrition prevalence was of 70.6%. Anemia at baseline was observed in both groups (63.2%), however, it was significantly more pronounced in the HIV+. At the end, energy malnutrition was reduced to 57.1% (42.9% of HIV- and 71.4% of the HIV+). Micronutrients malnutrition was evident in 71.4% of the HIV- patients and 85.7% of HIV+ patients at the end of tuberculosis therapy. Using BMI (≤18.5 kg/m2cutoff) as an index of malnutrition, it was detected in 23.9% of the HIV- and 27.3% of the HIV+ patients at baseline, with no evident improvement over time; using TSF (≤11.4mm as cutoff) or MUAC (≤28.5cm as cutoff), malnutrition was detected in 70.1% and 85.3% of all patients, respectively. Nevertheless, combining all biomarkers, at the end of follow-up, all patients suffered from malnutrition. Conclusion: Although with a limited number of patients, the evidence does not support that dietary counseling is effective

  20. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  1. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014–2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a “diet requires modification’, both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients’ diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with

  2. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with an

  3. The Role of Nutrition in Health Status after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Refka E.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Janisko, Milissa; Dolbow, David R; Moore, Jewel R.; Gater, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition is the process in which growth, repair, and maintenance of the body are accomplished by consuming and utilizing food substances. A proper diet must be ingested to ensure the right amount of nutrition is delivered to sustain appropriate physiological mechanisms. Knowledge of the basic constituent of dietary intake is essential for several of health related variables. Poor diet negatively affects overall health which can lead to obesity and can cause many types of diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, etc. Our research group has previously invested in studying the adaptations in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) and how regional as well as total adipose tissue distribution may negatively influence the metabolic profile in this population. Little is known about the role of nutrition following SCI and it is unclear how it impacts body composition and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the available evidence on how macronutrient components (carbohydrate, fat and protein) impact health status after SCI. We hope as an outcome of this work to stimulate further research in this area to expand the knowledge on how to properly design dietary interventions that suit the adaptations following SCI. PMID:23423356

  4. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  5. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

    1999-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages. PMID:10695800

  6. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional

  7. The role of dietary nutrition in stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Konrad; Duszewski, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Stomach cancer mortality still represents a significant proportion of all cancer deaths. The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome with weight loss, reduced appetite, fatigue, and weakness. Neoplastic cachexia is a very common clinical manifestation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer and is generally assumed to be secondary to the mechanical effects of the tumor on the upper digestive tract. The main reasons are obstruction to swallowing, early satiety, nausea and vomiting. Another reason for weight loss is the co-existence of systemic inflammation. Nutritional treatment in the group of patients with gastric cancer is still used too rarely and the knowledge about it is still very limited. Nutritional support should be given for patients both in the pre- and postoperative period. Nutrition should also be used in palliative treatment in patients with unresectable stomach cancer. The main principles of nutritional support and its influence are presented in this publication. PMID:24592120

  8. Assessing Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Adolescents Using Personal Data Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…

  9. Students' Perceptions of the Impact of Nutrition Policies on Dietary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Neumann, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Poor dietary habits, rising rates of overweight students, and lack of oversight of vending contracts prompted the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) to develop and implement 2 of the most comprehensive nutrition policies in the country. The Healthy Beverage Resolution and Obesity Prevention Motion limit the types of and access to…

  10. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective ...

  11. Dietary Guidelines and Your Health: Health Educator's Guide to Nutrition and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Nutrition Information Service (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    This manual was designed to help incorporate the seven Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services, into a health or physical education curriculum and to make nutrition education contemporary, interesting, and relevant at either the junior or senior high school level. The…

  12. Impact of a School Nutrition Policy to Middle School Students Dietary Energy Density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and linked to the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density (DED) is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's DED. The Texas Pub...

  13. Effects of 21 days of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity, on nutritional status of humans

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; Kala, G.; Rodgers, A. S.; Rogers, A.; Inniss, A. M.; Rice, B. L.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Hudson, E.; Mathew, G.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Sams, C. F.; Heer, M. A.; Paloski, W. H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight and bed rest models of microgravity have profound effects on physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. These effects can be exacerbated by suboptimal nutrient status, and therefore it is critical to monitor nutritional status when evaluating countermeasures to mitigate negative effects of spaceflight. As part of a larger study to investigate the usefulness of artificial gravity as a countermeasure for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deficits during bed rest, we tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity would have an effect on some aspects of nutritional status. Dietary intake was recorded daily before, during, and after 21 days of bed rest with artificial gravity (n = 8) or bed rest alone (n = 7). We examined body composition, hematology, general blood chemistry, markers of oxidative damage, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals before, during, and after the bed rest period. Several indicators of vitamin status changed in response to diet changes: serum α- and γ-tocopherol and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid decreased (P < 0.001) and plasma β-carotene increased (P < 0.001) in both groups during bed rest compared with before bed rest. A decrease in hematocrit (P < 0.001) after bed rest was accompanied by a decrease in transferrin (P < 0.001), but transferrin receptors were not changed. These data provide evidence that artificial gravity itself does not negatively affect nutritional status during bed rest. Likewise, artificial gravity has no protective effect on nutritional status during bed rest. PMID:19074571

  14. Is socioeconomic status associated with dietary sodium intake in Australian children? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carley A; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dietary sodium intake, and to identify if the major dietary sources of sodium differ by socioeconomic group in a nationally representative sample of Australian children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Participants A total of 4487 children aged 2–16 years completed all components of the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sodium intake was determined via one 24 h dietary recall. The population proportion formula was used to identify the major sources of dietary salt. SES was defined by the level of education attained by the primary carer. In addition, parental income was used as a secondary indicator of SES. Results Dietary sodium intake of children of low SES background was 2576 (SEM 42) mg/day (salt equivalent 6.6 (0.1) g/day), which was greater than that of children of high SES background 2370 (35) mg/day (salt 6.1 (0.1) g/day; p<0.001). After adjustment for age, gender, energy intake and body mass index, low SES children consumed 195 mg/day (salt 0.5 g/day) more sodium than high SES children (p<0.001). Low SES children had a greater intake of sodium from processed meat, gravies/sauces, pastries, breakfast cereals, potatoes and potato snacks (all p<0.05). Conclusions Australian children from a low SES background have on average a 9% greater intake of sodium from food sources compared with those from a high SES background. Understanding the socioeconomic patterning of salt intake during childhood should be considered in interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:23396559

  15. Nutritional status of rural Bolivian children.

    PubMed

    Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L

    1993-06-01

    While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590

  16. Differential correlates of nutritional status in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, W E; Mock, N B; Franklin, R R

    1988-09-01

    In an effort to search for causes of malnutrition in the urban environment to guide intervention efforts, a study of more than 2000 mother/child pairs was conducted in Kinshasa, Zaire. Under the auspices of the Zairian National Nutrition Planning Center a representative sample of a large lower class urban population was interviewed at two points in time. One phase covered morbidity and nutritional status measurements for all children under five years of age. A second phase examined a complex set of socioeconomic and behavioural variables possibly linked to nutritional outcomes for a 20% sample of the households. After merging the data sets bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed twice, using the youngest child and the household as the unit of analysis respectively. Results showed that different complexes of variables predicted malnutrition as measured by three separate anthropometric measures. For so-called acute malnutrition (weight-for-height) morbidity, migration, and diarrhoeal knowledge, all emerged as significant predictors. Chronic malnutrition (height-for-age), however, was only significantly predicted by zone of residence, a level of living score, and recent morbidity when all major variables were considered in the regression model. Factors that were significant predictors of each of these two indices also were predictors of the third nutritional indicator, weight-for-age. Birth interval also was associated with this index. The findings here suggest more careful scrutiny of the nature, causes, interpretation and use of these widely accepted measures of nutritional status. PMID:3145250

  17. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  18. Physical methods for evaluating the nutrition status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency. PMID:25791209

  19. Seminar on young child nutrition: improving nutrition and health status of young children in indonesia.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Mia; Chan, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar. PMID:21393122

  20. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women. PMID:19942023

  1. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  2. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  3. Nutritional status is altered in the self-neglecting elderly.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Mathews Oliver, Susan A; Zwart, Sara R; Kala, Geeta; Kelly, P Adam; Goodwin, James S; Dyer, Carmel B

    2006-10-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-Neglect of Texas project. This study reports on the nutritional status of self-neglecting elderly. Self-neglectors (SN) were recruited based on referrals along with matched control (CN) subjects. Data are for 40 SN subjects (age 76 +/- 7 y) and 40 CN subjects (76 +/- 7 y). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had a greater serum concentration of total homocysteine than CN subjects (13.6 +/- 4.5 vs. 11.6 +/- 5.6 micromol/L, P < 0.05) and a lower concentration of red blood cell folate (1380 +/- 514 vs. 1792 +/- 793 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were lower in SN subjects (0.28 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.33 micromol/L; 23.2 +/- 9.3 vs. 27.8 +/- 9.3 micromol/L, P < 0.05). SN subjects had a lower serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D than CN subjects (33.7 +/- 16.4 vs. 44.1 +/- 19.6 nmol/L, P < 0.05). These differences in markers of nutritional status show that the self-neglecting elderly are at risk for altered nutritional status, particularly of folate, antioxidants, and vitamin D. Evaluation of these data in relation to other functional and cognitive assessments are critical for evaluating the relation between nutrition and self-neglect. PMID:16988122

  4. [Present status and future prospects of nutritional support teams].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Koichi; Kawasaki, Kieko; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Meguro, Makoto; Hasegawa, Itaru; Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Ishizaka, Eri; Fujita, Ayumi; Nobuoka, Takayuki

    2010-11-01

    Academic interest in nutritional support teams (NSTs) has increased rapidly in Japan since 1999, when they were first planned by the Japanese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (JSPEN). The JSPEN promoted their use extensively after 2006 when extra medical fees were approved for medical management by NSTs under the national health insurance system. The purpose of NSTs is to provide the best nutritional support to patients who are malnourished or at high risk of developing malnutrition, without causing conflict among different medical staff. NSTs offer appropriate medical support and help prevent the deterioration of patients' health. The teams are comprised of specialized medical staff with nutritional expertise who work at the bedside and are committed to establishing good medical practice. The main targets of NSTs are patients who undergo surgery or are being treated in a geriatric or internal medicine unit, including those with lifestyle-related diseases. Therefore, most targets of NSTs are patients with common conditions. A package medical system based on the diagnostic-procedure combination was established, and regional medical centers were integrated to ensure high-quality medical care throughout Japan. Under this system, NSTs are expected to resolve individual patients' dietary issues. In addition, improvement of medical care quality and the training of reliable medical staff are necessary to provide nutritional management in the clinical setting. It will be necessary to the revise the assessment of NSTs as proposed by a committee of the Japanese Nutritional Support Promotion Group or to carry out surveillance to evaluate the outcomes of NST activity. PMID:21174708

  5. Symposium on 'nutritional adaptation to pregnancy and lactation'. Pregnancy as a time for dietary change?

    PubMed

    Anderson, A S

    2001-11-01

    It is thought that nutrition during pregnancy plays a key role in the well-being of the mother and the newborn infant, and further influences health during childhood and adulthood. Pregnancy is a time of increased nutritional requirements, but many of these requirements will be met by adaptive physiological changes that occur during gestation, with little need to alter maternal dietary intake. A modest increment of food which provides 0.8 MJ/d (above prepregnant requirements) during the third trimester is considered adequate to meet the needs of fetal and maternal growth, and to satisfy the small increase in requirements of many macro- and micronutrients. However, requirements for vitamin D and folic acid increase substantially, and should be met primarily by supplementation. Food selection may also be altered to avoid a range of food-borne diseases and toxic constituents. There are a number of psycho-social reasons why pregnancy might be considered a good time for promoting changes in dietary behaviour for the health of the wider family. However, pregnancy may be a bad time to promote dietary change if it is perceived to involve slimming, if nutritional requirements are greatest before pregnancy, or if dietary changes made are harmful. There is little evidence to support educational interventions as successful at changing dietary behaviour during pregnancy. Pregnancy may be best viewed as an opportunity for maintaining good dietary selections and for building knowledge for future action, and should not be seen as the only opportunity for promoting dietary change within the life course. PMID:12069403

  6. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  7. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran.

    PubMed

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  8. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  9. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition. PMID:27534629

  10. Aligning nutrition assistance programs with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition assistance programs, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs (NSLP/SBP), and the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), are intended to offer low-income families the opportunity for a healthier food pattern that promotes overall health and reduces risk for chronic disease. To be successful in improving the diets of underserved Americans requires a unified approach toward meeting the nutritional needs of program participants. Newly revised recommendations increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain-rich foods while reducing consumption of saturated fats, added sugars, and sodium. In addition to improving the nutritional profile of meals and snacks for NSLP and CACFP and meal patterns for WIC, the new recommendations ensure variety within food groups for menus across a week and allow for regional and cultural preferences and increased flexibility of choice within food groups. The newly revised meal pattern recommendations are broadly applicable to the design of feeding programs for any age group and for any combination of meals and snacks being provided. PMID:24032366

  11. Room for Improvement in Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Male Football (Soccer) Players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices. PMID:26251549

  12. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations. PMID:24342605

  13. Effects of a nutrition education program on the dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge of second-grade and third-grade students.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M

    2005-04-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public schools in Alabama. A preassessment and postassessment control group design assessed dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge using Pizza Please, a specially designed interactive evaluation tool. A 2 x 2 mixed analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Children in the treatment group exhibited significantly (p < .001) greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of dairy products, fruits, and vegetables, than children in the control group. Children in the treatment group exhibited significantly (p < .001) greater improvement in nutrition knowledge, including Food Guide Pyramid understanding, nutrient-food association, and nutrient-job association, than children in the control group. Results suggest that nutrition education programs that teach positive dietary messages potentially can improve dietary behavior and increase nutrition knowledge in children. PMID:15987006

  14. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Coates, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time. The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary), and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC) folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism. Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys. PMID:22489219

  15. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value < 0.001) with Asian-descendant race, male gender, living alone, and older age and a positive association with per capita income. Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables. PMID:27276697

  16. Physical growth and nutritional status of Tsimane' Amerindian children of lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Foster, Z; Byron, E; Reyes-García, V; Huanca, T; Vadez, V; Apaza, L; Pérez, E; Tanner, S; Gutierrez, Y; Sandstrom, B; Yakhedts, A; Osborn, C; Godoy, R A; Leonard, W R

    2005-03-01

    This study examines patterns of growth and nutritional status of indigenous Tsimane' children under 9 years of age (n = 199 boys and 210 girls), based on a cross-sectional sample from 58 villages from the Beni Deparment of lowland Bolivia. Compared with US children, Tsimane' children are quite short, with linear growth tracking at or below the US 5th centile in both sexes. The prevalence of low height-for-age ("stunting;" HA Z-scores nutritional status of Tsimane' children is modestly correlated with village-level differences. Degree of isolation, as measured by distance to urban centers or to primary forest, was not a strong predictor of children's anthropometric status. Rather, in both boys and girls, nutritional status was most strongly associated with number of teachers in the village, a measure of access to education. Comparative analyses indicate that high levels of statural growth stunting are common among indigenous populations throughout lowland South America. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality (diets low in key micronutrients) and high disease loads. Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region. PMID:15386291

  17. Dietary Screener Questionnaire in the NHANES 2009-10: Background

    Cancer.gov

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S. It collects detailed information about food, nutrient, and supplement intake and other dietary behaviors.

  18. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  19. Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Ann; Branca, Francesco; Decsi, Tamás; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Fletcher, Reg J; Guesry, Pierre; Manz, Friedrich; Vidailhet, Michel; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    The Expert Group on the Methodological Approaches and Current Nutritional Recommendations in Children and Adolescents was convened to consider the current situation across Europe with regard to dietary recommendations and reference values for children aged 2-18 years. Information was obtained for twenty-nine of the thirty-nine countries in Europe and a comprehensive compilation was made of the dietary recommendations current up to September 2002. This report presents a review of the concepts of dietary reference values and a comparison of the methodological approaches used in each country. Attention is drawn to the special considerations that are needed for establishing dietary reference values for children and adolescents. Tables are provided of the current dietary reference values for energy and for the macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, trace elements and water. Brief critiques are included to indicate the scientific foundations of the reference values for children and to offer, where possible, an explanation for the wide differences that exist between countries. This compilation demonstrated that there are considerable disparities in the perceived nutritional requirements of European children and adolescents. Although some of this diversity can be attributed to real physiological and environmental differences, most is due to differences in philosophy about the best methodological approach to use and in the way the theoretical approaches are applied. The report highlights the main methodological and technological issues that will need to be resolved before harmonization can be fully considered. Solving these issues may help to improve the quality and consistency of dietary reference values across Europe. However, there are also considerable scientific and political barriers that will need to be overcome and the question of whether harmonization of dietary reference values for children and adolescents is a desirable or achievable goal for Europe requires further

  20. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  1. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  2. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  4. Update on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dietary data: Focus on collection, release, analytical considerations, and uses to inform public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has be...

  5. Dietary quality improvement after a short-term nutritional counseling program in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Carla H; Macagnan, Fabricio E; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria P

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a complex clinical condition that brings together a set of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifestyle changes, such as eating habit improvements, are first-choice therapies for the treatment of this clinical condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term nutritional counseling, on the diet quality and total energetic value (TEV) in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome. Eighty subjects (men and women) aged 30 to 60 years with metabolic syndrome were followed over three months. The Healthy Eating Index tool adapted to the Brazilian population was used for the evaluation of diet quality. Mean age was 51 + 6 years, and 68.6% were women. The mean score of the dietary quality of the population studied increased significantly from 53.02 to 61.65 after intervention. The amount of individuals classified as Inappropriate Diet decreased significantly six-fold, the amount of individuals classified as Healthy Diet increased four-fold, and the percent of diets classified as Diet that Needs Change decreased by 25% when compared to the beginning of the study. Adequate intake of vegetables was inversely associated to abdominal circumference, as well as adequate intake of sodium and fasting serum insulin. The amount of TEV presented a significant reduction (p <0.000) after intervention. The short-term nutritional counseling showed to be efficient to improve dietary quality. Associations between dietary quality and variables studied highlight the importance of nutritional intervention in individuals with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25799685

  6. Nutritional Status of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Do We Know Enough?12

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is on the rise; therefore, well-timed screening is important. Given that this is a nutritionally vulnerable population, it is imperative to conduct a detailed nutritional assessment so that timely and intensive interventions can be recommended. This review article summarizes the research, focusing on the nutritional status of individuals with ASDs based on their anthropometric measurements, biomarkers, and dietary assessments. Research examining anthropometric measurements reveals an abnormally accelerated rate of growth among children with autism but shows inconsistent findings on the prevalence of overweight/obesity in comparison with typically growing children. Although dysregulated amino acid metabolism, increased homocysteine, and decreased folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as possible biomarkers for an early diagnosis of ASDs, research investigating their association with age, gender, severity, and other comorbid psychiatric/nonpsychiatric disorders is lacking. There is consensus that children with autism have selective eating patterns, food neophobia, limited food repertoire, and sensory issues. Although inadequate micronutrient but adequate macronutrient intakes are increasingly reported, there are inconsistent results about the extent and type of nutrient deficiencies. Identification and development of nutritional assessment indicators that serve as early warning signs during routine practice beginning at birth and extending throughout the child’s growth are necessary. With this population aging, there is also a dire need to study the adult population. A more vigorous role by nutrition professionals is warranted because management of potential comorbidities and contributory factors may be particularly problematic. PMID:26178024

  7. Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Components and Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, V.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, moderate in alcohol consumption, and lower in refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk and improve glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. Several healthful dietary patterns emphasizing the overall diet quality can be adapted to appropriate personal and cultural food preferences and calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although considerable progress has been made in developing and implementing evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted global efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  8. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-income Hispanic women are at a greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26–44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected us...

  9. [From the influence of genes to the influence of family and urban environment on the nutritional status, activity, and physical condition of european urban adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beghin, Laurent; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Deplanque, Dominique; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    HELENA was a cross-sectional study carried out from 2006 to 2007 in more than 3500 adolescents aged from 12.5 to 17.5 years old through 10 Europeans towns from 9 countries. Its objective was to assess adolescent nutritional status including: body composition, biological markers, physical activity and fitness. This study shown the high impact of socio-economic condition, life style and personal and collective environment, dietary pattern (including breastfeeding), some genetic mutations involved in adiposity and metabolism, physical activity level and fitness on adolescent nutritional status. PMID:27615183

  10. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity. PMID:14569716

  11. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the “nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)” were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the “ideal protein” concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University’s optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  12. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the "nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the "ideal protein" concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University's optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  13. Promoting healthy dietary behaviour through personalised nutrition: technology push or technology pull?

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, Audrey; Kuznesof, Sharron; Poínhos, Rui; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Fischer, Arnout; Frewer, Lynn J

    2015-05-01

    The notion of educating the public through generic healthy eating messages has pervaded dietary health promotion efforts over the years and continues to do so through various media, despite little evidence for any enduring impact upon eating behaviour. There is growing evidence, however, that tailored interventions such as those that could be delivered online can be effective in bringing about healthy dietary behaviour change. The present paper brings together evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies that have considered the public perspective of genomics, nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, including those conducted as part of the EU-funded Food4Me project. Such studies have consistently indicated that although the public hold positive views about nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, they have reservations about the service providers' ability to ensure the secure handling of health data. Technological innovation has driven the concept of personalised nutrition forward and now a further technological leap is required to ensure the privacy of online service delivery systems and to protect data gathered in the process of designing personalised nutrition therapies. PMID:25342299

  14. Measuring Dietary Restraint Status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Jessica A.; Gleaves, David H.; Kuijer, Roeline G.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS), Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS) is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216) to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and – as a comparison measure – the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization); with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control); with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only). Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss) and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation. PMID:25988136

  15. An Evaluation of Inner-City Youth Garden Program Participants' Dietary Behavior and Garden and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Lauren Lautenschlager; Smith, Chery

    2008-01-01

    Unhealthful eating patterns established early in life tend to be maintained into adulthood, and as a result, chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and obesity may develop. These nutrition-related problems could be reduced through dietary changes; and to facilitate these changes, nutrition education for youth that is delivered…

  16. The role of non-nutritive dietary constituents in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S; Mathews, R A

    1986-10-01

    Very low levels of a large variety of non-nutritive chemicals occur in the diet. Among those that occur naturally are metabolites of molds (for example, mycotoxins) and bacteria (for example, nitrosamines) and natural constituents of plants (for example, pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Many of these are occasional contaminants, whereas others are normal components of relatively common foods. Some compounds (for example, aflatoxin, nitrosamines, and hydrazones) have been found to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals and mutagenic in bacterial and other systems, thereby posing a potential risk to humans. However, there have been very few definitive epidemiologic studies. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to determine the significance of these experimental findings for humans. It is apparent that many foods naturally contain substances with mutagenic properties and that some substances found in foods can enhance or inhibit the mutagenic activity of other compounds. Furthermore, mutagens can be formed during the cooking or processing of foods. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these findings. Although mutagens by definition are "suspect" carcinogens, many mutagens detected in foods have not been adequately tested for carcinogenicity, and therefore their significance for human health cannot be fully assessed. With the exception of studies on non-nutritive sweeteners like saccharin and cyclamate, or those on nitrate and nitrite, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to examine the effect of food additives on cancer risk. Of the few direct food additives that have been tested and found to be carcinogenic in animals, all except saccharin have been banned from use in the food supply. Minute residues of a few indirect additives that are known either to produce cancer in animals (for example, vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile) or to be carcinogenic in humans (for example, vinyl chloride) are occasionally detected in foods. Thus far, the

  17. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  18. Effect of germination of finger millet on nutritional value of foods and effect of food supplement on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Tatala, S; Ndossi, G; Ash, D; Mamiro, P

    2007-05-01

    Inadequate dietary intake, often combined with an infection can lead to malnutrition that often manifest as growth failure or deficiency of essentials nutrients including iron leading to iron deficiency anaemia. In an effort to investigate diet in relation to nutrition status of children, diet and dietary intake were investigated in rural Tanzania. The effect of germination of finger millet based food recipe on its nutritional value was evaluated. The food consisted of finger millet flour, kidney beans, ground peanuts and dried mangoes at predetermined proportions of 75:10:10:5 respectively. Dietary habits of young children were investigated and effects of a fortified food supplement and the cereal based recipe on nutrition status of children were investigated. The two diets were then supplemented to children for 6 months and changes on anaemia and anthropometrical indices of children were evaluated at follow up periods. To assess anaemia and iron status, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and serum ferritin (SF); and weights and heights were measured to assess growth. A significant improvement in nutrient density was noted in processed cereals. Bioavailability of iron in cereal based diet increased from 0.75 +/- 18 to 1.25 +/- 41 mg/100 g (P = 008), viscosity was significantly raised by 12% and phytate concentration was reduced from 4.5 +/- 0.5 to 4.1 +/- 0.5 mg/g (P = 0.03). Significantly lower intake of iron was observed in schoolchildren with Hb < 11.5 g/dl) compared to those who were normal. Total iron intake was 22+/- 7 and 27 +/- 13 mg/day, respectively (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between iron intake and serum ferritin (r = 0.233, P < 0.05). After six months of supplementing children with the fortified beverage a significantly larger increase in haemoglobin concentration was shown in the fortified group than in the non-fortified group (a difference of 6.2 versus 3.2 g/dl respectively). Supplementing

  19. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  20. Dietary Triacylglycerol Structure and Its Role in Infant Nutrition12

    PubMed Central

    Innis, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Human milk TG are a remarkable example of stereo-specific positioning of fatty acids with structures that are highly conserved and unusual. Not only does human milk contain high amounts of fat and 16:0, but ∼70% of the 16:0 is esterified at the TG stereo-specifically numbered (sn)-2 position, with preferential positioning of 18:1(n-9) and 18:2(n-6) at the TG sn-1,3 positions. The milk TG structures and digestive lipases combine to enable efficient digestion and absorption of 16:0 by conserving 16:0 in sn-2 monoacylglycerols, which are absorbed, reassembled, and secreted in plasma conserving the original milk TG configuration; these studies are reviewed in this article. The reason why the mammary gland invests in enzymes to provide the infant with 20–25% milk fatty acids as 16:0 rather than selecting against 16:0 is unknown, yet likely has a purpose given the mammary gland capacity for 10:0, 12:0, and 14:0 synthesis. Recent advances in the development-, tissue-, and species-specific activity of enzymes of TG synthesis and knowledge that dietary TG structures are maintained postabsorption suggest that the purpose of the milk TG structures is more sophisticated than simply avoiding 16:0 malabsorption. The overall aim is to expand consideration of fatty acids in the infant diet from a simple view of average fatty acid compositions to the complex lipids and molecular structures in which fatty acids are provided to tissues during early life and the biology through which the unique features of human milk enable the infant to grow and thrive on a high-fat, high-saturated-fat milk diet. PMID:22332059

  1. Dietary Preferences and Nutritional Information Needs Among Career Firefighters in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. Objective: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition. Methods: Cross-sectional, online survey distributed to members of the International Association of Fire Fighters. Results: Most firefighters do not currently follow any specific dietary plan (71%) and feel that they receive insufficient nutrition information (68%), but most are interested in learning more about healthy eating (75%). When presented with written descriptions of diets without names or labels and asked to rank them in order of preference, firefighters most often rated the Mediterranean diet as their favorite and gave it a more favorable distribution of relative rankings (P<.001) compared to the Paleo, Atkins, Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes, and Esselsteyn Engine 2 (low-fat, strictly plant-based) diets. Obese respondents reported more limited nutritional knowledge (P<.001) and were more likely to feel that they received insufficient nutritional information (P=.021) than participants with normal body weight. Conclusions: Most career firefighters are overweight or obese and do not practice a specific diet; however, 75% want to learn more about healthy eating. Among popular dietary choices, firefighters were most receptive to a Mediterranean diet and least receptive to a strictly plant-based diet. PMID:26331100

  2. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the mean household income and income per capita as food insecurity worsened (p<0.05). Women who reported food security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have < 3 health risks. Diet diversity score remained a significant protective factor against heath risks even after adjusting for other variables. The present study showed that food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community

  3. Nutritional Status Assessment During the Phase IIA and Phase III Lunar/Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Block, Gladys; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; Fanselow, Stephanie A.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Gillman, Patricia L.; Nillen, Jeannie I.; Rice, Barbara L.; Smith, Myra D.

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical concern for extended-duration space missions (Smith and Lane, 1999). Loss of body weight is a primary consequence of altered nutrition, and is frequently observed during space flight (Smith and Lane; 1999). Other existing dietary concerns for space flight include excessive intakes of sodium and iron, and insufficient intakes of water and vitamin D (Smith and Lane, 1999). Furthermore, dependence on closed or semi-closed food systems increases the likelihood of inadequate intakes of key nutrients. This is a significant concern for extended-duration space missions. Space nutrition research often necessitates detailed recording of all food consumption. While this yields extremely accurate data, it requires considerable time and effort, and thus is not suitable for routine medical monitoring during space flight. To alleviate this problem, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to provide a quick and easy, yet reasonably accurate, method for crewmembers to provide dietary intake information to the ground. We report here a study which was designed to assess nutritional status before, during, and after the 60-d and 91-d chamber stays. An additional goal of the study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire designed specifically for use with space flight food systems.

  4. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Louzada, Maria Laura da; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF - Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods

  5. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods

  6. Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals. PMID:24070749

  7. Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show…

  8. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  9. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  10. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  11. Traditional v. modified dietary patterns and their influence on adolescents' nutritional profile.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoonju; Joung, Hyojee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Yoo, Sun Young; Paik, Hee Young

    2005-06-01

    Korea has experienced exceptionally rapid economic developments. Even though the country has managed to maintain aspects of its traditional diet, dietary habits are changing, especially among adolescents. This study was carried out to identify prevailing dietary patterns among Korean adolescents and to compare the nutrient intakes and dietary behaviours between the patterns. A 3 d diet record, collected from 671 Korean adolescents aged 12-14 years in Seoul, Korea, was assessed. By cluster analysis, subjects were classified into a modified (69.9 %) and a traditional (30.1 %) dietary pattern group. The modified group consumed more bread, noodles, cookies and pizza/hamburgers compared with the traditional group, which consumed mainly rice and kimchi (fermented cabbage). The modified group had significantly higher intakes of all nutrients. It had a higher total daily energy intake (7719 kJ), a higher daily energy intake from fat (29.8 %) and a higher cholesterol intake (326 mg/d), compared with the traditional group (6686 kJ, 24.8 % and 244 mg/d, respectively). The modified group was more likely to consume fast foods, fried foods and carbonated beverages even though they consumed more fresh fruits and milk, while the traditional group was more likely to have a rice-based diet and not to skip breakfast. These results suggest that monitoring dietary behaviours of adolescents, especially in a society experiencing a nutrition transition, is necessary in order to identify both negative and positive changes in respect of risk factors for nutrition-related chronic diseases as well as for undernutrition. PMID:16022765

  12. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  13. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  14. Seasonal Dietary Intakes and Socioeconomic Status among Women in the Terai of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Rebecca K.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Wu, Lee S.F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite widespread nutritional deficiencies, investigations of usual diet in rural South Asia remain sparse. The present study characterizes year-round and seasonal dietary patterns of women in the Terai of Nepal by sociodemographic status, using a novel, weekly single-visit and usual food frequency questionnaire that links recall to the agricultural season. The study was conducted across seasons in 2006-2008 among 15,899 women of reproductive age in Sarlahi district. Intakes were tabulated for all foods, overall and by socioeconomic status (SES), and in and out of season, as appropriate. Foods consumed regularly [median (interquartile range) weekly frequency] were rice [13 (7-13)], potatoes [10 (5-13)], legumes [6 (2-9)], and vegetable oil [13 (13-13)]. Animal products were infrequently consumed [1 (0-2) time per week] as were fruits and vegetables, most with a median weekly intake frequency of 0. Higher SES was associated with more frequent consumption of most food-groups, including in-season fruits and vegetables. Diets of women in the Terai of Nepal lack diversity and, likely, nutrient adequacy, which may pose health risks. PMID:25076658

  15. Nutrition Transition: An Intergenerational Comparison of Dietary Habits among Women of Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Aliyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a shift worldwide towards a diet that is high in processed foods and low in fiber, leading to a corresponding increase in degenerative diseases. These diseases are interrelated with lifestyles and especially with diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the eating habit differences between two generations of mothers and daughters and their tendency towards modern foods. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, the data were gathered using structured questionnaires. The sample of the study includes 618 women in Shiraz City (309 mothers and 309 daughters) selected through stratified random sampling. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS software. Results: In the mothers’ generation, around 80% showed a traditional nutritional pattern while in the young generation more than 50% had a modern or close to modern pattern of nutrition (P ≤ 0.05). The findings confirmed a significant difference in dietary habits among the two generations. For both generations, nutrition pattern was significantly different in terms of social class, weight control, education, using mass communication, and physical activities (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Iran is currently experiencing a nutrition transition. The current inappropriate habits in the lifestyles of the girls’ in Shiraz are a health threat for them, and it will increase the risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, policy makers have to set new agenda to increase the nutritional knowledge of the population. PMID:25905062

  16. Nutritional Assessment for Primary School Children in Tehran: An Evaluation of Dietary Pattern with Emphasis on Snacks and Meals Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. Methods: A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. Results: All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Conclusions: Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children. PMID:24932393

  17. Lower Nutritional Status and Higher Food Insufficiency in Frail Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ellen; Winters-Stone, Kerrie M.; Loprinzi, Paul D.; Tang, Alice M.; Crespo, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of aging. We examine frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status, and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥2 and pre-frailty as meeting 1 of the following 4 item criteria: 1) slow walking; 2) muscular weakness; 3) exhaustion, and 4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as “sometimes” or “often” not having enough food to eat. Analyses adjusted for gender, race, age, smoking, education, income, BMI, other comorbid conditions, and complex survey design. Prevalence of frailty was highest among people who were obese (20.8%), followed by overweight (18.4%), normal weight (16.1%), and lowest among people who were underweight (13.8%). Independent of BMI, daily energy intake was lowest in people who were frail, followed by pre-frail, and highest in people who were not frail (mean kJ ± SE: 6648±130, 6966±79, 7280±84, respectively, p<0.01). Energy adjusted macronutrient intakes were similar in people with and without frailty. Frail (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-12.7) and pre-frail (AOR=2.1, 95% CI 0.8-5.8) people were more likely to report being food insufficient than not frail people. Serum albumin, carotenoids, and selenium levels were lower in frail adults than not frail adults. Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve nutritional status and food insufficiency among frail older adults, while not necessarily increasing BMI. PMID:23113895

  18. Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika; Pande, Shubhra

    2014-07-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is an endemic health problem in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the iodine nutrition status amongst Neonates in Kangra district, HP. All of the hospitals in the district which provide obstetric services were enlisted, of which three were selected for this survey. A total of 613 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. WHO (2007) reported that that a <3% frequency of TSH concentrations above 5 mIU/L in samples collected 3-4 days after birth indicates iodine sufficiency in a population. In our study we found that 73.4% of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l, thus indicating ID in the population studied. Iodine deficiency continues to be a public health problem in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. PMID:24797042

  19. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  20. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  1. Nutritional status in cirrhosis. Italian Multicentre Cooperative Project on Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    Malnutrition frequently occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and may represent a risk factor influencing both short- and long-term survival in these patients. Previously published studies have tended to be confined to alcoholic patients and there are few data on the prevalence of nutritional abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis not of alcoholic origin. Anthropometric measurements and a clinical evaluation of the nutritional status of 1402 patients with cirrhosis (883 males and 519 females) were recorded between January 1988 and 1989 by the Italian Multicentre Cooperative project on Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis. The origin of liver disease was alcohol-related in 37% of patients. Child-Pugh criteria were used to establish the severity of the liver disease. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited a wide range of nutritional abnormalities. While 29% of females and 18% of males appeared to be overnourished, a significant reduction in fat stores, as estimated by the mid-arm fat area, and/or muscle mass, as estimated by mid-arm muscle area, was observed in 30% of patients with cirrhosis. The prevalence of signs of nutritional depletion increased in both sexes as liver function deteriorated. Mean values for mid-arm fat area decreased by 30% in males and by 40% in females with moderate to severe liver failure (Child-Pugh Classes B and C). The reduction in mid-arm muscle area was more evident in males (17% decrease) than in females (9% decrease). Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition and had more frequent severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes B and C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7836699

  2. Nutritional Status of Children Hospitalized for Parapneumonic Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Huysentruyt, Koen; Alliet, Philippe; Raes, Marc; Willekens, Julie; De Schutter, Iris; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Devreker, Thierry; Goyens, Philippe; Vandenplas, Yvan; De Schepper, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE) are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1) investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2) determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3) describe the nutritional interventions for these children. Methods Retrospective chart review (January ‘07 - September ‘12) of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0) and discharge (t1), and two weeks (t2) and one month (t3) after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS), length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU) and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax) were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. Results The median (range) age was 3.5 (1.0–14.8) years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9%) children at t0 and in 28 (50%) at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥5% and ≥10% of their weight. Median (range) LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10–41) and 4.0 (0–23) days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0)) significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI) = −0.34 (−2.0–−0.1); p = 0.03). At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0), whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥5% under the weight(t0). Conclusions One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after

  3. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move

  4. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Boys and Girls in Government School Children in Rompicherla Mandal Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasikala, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…

  5. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p < 0.05) better health status, health and nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation with all nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p < 0.05) for protein (r = 0.362), calcium (r = 0.358), iron (r = 0.362), riboflavin (r = 0.364), and vitamin C (r = 0.476). Workload was negatively correlated with protein intake (r = 0.346; p < 0.05). Meal frequencies for more than 70% of the farmers and petty traders and 42% of the teachers were dependent

  6. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  7. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Smit, Ellen; Manore, Melinda M.; John, Deborah; Gunter, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = −1.38, p = 0.04) and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), fruit (B = 0.71, p = 0.01), and dairy (B = 0.31, p < 0.001) intakes. No significant associations were found between food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted. PMID:26610566

  8. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. PMID:25130685

  9. Dietary fiber and total enteral nutrition: fermentative assessment of five fiber supplements.

    PubMed

    McBurney, M I; Thompson, L U

    1991-01-01

    Total enteral nutrition (TEN) formulas supplemented with dietary fiber, typically soy polysaccharide, are in widespread clinical use. Five commercially available dietary fiber supplements obtained from fruits (apple, grapefruit, orange, prune, tomato) were examined for potential use in TEN formulas. In vitro fermentations of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours' duration with human fecal microbiota from three different donors were conducted to assess colonic fermentative effects. Short-chain fatty acid and hydrogen productions differed significantly with fiber source. The most rapid fermentation rate was with tomato followed by orange, grapefruit, apple, and finally prune fiber. Such differences in fermentability should be considered when fiber sources are selected to supplement TEN formulas. PMID:1650853

  10. Food habits and nutritional status assessment of adolescent soccer players. A necessary and accurate approach.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; Rodríguez, Carmen; Braga, Socorro; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of high level adolescent soccer players (N = 33; ages 14-16 yrs) living in their home environment. Body composition (height, mass, skinfolds), biochemical and hematological parameters, performance in soccer-specific tests (sprinting, jumping, intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) and related behaviors (nutrient supplement use, daily activity profile) were assessed. Daily energy expenditure and energy intake were 12.5 MJ and 12.6 MJ, respectively. Protein (16% of energy intake; 1.9 g/kg of body mass), lipid (38%), and cholesterol (385 mg) intake were above recommendations, while carbohydrates (45%) were below. The food intake of these adolescents was based on cereals and derivates; meat, fish, and eggs; milk and dairy products; biscuits and confectionery; and oil, butter and margarine, which provided 78% of total energy intake, 85% of proteins, 64% of carbohydrates, 90% of lipids, and 47% of fiber. Although diet provided sufficient iron, 48% of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia. Based on these results, a well designed nutrition intervention would be advisable for optimizing performance, and especially for promoting healthy eating habits in adolescent soccer players. PMID:15855680

  11. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2004-03-29

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (> or =1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. PMID:15013743

  12. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. ?? 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between nutritional status and Modic classification in degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Seyithanoglu, Hakan; Aydin, Teoman; Taşpınar, Ozgur; Camli, Adil; Kiziltan, Huriye; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Ozder, Aclan; Denizli, Ebru; Kepekci, Muge; Keskin, Yasar; Mutluer, Ahmet Serdar

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the association between Modic classification and the eating habits in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and to determine the influence of nutrition on disease severity. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with DDD visiting a low back pain outpatient clinic were enrolled. Through face-to-face interviews, they completed questionnaires regarding their demographics, disease activity, smoking and alcohol use, concomitant diseases, disease duration, and nutritional status.Exclusion criteria were age <20 years or >65 years, other comorbidities, missing MRI data, and inability to speak Turkish. [Results] Forty patients were finally included in the study. The frequency with which they consumed water, salt, fast food, eggs, milk, yogurt, cheese, whole wheat bread, white bread, butter, and margarine was recorded. A weak negative correlation was observed between the Modic types and fish and egg consumption. [Conclusion] Modic changes, which indicate the severity of DDD, seem to be correlated to patients' dietary habits. However, studies with comparison groups and larger samples are needed to confirm our promising results before any cause-and-effect relationship can be proposed. PMID:27190462

  14. Association between nutritional status and Modic classification in degenerative disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Seyithanoglu, Hakan; Aydin, Teoman; Taşpınar, Ozgur; Camli, Adil; Kiziltan, Huriye; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Ozder, Aclan; Denizli, Ebru; Kepekci, Muge; Keskin, Yasar; Mutluer, Ahmet Serdar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the association between Modic classification and the eating habits in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and to determine the influence of nutrition on disease severity. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with DDD visiting a low back pain outpatient clinic were enrolled. Through face-to-face interviews, they completed questionnaires regarding their demographics, disease activity, smoking and alcohol use, concomitant diseases, disease duration, and nutritional status.Exclusion criteria were age <20 years or >65 years, other comorbidities, missing MRI data, and inability to speak Turkish. [Results] Forty patients were finally included in the study. The frequency with which they consumed water, salt, fast food, eggs, milk, yogurt, cheese, whole wheat bread, white bread, butter, and margarine was recorded. A weak negative correlation was observed between the Modic types and fish and egg consumption. [Conclusion] Modic changes, which indicate the severity of DDD, seem to be correlated to patients’ dietary habits. However, studies with comparison groups and larger samples are needed to confirm our promising results before any cause-and-effect relationship can be proposed. PMID:27190462

  15. The effect of school district nutrition policies on dietary intake and overweight: a synthetic control approach.

    PubMed

    Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    School nutrition policies aim to eliminate ubiquitous unhealthy foods and beverages from schools to improve adolescent dietary behavior and reduce childhood obesity. This paper evaluates the impact of an early nutrition policy, Los Angeles Unified School District's food-and-beverage standards of 2004, using two large datasets on food intake and physical measures. I implement cohort and cross-section estimators using "synthetic" control groups, combinations of unaffected districts that are reweighted to closely resemble the treatment unit in the pre-intervention period. The results indicate that the policy was mostly ineffective at reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity 8-15 months after the intervention but significantly decreased consumption of two key targets, soda and fried foods. The policy's impact on physical outcomes appears to be mitigated by substitution toward foods that are still (or newly) available in the schools. PMID:23891422

  16. Nutritional status of patients with phenylketonuria in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Hattori, Toshikazu; Fujimoto, Hiroki; Noi, Kaori; Okamoto, Miki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Ryoko; Fujii, Rika; Tamaoki, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU) can cause neuropsychological and psychosocial problems in diet-off adult patients, and that such symptoms improve after resumption of phenylalanine-restricted diet, indicating the need for lifetime low-phenylalanine diet. While limiting protein intake, dietary therapy should provide adequate daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and microelements. We evaluated nutrient balance in 14 patients with classical PKU aged 4-38 years. Approximately 80-85% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein in Japanese was supplied through phenylalanine-free (Phe-free) milk and Phe-free amino acid substitutes. Nutritional evaluation showed that the calorie and protein intakes were equivalent to the RDA. Phenylalanine intake was 9.8 ± 2.2 mg/kg of body weight/day, which maintained normal blood phenylalanine concentration by the 80% Phe-free protein rule. The protein, fat, and carbohydrate ratio was 9.5:23.9:66.6% with relative carbohydrate excess. Phe-free milk and amino acid substitutes provided 33.7% of carbohydrate, 82.1% of protein, and 66.7% of fat intake in all. Selenium and biotin intakes were 25.0% and 18.1% of the RDA and adequate intake (AI) for Japanese, respectively; both were not included in Phe-free milk. PKU patients showed low serum selenium, low urinary biotin, and high urinary 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in this study. The intakes of magnesium, zinc, and iodine were low (71.5%, 79.5%, and 71.0% of the RDA, respectively) and that of phosphorus was 79.7% of the AI, although they were supplemented in Phe-free milk. PKU patients depend on Phe-free milk and substitutes for daily requirement of microelements and vitamins as well as protein and fat. Development of low-protein food makes it possible to achieve the aimed phenylalanine blood level, but this lowers the intake of microelements and vitamins from natural foods. The dietary habits vary continuously with

  17. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  18. Nutritional Status: The Interpretation of Indicators. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1989-01-01

    The assessment of individual or community nutritional status involves the use of indicators; when properly analyzed and interpreted, these may be used to decide what strategies to implement, or how to orient activities aimed at improving nutritional status. In primary health care programs, one approach which remains underused involves obtaining…

  19. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Studies carried out during the last decade have led to a better understanding of the value of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. The present report concentrates on data concerning 0-5-year-old children and examines the indices of weight and height and the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. The need for a reference population as well as for a standard or target is recognized and the advantages and disadvantages of local versus international reference populations are discussed. In the analysis of data, preference is given to the use of standard deviation (SD) scores and to the presentation of whole distributions. Cut-offs, for example -2SD, are needed for comparison of prevalences and for screening of populations. Sequential or serial measurements and the increasing use of growth velocities are discussed and their uses and difficulties are outlined. PMID:3493862

  20. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. PMID:25011009

  1. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats. PMID:7472670

  2. Brain cholecystokinin and nutritional status in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, B S; Monahan, J W; Hirsch, J

    1979-01-01

    Under certain conditions, exogenously administered cholecystokinin (CCK) or its COOH-terminal octapeptide can terminate feeding and cause behavioral satiety in animals. Furthermore, high concentrations of CCK are normally found in the brains of vertebrate species. It has thus been hypothesized that brain CCK plays a role in the control of appetite. To explore this possibility, a COOH-terminal radioimmunoassay was used to measure concentrations of CCK in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and brain stem of rats and mice after a variety of nutritional manipulations. CCK, mainly in the form of its COOH-terminal octapeptide, was found to appear in rat brain shortly before birth and to increase rapidly in cortex and brain stem throughout the first 5 wk of life. Severe early undernutrition had no effect on the normal pattern of CCK development in rat brain. Adult rats deprived of food for up to 72 h and rats made hyperphagic with highly palatable diets showed no alterations in brain CCK concentrations or distribution of molecular forms of CCK as determined by Sephadex gel filtration of brain extracts. Normal CCK concentrations were also found in the brains of four strains of genetically obese rodents and in the brains of six animals made hyperphagic and obese by surgical or chemical lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus. It is concluded that despite extreme variations in the nutritional status of rats and mice, CCK concentrations in major structures of the brain are maintained with remarkable constancy. PMID:500815

  3. Cooperative breeding and Aka children's nutritional status: is flexibility key?

    PubMed

    Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to <9 months), mobility to weaning (9 to <36 months), early childhood (36 to <72 months), and middle childhood (72 to <120 months); N = 127]. We explore the effects of allomothers and the social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to <36 month period. Camp size was also associated with greater WAZ, suggesting that children residing in small camps may be disadvantaged. Our findings also indicate that, under specific residence patterns, cooperative child rearing networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases. PMID:24452414

  4. Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lips, P

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D status is highly different in various countries of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. For this review, vitamin D deficiency is defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <25 nmol/l. Within European countries, serum 25(OH)D is <25 nmol/l in 2-30% of adults, increasing in the elderly and institutionalized to more than 80% in some studies. A north-south gradient was observed for serum 25(OH)D in the Euronut and MORE studies with higher levels in Scandinavia and lower levels in Italy and Spain and some Eastern European countries. This points to other determinants than sunshine, e.g. nutrition, food fortification and supplement use. Mean vitamin D intake in Scandinavia is 200-400IU/d, twice that in other European countries. Very low serum 25(OH)D levels have been reported in the Middle East, e.g. Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iran. In these countries serum 25(OH)D was lower in women than in men and associated with clothing habits. In a Lebanese survey, vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority and occurred mainly in veiled women. In India, vitamin D deficiency was observed in more than 30%, vitamin D status being poor in school children, pregnant women and large cities. Vitamin D status was much better in Malaysia and Singapore, but lower serum 25(OH)D was observed in Japan and China. Rickets and osteomalacia appear quite common in India, but precise data are lacking. Immigrants in Europe from the Middle East and Asia carry a high risk for vitamin D deficiency, pregnant women being especially at risk. Comparison of vitamin D status between countries is hampered by interlaboratory variation of serum 25(OH)D measurement. In addition, there is a need of population-based data. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is common in Southern Europe, the Middle East, India, China and Japan. It is less common in Northern Europe and Southeast Asia. Risk groups are young children, the elderly, pregnant women and non-western immigrants in Europe. Important

  5. Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; de Boeck, Gudrun; Becker, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) occur naturally in many foods. The physiochemical and biological properties of these compounds correspond to dietary fiber. Nonstarch polysaccharides show various physiological effects in the small and large intestine and therefore have important health implications for humans. The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes: development and uses for assessment of micronutrient status of women--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Meyers, Linda

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews the process of developing the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and provides a synopsis of the micronutrient status of women worldwide. At a 1993 symposium held by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), it was decided that the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) would be replaced by the DRIs, which would address several issues that the RDAs did not, including chronic disease risk reduction, upper levels for nutrients where toxicity data existed, and the possible health benefits of some food components that did not meet the traditional definition of a nutrient. Another important distinction is that because the DRIs are comprised of 4 reference values -the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), RDA, Adequate Intake (AI), and a tolerable Upper Level (UL) -and not a single reference value like the previous RDAs, they could be used to differentiate planning from diagnosis or assessment. The latest DRIs and nutrient intakes are shown for iron, zinc, calcium, Vitamin A and folate status in women in the United States. Data on the micronutrient status of women globally are much more limited. Summary statistics on iron deficiency anemia, night blindness, and risk of zinc deficiency are summarized. PMID:15883451

  7. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  8. Ordinal logistic regression analysis on the nutritional status of children in KarangKitri village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyver, Margaretha; Yongharto, Kimmy Octavian

    2015-09-01

    Ordinal logistic regression is a statistical technique that can be used to describe the relationship between ordinal response variable with one or more independent variables. This method has been used in various fields including in the health field. In this research, ordinal logistic regression is used to describe the relationship between nutritional status of children with age, gender, height, and family status. Nutritional status of children in this research is divided into over nutrition, well nutrition, less nutrition, and malnutrition. The purpose for this research is to describe the characteristics of children in the KarangKitri Village and to determine the factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the KarangKitri village. There are three things that obtained from this research. First, there are still children who are not categorized as well nutritional status. Second, there are children who come from sufficient economic level which include in not normal status. Third, the factors that affect the nutritional level of children are age, family status, and height.

  9. The Impact of a Home-Delivered Meal Program on Nutritional Risk, Dietary Intake, Food Security, Loneliness, and Social Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed. PMID:26106989

  10. Education and psychological issues Diabetes nutrition therapy and dietary intake among individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, L. M.; Liu, W.; Ji, L.; Mendez, M.; Du, S.; Crandell, J.; Rosamond, W.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe the contribution of diabetes nutrition therapy to disease self-management among individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in China and to estimate the association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake. Methods The 3C Study was an epidemiological study of the coverage, cost and care of Type 1 diabetes in China. The data reported in the present study are from the 3C Nutrition Ancillary Study, a follow-up study conducted 1.6±0.2 years later. Diabetes nutrition therapy was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-h recalls. The association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake was estimated using ANCOVA. Results Participants (n=100; 54% male) had a mean ± SD age of 41.7±16.3 years old and a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 11.8±9.7 years. Fewer than half of the participants reported that they had ‘ever’ met with a dietician. While 64% of participants were taught carbohydrate counting, only 12% ‘ever’ use this tool. Participants on insulin pumps and those testing ≥1 time/day reported greater dietary flexibility and higher fruit intakes compared with participants on other insulin regimens and testing less frequently. After adjustment for confounding by age and occupation, there were no consistent differences in dietary intake across subgroups of diabetes nutrition therapy. Conclusions In this sample of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China there is little dietician involvement or carbohydrate counting. Increased frequency of nutrition education in conjunction with intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose is needed to improve care. PMID:25407093

  11. The Key to Life Nutrition Program: results from a community-based dietary sodium reduction trial

    PubMed Central

    Robare, Joseph F; Milas, N Carole; Bayles, Constance M; Williams, Kathy; Newman, Anne B; Lovalekar, Mita T; Boudreau, Robert; McTigue, Kathleen; Albert, Steven M; Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of a dietary Na reduction trial in a community setting. Design Community-based randomized trial. Ten-week nutrition intervention activities focused on lifestyle modification to decrease dietary Na intake, under the supervision of a registered dietitian. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected at baseline and follow-up visits to determine 24 h urinary Na excretion. Setting The University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Aging, Key to Life Nutrition Program. Subjects Hypertensive adults at least 65 years of age. Results Mean age of participants was 75 years. Twenty-four hour mean urinary Na excretion at baseline was 3174 mg/d. This reduced to 2944 mg/d (P = 0·30) and 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·03) at 6-and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. In a sub-sample (urine volume of ≥ 1000 ml, baseline to 12 months), mean urinary Na excretion decreased from 3220 mg/d to 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·02). Conclusions Significant reductions in mean 24 h urinary Na were reported, but results fell short of the recommended guidelines of 1500 mg/d for at-risk individuals. Our results reiterate the difficulty in implementing these guidelines in community-based programmes. More aggressive public health efforts, food industry support and health policy changes are needed to decrease Na levels in older adults to the recommended guidelines. PMID:19781124

  12. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  13. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  14. The Effect of a Summer Camp Intervention on the Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Behavior of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Leah; Nepocatych, Svetlana; Ketcham, Caroline; Duffy, Diane

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a rewards-based nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge and dietary behaviors of adolescent girls. Our participants consisted of eight girls ages 11 to 13 years. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before and after intervention program through a "Jeopardy" style quiz game and posttest questionnaires. Participants were also interviewed throughout the week about typical dietary behaviors, daily physical activity, and self-esteem. Educational activities took place for 2 to 3 hours each day and included a grocery store scavenger hunt, healthy baking demonstrations, and relay races. Participants received bracelets and charms as rewards for participation in activities. Nutritional knowledge increased for six out of eight participants, although the overall increase was not found to be statistically significant (p = .20). Significant correlations were found between measures including dietary behavior (soda consumption per week and perceived importance of body weight: r = -.827, p = .01), self-esteem (weight and endurance: r = .801, p = .03), and fitness levels (weight and curl-ups completed in 30 seconds: r = -.729, p = .04). This study shows promising evidence that this nutrition education intervention could be effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, thus potentially affecting future dietary behaviors of adolescent girls. PMID:27044609

  15. The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools process generates improvements in school nutrition policies and practices, and student dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Oleksyk, Shannon; Golzynski, Diane; Drzal, Nick; Lucarelli, Jennifer; Reznar, Melissa; Wen, Yalu; Krabill Yoder, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools (HSAT) is an online self-assessment and action planning process for schools seeking to improve their health policies and practices. The School Nutrition Advances Kids study, a 2-year quasi-experimental intervention with low-income middle schools, evaluated whether completing the HSAT with a facilitator assistance and small grant funding resulted in (1) improvements in school nutrition practices and policies and (2) improvements in student dietary intake. A total of 65 low-income Michigan middle schools participated in the study. The Block Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire was completed by 1,176 seventh-grade students at baseline and in eighth grade (during intervention). Schools reported nutrition-related policies and practices/education using the School Environment and Policy Survey. Schools completing the HSAT were compared to schools that did not complete the HSAT with regard to number of policy and practice changes and student dietary intake. Schools that completed the HSAT made significantly more nutrition practice/education changes than schools that did not complete the HSAT, and students in those schools made dietary improvements in fruit, fiber, and cholesterol intake. The Michigan HSAT process is an effective strategy to initiate improvements in nutrition policies and practices within schools, and to improve student dietary intake. PMID:25733730

  16. Key role of dietary fats in coronary heart disease under progressive urbanization and nutritional transitionh.

    PubMed

    Bulliyya, G

    2000-12-01

    be worked out appropriately in ameliorating nutrition-related disease states. Any simple dietary modification that can lead to a substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality from CHD would be of great medical, social and economic benefit. PMID:24394505

  17. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO

  18. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  19. The acute respiratory distress syndrome: role of nutritional modulation of inflammation through dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Mizock, Barry A; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2004-12-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most serious form of acute hypoxic respiratory failure. ARDS represents the expression of an acute, diffuse, inflammatory process in the lungs consequent to a variety of infectious and noninfectious conditions. It is characterized pathologically by damage to pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells, with subsequent alveolar-capillary leak and exudative pulmonary edema. The main clinical features of ARDS include rapid onset of dyspnea, severe defects in gas exchange, and imaging studies demonstrating diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. The role of nutrition in the management of ARDS has traditionally been supportive. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of certain dietary oils (eg, fish oil, borage oil) to modulate pulmonary inflammation, thereby improving lung compliance and oxygenation, and reducing time on mechanical ventilation. This article reviews the alterations in the immune response that underlie ARDS, discusses the physiology of dietary oils as immunonutrients, summarizes animal and human studies that explore the therapeutic effects of dietary oils, and provides clinical recommendations for their use. PMID:16215155

  20. Assessment of nutritional status in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Izadi-Khah, Akram

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. With the aid of subjective global assessment (SGA), a semi-quantitative scale for estimating nutritional status, the malnutrition score (MS), has been developed. The MS incorporates advantages of the SGA while extending the reliability and precision. This study was performed to assess the nutritional status in patients on HD at the Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Based on the MS, which consists of seven components--weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidity, subcutaneous fat, and muscle wasting--we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study on 54 HD patients (35 males, 19 females) with age range of 18 to 82 years (mean 44.2 +/- 19.8 years). Each component of the MS has a score from one (normal) to five (very severe). Anthropometric measurements including triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were taken on all patients. Also, the body mass index and TSF/MAC ratio were calculated. Relevant laboratory parameters were checked. The duration of HD of the study patients ranged between 5 and 36 months (mean 19.5 +/- 1.5 months). Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS, Pearson correlation, 't' test and regression. Based on the MS, 40.7% of patients had malnutrition (mean score 13.8 +/- 2.8). There were statistically significant correlations between TSF (p < 0.01), MAC (p = 0.02), MAMC (p = 0.01), TSF/MAC ratio (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.028), serum albumin concentration (p = 0.021) and MS. No statistically significant correlation was found between the MS and urea reduction ratio, protein catabolic rate, age, gender, or duration of dialysis. After 1 year, 20.4% of patients died because of dialysis-related complications. The mortality rate did not show significant correlation with

  1. Nutritional Status in Nocturnal Hemodialysis Patients – A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Struijk, Simone; van der Velden, Annet; Westerhuis, Ralf; van der Schans, Cees P.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients experience an elevated risk of malnutrition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) results in more effective removal of waste products and fluids. Therefore, diet and fluid restrictions are less restricted in NHD patients. However, it is ambiguous whether transition from conventional hemodialysis (CHD) to NHD leads to improved intake and nutritional status. We studied the effect of NHD on protein intake, laboratory indices of nutritional status, and body composition. Study design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Population NHD patients. Search strategy Systematic literature search from databases, Medline, Cinahl, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, to identify studies reporting on nutritional status post-transition from CHD to NHD. Intervention Transition from CHD to NHD. Outcomes Albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dry body weight (DBW), body mass index (BMI), phase angle, protein intake, and energy intake. Results Systematic literature search revealed 13 studies comprising 282 patients that made the transition from CHD to NHD. Meta-analysis included nine studies in 229 patients. In control group controlled studies (n = 4), serum albumin increased significantly from baseline to 4–6 months in NHD patients compared with patients that remained on CHD (mean difference 1.3 g/l, 95% CI 0.02; 2.58, p = 0.05). In baseline controlled studies, from baseline to 4–6 months of NHD treatment, significant increases were ascertained in serum albumin (mean difference (MD) 1.63 g/l, 95% CI 0.73–2.53, p<0.001); nPCR (MD 0.16 g/kg/day; 95% CI 0.04–0.29, p = 0.01); protein intake (MD 18.9 g, 95% CI 9.7–28.2, p<0.001); and energy intake (MD 183.2 kcal, 95% CI 16.8–349.7, p = 0.03). Homogeneity was rejected only for nPCR (baseline versus 4–6 months). DBW, BMI, and phase angle did not significantly change. Similar results were obtained for comparison between baseline and 8–12 months

  2. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  3. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Muhoozi, Grace K. M.; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. Objective In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Design Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background variables (e.g. household characteristics, poverty likelihood, and child dietary diversity scores (CDDS)) were collected using questionnaires. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) and Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) were used to collect data on child development. Anthropometric measures were used to determine z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), head circumference (HCZ), and mid-upper arm circumference. Chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analyses were used to relate background variables, nutritional status indicators, and infant development. Results The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 12.1, 24.6, and 4.7%, respectively. Household head education, gender, sanitation, household size, maternal age and education, birth order, poverty likelihood, and CDDS were associated (p<0.05) with WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Regression analysis showed that gender, sanitation, CDDS, and likelihood to be below the poverty line were predictors (p<0.05) of undernutrition. BSID III indicated development delay of 1.3% in cognitive and language, and 1.6% in motor development. The ASQ indicated delayed development of 24, 9.1, 25.2, 12.2, and 15.1% in communication, fine motor, gross motor, problem solving, and personal social ability, respectively. All nutritional status indicators except HCZ were positively and significantly associated with development domains. WAZ was the main predictor for

  4. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  5. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  6. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  7. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  8. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  9. The impact of nutrition education interventions on the dietary habits of college students in developed nations: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Wan Putri Elena, Wan Dali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future. PMID:22977369

  10. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and

  11. Patterns of Risk: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey; Loonin, Deanne

    Nutrition and health are underlying influences to education performance. This report is a collection and analysis of data on nutrition and the rural poor in the United States. It presents an empirical assessment of critical nutritional and social-service problems experienced by the rural poor population. The first section of the report uses data…

  12. Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. Methods We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. Results The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (p<0.05). Overall, all behaviors except the fruit intake rate were desirably changed during five years but undesirable changes were observed between 2008 and 2009 in all behaviors. Within those periods, several policies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Polices on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation. Conclusions Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea. PMID:22389758

  13. Effects of Dietary Milled Seed Mixture on Fatty Acid Status and Inflammatory Markers in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Arsic, Aleksandra; Glibetic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Background. Plant seeds have gained interest for their health benefits due to their fatty acid content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary consumption of milled sesame/pumpkin/flax seed mixture on glycemic control, serum lipids, phospholipid fatty acid status, and inflammatory factors in patients on hemodialysis. Methods. Thirty patients with well nutrition status (18 male, 12 female) were enrolled in the study. Participants consumed 30 g of milled sesame/pumpkin/flax (6 g/6 g/18 g, resp.) seeds mixture added to their habitual diet. Results. Total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and levels of linoleic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DGLA), arachidonic, alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid were increased after 12 weeks of supplementation. A significant decrease of the serum triglyceride level (P < 0.001), glucose, insulin, calculated IR HOMA (P < 0.05), and inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and hs-CRP, P < 0.001) was observed after seed mixture treatment. The serum levels of CRP and TNF-alpha negative correlate with ALA, DHA, and DGLA. Conclusion. Results of this study indicated that dietary milled sesame/pumpkin/flax seed mixture added to a habitual diet lowered triglyceride and CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6 levels, affect glycemic control and improved fatty acid profile and pruritus symptoms in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24578648

  14. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  15. Nutritional status assessment in geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology Nutrition Work Group.

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26025067

  16. [Nutritional status assessment in Geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology NutritionWork Group].

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26388249

  17. Vitamin D nutritional status and the risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MIN; LI, XIANCHI; SUN, RONGRONG; ZENG, YI; CHEN, SHUANG; ZHANG, PEIYING

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. CVD has a significant impact on health care systems worldwide and over 23 million individuals are expected to succumb to the disease by 2030. Early onset of atherosclerosis in childhood along with other risk factors of CVD, including elevated circulating lipids, have been shown to persist in adulthood and lead to CVD. Vitamin D deficiency is considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of CVD, with childhood nutritional status of vitamin D being an important determinant of the development of CVD. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D can arise due to reduced intake as well as geographical location, and other diseases/conditions such as chronic kidney disease and obesity. Childhood vitamin D deficiency can progress and lead to atherosclerosis and other CVDs in adulthood. Early intervention with vitamin D supplementation is an ideal approach towards preventive therapy. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the role of vitamin D in childhood CVD. In the present study, we reviewed the available evidence in favor of and against such a role for this vitamin. PMID:27073421

  18. Environmental influences on helminthiasis and nutritional status among Pacific schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R G; Sharp, D S; Hughes, M C; Akau'ola, S; Heinsbroek, P; Velayudhan, R; Schulz, D; Palmer, K; Cavalli-Sforza, T; Galea, G

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to: (1) determine the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and nutritional status among Pacific Island school children; (2) identify factors influencing helminthiasis; (3) identify interventions to improve school health. A total of 3,683 children aged 5-12 years attending 27 primary schools in 13 Pacific Island countries were surveyed along with school environmental data. Stool samples were collected from 1996 children (54.2%) and analysed for ova and helminths. Total prevalence of helminthiasis was 32.8%. Anaemia prevalence was 12.4%. Children with helminthiasis and anaemia were found to be 8.7 times more likely to be stunted and 4.3 times more likely to be underweight than non-anaemic and non-infected children. Four significant environmental influences on helminthiasis were identified: (1) an inadequate water supply; (2); availability of a school canteen; (3) regular water/sanitation maintenance regimes; and (4) overcrowded classrooms. Helminthiasis was found to be strongly associated with anaemia, stunting and underweight and environmental influences identified. Although mass anti-helminthic drug administrations (MDA) have been taking place, reinfection is common as drug therapy alone is not enough. Programme effectiveness depends upon upgrading school environments to include an adequate water supply, controlled food preparation/provision, well-maintained water/sanitation facilities and class sizes of 30 students or less. PMID:15203448

  19. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308

  20. FRAILTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    SMIT, E.; WANKE, C.; DONG, K.; GROTHEER, A.; HANSEN, S.; SKINNER, S.; TANG, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutritional status and food insecurity are associated with frailty in the general U.S. population, yet little is known about this in the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH). Objectives Given the potential importance of nutrition and the amenability to intervention, we examined the association between nutritional status, food insecurity, and frailty in PLWH. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Participants 50 PLWH, age ≥45 years, recruited from a cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Measurements Frailty, duration of HIV, use of antiretroviral therapy, disease history, food insecurity, physical function, and physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Blood was drawn for CD4+ cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lipid levels. Physical measurements included height, weight, and skinfold thickness. Results The prevalence of frailty was 16% (n=8), 44% were pre-frail (n=22) and 40% were not frail (n=20). The number of reported difficulties with 20 activities of daily living was highest in frail (mean 10.4±3.9 SD), followed by pre-frail (6.5±4.6), and lowest in not frail participants (2.0±2.3). Seven (88%) of the frail PLWH lost weight with an average weight loss of 22.9 pounds; 6 (75%) reported unintentional weight loss, and all 6 of these met the frailty criteria for weight loss of 10 or more pounds. Nine (45%) of the not frail PLWH reported losing weight with an average weight loss of 6.2 pounds; 5 (23%) reported unintentional weight loss of <10 pounds. Frail PLWH were more likely to report being food insecure than not frail PLWH (63% vs. 10%, p=0.02), and tended to have lower energy intake than not frail PLWH. Conclusion Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve food security and activities of daily living in PLWH for both the prevention and improvement of frailty. PMID:26689809

  1. Quantitative analysis of dietary iron utilization for erythropoiesis in response to body iron status.

    PubMed

    Matsuo-Tezuka, Yukari; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis. There are two sources of iron for erythropoiesis, dietary and stored iron; however, their relative contributions to erythropoiesis remain unknown. In this study, we used the stable iron isotope (57)Fe to quantify synthesis of hemoglobin derived from dietary iron. Using this method, we investigated the activities of dietary iron absorption and the utilization of dietary iron for erythropoiesis in responses to stimulated erythropoiesis and to interventions to alter body iron status. Under iron-loaded conditions, the activity of dietary iron absorption was clearly lowered in response to up-regulation of hepcidin, although the estimated activity of iron release from stored iron was not compared with that under control conditions. This result was supported by the observation that two duodenal iron transporters, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin, were downregulated by iron loading, although the levels of expression of ferroportin in iron storage tissues were not changed by iron loading under erythropoietic stimulation by epoetin-β pegol (C.E.R.A., a long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent). These results indicate that the dietary iron absorption system is more sensitive to body iron status than are reticuloendothelial iron- release mechanisms. Our data indicated that there could be a regulatory mechanism favoring use of stored iron over dietary iron under iron-loaded conditions. PMID:26911670

  2. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  3. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  4. Assessing dietary patterns in Barbados highlights the need for nutritional intervention to reduce risk of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.; Cao, X.; Harris, R.; Hennis, A. J. M.; Wu, S.-Y.; Leske, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The dietary habits of the Caribbean have been changing to include more fast foods and a less nutrient dense diet. The aims of this study are to examine dietary patterns in Barbados and highlight foods for a nutritional intervention. Methods Four-day food diaries collected from control participants in the population-based, case-control Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS). Results Forty-nine adult participants (91% response) completed the diaries providing 191 days of dietary data. Total energy intake was almost identical to data collected 5-years earlier in the Barbados Food Consumption and Anthropometric Survey 2000, but the percent energy derived from fat was from 2.1% to 5.2% higher. Sugar intake exceeded the Caribbean recommendation almost four-fold, while intakes of calcium, iron (women only), zinc and dietary fibre were below recommendations. Fish and chicken dishes were the two largest sources of energy and fat. Sweetened drinks and juices provided over 40% of total sugar intake. Conclusions These data provide existing dietary patterns and strongly justify a nutritional intervention program to reduce dietary risk factors for chronic disease. The intervention could focus on the specific foods highlighted, both regarding frequency and amount of consumption. Effectiveness can be evaluated pre- and post-intervention using our Food Frequency Questionnaire developed for BNCS. PMID:18339055

  5. The Relationship between the Neighborhood Safety and Nutritional Status of Children in Baghdad City, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Isa, Zaleha Md.; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Abdal Qader, Mohammed A.; Hasan, Tiba Nezar; AL-abed, AL-abed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The neighborhoods where the children live play an important role in their development physically and mentally. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neighborhood safety and child nutritional status in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq, among 400 primary school children from 4 schools. BMI-for-age Z score was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Newly developed questionnaires on neighborhood safety were distributed to the parents to answer them. Results. In this study, males were more predominant than females with 215 participants compared to 185 females. A total of 49% were normal weight, 38.8% either overweight or obese, and only 12.2% underweight. There was a significant relationship between father education, father and mother working status, family income, and children nutritional status (P = 0.10, 0.009, <0.001, 0.37), respectively. The association between neighborhood safety variables and child nutritional status was significant except for worrying about child safety and thinking of leaving the neighborhood (P = 0.082, 0.084), respectively. Conclusion. Nutritional status of school children continues to be a public health issue in Iraq especially Baghdad city. There was a significant association between neighborhood safety and children nutritional status. PMID:25243083

  6. Preoperative Nutritional Status and The Impact on Radical Cystectomy Recovery: An International Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente Thoft; Dalbagni, Guido; Borre, Michael; Love-Retinger, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In radical cystectomy, under-nutrition is common and has detrimental physiological and clinical effects, which can lead to increased complications and prolonged recovery. This article compares measurements and outcomes across continents in this patient population with advanced bladder cancer. The association of preoperative nutritional risk, nutritional status, and length of stay is equal across continents, and the results promote increased clinical awareness that women at severe risk should be identified preoperatively. PMID:27501594

  7. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  8. Lessons learned from cancer prevention studies with nutrients and non-nutritive dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Chen, Jayson X; Wang, Hong; Lim, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of certain types of cancer. Extensive studies have been conducted on the cancer preventive activities of constituents from food and beverages. While laboratory research has shown impressive and promising results, such promising cancer preventive activities have not been demonstrated in many human intervention trials. This article analyzes the major differences between these different types of studies and the limitations of these studies. Animal and cell line studies usually use optimal conditions in order to demonstrate the hypothesized effects, sometimes without considering the human relevance. On the other hand, some clinical trials were designed without a good understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological properties of the agents used. Lessons learned from these studies will be illustrated using vitamin E, β-carotene and selenium as examples for nutrients, and green tea polyphenols as an example for non-nutritive dietary constituents. From the lessons learned, we believe that more interdisciplinary collaboration and integration of laboratory and human studies would effectively advance the field of cancer prevention. PMID:26865098

  9. [Role of dietary fibers in the nutritional management of chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Alphonse, J Cl; Deteix, R

    2004-01-01

    During the past few decades, considerable attention has been given to the impact of nutrition on kidney disease. Although most dietary attempts to treat chronic renal failure (CRF) and to decrease uremia recommend a protein restriction, another dietetic approach, based on dietary fibers (DF), can lead to the same urea-lowering effect by increasing urea-nitrogen (N) excretion in stool with a concomitant decrease of the total N quantity excreted in urine. In fact, feeding DF results in a greater rate of urea N transfer from blood to large bowel, where it will be hydrolyzed by bacterial ureases before subsequent microflora metabolism and proliferation. Because elevated concentration of serum urea N have been associated with adverse clinical symptoms of CRF, these results suggested a possible usefulness of combining DF with a low protein diet to increase N excretion via the fecal route. These results have been shown in animal models of experimental renal failure and in CRF patients. Further investigations in this population of patients are currently in progress to study whether DF may be beneficial on CRF progression and on CRF terminal stage tolerance. A part of this work is financed by the French Society of Nephrology. PMID:15584637

  10. The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C D

    1994-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence that supports working hypotheses for the roles of boron in animal model systems. It is well established that vascular plants, diatoms, and some species of marine algal flagellates have acquired an absolute requirement for boron, although the primary role of boron in plants remains unknown. Recent research findings suggest that physiologic amounts of supplemental dietary boron (PSB) affect a wide range of metabolic parameters in the chick and rat model systems. Much of the current interest in boron animal nutrition began with the initial finding that PSB stimulates growth in cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)-deficient chicks, but does not markedly affect growth in chicks receiving adequate vitamin D3 nutriture. The finding suggests that boron affects some aspect of vitamin D3 metabolism or is synergistic with vitamin D3 in influencing growth. Vitamin D3 regulates energy substrate utilization, and current research findings indicate that dietary boron modifies that regulatory function. The concentration of circulating glucose, the most thoroughly investigated metabolite to date, responds to PSB, especially during concomitant vitamin D3 deficiency. In chicks, PSB substantially alleviated or corrected vitamin D3 deficiency-induced elevations in plasma glucose concentrations. The influence of vitamin D3 on cartilage and bone mineralization is mediated in part through its role as a regulator of energy substrate utilization; calcification is an energy-intensive process. There is considerable evidence that dietary boron alleviates perturbations in mineral metabolism that are characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency. In rachitic chicks, PSB alleviated distortion of the marrow sprouts of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, a distortion characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889878

  11. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  12. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  13. [Statistical analysis of the consumption of nutritional and dietary supplements in gyms].

    PubMed

    Oliver, Antonio J Sánchez; León, María Teresa Miranda; Hernández, Eduardo Guerra

    2008-09-01

    The abuse of all types of substance to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements in a group of 415 individuals (260 males and 155 females) from 4 gyms in Seville (Spain). The users completed a previously designed questionnaire whose content validity had been tested in a pilot study. Out of the total sample, 56.14% had consumed a supplement at some time. Among these, the objective was improvement of physical appearance in 57.16%, health care in 16.7%, and sports performance enhancement in 13.2%. The profile of the supplement consumer is a young man who has performed activities in gyms for some time, goes to the gym for several hours a week and is on some type of diet. The percentage of nutritional supplement users (56%) is within values reported in other studies. The five supplements most frequently consumed by these individuals were (in decreasing order): proteins (28%), L-carnitine (18.6%), sport drinks (18.3%), creatine (17.1%) and vitamin complex (17.1%). PMID:19137983

  14. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  15. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    PubMed

    Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13,000 and 17,000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. This has led to the classification of dogs as omnivores, but the origin of these 'omnivorous' traits has, hitherto, been left unexplained. We discuss the foraging ecology of wild wolves and calculate the nutrient profiles of fifty diets reported in the literature. Data on the feeding ecology of wolves indicate that wolves are true carnivores consuming a negligible amount of vegetal matter. Wolves can experience prolonged times of famine during low prey availability while, after a successful hunt, the intake of foods and nutrients can be excessive. As a result of a 'feast and famine' lifestyle, wolves need to cope with a highly variable nutrient intake requiring an adaptable metabolism, which is still functional in our modern-day dogs. The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog's closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges. The present study provides new insights into dog nutrition and contributes to the ongoing optimisation of foods for pet dogs. PMID:25415597

  16. Effect of nutritive status on Mytilus galloprovincialis pollution biomarkers: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Romero, Diego; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers have been extensively used in monitoring programs with the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms and determining environmental status. Data obtained from these programs are sometimes difficult to interpret due to the large amount of natural variables affecting biological processes, which could act as confounding factors on biomarker responses. The main aim of this work was to identify the effect of one of these variables, the food availability, and consequently, the mussel nutritive status, on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were conditioned to three different food rations for 2 months in order to create three mussel nutritive statuses and afterwards, each status was exposed to three nominal concentrations of fluoranthene (FLU) for 3 weeks. A battery of biomarkers was considered in this study to cover a wide range of organism responses, both physiological (scope for growth - SFG) and biochemical (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT, glutathione reductase - GR, glutathione peroxidase - GPx, glutathione-S-transferase - GST and phenoloxidase - PO activities, and lipid membrane peroxidation - LPO). The results obtained, evidenced that most of the studied biomarkers (SFG, SOD, CAT, GPx, and PO) were strongly affected by mussel nutritive status, showing higher values at lower status, whereas the effect of toxicant was not always evident, masked by the nutritive status effect. This paper demonstrates that toxicants are not the only source of variability modulating pollution biomarkers, and confirms nutritive status as a major factor altering biochemical and physiological biomarkers. PMID:26277408

  17. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C) PMID:26566308

  18. The Nutritional Status of Low-Income Preschool Children in the United States: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Shackelford, Jo

    This review of the nutritional status of low-income preschool children in the United States discusses the topic in historical perspective and details current knowledge of the nutritional status of preschoolers. Discussion first focuses on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II of 1976-80, and then turns to the National Food…

  19. Nutritional status and physical inactivity in moderated asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Rocco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preservation of nutritional status and of fat-free mass (FFM) and/or preventing of fat mass (FM) accumulation have a positive impact on well-being and prognosis in asthma patients. Physical inactivity is identified by World Health Organization as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical activity (PA) may contribute to limit FM accumulation, but little information is available on the interactions between habitual PA and body composition and their association with disease severity in asthma severity. Associations between habitual PA, FM, FFM, and pulmonary function were investigated in 42 subjects (24 patients with mild-moderate asthma and 18 matched control subjects). Sensewear Armband was used to measure PA and metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) continuously over 4 days, while body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Respiratory functions were also assessed in all study participants. FM and FFM were comparable in mild-moderate asthmatics and controls, but PA was lower in asthmatics and it was negatively correlated with FM and positively with the FFM marker body cell mass in all study subjects (P < 0.05). Among asthmatics, treated moderate asthmatics (ICS, n = 12) had higher FM and lower PA, METs, steps number/die, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than in untreated intermittent asthmatics (UA, n = 12). This pilot study assesses that in mild-moderate asthma patients, lower PA is associated with higher FM and higher disease severity. The current results support enhancement of habitual PA as a potential tool to limit FM accumulation and potentially contribute to preserve pulmonary function in moderate asthma, considering the physical inactivity a strong risk factor for asthma worsening. PMID:27495092

  20. Association of Low Dietary Intake of Fiber and Liquids with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Markland, Alayne D.; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Methods Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Results Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusions The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise. PMID:23567352

  1. The Change in Nutritional Status in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masha'al, Dina A.

    There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a

  2. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  3. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  4. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children’s development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children’s neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a

  5. Serum levels of vitamin A and carotenoids as reflectors of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Olson, J A

    1984-12-01

    Of the total body reserve of vitamin A, the liver is the major repository (greater than or equal to 90%); plasma contains only 1% of the total amount. Although the median liver concentration in well-nourished American adults is approximately 100 micrograms/g, a minimally adequate concentration is suggested to be 20 micrograms/g. Physiologic, nutritional, clinical, and genetic factors affect plasma retinol levels by a variety of mechanisms. Of total body carotenoids, most are associated with adipose tissue (greater than 80%), and a lesser amount is associated with liver (10%). Vitamin A concentrations in the liver are low at birth but then rise to adult levels at 1-4 years of age. Liver carotenoid concentrations are not proportional to liver vitamin A reserves. Total liver retinol is proportional to dietary retinol but not in a purely linear fashion. When liver reserves exceed 30 micrograms/g, the excretion of vitamin A metabolites in bile is much increased. Plasma vitamin A is homeostatically controlled over the physiologic range of liver vitamin A concentrations, e.g., 20-300 micrograms/g. Below 20 micrograms/g liver, plasma vitamin A values tend to fall; above 300 micrograms/g liver, plasma values tend to increase. At very high intakes, plasma vitamin A values can be greater than or equal to 300 micrograms/dl. In such cases most of the plasma vitamin A is in the form of retinyl ester. Thus, except in cases of deficiency or excess, vitamin A levels in the plasma are not good indicators of vitamin A status. Other methods of evaluating vitamin A status include relative dose response, analysis of liver autopsy or biopsy samples, isotope-dilution approach, and pseudoequilibrium approach. The first two of these methods have proven to be very useful in specific circumstances, whereas the others are under development. PMID:6439934

  6. Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a high food production region in Tanzania. Methods We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). Results HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016); underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029); and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001), food insecurity (β = −0.05, p<0.001), and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate

  7. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml), 32.4% had low serum levels (200-400 pg/ml) and 4.4% had folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml). A high proportion of older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results. PMID:27004491

  8. Oro-facial pain and nutrition: a forgotten relationship?

    PubMed

    Durham, J; Touger-Decker, R; Nixdorf, D R; Rigassio-Radler, D; Moynihan, P

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial pain (OFP) is known to exert profound impacts on quality of life including functionally and psychosocially mediated changes in dietary intake and thereby nutrition. This commentary explores the evidence base available on chronic oro-facial pain, diet and nutrition and discusses current dietary guidance for individuals with chronic OFP; potential impact of chronic OFP on eating and nutritional status; impact of nutritional status on pathophysiology of chronic OFP; and potential role of nutrition in the management of chronic OFP. PMID:25201161

  9. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  10. Nutritional and Immunological Status and Burden of Infection in Elderly Ecuadorian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of the elderly in Latin America is expected to rise substantially. To define the prevalence of infections and micronutrient deficiencies, and immunological status, and to evaluate associations between nutritional status and infection, we performed a cross-sectional study of elderly Ecuado...

  11. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  12. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  13. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  14. Differences between health and ethical vegetarians. Strength of conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. PMID:23416470

  15. Status of zinc nutrition in Bangladesh: the underlying associations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sabuktagin; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Alam, Nurul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ireen, Santhia; Chowdhury, Ireen Akhter; Chowdhury, Fatima Parveen; Rahman, S M Mustafizur

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is a country with a high burden of micronutrient malnutrition. Stunting affects 41 % of children aged under 5 years. Zn is one of the key micronutrients that is associated with stunting. The present study, as part of the national micronutrient survey 2011-2012, revealed for the first time the nationally representative prevalence of Zn deficiency and determined the associations of the condition. A cross-sectional 'nationwide' survey was conducted in pre-school-age children (6-59 months; PSAC) and non-pregnant non-lactating women (15-49 years; NPNLW). Multistage random sampling was done in 150 clusters; fifty in each of the rural, urban and slum strata. Data were analysed on 662 PSAC and 1073 NPNLW. Serum Zn was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn deficiency was defined as serum Zn of <9·9 and <10·1 µmol/l in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. The national prevalence of Zn deficiency was 44·6 and 57·3 % in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. In PSAC, it was 29·5, 48·6 and 51·7 %, respectively, in urban, rural and slum strata. Household expenses (β = 0·13; P = 0·007), Hb (β = 0·10; P = 0·005), intake of animal-source Zn (β = 0·096; P = 0·02) and asset score (β = 0·11; P = 0·03) were positively associated with serum Zn in NPNLW. Residence in an urban area (β = 0·33; P = 0·03) and intake of plant-origin Zn (β = -0·13; P = 0·038) determined higher and lower status of Zn in PSAC, respectively. Zn deficiency was highly prevalent in Bangladesh, and it was principally related to inadequate quality of diet. To improve Zn nutrition, Bangladesh needs to strengthen research and programmes related to Zn biofortification, fortification and phytate-reducing technologies in the food system in the short and medium term. In addition, promotion of animal-source Zn for all is important in the long run. PMID:27547388

  16. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  17. Dietary intakes and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Peeters, Petra; Romieu, Isabelle; Kelly, Rachel; Riboli, Elio; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Teucher, Birgit; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Parr, Christine L; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine M; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34 yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias. PMID:24279598

  18. Appraisal of Nutritional Status. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  19. Nutritional and functional status indicators in residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A; Ackland, Leigh M

    2009-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether results from the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL), were associated with nutritional status and mobility in long-term care residents. One hundred and fifteen study participants (mean [SD] age: 80.2 [10.6]) provided informed consent. Fifty eight percent (n = 66) responded to all three questionnaires: 12 were assessed as malnourished (MNA < 17) and 28 were depressed (GDS >or = 6). Higher levels of depression were associated with lower serum zinc (n = 71, r = -.356, p = .001) and associated with a slower Timed Up and Go test (TUG, n = 38, r = .301, p = .030). MNA was also associated with serum zinc (n = 44, r = .307, P = .021). Non responders to questionnaires (n = 36) had a lower BMI (mean difference: -2.5 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2), p = .013) and serum 25(OH)D (-8.7 +/- 3.8 nmol/l, p = .023) vs. responders. The GDS, in addition to the MNA, is useful in identifying poor nutritional status in residential care. Intervention programs that target depression and poor nutritional status could potentially improve overall quality of life, but it is not clear if depression is leading to poor nutritional status or if poor nutrition is leading to depression. PMID:19234994

  20. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  1. Understanding Nutrition: A Study of Greek Primary School Children Dietary Habits, before and after Classroom Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Georgiou, Evanthia; Thanou, Ageliki; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to assess and then to improve the diet of Greek primary school children teaching them healthy dietary habits and instructing them to face critically advertisements and media projected dietary models using a program which included intervention on cognitive, emotional, and social level. The results show that our…

  2. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  3. Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status.

    PubMed

    Dainty, Jack R; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R; Harvey, Linda J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000-2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19-64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1-40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

  4. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  5. Title VII--Nutrition Program for the Elderly. I. Contribution to one day's dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, M B; O'Hanlon, P; Eklund, D

    1978-05-01

    Food records kept by 466 individuals participating in the federally funded Nutrition Program for the Elderly show that those eating at the meal site on the day of the food record consumed more energy, protein, and calcium than non-participants and participants who did not eat there on the day of the record. Dietary ratings, which included eight nutrients and energy, indicated they also had better overall diets than non-participants. Non-participants consumed more iron than participants. The daily intake of all nutrients, except calcium, of those eating at the meal site reflected what was offered. Between 40 and 50 per cent of the total daily intake was consumed at the meal center. Women consumed a significantly greater proportion of their daily intake of most nutrients from the food provided by program than the men. The desirability of providing a high proportion of the recommended allowances for protein and other nutrients through the meal program menus is emphasized. The results of the study demonstrated the importance of nutritionists in administrative roles at the state and area levels in determining the effectiveness of a meal program, since food intake reflected menu planning. PMID:649896

  6. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  7. Application of dietary fiber in clinical enteral nutrition: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Wu, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Ying-Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of dietary fiber (DF) as a part of enteral nutrition (EN) formula on diarrhea, infection, and length of hospital stay. METHODS: Following electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials about DF: Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. RevMan 4.1 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials with 400 pat-ients were included. The supplement of DF in EN was compared with standard enteral formula in five trials. Combined analysis did not show a significant reduction in occurrence of diarrhea, but there were valuable results for non-critically ill patients. Combined analysis of two trials observing the infection also did not show any valid evidence that DF could decrease the infection rate, though the length of hospital stay was reduced significantly. CONCLUSION: Based on the current eligible randomized controlled trials, there is no evidence that the value of DF in the diarrhea can be proved. Though length of hospital stay was shortened by the use of DF, there is no available evidence in preventing infection by DF. Further studies are needed for evaluating the value of DF in EN. PMID:15991297

  8. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior. PMID:21078697

  9. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (D...

  10. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (DQS...

  11. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials. PMID:27529492

  12. Impact of peer nutrition education on dietary behaviors and health outcomes among Latinos: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Vega-López, Sonia; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Objective This systematic review assesses the impact of peer education/counseling on nutrition and health outcomes among Latinos, and identifies future research needs. Design A systematic literature search was conducted by: a) searching internet databases, b) conducting backward searches from reference lists of articles of interest, c) manually reviewing the archives of the Center for Eliminating Health Disparities among Latinos (CEHDL), d) searching the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, and e) directly contacting researchers in the field. We reviewed 22 articles derived from experimental or quasi-experimental studies. Outcomes Type 2 diabetes behavioral and metabolic outcomes, breastfeeding, nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results Peer nutrition education has a positive influence on diabetes self-management, breastfeeding outcomes, as well as on general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake behaviors among Latinos. Conclusions and implications There is a need for longitudinal randomized trials testing the impact of peer nutrition education interventions grounded on goal setting and culturally appropriate behavioral change theories. Inclusion of reliable scales and the construct of acculturation is needed for further advancing the knowledge in this promising field. Operational research is also needed to identify the optimal peer educator characteristics, the type of training that they should receive, the client loads and dosage (i.e., frequency and amount of contact needed between needed peer educator and client), and the best educational approaches and delivery settings. PMID:18565462

  13. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13–18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials. PMID:27529492

  14. Effect of Dietary Antimicrobials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Lillehoj, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S. I.; Park, M. S.; Bautista, D. A.; Ritter, G. D.; Hong, Y. H.; Siragusa, G. R.; Lillehoj, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system. PMID:25049577

  15. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, TE; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Subjects and Methods: Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of < 3 meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who “ate out” < 2 times/day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Conclusion: Findings should inform policy, via the “Health in All” policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments. PMID:26035813

  16. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    PubMed

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families. PMID:22531478

  17. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Mavil May C.; Llido, Luisito O.; Barrios, Erniel B.; Panlasigui, Leonora N.

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of 8.44 ± 0.20. The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. PMID:25505983

  18. Nutritional Status Associated to Skipping Breakfast in Brazilian Health Service Patients.

    PubMed

    Batista-Jorge, Gislaine Cândida; Barcala-Jorge, Antônio Sérgio; Oliveira Dias, Anderson Frederico; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; de Farias Lelis, Deborah; Oliveira Andrade, João Marcus; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Paula, Alfredo Mauricio Batista; Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiane; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, this study evaluated 400 patients from the Brazilian health service who had their nutritional status defined based on the body mass index and were classified as physically active or insufficient active. The energy intake and macronutrients was also assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall where the association of overweight/obesity with the investigated variables was evaluated using chi-square, Student's t test and multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). The main results showed that more than half of the studied population have the habit of omitting breakfast (55.8%), and among those, 81.2% were overweight/obese (p < 0.0001). Almost three-fourths of these individuals consumed no more than 4 meals a day (73.0%), and regarding this meal frequency/day, 78.8% of the individuals who reported having 4 meals or less a day were overweight/obese compared with 57.8% who reported as having 5-6 meals/day (p < 0.0001). The individuals who reported to omit breakfast had a higher chance of being overweight compared with those who had this habit (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.60) and the chance of the physically insufficient active individuals to be overweight/obese was 2.9 times higher when compared to the active individuals (p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that regular breakfast consumption may decrease overweight and obesity risk. PMID:27434543

  19. Assessment of nutritional status and in vivo immune responses in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mills, P R; Shenkin, A; Anthony, R S; McLelland, A S; Main, A N; MacSween, R N; Russell, R I

    1983-12-01

    Nutritional status and in vivo immune responses were investigated in 30 patients with alcoholic liver disease who were drinking heavily up until emergency hospital admission. Investigations were performed on admission and after 2 wk abstention and adequate hospital diet. No relationship was found between the severity of liver disease revealed histologically and the recent quantity or total duration of alcohol intake, inadequacy of diet, or nutritional status. Skin anergy was more common in those patients with cirrhosis but did not relate to depletion in circulating T lymphocytes, poor nutritional status, or to the direct effect of alcohol toxicity. Acute alcohol toxicity did, however, produce extensive and rapidly reversible metabolic and cellular changes including reduction in serum potassium, magnesium and phosphate and depletion of all circulating lymphocyte subpopulations. PMID:6650446

  20. Overweight and poor nutritional status in Mexican American youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children in the United States have consistently been shown to have less than the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommended daily allowances (RDA) of nutrients. Mexican American children have been shown to have the most nutritionally deficient diets. Obesity is increasingly becoming associa...

  1. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  2. Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing: Time-Related Dietary Approaches to Combat Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome1234

    PubMed Central

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. PMID:25770260

  3. The Inadmissibility of What We Eat in America and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition and Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-07-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs) (eg, interviews and surveys). The reliance on M-BMs to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. Data from M-BMs are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BMs has wasted substantial resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BMs are fundamentally and fatally flawed owing to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BMs require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (ie, not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (ie, memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, or falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and that the continued funding of M-BMs constitutes an unscientific and major misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  4. The Inadmissibility of ‘What We Eat In America’ (WWEIA) and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition & Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BM; e.g., interviews, surveys). The reliance on M-BM to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. M-BM data are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support, and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BM has wasted significant resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BM are fundamentally and fatally flawed due to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BM require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (i.e., not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (i.e., memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, nor falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and the continued funding of M-BM constitutes an unscientific and significant misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  5. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. PMID:25495287

  6. Diet and nutritional status among children 24–59 months by seasons in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Le Thi; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Phuong, Le Hong; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation affects food availability. However, it is not clear if it affects dietary intake and nutritional status of children in Vietnam. Objectives This paper aims at examining the seasonal variation in nutrition status and dietary intake of children aged 24–59 months. Design A repeated cross-sectional study design was used to collect data of changes in nutritional status and diets of children from 24 to 59 months through four seasons in Chiem Hoa district, Tuyen Quang province, a predominately rural mountainous province of northern Vietnam. The quantitative component includes anthropometric measurements, 24 hours dietary recall and socio-economic characteristics. The qualitative component was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of the children surveyed in the quantitative component. The purpose of FGDs was to explore the food habits of children during the different seasons and the behaviours of their mothers in relation to the food that they provide during these seasons. Results The prevalence of underweight among children aged 24–59 months is estimated at around 20–25%; it peaked in summer (24.9%) and reached a low in winter (21.3%). The prevalence of stunting was highest in summer (29.8%) and lowest in winter (22.2%). The prevalence of wasting in children was higher in spring and autumn (14.3%) and lower in summer (9.3%). Energy intake of children was highest in the autumn (1259.3 kcal) and lowest in the summer (996.9 kcal). Most of the energy and the nutrient intakes during the four seasons did not meet the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition recommendation. Conclusions Our study describes some seasonal variation in nutrition status and energy intake among children in a mountainous area northern Vietnam. Our study indicated that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher in summer and autumn, while the prevalence of wasting was higher in spring and autumn. Energy intake did not always meet

  7. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Bailey, Karl B.; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12–38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort. PMID:25903453

  8. Associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between biochemical iron and zinc status in women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18-50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12-38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort. PMID:25903453

  9. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions. PMID:22040598

  10. Case study: Nutrition and hydration status during 4,254 km of running over 78 consecutive days.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Sarah; Britton, Rhiannon; Murray, Andrew; Costa, Ricardo J S

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the dietary intake and monitor self-reported recovery quality and clinical symptomology of a male ultra-endurance runner who completed a multiday ultra-endurance running challenge covering 4,254 km from North Scotland to the Moroccan Sahara desert over 78 consecutive days. Food and fluid intakes were recorded and analyzed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM) was determined before and after running each day, and before sleep. Clinical symptomology and perceived recovery quality were recorded each day. Whole blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin were determined before and after the challenge. Total daily energy (mean ± SD: 23.2 ± 3.2 MJ · day(-1)) and macronutrient intake (182 ± 31 g · day(-1) protein, 842 ± 115 g · day(-1) carbohydrate, 159 ± 55 g · day(-1) fat) met consensus nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. Total daily water intake through foods and fluids was 4.8 ± 2.0 L · day(-1). Water and carbohydrate intake rates during running were 239 ± 143 ml · h(-1) and 56 ± 19 g · h(-1), respectively. Immediately after running, carbohydrate and protein intakes were 1.3 ± 1.0 g · kg BM(-1) and 0.4 ± 0.2 g · kg BM(-1), respectively. Daily micronutrient intakes ranged from 109 to 662% of UK RNIs. Prerunning BM was generally maintained throughout. Overall exercise-induced BM loss averaged 0.8 ± 1.0%; although BM losses of ≥ 2% occurred in the latter stages, a reflection of the warmer climate. Varying degrees of self-reported perceived recovery quality and clinical symptomology occurred throughout the challenge. This case study highlights oscillations in dietary habits along 78 consecutive days of ultra-endurance running, dependent on changes in ambient conditions and course topography. Nevertheless, nutrition and hydration status were maintained throughout the challenge. Despite dietary iron intake above RNI and iron supplementation, this alone did not prevent deficiency symptoms. PMID

  11. Evaluating the Initial Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Packages on Dietary Intake and Home Food Availability in African American and Hispanic Families

    PubMed Central

    Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Kong, Angela; Schiffer, Linda A.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Bess, Stephanie; Berbaum, Michael L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on dietary intake and home food availability in low-income African American and Hispanic parent/child dyads. DESIGN A natural experiment was conducted to assess if the revised WIC food package altered dietary intake, home food availability, weight, and various lifestyle measures immediately (6 months) following policy implementation. SETTING 12 WIC clinics in Chicago, USA. SUBJECTS 273, 2–3 year old Hispanic and African American children enrolled in WIC and their mothers RESULTS Six months after the WIC food package revisions were implemented, we observed modest changes in dietary intake. Fruit consumption increased among Hispanic mothers (mean=0.33 servings/d, p=.04), and low-fat dairy intake increased among Hispanic mothers (0.21 servings/d, p=.02), Hispanic children (0.34 servings/d, p<.001), and African American children (0.24 servings/d, p=.02). Home food availability of low fat dairy and whole grains also increased. Dietary changes, however, varied by racial/ethnic group. Changes in home food availability were not significantly correlated with changes in diet. CONCLUSIONS The WIC food package revisions are one of the first efforts to modify the nutrition guidelines that govern foods provided in a federal food and nutrition assistance program. It will be important to examine the longer term impact of these changes on dietary intake and weight status. PMID:23544992

  12. Dietary composition and weight loss: can we individualize dietary prescriptions according to insulin sensitivity or secretion status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compo...

  13. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T.; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30–64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Results Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Conclusions Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people’s decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices. PMID:26536243

  14. Relationship between the nutritional status of breast-feeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Frojo, Gianfranco A.; Rogers, Nathaniel G.; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesized that maternal excess caloric intake (measured as BMI) would increase the association while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breast feeding) will diminish the effect. Methods Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (OR), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Results Cases (n=84) had an increased odds (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared to controls (n=85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI 1.30-5.02) . Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI -0.96) as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI -2.27). Conclusion Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner. PMID:22462552

  15. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

    2004-01-01

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

  16. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  17. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  18. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  19. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  20. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  1. Food-based dietary guidelines and nutrition interventions for children at primary healthcare facilities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michael K; Goeiman, Hilary; Dhansay, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Existing dietary recommendations and nutrition counselling provided to mothers/caregivers at primary healthcare (PHC) facilities are reviewed and analysed to be consistent with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) that are being developed for preschool children. Recommendations provided by the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness and the provincial Paediatric Case Management Guidelines, which are currently implemented at PHC facilities were reviewed. For FBDGs to be consistent with nutrition counselling that is provided to mothers/caregivers at these facilities, various principles need to be promoted. These include among others, exclusive and on-demand breastfeeding in the HIV-negative mother; exclusive breastfeeding with abrupt cessation preferably at 6 months or exclusive, safe and adequate formula feeding in the HIV-infected mother; the introduction of complementary feeds in all infants at 6 months; the provision of energy-dense and micronutrient-enriched (particularly, iron, zinc, calcium and vitamin A) complementary feeds; frequent visits to the healthcare facility; and physical activity aimed at encouraging a healthy lifestyle and preventing overweight and obesity in childhood. The FBDGs should be incorporated into nutrition and child health programmes and be reviewed and modified regularly. PMID:17824853

  2. Dietary and nutritional treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current research support and recommendations for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Elizabeth A; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2011-10-01

    Evidence for dietary/nutritional treatments of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies widely, from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to anecdotal. In guiding patients, clinicians can apply the SECS versus RUDE rule: treatments that are Safe, Easy, Cheap, and Sensible (SECS) require less evidence than those that are Risky, Unrealistic, Difficult, or Expensive (RUDE). Two nutritional treatments appear worth general consideration: Recommended Daily Allowance/Reference Daily Intake multivitamin/mineral supplements as a pediatric health intervention not specific to ADHD and essential fatty acids, especially a mix of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and γ-linolenic acid as an ADHD-specific intervention. Controlled studies support the elimination of artificial food dyes to reduce ADHD symptoms, but this treatment may be more applicable to the general pediatric population than to children with diagnosed ADHD. Mineral supplementation is indicated for those with documented deficiencies but is not supported for others with ADHD. Carnitine may have a role for inattention, but the evidence is limited. Dimethylaminoethanol probably has a small effect. Herbs, although "natural," are actually crude drugs, which along with homeopathic treatments have little evidence of efficacy. Consequences of delayed proven treatments need consideration in the risk-benefit assessment of dietary/nutritional treatments. PMID:21779824

  3. Nutritional status in cognitively intact older people receiving home care services--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soini, H; Routasalo, P; Lagstrom, H

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are a potentially vulnerable group for malnutrition. This cross-sectional pilot study aims to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients living at home and receiving home health care services. The data were collected from patient care plans, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a questionnaire on eating problems. In addition, serum nutritional status indicators were measured, and an oral examination including quantitative saliva measurement was carried out. Out of 71 eligible patients 51 (72%) patients aged 76-93 years participated. MNA results showed that 47% were at risk of malnutrition. Care plans for 26 patients made reference to questions of nutrition but provided no detailed forward planning. The mean serum albumin value was 39.1 +/- 3.8 g/l, seven patients had a value lower than 35 g/l. MNA scores were significantly lower for female patients with haemoglobin values lower than 120 g/l (p = 0.027). The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and subjective problems in energy intake were significantly associated with lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015). Subjects with functioning natural dentition had higher body mass index (BMI) scores than others (p = 0.0485). The results point at the importance of using screening tools such as the MNA for purposes of nutritional assessment, the estimation of oral problems such as dry mouth, chewing and swallowing problems, and advance planning in nutritional issues within the field of home care. PMID:15980925

  4. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided. PMID:25335724

  5. Analysis of risk factors for pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy with particular focus on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, F; Bettini, M; Molteni, G; Piccinini, A; Valoriani, F; Gabriele, S; Presutti, L

    2015-10-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most common complication following total laryngectomy and the most difficult to manage. It often causes increased morbidity, delays starting adjuvant therapy, prolongs hospitalisation, increases treatment costs and reduces the quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to analyse the predisposing factors and the most important nutritional parameters related to the development of PCF in patients undergoing total laryngectomy and to suggest medical alternatives that might improve results. We performed a retrospective study of 69 patients who underwent either primary or salvage total laryngectomy in our department between January 2008 and January 2012. Risk factors for fistula formation were analysed including tumour characteristics (histology, grading, AJCC stage), treatment (primary or salvage surgery, extent of resection, flap reconstruction, preoperative radiotherapy), comorbidity and nutritional status (preoperative haemoglobin, albumin and prealbumin levels and their changes during hospitalisation). Twenty-four patients developed a PCF (overall incidence 34.8%). Fistula formation was significantly higher in patients with diabetes, preoperative malnutrition (identified from low preoperative albumin and prealbumin levels). After specific nutritional evaluation and support, no patient developed a PCF. Risk factors for PCF formation are extensively treated in the literature but identification of high-risk patients is still controversial. Our study demonstrates that nutritional status of the patient, assessed by preoperative albumin, is also an important risk factor for PCF formation in addition to classical factors. Maintenance of a normal perioperative nutritional status can be helpful to avoid this complication. PMID:26824210

  6. Nutritional status of Korean male patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yukyung; Lee, Seokhwa; Lee, Minho; Lee, Ohyoung

    2003-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether malnutrition occurs in outpatients with liver cirrhosis, and to compare the nutritional status of patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis using a variety of objective measures. This study also aimed to provide useful information about nutritional education and nutritional therapies for medical teams and patients with liver cirrhosis. Sixty-six Korean men between the ages of 30 and 69 with liver cirrhosis (24 alcohol-related and 42 virus-related) were recruited from the Internal Medicine Centres, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The results showed that patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) were significantly lower in socio-economic status than patients with viral liver cirrhosis (VLC) (P<0.05). The energy intakes (excluding alcohol-derived energy) were 1448kcal and 1769kcal in the ALC and the VLC groups, respectively (P<0.05). As well, vitamin C intake was found to be higher in the VLC group than the ALC group, yet still more than 125% of the RDA for both groups (P<0.05). Among nutritional indices, only the TSF thickness showed interaction with the aetiology and the severity of the cirrhosis (P<0.05). Thus, these findings indicate that outpatients with liver cirrhosis in this study, particularly those with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, consumed a lower energy intake than suggested, but may not have been in a status of malnutrition. Body fat is more affected than other nutritional parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:12810412

  7. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status. PMID:18043554

  8. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  9. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  10. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Fabiana; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Cañete, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period. Results: Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%). Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy. PMID:23833361

  11. Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and dietary behaviors among head start teachers in Texas: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela; Dortch, Katherine Skala; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Truxillio, Jeanette B; Rahman, Gulshan A; Bonsu, Pamela; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2013-04-01

    Head Start teachers are responsible for providing nutrition education to over 1 million low-income children annually, yet little is known about their nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess the self-reported nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Head Start teachers from one urban Head Start organization in Harris County, TX. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using baseline surveys in the 2008-2009 school year. One hundred eighty-one Head Start teachers completed self-reported surveys of their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, weight status, and other weight-related behaviors. The sample was predominantly female (97%) and minority (93%); 24% were overweight and 55% were obese. One fourth of the sample did not consume fruit (26%) or vegetables (23%) the previous day. Half of the teachers reported consuming french fries (52%) and soda (44%), and one fourth consumed fried meat (28%) at least once on the previous day. Only four teachers (3%) answered at least four of the five nutrition knowledge questions correctly. Half of the teachers (54%) agreed that it was hard to know which nutrition information to believe, and only 9% reported that their nutrition habits were healthy. A majority of teachers were trying to lose weight (71%) and said they would like to weigh less (81%). This study underscores the importance of providing nutrition education and wellness opportunities to Head Start teachers to better enable them to teach nutrition education to their students and to improve their own health. PMID:23415503

  12. Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the current status of the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (referred to in combination as the Summer Nutrition Programs), federal entitlement programs providing support for state and local efforts to offer low-income children nutritious summer meals and snacks during supervised…

  13. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  14. [Use of computers in studying the actual nutritional and health status of children].

    PubMed

    Mostovaia, L A; Bushko, R P; Rassokhan', G I; Iakovleva, L S; Broverman, L L

    1985-01-01

    The authors have devised a pack of applied programs for statistic data treatment, which can be used for studying problems of nutrition and the health status of children, for design of rational diets by the research institutes and childhood establishments sponsored by the public health and education systems, as well as by trade unions. PMID:4036078

  15. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  16. Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Doug

    This report describes the current status of the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (referred to in combination as the Summer Nutrition Programs), federal entitlement programs providing support for state and local efforts to offer millions of low-income children nutritious summer meals and snacks during…

  17. Consistent improvement in the nutritional status of Colombian children between 1965 and 1989.

    PubMed

    Mora, J O; de Paredes, B; de Navarro, L; Rodríguez, E

    1992-01-01

    Three national anthropometric surveys carried out in Colombia in 1965-1966, 1977-1980, and 1986-1989 provide a reasonably standardized basis for comparing the nutritional status of infants and young children in those years. That comparison, presented here together with appropriate socioeconomic data, indicates marked reduction of malnutrition paralleling strong socioeconomic gains. PMID:1600432

  18. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  19. Behavioral aspects of development of eating behavior and nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz

    2002-05-01

    Studies on the development of eating behavior in rural India indicated that mothers of young children made food choices that fit into their budgets, and were also influenced by new information. Their choices were still immersed in traditional beliefs, some of which had positive effects on nutrition. Specific childrearing behaviors influenced positive deviance in the growth and psychosocial development of infants and preschoolers. A life-cycle approach to the development of eating behavior that deciphers needs at each stage and linkages between stages is necessary. Cost-benefit needs to be considered when devising strategies for future intervention programs. PMID:12035868

  20. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio. PMID:27101762

  1. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  2. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work. PMID:27165559

  3. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. PMID:26297468

  4. Nutritional status of Brazilian children: trends from 1975 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, C. A.; Benicio, M. H.; Iunes, R.; Gouveia, N. C.; Taddei, J. A.; Cardoso, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition among under-5-year-olds in Brazil fell by more than 60% between 1975 and 1989. The benefits were smaller for population strata that were more affected by malnutrition in the 1970s, i.e., children from the North and North-east regions and those from poor families in general. Regional and socioeconomic differentials in the prevalence of malnutrition therefore increased between 1975 and 1989. Trends in family income indicate extraordinary economic gains in the 1970s, some losses in the 1980s, and a modest net gain over the period 1975-89. The availability of sanitation, health, and education services, and the provision of preschool supplementary feeding programmes increased markedly in the 1970s and 1980s. Demographic trends were also positive, reducing the demand for services and programmes, increasing the economic efficiency of families, and concentrating the population in urban areas, where incomes, job opportunities, and social and material infrastructures are better. The observed nutritional improvement was therefore probably due to a moderate increase in family income associated with a substantial expansion in the provision of services and programmes, both of which were facilitated by favourable demographic trends. Also, the nutritional improvement was probably concentrated during the 1970s, while little, if any, occurred after 1980; prospects for the 1990s point to a stagnant situation. This is a reason for great concern particularly in the North and North-east regions of the country, where high rates of child malnutrition are still found. PMID:1464153

  5. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  6. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-score<-2 of WHO 2006 CGS), respectively. Sugar-water was given to 72·3 % of the children on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (P<0·01). Using the NCHS/WHO 1983 growth reference (<75 % of the median), the prevalence of underweight was 25·0 %, similar to that reported in 1987/1988 (26·4 %). In conclusion, the underweight prevalence was found to be at the same level in 2010 as was recorded in 1987/1988. Current child-feeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status. PMID:26435007

  7. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  8. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275

  9. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  10. Food variety and dietary diversity as indicators of the dietary adequacy and health status of an elderly population in Sharpeville, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Kruger, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional, analytical study was a comprehensive health assessment focusing on dietary quality of 170 randomly selected elderly respondents in Sharpeville, South Africa. The methods included a sociodemographic, health food frequency questionnaire, 24h-recall questionnaires, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The low mean +/- standard deviation (SD) dietary diversity score (3.41 +/- 1.34) and food variety score (4.77 +/- 2.2) compared with poverty parameters confirmed household food insecurity in this community. Although three (n = 99, 58.6%) or two (n = 49, 28.9%) daily meals were mostly consumed, these were mainly carbohydrate-based and nutrient-deficient. The cereal group (2.01 +/- 0.81) had the highest mean food variety score +/- SD, followed by dairy (0.62 +/- 0.53) and flesh foods (0.40 +/- 0.53). When a mean adequacy ratio of 70% was used as a cut-off point for nutrient adequacy, it was found that the food variety score must be eight or higher and the dietary variety score must be at least six. These indicators thus have a high ability to identify those respondents with an inadequate diet but lower ability to identify those respondents with a nutritionally adequate diet. The data further showed a trend that with a higher food variety and dietary diversity, a better mean adequacy ratio is reached for this low-income group of elderly subjects. In conclusion, the results showed that food variety and dietary diversity scores give a fairly good assessment of the adequacy of the diet, and scoring dietary diversity is a significant, yet simple tool to identify elderly persons at risk of food and nutrition insecurity. PMID:18928193

  11. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  12. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lovat, L B

    1996-03-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  13. Growth, nutritional, and developmental status of young children living in orphanages in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Mary O; Himes, John H; Johnson, Dana E; Kroupina, Maria; Syzdykova, Aigul; Aidjanov, Musa; Sharmonov, T

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the nutritional and developmental status of young children living in Baby Houses (orphanages for children ages 0-3 years) in Kazakhstan. In 2009/2010, 308 children under age 3 years living in 10 Baby Houses were measured for height/length and weight. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (N. Bayley, 2006) were used to assess mental and motor development. Blood was collected on a subsample to assess key nutritional factors. The World Health Organization growth charts were used to calculate Z-scores. Cut points for wasting (moderate to severe low weight for length/height growth), underweight (low weight for age), stunting (low length/height for age), development, and biomarkers used established guidelines. Most (n = 286) children had complete data on z-scores. Of these, 22.1% were experiencing wasting, 31.5% were underweight, and 36.7% had stunting. The nutritional status of the children, based on blood biomarkers, revealed that 37.1% of the children were anemic, 21.4% had low albumin, 38.1% had low vitamin D, 5.5% were iodine-deficient, and 2% had low serum zinc. One half had mild to significant mental and motor delays. Children living at these Baby Houses in Kazakhstan have substantial nutritional deficits and developmental delays. Focused attention is needed to provide a nutritionally enhanced diet and improved developmental opportunities to improve the long-term outcomes for these children. PMID:25798515

  14. Nutritional status changes in HIV-infected children receiving combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D

    2000-11-01

    Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B. PMID:11091066

  15. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. PMID:23765353

  16. Nutritional Status of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Admitted in Hospital With Acute Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Barkha; Kant, Surya; Mishra, Rachna; Verma, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are frequently hospitalized with an acute exacerbation. Patients with COPD often lose weight. Consequently, deterioration in nutritional status (loss of lean body mass) is a likely repercussion of acute exacerbation in hospitalized COPD patients. The study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of COPD patients with acute exacerbation, during the period of hospital admission, and to evaluate the relationships between the nutritional indices and the pulmonary function parameters. Methods A cross sectional observation study constituting 83 COPD patients consecutively hospitalized with acute exacerbation on accrual during a period of one year. Lung function was measured by routine spirometry. Nutritional status was assessed by the measurement of anthropometric parameters. Hospital outcome was also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 Independent t-tests and Pearsons correlation coefficient was used. Results Mean body weight was 50.03 ± 9.23 kg. Subjects had approximately 5 kg weight loss in previous six months. All the subjects had low BMI (19.38 ± 3.10) and MUAC (21.18 ± 2.31) that was significantly below the predicted levels. The correlation between body weight and FEV1/FVC% was good (r = 0.648, p = 0.003). BMI was negatively correlated (r = - 0.0103, p= 0.03) with duration of hospital stay. Conclusions The high prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized COPD patients with acute exacerbation is related to their lung function and hospital outcome such as duration of hospital stay. Keywords Nutritional status; COPD; Acute exacerbation; Hospitalization PMID:21811522

  17. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  18. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  19. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people.

    PubMed

    Marcenes, Wagner; Steele, Jimmy George; Sheiham, Aubrey; Walls, Angus Willian Gilmour

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI). Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI. PMID:12806483

  20. Socio-cultural factors influencing nutritional status of infants -- a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, J; Khan, Z; Sinha, S N

    1991-01-01

    During 1985-1986 in India, health workers went to the homes of 200 infants, 1-11 months old at the time they were brought into the study, and followed them until they reached one year. The researchers aimed to evaluate the role of weaning in determining the nutritional status of infants as well as to identify the sociocultural factors affecting weaning practices in the rural area near Aligarh. 99% of the infants received a prelacteal feed, especially ghutti (94%), within 6 hours of delivery. 99% were breast fed. Breast feeding began between 6 and 72 hours of birth. Almost all mothers believed ghutti cleanses the intestines and that colostrum is harmful. They discarded the colostrum. 73.5% of infants received top diluted milk. Mothers did not feed undiluted milk to their infants because they believed it causes diarrhea. 50.5% of mothers did not give their infants semi-solid foods until after 9 months. 20.5% did not give any semi-solid or solid food at one year. They all thought that semi-solid food causes diarrhea. 62.5% of infants received family food. 15% received biscuits. 98% had poor knowledge about nutritional requirements of infants, other than that breast milk is the natural food of infants. Most mothers practiced poor hygiene. Infants less than 6 months old were significantly more likely to have normal nutrition for age than those older than 6 months old (65.5% vs. 32.4%). Nutritional status declined with age, reflecting the unhygienic weaning practices in the area. At the end of 12 months, 6.8% suffered from severe grades of malnutrition. Nutritional status was not associated with social class. Educational status of mothers and fathers was significantly associated with nutritional status. These findings show that inadequate knowledge about proper weaning, not lack of food, is the limiting factor in infant nutrition. Education about the importance of proper weaning and weaning foods imparted by grass-root level workers is needed. PMID:12346054

  1. Linking Plant Nutritional Status to Plant-Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Fan, Ben; Fedoseyenko, Dmitri; Kierul, Kinga; Becker, Anke; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Borriss, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress. PMID:23874669

  2. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  3. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg. PMID:3342789

  4. Maternal nutritional status and milk volume. Is there a cause-effect relationship?

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; de Santiago, S; Flores-Huerta, S

    1991-09-01

    Studies on human lactation were examined in order to gather some answers about questions concerning the effect of maternal food intake, size, fatness and economic status on milk production. Up to date, evidence in the literature is insufficient to permit definitive answers, but a general conclusion can be drawn: milk volume varies little among mothers with largely variable energy intakes, sizes and economic status. There is a great need for more controlled studies focusing on the relationship between maternal energy balance and milk output. Although many studies have separately addressed the nutritional changes in mothers throughout lactation (1-8) and milk consumption by infants (9-17), very few have correlated maternal nutritional conditions and the volume of milk consumed. This report will consider investigations published from 1975 and on, combining data on maternal nutritional status and milk production in the same individual. The rationale is that around 1975 more accurate and standardized methodology began to be used in related studies. Milk output is estimated by the summary of the differences of body weights of infants obtained before and after each milking episode during 24 hours. Before 1975 the balances used for such a purpose had very poor precision, and this interfered seriously on the inter and intra-personal variability of the measurements. Electronic scales made available after that year gave enough reliability to the procedure. This report is comprised of studies from birth to four months postpartum, when energy supplementation is less common, and quantitatively less important. Nutritional status of the mothers will be analyzed on the basis of four categorizing variables: social and economic status, anthropometry, food intake and body composition. PMID:1824510

  5. Dietary Management in Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  6. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  7. Dietary Management in Hypertension. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  8. Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  9. Dietary Management in Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  10. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  11. Dietary Management for Alcoholic Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  12. The texas public school nutrition policy positively impacts middle school student dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School food environments are rapidly undergoing change due to state and local policy initiatives. This study assessed the impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy that introduced nutrition standards to promote a healthier school food environment in Texas schools. Two years of lunch fo...

  13. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  14. Nutritional status in relation to lifestyle in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Fumikazu; Momoki, Chika; Yuikawa, Miho; Simotani, Yuko; Kawamura, Etsushi; Hagihara, Atsushi; Fujii, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sawako; Iwai, Shuji; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukusima, Wakaba; Habu, Daiki

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the nourishment status and lifestyle of non-hospitalized patients with compensated cirrhosis by using noninvasive methods. METHODS: The subjects for this study consisted of 27 healthy volunteers, 59 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and 74 patients with viral cirrhosis, from urban areas. We assessed the biochemical blood tests, anthropometric parameters, diet, lifestyle and physical activity of the patients. A homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of ≥ 2.5 was considered to indicate insulin resistance. We measured height, weight, waist circumference, arm circumference, triceps skin-fold thickness, and handgrip strength, and calculated body mass index, arm muscle circumference (AMC), and arm muscle area (AMA). We interviewed the subjects about their dietary habits and lifestyle using health assessment computer software. We surveyed daily physical activity using a pedometer. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to identify the relevant factors for insulin resistance. RESULTS: The rate of patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (which was considered to indicate insulin resistance) was 14 (35.9%) in the chronic hepatitis and 17 (37.8%) in the cirrhotic patients. AMC (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis, 111.9% ± 10.5% vs 104.9% ± 10.7%, P = 0.021; control vs cirrhosis, 111.9% ± 10.5% vs 102.7% ± 10.8%, P = 0.001) and AMA (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis, 128.2% ± 25.1% vs 112.2% ± 22.9%, P = 0.013; control vs cirrhosis, 128.2% ± 25.1% vs 107.5% ± 22.5%, P = 0.001) in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than in the control subjects. Handgrip strength (%) in the cirrhosis group was significantly lower than in the controls (control vs cirrhosis, 92.1% ± 16.2% vs 66.9% ± 17.6%, P < 0.001). The results might reflect a decrease in muscle mass. The total nutrition intake and amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fat were not significantly different amongst the

  15. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  16. The changing selenium nutritional status of Chinese residents.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Bañuelos, Gary S; Wu, Longhua; Shi, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    The selenium (Se) content in human hair is useful as an indicator of human Se intake and status. In this regard, when measuring the hair Se concentrations in Chinese inhabitants across northeast to southeast China, the results indicated that generally 84% of all residents have normal hair Se content. Between the sexes, the average hair Se content of males was higher than that of females, irrespective of districts. When comparing geographical regions, the average hair Se content of southern residents was greater than that of northern residents, regardless of gender. Historically, the overall hair Se content of today's inhabitants decreased between 24% and 46% when compared with the inhabitants living in the same geographic region 20 years ago. The decrease of hair Se content may be related to the overall decrease of grain consumption and the lower Se content in the staple food rice. PMID:24638069

  17. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  18. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  19. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  20. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Holford, Theodore R.; Zhang, Yawei; Boyle, Peter; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status. Methods A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER− tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER− tumor groups. Conclusions The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER− breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22350922

  1. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  2. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly. PMID:26267770

  3. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  4. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  5. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  6. Nutrition Education in Medical Schools. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on Current Status, Impediments, and Potential Solutions. September 20, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Testimonies and articles, letters, and statements from a congressional hearing of the U.S. Senate concerning nutrition education in medical schools are presented. The hearing was held to ascertain the present status of nutrition instruction in U.S. medical schools, to determine the need for such instruction, and to identify problems with…

  7. Maternal nutritional status may be stressed by seasonal fluctuations in food availability: evidence from rural women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kigutha, H N; van Staveren, W A; Wijnhoven, T M; Hautvast, J G

    1995-08-01

    The effect of seasonal changes in household food availability on the dietary intakes and the nutritional status of 24 lactating women from smallholder rural households in Nakuru district Kenya, were investigated over a 15-month period in 1992/93 agricultural cycle. Dietary intakes and body weights were measured on monthly basis. Significant seasonal differences were found in intakes of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, and niacin respectively (P < 0.01), as well as in the intake of protein, iron, and thiamin (P < 0.05), but not with energy and fat intake. Large interseasonal weight losses of 5.6 kg (about 9%) at the rate of 1.1 kg/month, were observed between baseline measurements and the peak of the lean months when the energy intakes were 36.7 kcal/kg/day and protein at 1.1 g/kg/day. About 50% of the lost weight (2.8 kg) were recovered during the harvest months of January and February, when energy intakes improved to 41.0 kcal/kg/day, and protein to 1.2 g/kg/day. However, further weight losses of 1.6 kg or 0.5 kg/month occurred in the immediate postharvest months between March and June. While much of the weight loss may have been due to reduced energy intake during periods of food scarcity, part of the lost weight may have been due to increased energy requirement as a result of lactation and to increased physical activities. Further investigations are recommended. PMID:7584164

  8. Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition Programs. Final Report. E-FAN-04-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    This study develops estimates of the efficacy of school nutrition programs in improving a broad range of dietary outcomes by comparing the nutritional status of students and their families during the school year with the status when school is out. The study finds evidence that children who have a School Breakfast Program (SBP) available consume a…

  9. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  10. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  11. Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3-17 years old) enrolled in Primary Care Services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. Results: 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of 2 years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0.409). After 1 year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusions: The monitoring of asthmatic patients in Primary Care Services showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. PMID:26316387

  12. Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Chang, Le; Yuan, Lili; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. PMID:27222411

  13. The Effect of Early Marriages and Early Childbearing on Women's Nutritional Status in India.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5. PMID:25656721

  14. Role of nutritional status and intervention in oesophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy: outcomes from SCOPE1

    PubMed Central

    Cox, S; Powell, C; Carter, B; Hurt, C; Mukherjee, Somnath; Crosby, Thomas David Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is common in oesophageal cancer. We aimed to identify nutritional prognostic factors and survival outcomes associated with nutritional intervention in the SCOPE1 (Study of Chemoradiotherapy in OesoPhageal Cancer with or without Erbitux) trial. Methods: Two hundred and fifty eight patients were randomly allocated to definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) +/− cetuximab. Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) scores were calculated; NRI<100 identified patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional intervention included dietary advice, oral supplementation or major intervention (enteral feeding/tube placement). Univariable and multivariable analyses using Cox proportional hazard modelling were conducted. Results: At baseline NRI<100 strongly predicted for reduced overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 12.45, 95% CI 5.24–29.57; P<0.001). Nutritional intervention improved survival if provided at baseline (dietary advice (HR 0.12, P=0.004), oral supplementation (HR 0.13, P<0.001) or major intervention (HR 0.13, P=0.003)), but not if provided later in the treatment course. Cetuximab patients receiving major nutritional intervention had worse outcomes compared with controls (13 vs 28 months, P=0.003). Conclusions: Pre-treatment assessment and correction of malnutrition may improve survival outcomes in oesophageal cancer patients treated with dCRT. Nutritional Risk Index is a simple and objective screening tool to identify patients at risk of malnutrition. PMID:27328311

  15. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  16. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P < .000) and were correlated only in the older group. CT were higher under glare conditions, at the intermediate and smaller visual angles, with greater differences in the older (P < .003) than the younger group (P < .014). In the total sample, CT correlated inversely with MPOD (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.245 to -.152 and from .000 to .026, respectively) and directly with F + V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  17. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults

    PubMed Central

    Kell, K. P.; Judd, S. E.; Pearson, K. E.; Shikany, J. M.; Fernández, J.R

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population. PMID:25869232

  18. Influence of dietary iron source on measures of iron status among female runners.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Dvorak, L L; Roepke, J B

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether female runners who consume a modified vegetarian diet are predisposed to iron deficiency. Two groups of female runners who were matched for age, weight, aerobic capacity, miles run per week, and number of pregnancies were obtained for this study. One group (N = 9) regularly consumed a modified vegetarian diet (MV, less than 100 g red meat.wk-1), while the other group (N = 9) consumed a diet which included red meat (RM). Serum ferritin values were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower for the MV group (X +/- SE, 7.4 +/- 1.4 ng.100 ml-1) than for the RM group (19.8 +/- 4.2 ng.100 ml-1). Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the serum was also significantly different between the two groups of subjects (MV, 366.5 +/- 12.2 micrograms.100 ml-1; RM, 327.2 +/- 9.6 micrograms.100 ml-1). While dietary iron intake was comparable for the two groups (MV, 14.7 +/- 2.0 mg.d-1; RM, 14.0 +/- 2.2 mg.d-1, the bioavailability of the dietary iron was significantly different (MV, 0.66 +/- 0.08 mg.d-1; RM, 0.91 +/- 0.10 mg.d-1). As the presence of heme iron (from meat, fish, and poultry) increases the bioavailability of dietary iron, the results of the present investigation suggest that vegetarian athletes have altered iron status due to the form in which their dietary iron is consumed. PMID:2927304

  19. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline2

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; daCosta, Kerry Ann; Kwock, Lester; Stewart, Paul W; Lu, Tsui-Shan; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Background Although humans require dietary choline for methyl donation, membrane function, and neurotransmission, choline can also be derived from the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is up-regulated by estrogen. A recommended Adequate Intake (AI) exists for choline; however, an Estimated Average Requirement has not been set because of a lack of sufficient human data. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the dietary requirements for choline in healthy men and women and to investigate the clinical sequelae of choline deficiency. Design Fifty-seven adult subjects (26 men, 16 premenopausal women, 15 postmenopausal women) were fed a diet containing 550 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1 for 10 d followed by <50 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1 with or without a folic acid supplement (400 μg/d per randomization) for up to 42 d. Subjects who developed organ dysfunction during this diet had normal organ function restored after incremental amounts of choline were added back to the diet. Blood and urine were monitored for signs of toxicity and metabolite concentrations, and liver fat was assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results When deprived of dietary choline, 77% of men and 80% of postmenopausal women developed fatty liver or muscle damage, whereas only 44% of premenopausal women developed such signs of organ dysfunction. Moreover, 6 men developed these signs while consuming 550 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1, the AI for choline. Folic acid supplementation did not alter the subjects’ response. Conclusion Subject characteristics (eg, menopausal status) modulated the dietary requirement for choline, and a daily intake at the current AI was not sufficient to prevent organ dysfunction in 19 of the subjects. PMID:17490963

  20. Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients

    PubMed Central

    Yallamraju, Suryanarayana R.; Mehrotra, Rachit; Sinha, Abhishek; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Gupta, Abhishek; Khadse, Smita V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:25558452

  1. Impact of Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy on Child Nutritional Status in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation. PMID:25657298

  2. Impact of dietary manganese concentration on status criteria to determine manganese requirement in piglets.

    PubMed

    Pallauf, J; Kauer, C; Most, E; Habicht, S D; Moch, J

    2012-12-01

    The Mn requirement for pigs is not well established. This study aimed to find criteria for assessing growing piglet supply status for Mn and to determine whether the current Mn recommendations meet the requirements for piglets. Thirty-six weaned male castrated 27-day-old piglets (7.24 ± 0.69 kg) were randomized into six groups of six piglets each and housed individually in stainless steel metabolic cages for 42 days. The piglets were fed a diet based on skimmed milk powder and corn starch with increasing Mn concentrations (0.24; 2; 4; 8; 16; or 32 mg Mn/kg diet as-fed). In week 6, Mn0.24 led to reduced feed intake (p < 0.05). Manganese concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, lung, heart, phalanx proximalis, pancreas and skeletal muscle were influenced by the dietary Mn supply (p < 0.05). The activity of the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase in the heart as well as relative arginase activity in the liver were lower in groups Mn0.24, Mn2 and Mn4 compared with the higher supplemented groups (p < 0.05). The relative arginase activity increased clearly with enhanced dietary Mn up to 16 mg/kg and correlated with Mn concentration in the liver. Manganese concentrations in the liver, kidney and phalanx proximalis seem to be suitable biomarkers for Mn status. A 4 mg/kg dietary Mn concentration recommended by NRC (1998, Nutrient Requirements of Swine. National Academy Press, Washington DC.) did not fulfil piglet requirements. Under the conditions investigated, 16 mg Mn/kg diet were necessary to reach a plateau in specific enzyme activity and Mn concentration in organs. PMID:21883497

  3. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L; Davis-Street, Janis E

    2005-03-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers. PMID:15735075

  4. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P < 0.05). The finding that other acute-phase proteins were unchanged after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism are not likely to be solely a result of an inflammatory response. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and RBC superoxide dismutase was less after flight (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative damage. Despite vitamin D supplement use during flight, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  5. Effects of starch and fibre in pelleted diets on nutritional status of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns.

    PubMed

    McCusker, S; Shipley, L A; Tollefson, T N; Griffin, M; Koutsos, E A

    2011-08-01

    To compare the effects of a low-starch, high-fibre diet [LSHF; 51.6% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 3.0% starch, 14.8% crude protein (CP)] and a high-starch, low-fibre diet (HSLF; 33.3% NDF, 20.0% starch, 19.6% CP) on the nutritional status of captive exotic ruminants, 16 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were fed one of these two diets ad libitum with ≤25% alfalfa hay cubes from 10 days to 68 weeks of age. During five sampling periods beginning in November and spaced 6-12 weeks apart thereafter, feed intake, rumen and blood chemistry, faecal scores, growth and body condition were measured. Dry matter intake, digestible energy intake, time spent ruminating and feeding and blood acetate concentration were greater for deer fed LSHF (p < 0.05 for all). Lower dietary CP led to reduced blood urea nitrogen for deer consuming LSHF (p = 0.004). Deer had the same faecal scores, growth and body fat among treatments (all p > 0.05). These findings show pelleted diets with less starch, more fibre, and reduced protein met the energy and protein requirements of growing mule deer, a medium-sized browsing ruminant, as well as traditional grain-based diets while more closely mimicking natural forages and stimulating a more natural feeding behaviour. PMID:21091543

  6. High dietary calcium intake and a lack of dairy consumption are associated with metabolic syndrome in obese males: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Shin, Bo-Ra; Choi, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increasing rapidly worldwide and is associated with elevated risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The relationship between MetS and dietary calcium intake is controversial. We hypothesized that high dietary calcium intake is associated with MetS in males and that the associations vary according to obesity status. Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 to test these hypotheses. Data from a total of 5946 males were analyzed with no association observed between dietary calcium intake and the presence of MetS. However, males deriving high calcium intake levels from dairy products had a lower prevalence of MetS than did those who did not ingest such products (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.96). In obese males, the highest dietary calcium intake was positively associated with the presence of MetS (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.12-2.36). However, obese males who consume dairy products had a lower prevalence of MetS than did those who did not consume such products (adjusted OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90). In conclusion, the results suggest that the high dietary calcium intake, in the absence of dairy product consumption, was associated with the increased prevalence of MetS in obese males. Additional studies are required to determine whether dietary calcium intake affects the development of MetS. PMID:27188897